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1

The potential of an earthworm avoidance test for evaluation of hazardous waste sites  

SciTech Connect

An earthworm avoidance test has potential advantages for use in evaluation of hazardous wastes sites. Because organisms often exhibit behavioral responses at lower levels of stress than those that acute toxicity tests are able to detect, avoidance tests could provide increased sensitivity to hazardous chemicals. Avoidance is an ecologically relevant endpoint that neither acute nor sublethal tests measure. Avoidance can potentially indicate sublethal stress in a short period of time, testing is easily done in a soil matrix, and an avoidance test has the potential for specialized applications for soil testing. Dual-control test data established that, in absence of a toxicant, worms did not congregate, but instead distributed themselves fairly randomly with respect to the two sides of the test chambers, that is, they did not display behavior that might be mistaken for avoidance. In tests with artificial soil spiked with reference toxicants and hazardous site soils, worms avoided soils containing various toxic chemicals. Avoidance behavior proved in most cases be a more sensitive indicator of chemical contamination than acute tests. Determination of avoidance was possible in 1 to 2 d, much less than the current duration of acute and sublethal earthworm tests.

Yeardley, R.B. Jr.; Gast, L.C. [DynCorp, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lazorchak, J.M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1996-09-01

2

[Effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate on acute lethality and avoidance behavior of earthworm].  

PubMed

As a new kind of persistent organic pollutants, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has become a research spot of environmental science and toxicology. Its impacts on ecological environment should be deeply studied. In this paper, standard contact filter paper test of OECD, artificial soil test, and natural soil test were adopted to study the effects of PFOS on the acute lethality and avoidance behavior of earthworm. The results showed that the acute toxicity of PFOS on earthworm was related to the toxicant exposure time and concentration. The LC50, 48 h in filter paper test, LC50,14 d in artificial soil test, and LC50, 14 d in natural soil test were 13.64 microg x cm(-2), 955.28 mg x kg(-1), and 542.08 mg x kg(-1), respectively. At the maximum test concentration of 160 mg x kg(-1), the earthworm in artificial soil and natural soil showed significant avoidance behavior, which proved that earthworm could perceive and avoid the soil contaminated by a higher concentration of PFOS. To assess PFOS-contaminated soils, the avoidance endpoint was more sensitive than the mortality endpoint. PFOS had higher acute toxicity on earthworm in natural soil than in artificial soil. Meanwhile, more significant avoidance reaction was observed in natural soil than in artificial soil at the same concentrations of PFOS. PMID:21548311

Xu, Dong-Mei; Wen, Yue-Zhong; Li, Li; Zhong, Xu-Chu

2011-01-01

3

Earthworm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earthworms like to live underground in the moist soil. Two reasons why they are considered to be annelids are because they have a segmented body and they lack true legs. They have soft bodies and as a result don't have any "armor" to protect them. Earthworms can dry up and die after being out of the soil too long or they can easily be eaten by insects, as in the picture.

N/A N/A (None;)

2004-07-06

4

Feasibility of vermicomposting dairy biosolids using a modified system to avoid earthworm mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory study was conducted to examine the feasibility of vermicomposting dairy biosolids (dairy sludge), either alone or with either of the bulking agents ? cereal straw or wood shavings, using the epigeic earthworm ? Eisinea andrei. Earthworms added directly to these three substrates died within 48 hours. A system was developed to overcome the toxic effect of unprocessed dairy

R. Nogales; C. Elvira; E. Benítez; R. Thompson; M. Gomez

1999-01-01

5

The intelligence of earthworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated: the ability of the earthworm to acquire direction-habits; their characteristics; degree of permanency and relation to the brain; and their association with other factors. Manure worms and an apparatus designed to test the ability of earthworms to \\

Robert M. Yerkes

1912-01-01

6

EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE REFERENCE TOXICANTS FOR USE IN THE EARTHWORM TOXICITY TEST  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of the 14-d earthworm toxicity test to aid in the evaluation of the ecological impact of contaminated soils is becoming increasingly widespread. However,the method is in need of further standardization. As part of this continuing process, the choice of reference toxicants...

7

Depleted uranium mobility across a weapons testing site: isotopic investigation of porewater, earthworms, and soils.  

PubMed

The mobility and bioavailability of depleted uranium (DU) in soils at a UK Ministry of Defence (UK MoD) weapons testing range were investigated. Soil and vegetation were collected near a test-firing position and at eight points along a transect line extending approximately 200 m down-slope, perpendicular to the firing line, toward a small stream. Earthworms and porewaters were subsequently separated from the soils and both total filtered porewater (<0.2 microm) and discrete size fractions (0.2 microm-100 kDa, 100-30 kDa, 30-3 kDa, and <3 kDa)obtainedvia centrifugal ultrafiltration were examined. Uranium concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) for soils and ICP-mass spectrometry (MS) for earthworms and porewaters, while 235U:238U atom ratios were determined by multicollector (MC)-ICP-MS. Comparison of the porewater and earthworm isotopic values with those of the soil solids indicated that DU released into the environment during weapons test-firing operations was more labile and more bioavailable than naturally occurring U in the soils at the testing range. Importantly, DU was shown to be present in soil porewater even at a distance of approximately 185 m from the test-firing position and, along the extent of the transect was apparently associated with organic colloids. PMID:19174886

Oliver, Ian W; Graham, Margaret C; MacKenzie, Angus B; Ellam, Robert M; Farmer, John G

2008-12-15

8

Earthworm Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of California Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program provides several links to articles on earthworms. These describe the earthworm's importance to ecosystems and agriculture.

2008-02-05

9

Contact and artificial soil tests using earthworms to evaluate the impact of wastes in soil  

SciTech Connect

The study was designed to evaluate two methods using earthworms that can be used to estimate the biological impact of organic and inorganic compounds that may be in wastes applied to land for treatment and disposal. The two methods were the contact test and the artificial soil test. The contact test is 48-h test using an adult worm, a small glass vial, and filter paper to which the test chemical or waste is applied. The test is designed to provide close contact between the worm and a chemical, similar to the situation in soils. The method provides a rapid estimate of the relative toxicity of chemicals and industrial wastes.

Neuhauser, E.F.; Loehr, R.C.; Malecki, M.R.

1986-01-01

10

Using earthworm avoidance behaviour to assess the toxicity of formulated herbicides and their active ingredients on natural soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  Soil quality has been threatened by intensive agricultural practises, namely those relying on the application of pesticides,\\u000a such as herbicides. Among the non-target terrestrial organisms exposed to such scenarios, earthworms are key ecological receptors\\u000a widely used in ecotoxicological studies. As such, this work aims to assess the effects of two herbicide active ingredients\\u000a (a.i.)—sulcotrione and penoxsulam—and their

Catarina Marques; Ruth Pereira; Fernando Gonçalves

2009-01-01

11

Ecotoxicity of aged uranium in soil using plant, earthworm and microarthropod toxicity tests.  

PubMed

Discrepancies about probable no effect concentrations (PNEC) for uranium in soils may be because toxicity tests used freshly contaminated soils. This study used 3 soils amended with a range of uranium concentrations 10 years previously. The toxicity tests with northern wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus); earthworm (Eisenia andrei) were not affected below ~1,000 mg U kg(-1), and the soil arthropod Folsomia candida was not affected below ~350 mg U kg(-1). Survival of Orthonychiurus folsomi was diminished 20% (EC(20)) by ~85-130 mg U kg(-1), supporting a PNEC in the range of 100-250 mg U kg(-1) as derived previously. PMID:22033655

Sheppard, S C; Stephenson, G L

2012-01-01

12

Antioxidant and metabolic responses induced by cadmium and pyrene in the earthworm Eisenia fetida in two different systems: contact and soil tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of cadmium and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pyrene on the earthworm Eisenia fetida were investigated in contact and soil tests. Metabolic (glutathione-S-transferase, GST) and oxidative (catalase, CAT) stress enzymes were studied as biomarkers in earthworms after 48 hours, 14 days and 28 days. Contact test indicated that cadmium had significant effects on survival and enzyme activities while

Xiang Zhang; Yonglong Lu; Yajuan Shi; Chunli Chen; Zhi Yang; Yedan Li; Yan Feng

2009-01-01

13

Searching for a more sensitive earthworm species to be used in pesticide homologation tests - a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Pesticide risk assessments include experiments designed to measure the effect of pesticides on earthworms using the Eisenia fetida fetida or Eisenia fetida andrei species. There is no clear consensus in the literature on the sensitivity of different earthworm species to pesticides. We performed a meta-analysis on the sensitivity of several earthworm species to pesticides to determine the most sensitive species, and to discuss their suitability for European homologation tests. A dataset including median lethal dose (LC50) values reported in 44 experimental treatments was constructed and then analyzed in order to compare the sensitivity levels of E. fetida with that of other earthworm species. Results showed that LC50 values reported for Lumbricus terrestris and Aporrectodea caliginosa were on average significantly lower than for E. fetida. Considering the relatively high LC50 values reported for E. fetida and the absence of this species from zones where pesticides are usually applied, the relevance of using E. fetida for pesticide homologation tests is questionable and we advise risk assessors to use A. caliginosa as model species. A new protocol based on this species could be proposed for European homologation tests but its implementation will require the definition of a new standard and take time. In the meantime, the results obtained with E. fetida should be interpreted with caution taking into account the low sensitivity of this species. Our study illustrates the value of the meta-analysis approach for comparing the sensitivity of different earthworm species to pesticides. It would be useful to extend the dataset presented in this paper in order to analyze the sensitivity of other aquatic or terrestrial organism groups used for pesticide homologation or ecotoxicology tests. PMID:23084259

Pelosi, C; Joimel, S; Makowski, D

2013-01-01

14

Accident Avoidance Skill Training and Performance Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study was to determine the feasibility of training drivers to acquire skills needed to avoid critical conflict motor vehicle accidents, and to develop the procedures and materials necessary for such training. Basic data were derived fro...

G. R. Hatterick J. R. Bathurst

1976-01-01

15

Technical Recommendations for the Update of the ISO Earthworm Field Test Guideline (ISO 11268-3) (5 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aim and Scope  \\u000a Background, Aims and Scope. The earthworm field test firstly was developed by the German Federal Biological Research Centre\\u000a for Agriculture and Forestry (BBA) for testing of pesticides and later internationally standardised by the International Organization\\u000a for Standardization (ISO) as a tool for characterizing soil quality. It is mainly used for the assessment of effects of pesticides

Jörg Römbke; Christine Kula; Frank Riepert

2006-01-01

16

Evaluation of alternative reference toxicants for use in the earthworm toxicity test  

SciTech Connect

The use of the 14-d earthworm toxicity test to aid in the evaluation of the ecological impact of contaminated soils is becoming increasingly widespread. However, the method is in need of further standardization. As part of this continuing process, the choice of reference toxicants was evaluated. Reference toxicants were rated in relation to the following criteria: (a) reproducibility, (b) low human health hazard, (c) feasibility of measurement, and (d) chemical stability. Potassium chloride (KCl) and ammonium chloride (NH{sub 4}Cl) were evaluated as possible alternatives to the one currently in common use, 2-chloroacetamide. Potassium chloride rated the best for the combination of the four criteria, followed by NH{sub 4}Cl and 2-chloroacetamide. Coefficients of variation (C.V.s) from control charts of six definitive tests were use to measure reproducibility. The best reproducibility (lowest C.V.) was shown by KCl, followed by NH{sub 4}Cl and 2-chloroacetamide. Toxicants ranked KCl < NH{sub 4}Cl {much_lt} 2-chloroacetamide in terms of health hazard; and KCl = NH{sub 4}Cl > 2-chloroacetamide in terms of measurement feasibility. Both 2-chloroacetamide and NH{sub 4}Cl changed in concentration during testing. Evidence is also presented that 2-chloroacetamide degrades rapidly during testing, and that, as dead worms decay, ammonification may be adding another toxicant, ammonia, to tests.

Yeardley, R.B. Jr. [DynCorp-TAI, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lazorchak, J.M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Pence, M.A. [Technology Applications, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1995-07-01

17

Earthworms and in vitro physiologically-based extraction tests: complementary tools for a holistic approach towards understanding risk at arsenic-contaminated sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship of the total arsenic content of a soil and its bioaccumulation by earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus and Dendrodrilus rubidus) to the arsenic fraction bioaccessible to humans, measured using an in vitro physiologically-based extraction test (PBET),\\u000a was investigated. Soil and earthworm samples were collected at 24 sites at the former arsenic mine at the Devon Great Consols\\u000a (DGC) in southwest England (UK),

Mark Button; Michael J. Watts; Mark R. Cave; Chris F. Harrington; Gawen T. Jenkin

2009-01-01

18

COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF TEN ORGANIC CHEMICALS TO FOUR EARTHWORM SPECIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Ten organic chemicals were tested for toxicity to four earthworm species: Allolobophora tuberculata, Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugeniae and Perionyx excavatus, using the European Economic Community's (EEC) earthworm artificial soil and contact testing procedure. The phenols were t...

19

HIV test avoidance among people who inject drugs in Thailand.  

PubMed

Case identification is a key component of HIV prevention efforts; yet rates of HIV testing remain low in some settings. We explored factors associated with HIV test avoidance among people who inject drugs (IDU) in Thailand. Between July and October 2011, 350 Thai IDU participated in the study. In bivariate analyses, male gender, high intensity drug use, syringe sharing, increased police presence, and being refused healthcare services were positively associated with HIV test avoidance, while ever receiving a hepatitis C test was negatively associated. Our findings highlight the need for interventions to reduce stigma in this setting. PMID:23117574

Ti, Lianping; Hayashi, Kanna; Kaplan, Karyn; Suwannawong, Paisan; Wood, Evan; Montaner, Julio; Kerr, Thomas

2013-09-01

20

Testing a collision avoidance display with high-precision navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent years have seen a rise in sophisticated navigational positioning techniques. Starting from classical GPS, differential GPS, ground-based augmentation, and raw data submission have opened possibilities for high precision lateral positioning for beyond what was thinkable before. This yields new perspectives for technologies like ACAS/TCAS, by enabling last-minute lateral avoidance as a supplement to the established vertical avoidance maneuvers. Working together with Ohio University's Avionics Department, DLR has developed and tested a set of displays for situational awareness and lateral last-minute avoidance in a collision situation, implementing some state-of-the art ideas in collision avoidance. The displays include the possibility to foresee the hazard zone of a possible intruder and thus avoid that zone early. The displays were integrated into Ohio University's experimental airplane, and a flight experiment was conducted to make a first evaluation of the applicability. The tests were carried out in fall 2012. We will present the principal architecture of the displays and detail the implementation into the flight carrier. Furthermore, we will give first results of the displays' performance.

Peinecke, Niklas; Uijt de Haag, Maarten; Meysel, Frederik; Duan, Pengfei; Küppers, Rene; Beernink, Bram

2013-06-01

21

Teacher's Guide for Earthworms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide on earthworms includes four major sections: (1) introduction, (2) caring for earthworms in the classroom, (3) classroom activities, and (4) the appendix. The introduction includes information concerning grade level, scheduling, materials, obtaining earthworms, field study, classroom clean-up, and records. Caring for earthworms

Bruno, Merle S.; And Others

22

Responses of earthworm to aluminum toxicity in latosol.  

PubMed

Excess aluminum (Al) in soils due to acid rain leaching is toxic to water resources and harmful to soil organisms and plants. This study investigated adverse impacts of Al levels upon earthworms (Eisenia fetida) from the latosol (acidic red soil). Laboratory experiments were performed to examine the survival and avoidance of earthworms from high Al concentrations and investigate the response of earthworms upon Al toxicity at seven different Al concentrations that ranged from 0 to 300 mg kg(-1) over a 28-day period. Our study showed that the rate of the earthworm survival was 100 % within the first 7 days and decreased as time elapsed, especially for the Al concentrations at 200 and 300 mg kg(-1). A very good linear correlation existed between the earthworm avoidance and the soil Al concentration. There was no Al toxicity to earthworms with the Al concentration ? 50 mg kg(-1), and the toxicity started with the Al concentration ? 100 mg kg(-1). Low Al concentration (i.e., <50 mg kg(-1)) enhanced the growth of the earthworms, while high Al concentration (>100 mg kg(-1)) retarded the growth of the earthworms. The weight of earthworms and the uptake of Al by earthworms increased with the Al concentrations from 0 to 50 mg kg(-1) and decreased with the Al concentrations from 50 to 300 mg kg(-1). The protein content in the earthworms decreased with the Al concentrations from 0 to 100 mg kg(-1) and increased from 100 to 300 mg kg(-1). In contrast, the catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in the earthworms increased with the Al concentrations from 0 to 100 mg kg(-1) and decreased from 100 to 300 mg kg(-1). The highest CAT and SOD activities and lowest protein content were found at the Al concentration of 100 mg kg(-1). Results suggest that a high level of Al content in latosol was harmful to earthworms. PMID:22645004

Zhang, Jia'en; Yu, Jiayu; Ouyang, Ying; Xu, Huaqin

2013-02-01

23

Unexpected earthworm effects on forest understory plants  

PubMed Central

Background Introduced earthworms are widespread in forests of North America creating significant negative impacts on forest understory communities. However, much of the reported evidence for negative earthworm effects comes from field investigations either comparing invaded and non-invaded forests or across invasion fronts. While important, such work is rarely able to capture the true effect of earthworms on individual plant species because most forests in North America simultaneously face multiple stressors which may confound earthworm impacts. We used a mesocosm experiment to isolate effects of the anecic introduced earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris L. on seedlings of 14 native plant species representing different life form groups (perennial herb, graminoid, and tree). Results Earthworm presence did not affect survival, fertility or biomass of any of the seedling plant species tested over a 17-week period. However, L. terrestris presence significantly decreased growth of two sedges (Carex retroflexa Muhl. ex Willd. and Carex radiata (Wahlenb.) Small) by decreasing the number of culms. Conclusions Our mesocosm results with seedlings contrast with field reports indicating extensive and significant negative effects of introduced earthworms on many mature native forbs, and positive effects on sedges. We suggest that earthworm impacts are context- and age-specific and that generalizations about their impacts are potentially misleading without considering and manipulating other associated factors.

2013-01-01

24

Can earthworms survive fire retardants?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most common fire retardants are foams or are similar to common agricultural fertilizers, such as ammonium sulfate and ammonium phosphate. Although fire retardants are widely applied to soils, we lack basic information about their toxicities to soil organisms. We measured the toxicity of five fire retardants (Firetrol LCG-R, Firetrol GTS-R, Silv-Ex Foam Concentrate, Phos-chek D-75, and Phos-chek WD-881) to earthworms using the pesticide toxicity test developed for earthworms by the European Economic Community. None was lethal at 1,000 ppm in the soil, which was suggested as a relatively high exposure under normal applications. We concluded that the fire retardants tested are relatively nontoxic to soil organisms compared with other environmental chemicals and that they probably do not reduce earthworm populations when applied under usual firefighting conditions.

Beyer, W.N.; Olson, A.

1996-01-01

25

Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Collision Avoidance Maneuver Decisions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When facing a conjunction between space objects, decision makers must chose whether to maneuver for collision avoidance or not. We apply a well-known decision procedure, the sequential probability ratio test, to this problem. We propose two approaches to the problem solution, one based on a frequentist method, and the other on a Bayesian method. The frequentist method does not require any prior knowledge concerning the conjunction, while the Bayesian method assumes knowledge of prior probability densities. Our results show that both methods achieve desired missed detection rates, but the frequentist method's false alarm performance is inferior to the Bayesian method's

Carpenter, J. Russell; Markley, F. Landis

2010-01-01

26

Chronic toxicity of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) in soil determined using the earthworm ( Eisenia andrei) reproduction test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sublethal and chronic effects of the environmental contaminant and explosive octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) in artificial soil were assessed using the earthworm (Eisenia andrei). Based on various reproduction parameters (total and hatched number of cocoons, number of juveniles and their biomass), fecundity was reduced at the different concentrations of HMX tested (from 280.0±12.3 to 2502.9±230.0 mg kg?1 dry soil) in spiked

P. Y. Robidoux; J. Hawari; S. Thiboutot; G. Ampleman; G. I. Sunahara

2001-01-01

27

Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Spacecraft Collision Avoidance Maneuver Decisions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A document discusses sequential probability ratio tests that explicitly allow decision-makers to incorporate false alarm and missed detection risks, and are potentially less sensitive to modeling errors than a procedure that relies solely on a probability of collision threshold. Recent work on constrained Kalman filtering has suggested an approach to formulating such a test for collision avoidance maneuver decisions: a filter bank with two norm-inequality-constrained epoch-state extended Kalman filters. One filter models the null hypotheses that the miss distance is inside the combined hard body radius at the predicted time of closest approach, and one filter models the alternative hypothesis. The epoch-state filter developed for this method explicitly accounts for any process noise present in the system. The method appears to work well using a realistic example based on an upcoming, highly elliptical orbit formation flying mission.

Carpenter, J. Russell; Markley, F. Landis

2013-01-01

28

Off to the (Earthworm) Races: A Quick and Flexible Lab Experiment for Introductory Zoology Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a hands-on, investigative lab activity for use in an introductory zoology course. Tests the behavioral hypothesis that substrate texture affects earthworm locomotor ability. Provides background information on earthworm locomotion followed by details of the lab exercise. (NB)

Switzer, Paul V.; Fritz, Ann H.

2001-01-01

29

Sensitivity of Eisenia andrei (Annelida, Oligochaeta) to a commercial formulation of abamectin in avoidance tests with artificial substrate and natural soil under tropical conditions.  

PubMed

Obtaining ecotoxicological data on pesticides in tropical regions is imperative for performing more realistic risk analysis, and avoidance tests have been proposed as a useful, fast and cost-effective tool. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the avoidance behavior of Eisenia andrei to a formulated product, Vertimec® 18 EC (a.i abamectin), in tests performed on a reference tropical artificial soil (TAS), to derive ecotoxicological data on tropical conditions, and a natural soil (NS), simulating crop field conditions. In TAS tests an adaptation of the substrate recommended by OECD and ISO protocols was used, with residues of coconut fiber as a source of organic matter. Concentrations of the pesticide on TAS test ranged from 0 to 7 mg abamectin/kg (dry weight-d.w.). In NS tests, earthworms were exposed to samples of soils sprayed in situ with: 0.9 L of Vertimec® 18 EC/ha (RD); twice as much this dosage (2RD); and distilled water (Control), respectively, and to 2RD: control dilutions (12.5, 25, 50, 75%). All tests were performed under 25 ± 2°C, to simulate tropical conditions, and a 12hL:12hD photoperiod. The organisms avoided contaminated TAS for an EC(50,48h) = 3.918 mg/kg soil d.w., LOEC = 1.75 mg/kg soil d.w. and NOEC = 0.85 mg/kg soil d.w. No significant avoidance response occurred for any NS test. Abamectin concentrations in NS were rather lower than EC(50, 48h) and LOEC determined in TAS tests. The results obtained contribute to overcome a lack of ecotoxicological data on pesticides under tropical conditions, but more tests with different soil invertebrates are needed to improve pesticides risk analysis. PMID:22297724

Nunes, Maria Edna Tenório; Espíndola, Evaldo Luiz Gaeta

2012-05-01

30

Earthworms lost from pesticides application in potato crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioturbation from earthworm's activity contributes to soil creep and soil carbon dynamics, and provide enough aeration conditions for agricultural practices all over the world. In developing countries where there is a long term misuse of pesticides for agricultural purposes, lost of these benefits from earthworms activity might already yielded negative effects in the current crop production. Little research has been performed on earthworms avoidance to pesticides in developing countries located in the tropics. Furthermore, the complete avoidance reaction (from attraction to 100% avoidance) from earthworms to most of the pesticides used in potato cultivation in developing countries like Colombia is incomplete as yet. Hence the aim of this study is to assess the lost of earthworm on the soils caused by different concentrations of pesticides and associated agricultural impacts caused by a lost in the soil bioturbation. As a first stage, we have studied earthworm's avoidance to pesticide concentration in a potato agricultural area located in Colombia. Local cultivated Eisenia fetida were exposed to four of the most frequent applied active ingredients in potato crops i.e. carbofuran, mancozeb, methamidophos and chlorpyriphos. Adult earthworm toxicity experiments were carried out in two soils, untreated grasslands under standard (ISO guidelines) and undisturbed conditions, and exposed to six different concentrations of the active ingredients. The results of the avoidance reaction on the standard soils were significant for carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos. For each of the three active ingredients, we found i) overuse of pesticide, ii) applied dose of carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos by the farmers potentially caused 20%, 11% and 9% of earthworms avoidance on the cultivated soils, respectively.

Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Forrer, Karin; Binder, Claudia R.

2010-05-01

31

Effects of earthworm activity on fertility and heavy metal bioavailability in sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for using earthworms (Eisenia fetida) to improve fertility and reduce copper and cadmium availability in sewage sludge was tested by laboratory incubation experiments. Results comparing sewage sludge with and without earthworm treatment showed that earthworm activity decreased the contents of organic matter, total nitrogen, but increased the contents of available nitrogen and phosphorus and had no significant effect

Xiaoli Liu; Chengxiao Hu; Shuzhen Zhang

2005-01-01

32

Comparative effects of lindane and deltamethrin on mortality, growth, and cellulase activity in earthworms ( Eisenia fetida)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory tests were conducted to compare the effects of various concentrations of lindane and deltamethrin on mature earthworms (Eisenia fetida) cultured in artificial soil during typical acute (14d) and subchronic (42d) exposure periods. The effects of the two pesticides on earthworm mortality, growth inhibition, and cellulase activity were determined for different exposure durations. The toxicity order for earthworm mortality from

Yajuan Shi; Yajing Shi; Xin Wang; Yonglong Lu; Shifa Yan

2007-01-01

33

Darwin, Earthworms & Circadian Rhythms: A Fertile Field for Science Fair Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses why the study of earthworms has fascinated many scientists, and why earthworms make ideal experimental animals for students to test in the laboratory. Although earthworms may appear to be primitive, they are governed by both circadian and seasonal rhythms, just as more advanced organisms are. They possess an intelligence…

Burns, John T.; Scurti, Paul J.; Furda, Amy M.

2009-01-01

34

EARTHWORMS AS ECOTOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT TOOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Increased interest for earthworm research and the need for soil assessment methods has encouraged the use of earthworms as assessment organisms. Earthworms exhibit many advantages for use in assessing the impact of toxic and hazardous materials on soil systems. Earthworms are kno...

35

Stress and avoidance in Pseudoseizures: testing the assumptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty women and 10 men with Pseudoseizures were matched by age and gender with an epilepsy- and a healthy-control group. In response to clinical and research evidence of a relationship between Pseudoseizures and the experience of stress, it was hypothesised that people with Pseudoseizures would perceive their ongoing lives as more stressful, and use more avoidant and distancing coping, and

Philippa L Frances; Gus A Baker; Peter L Appleton

1999-01-01

36

The influence of time on lead toxicity and bioaccumulation determined by the OECD earthworm toxicity test.  

PubMed

Internationally agreed standard protocols for assessing chemical toxicity of contaminants in soil to worms assume that the test soil does not need to equilibrate with the chemical to be tested prior to the addition of the test organisms and that the chemical will exert any toxic effect upon the test organism within 28 days. Three experiments were carried out to investigate these assumptions. The first experiment was a standard toxicity test where lead nitrate was added to a soil in solution to give a range of concentrations. The mortality of the worms and the concentration of lead in the survivors were determined. The LC50s for 14 and 28 days were 5311 and 5395 microgPb g(-1)soil respectively. The second experiment was a timed lead accumulation study with worms cultivated in soil containing either 3000 or 5000 microgPb g(-1)soil. The concentration of lead in the worms was determined at various sampling times. Uptake at both concentrations was linear with time. Worms in the 5000 microg g(-1) soil accumulated lead at a faster rate (3.16 microg Pb g(-1)tissue day(-1)) than those in the 3000 microg g(-1) soil (2.21 microg Pb g(-1)tissue day(-1)). The third experiment was a timed experiment with worms cultivated in soil containing 7000 microgPb g(-1)soil. Soil and lead nitrate solution were mixed and stored at 20 degrees C. Worms were added at various times over a 35-day period. The time to death increased from 23 h, when worms were added directly after the lead was added to the soil, to 67 h when worms were added after the soil had equilibrated with the lead for 35 days. In artificially Pb-amended soils the worms accumulate Pb over the duration of their exposure to the Pb. Thus time limited toxicity tests may be terminated before worm body load has reached a toxic level. This could result in under-estimates of the toxicity of Pb to worms. As the equilibration time of artificially amended Pb-bearing soils increases the bioavailability of Pb decreases. Thus addition of worms shortly after addition of Pb to soils may result in the over-estimate of Pb toxicity to worms. The current OECD acute worm toxicity test fails to take these two phenomena into account thereby reducing the environmental relevance of the contaminant toxicities it is used to calculate. PMID:12475061

Davies, Nicola A; Hodson, Mark E; Black, Stuart

2003-01-01

37

Avoidance and reproduction tests with the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer: effects of different chemical substances.  

PubMed

Few toxicity data exist in the literature on the toxicity of chemicals to the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer, but no information is available on its avoidance response. To assess the relevance of the avoidance behavior of H. aculeifer and the relative sensitivity of the mite in comparison with other invertebrates, avoidance and reproduction tests were conducted with 7 chemicals using standardized guidelines. The chemicals (deltamethrin, chloropyrifos, dimethoate, Cu, NaCl, phenanthrene, and boric acid) were selected so as to cover varying chemical classes. For all 3 pesticides tested, avoidance response showed lower sensitivity than reproduction and survival (avoidance median effective concentration [EC50] > reproduction EC50/median lethal concentration [LC50] values). However, for Cu, NaCl, and phenanthrene, the avoidance response showed similar sensitivity as reproduction (avoidance EC50 ? reproduction EC50 values), whereas for boric acid, similar sensitivity as survival (avoidance EC50 ? LC50 values). Although the mite H. aculeifer appears less sensitive to some of the chemicals tested than most other soil invertebrates, its status as the only predator among organisms for which standardized tests are available affirms its inclusion in routine ecotoxicity assessment. The results of the avoidance test with H. aculeifer suggest its potential usefulness as a rapid screening test for risk assessment purposes. PMID:24122914

Owojori, Olugbenga J; Waszak, Karolina; Roembke, Joerg

2014-01-01

38

Nutrition Studies with Earthworms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experiments which demonstrate how different diets affect the growth rate of earthworms. Procedures for feeding baby worms are outlined, the analysis of results are discussed, and various modifications of the exercise are provided. (CS)

Tobaga, Leandro

1980-01-01

39

Toxicity of diesel contaminated soils to the subantarctic earthworm Microscolex macquariensis.  

PubMed

Several fuel spills have occurred on subantarctic Macquarie Island (54°30' S 158°57' E) associated with storing fuel and generating power for the island's research station. The Australian Antarctic Division began full-scale, on-site remediation of these sites in 2009. To develop appropriate target concentrations for remediation, acute and chronic tests were developed with the endemic earthworm, Microscolex macquariensis, using avoidance, survival, and reproduction as endpoints. Uncontaminated low (3%), medium (11%), and high (38-48%) carbon content soils from Macquarie Island were used to examine the influence of soil carbon on toxicity. Soils were spiked with Special Antarctic Blend (SAB) diesel and used either immediately to simulate a fresh spill or after four weeks to simulate an aged spill. Earthworms were sensitive to fresh SAB, with significant avoidance at 181?mg/kg; acute 14-d survival median lethal concentration (LC50) of 103?mg/kg for low carbon soil; and juvenile production median effective concentration (EC50) of 317?mg/kg for high carbon soil. Earthworms were less sensitive to aged SAB than to fresh SAB in high carbon soil for juvenile production (EC50 of 1,753 and 317?mg/kg, respectively), but were more sensitive for adult survival (LC50 of 2,322 and 1,364?mg/kg, respectively). Using M. macquariensis as a surrogate for soil quality, approximately 50 to 200?mg SAB/kg soil would be a sufficiently protective remediation target. PMID:23147807

Mooney, Thomas J; King, Catherine K; Wasley, Jane; Andrew, Nigel R

2013-02-01

40

Disposal of dredged sediments in tropical soils: ecotoxicological effects on earthworms.  

PubMed

The upper limit concentrations of metals established by international legislations for dredged sediment disposal and soil quality do not take into consideration the properties of tropical soils (generally submitted to more intense weathering processes) on metal availability and ecotoxicity. Aiming to perform an evaluation on the suitability of these threshold values in tropical regions, the ecotoxicity of metal-contaminated dredged sediment from the Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) was investigated. Acute and avoidance tests with Eisenia andrei were performed with mixtures of dredged sediment with a ferralsol (0.00, 6.66, 13.12, 19.98, and 33.30 %) and a chernosol (0.00, 6.58, 13.16, 19.74, and 32.90 %). Mercury, lead, nickel, chromium, copper, and zinc concentrations were measured in test mixtures and in tissues of surviving earthworms from the acute tests. While ferralsol test mixtures provoked significant earthworm avoidance response at concentrations ?13.31 %, the chernosol mixtures showed significant avoidance behavior only at the 19.74 % concentration. The acute tests showed higher toxicity in ferralsol mixtures (LC50?=?9.9 %) compared to chernosol mixtures (LC50?=?16.5 %), and biomass increased at the lowest sediment doses in treatments of both test soils. Most probably, the expansive clay minerals present in chernosol contributed to reduce metal availability in chernosol mixtures, and consequently, the ecotoxicity of these treatments. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) for zinc and copper were lower with increasing concentrations of the dredged sediment, indicating the existence of internal regulating processes. Although the BCF for mercury also decreased with the increasing test concentrations, the known no biological function of this metal in the earthworms metabolism lead to suppose that Hg measured was not present in bioaccumulable forms. BCFs estimated for the other metals were generally higher in the highest dredged sediment doses. PMID:24122142

Cesar, Ricardo; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, José Paulo; Colonese, Juan; Bidone, Edison; Castilhos, Zuleica; Egler, Silvia; Polivanov, Helena

2014-03-01

41

Testing the Deterrent Effects of Personal and Vicarious Experience with Punishment and Punishment Avoidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stafford and Warr (1993) reconceptualized general and specific deterrence into a single theory in which people's tendencies to commit crimes are based on a combination of personal experiences and vicarious experiences with being punished and avoiding punishment. The authors make a significant contribution to the deterrence literature by considering the effect of punishment avoidance when testing deterrence theory. The present

Alicia H. Sitren; Brandon K. Applegate

2007-01-01

42

Young Men's Aggressive Tactics to Avoid Condom Use: A Test of a Theoretical Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although research has demonstrated that men's aggression against women and inconsistent condom use are related phenomena, little is known about what factors increase risk for aggression to avoid condom use. The present article tests a theory-based model of condom avoidance through use of sexual aggression. Adult male participants (N = 289) were…

Davis, Kelly Cue; Logan-Greene, Patricia

2012-01-01

43

Lethal Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Tissue of Earthworms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This toxicological research report addresses lethal concentrations of heavy metals in tissue of earthworms. We have presented the work in progress in the first interim report to improve 1) ecotoxicological test, 2) field procedures and 3) standardization ...

A. Rida J. Y. Gal M. B. Bouche P. Brun

1987-01-01

44

Toxicokinetics of metals in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus exposed to natural polluted soils - relevance of laboratory tests to the field situation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to estimate the bioavailability of essential (Zn, Cu) and non-essential metals (Cd, Pb) to the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus exposed to soils originating from a gradient of metal pollution in Southern Poland. Metal uptake and elimination kinetics were determined and related to soils properties. Experimental results were compared with tissue metal concentrations observed in earthworms from the studied transect. Cd and Pb were intensively accumulated by the earthworms, with very slow or no elimination. Their uptake rate constants, based on 0.01 M CaCl2-extractable concentrations in the soils, increased with soil pH. Internal concentrations of Cu and Zn were maintained by the earthworms at a stable level, suggesting efficient regulation of these metals by the animals. The estimated uptake and elimination kinetics parameters enabled fairly accurate prediction of metal concentrations reached within a life span of L. rubellus in nature. PMID:24747106

Giska, Iwona; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Skip, Borys; Laskowski, Ryszard

2014-07-01

45

Accident Avoidance Test Report-Nissan and Toyota Experimental Safety Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two Experimental Safety Vehicles (ESVs) manufactured by Nissan and Toyota of Japan were tested to evaluate the accident avoidance performance of each vehicle. The report contains a brief description of each vehicle and of each test performed as well as th...

P. Boulay T. Macaulay

1975-01-01

46

Comparison of heavy-metal uptake by Eisenia foetida with that of other common earthworms. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

Earthworms have been used in the field to indicate levels of soil pollution and in the laboratory for the ecotoxicological testing of industrial chemicals. An earthworm bioassay procedure developed at the Waterways Experiment Station (Vicksburg, Mississippi) was modified and evaluated as a method of providing information on heavy-metal bioavailability in contaminated soils and sediments from Europe. Eight soils/sediments containing elevated levels of a least one of the elements Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb were selected as well as a control and a reference soil. Six species of earthworm, including the WES bioassay earthworm E. foetida, and five field species were grown in the soils/sediments for periods of 15, 28 or 56 days. Concentrations of the elements Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Cr and Pb present in the earthworm samples (corrected for the presence of soil-derived metals within the earthworm gut) were compared between earthworm species from the same soil and for each earthworm species from a range of metal contaminated soils/sediments. A close linear relationship between metal uptake by E.foetida and the field species of earthworm emerged and good correlation between total (HNO3/HC104) soil Pb and Cd levels and earthworm tissue concentrations and between DTPA extractable soil Cu and Cc levels and earthworm tissue concentrations was observed.

Stafford, E.A.; Edwards, C.A.

1986-01-01

47

Simulation and Flight Test Capability for Testing Prototype Sense and Avoid System Elements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and The MITRE Corporation (MITRE) have developed, and successfully demonstrated, an integrated simulation-to-flight capability for evaluating sense and avoid (SAA) system elements. This integrated capability consists of a MITRE developed fast-time computer simulation for evaluating SAA algorithms, and a NASA LaRC surrogate unmanned aircraft system (UAS) equipped to support hardware and software in-the-loop evaluation of SAA system elements (e.g., algorithms, sensors, architecture, communications, autonomous systems), concepts, and procedures. The fast-time computer simulation subjects algorithms to simulated flight encounters/ conditions and generates a fitness report that records strengths, weaknesses, and overall performance. Reviewed algorithms (and their fitness report) are then transferred to NASA LaRC where additional (joint) airworthiness evaluations are performed on the candidate SAA system-element configurations, concepts, and/or procedures of interest; software and hardware components are integrated into the Surrogate UAS research systems; and flight safety and mission planning activities are completed. Onboard the Surrogate UAS, candidate SAA system element configurations, concepts, and/or procedures are subjected to flight evaluations and in-flight performance is monitored. The Surrogate UAS, which can be controlled remotely via generic Ground Station uplink or automatically via onboard systems, operates with a NASA Safety Pilot/Pilot in Command onboard to permit safe operations in mixed airspace with manned aircraft. An end-to-end demonstration of a typical application of the capability was performed in non-exclusionary airspace in October 2011; additional research, development, flight testing, and evaluation efforts using this integrated capability are planned throughout fiscal year 2012 and 2013.

Howell, Charles T.; Stock, Todd M.; Verstynen, Harry A.; Wehner, Paul J.

2012-01-01

48

Manipulation of Avoidance Behavior As A Function of Increased or Decreased Demand On Repeated Behavioral Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five groups of 15 female subjects reporting fear of snakes participated in two behavioral avoidance tests employing a snake as the target object. Results are discussed both in terms of implications for psychotherapy outcome research design and possible usefulness of situational variables in the development of more effective anxiety-reduction…

Bernstein, Douglas A.

1974-01-01

49

Science Sampler: Inquiry with earthworms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earthworms wiggle their way into your science curriculum in this fun and hands-on activity. Students experiment with earthworms to gain a better understanding of the process of scientific inquiry and hone their research skills using books and the Internet (see Resources).

Jeanpierre, Bobby; Babyak, Joanne

2006-02-01

50

Avoidance bio-assays may help to test the ecological significance of soil pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured the short-term (100min) avoidance of a soil heavily polluted by hydrocarbons by the soil springtail Folsomia candida, at six rates of dilution in a control, unpolluted soil. We compared the results with those of long-term (40-day) population tests. Five strains were compared, of varying geographical and ecological origin. When pure, the polluted soil was lethal in the long-term

Maite Martínez Aldaya; Christine Lors; Sandrine Salmon; Jean-François Ponge

2006-01-01

51

Earthworm invasion into previously earthworm-free temperate and boreal forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms are keystone detritivores that can influence primary producers by changing seedbed conditions, soil characteristics, flow of water, nutrients and carbon, and plant–herbivore interactions. The invasion of European earthworms into previously earthworm-free temperate and boreal forests of North America dominated by Acer, Quercus, Betula, Pinus and Populus has provided ample opportunity to observe how earthworms engineer ecosystems. Impacts vary with

Lee E. Frelich; Cindy M. Hale; Stefan Scheu; Andrew R. Holdsworth; Liam Heneghan; Patrick J. Bohlen; Peter B. Reich

2006-01-01

52

The influence of invasive earthworms on indigenous fauna in ecosystems previously uninhabited by earthworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies on earthworm invasion of North American soils report dramatic changes in soil structure, nutrient dynamics and plant communities in ecosystems historically free of earthworms. However, the direct and indirect impacts of earthworm invasions on animals have been largely ignored. This paper summarizes the current knowledge on the impact of earthworm invasion on other soil fauna, vertebrates as well

Sonja Migge-Kleian; Mary Ann McLean; John C. Maerz; Liam Heneghan

2006-01-01

53

Earthworms (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) and mycobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to define the role of earthworms in the survival of mycobacteria in animal populations. In 13 sampling sites mycobacteria were detected in 53 (5.5%) samples of faeces and parenchymatous tissues from animals, in 25 (7.3%) environmental and in nine (8.2%) earthworm samples. In cattle and goat farms affected by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M.

O. A Fischer; L Matlova; J Bartl; L Dvorska; P Svastova; R du Maine; I Melicharek; M Bartos; I Pavlik

2003-01-01

54

Earthworm ecotoxicological assessments of pesticides used to treat seeds under tropical conditions.  

PubMed

Ecotoxicological laboratory tests (lower-tier tests) are fundamental tools for assessing the toxicity of pesticides to soil organisms. In this study, using these tests under tropical conditions, we quantified the impact of the insecticides imidacloprid, fipronil, and thiametoxam, and the fungicides captan and carboxin+thiram, all of which are used in the chemical treatment of crop seeds, on the survival, reproduction, and behavior of Eisenia andrei (Oligochaeta). With the exception of imidacloprid, none of the pesticides tested caused mortality in E. andrei in artificial soils. The LC(50) of imidacloprid was estimated as 25.53 mg active ingredient kg(-1) of dry soil. Earthworm reproduction rates were reduced by imidacloprid (EC(50)=4.07 mgkg(-1)), fipronil (EC(20)=23.16 mgkg(-1)), carboxin+thiram (EC(50)=56.38 mgkg(-1)), captan (EC(50)=334.84 mgkg(-1)), and thiametoxam (EC(50)=791.99 mgkg(-1)). Avoidance behavior was observed in the presence of imidacloprid (AC(50)=0.11 mgkg(-1)), captan (AC(50)=33.54 mgkg(-1)), carboxin+thiram (AC(50)=60.32 mgkg(-1)), and thiametoxam (AC(50)=>20 mgkg(-1)). Earthworms showed a preference for soils with the insecticide fipronil. Imidacloprid was the most toxic of the substances tested for E. andrei. The avoidance test was the most sensitive test for most pesticides studied, but results varied between pesticides. These results offer new insights on the toxicity of pesticides used to treat seeds in tropical regions. However, they should be complemented with higher-tier tests in order to reduce the uncertainties in risk assessment. PMID:23261124

Alves, Paulo Roger L; Cardoso, Elke J B N; Martines, Alexandre M; Sousa, José Paulo; Pasini, Amarildo

2013-03-01

55

Toxicity of Modified HL Simulant and Methyl Salicylate in Soil on Cucumbers and Earthworms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tests were conducted to determine if methyl salicylate (MS), a component of HL simulant, was responsible for the toxicity exhibited by cucumbers and earthworms. The HL simulant without methyl salicylate (HLMS) and MS were tested for their toxicity to cucu...

C. T. Phillips R. S. Wentsel

1993-01-01

56

Methods for the assessment of the toxicity of environmental chemicals to earthworms  

SciTech Connect

In view of the impending publication of standards for earthworm toxicity testing by the Commission of the European Communities, a review has been made of the recent literature on earthworm toxicology. Relevant studies are reviewed from the standpoints of methods used, reproducibility of results, and ability to extrapolate laboratory results to field situations. Eisenia foetida, a commonly used test species, is much less sensitive to agricultural chemicals than other, native earthworms and is of doubtful utility for extrapolating laboratory data to field conditions, but when native soil organisms are used, such extrapolations show good general agreement. Standardization of test conditions and broadening of the data base are encouraged.

Dean-Ross, D.

1983-03-01

57

Protein Hydrolysates Are Avoided by Herbivores but Not by Omnivores in Two-Choice Preference Tests  

PubMed Central

Background The negative sensory properties of casein hydrolysates (HC) often limit their usage in products intended for human consumption, despite HC being nutritious and having many functional benefits. Recent, but taxonomically limited, evidence suggests that other animals also avoid consuming HC when alternatives exist. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated ingestive responses of five herbivorous species (guinea pig, mountain beaver, gopher, vole, and rabbit) and five omnivorous species (rat, coyote, house mouse, white-footed mouse, and deer mouse; N?=?16–18/species) using solid foods containing 20% HC in a series of two-choice preference tests that used a non-protein, cellulose-based alternative. Individuals were also tested with collagen hydrolysate (gelatin; GE) to determine whether it would induce similar ingestive responses to those induced by HC. Despite HC and GE having very different nutritional and sensory qualities, both hydrolysates produced similar preference score patterns. We found that the herbivores generally avoided the hydrolysates while the omnivores consumed them at similar levels to the cellulose diet or, more rarely, preferred them (HC by the white-footed mouse; GE by the rat). Follow-up preference tests pairing HC and the nutritionally equivalent intact casein (C) were performed on the three mouse species and the guinea pigs. For the mice, mean HC preference scores were lower in the HC v C compared to the HC v Cel tests, indicating that HC's sensory qualities negatively affected its consumption. However, responses were species-specific. For the guinea pigs, repeated exposure to HC or C (4.7-h sessions; N?=?10) were found to increase subsequent HC preference scores in an HC v C preference test, which was interpreted in the light of conservative foraging strategies thought to typify herbivores. Conclusions/Significance This is the first empirical study of dietary niche-related taxonomic differences in ingestive responses to protein hydrolysates using multiple species under comparable conditions. Our results provide a basis for future work in sensory, physiological, and behavioral mechanisms of hydrolysate avoidance and on the potential use of hydrolysates for pest management.

Field, Kristin L.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Mennella, Julie A.; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Kimball, Bruce A.

2009-01-01

58

Development of Performance Specifications for Collision Avoidance Systems for Lane Change, Merging and Backing. Task 3. Test of Existing Hardware Systems. Part 1. Sensor System Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results from the testing of eleven Collision Avoidance Systems (CAS) for lane change, merge and backing are presented. Complete systems were tested for static pattern, latency time and dynamic response to potential targets. Testing was performed staticall...

G. A. Shreve K. E. Yokoyama S. Johnston S. Talmadge

1995-01-01

59

Earthworms Use Odor Cues to Locate and Feed on Microorganisms in Soil  

PubMed Central

Earthworms are key components of temperate soil ecosystems but key aspects of their ecology remain unexamined. Here we elucidate the role of olfactory cues in earthworm attraction to food sources and document specific chemical cues that attract Eisenia fetida to the soil fungi Geotrichum candidum. Fungi and other microorganisms are major sources of volatile emissions in soil ecosystems as well as primary food sources for earthworms, suggesting the likelihood that earthworms might profitably use olfactory cues to guide foraging behavior. Moreover, previous studies have documented earthworm movement toward microbial food sources. But, the specific olfactory cues responsible for earthworm attraction have not previously been identified. Using olfactometer assays combined with chemical analyses (GC-MS), we documented the attraction of E. fetida individuals to filtrate derived from G. candidum colonies and to two individual compounds tested in isolation: ethyl pentanoate and ethyl hexanoate. Attraction at a distance was observed when barriers prevented the worms from reaching the target stimuli, confirming the role of volatile cues. These findings enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying key trophic interactions in soil ecosystems and have potential implications for the extraction and collection of earthworms in vermiculture and other applied activities.

Zirbes, Lara; Mescher, Mark; Vrancken, Veronique; Wathelet, Jean-Paul; Verheggen, Francois J.; Thonart, Philippe; Haubruge, Eric

2011-01-01

60

Automated Analysis of Two-Dimensional Positions and Body Lengths of Earthworms (Oligochaeta); MimizuTrack  

PubMed Central

Earthworms are important soil macrofauna inhabiting almost all ecosystems. Their biomass is large and their burrowing and ingestion of soils alters soil physicochemical properties. Because of their large biomass, earthworms are regarded as an indicator of “soil heath”. However, primarily because the difficulties in quantifying their behavior, the extent of their impact on soil material flow dynamics and soil health is poorly understood. Image data, with the aid of image processing tools, are a powerful tool in quantifying the movements of objects. Image data sets are often very large and time-consuming to analyze, especially when continuously recorded and manually processed. We aimed to develop a system to quantify earthworm movement from video recordings. Our newly developed program successfully tracked the two-dimensional positions of three separate parts of the earthworm and simultaneously output the change in its body length. From the output data, we calculated the velocity of the earthworm's movement. Our program processed the image data three times faster than the manual tracking system. To date, there are no existing systems to quantify earthworm activity from continuously recorded image data. The system developed in this study will reduce input time by a factor of three compared with manual data entry and will reduce errors involved in quantifying large data sets. Furthermore, it will provide more reliable measured values, although the program is still a prototype that needs further testing and improvement. Combined with other techniques, such as measuring metabolic gas emissions from earthworm bodies, this program could provide continuous observations of earthworm behavior in response to environmental variables under laboratory conditions. In the future, this standardized method will be applied to other animals, and the quantified earthworm movement will be incorporated into models of soil material flow dynamics or behavior in response to chemical substances present in the soil.

Yonemura, Seiichiro; Kaneda, Satoshi; Ohashi, Mizue; Ikeno, Hidetoshi

2014-01-01

61

Cellulase and Chitinase of Earthworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

LITTLE is known of the digestive enzymes of the earthworm. The presence of protease, amylase and lipase has been reported in the gut contents in isolated instances. Since up to 10 per cent of the top four inches of soil in grassland may pass through the intestines of worms in a year1, their digestive abilities are of a relevance to

M. V. Tracey

1951-01-01

62

Evolution of earthworm burrow systems after inoculation of lumbricid earthworms in a pasture in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1983, an earthworm-free pasture was inoculated with four earthworm species. The earth-worms dispersed with an average velocity of 6.3 m y?1. In 1991, four burrow systems, ranging in age from 0.6 to 7.3 y, were mapped three-dimensionally to establish the development of these systems. Aporrectodea longa was the fastest colonizer, while Lumbricus terrestris dispersed slowly. The abundance of earthworms

Tom N. Ligthart; Gert J. C. W. Peek

1997-01-01

63

Earthworm invasion into previously earthworm-free temperate and boreal forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms are keystone detritivores that can influence primary producers by changing seedbed conditions, soil characteristics,\\u000a flow of water, nutrients and carbon, and plant-herbivore interactions. The invasion of European earthworms into previously\\u000a earthworm-free temperate and boreal forests of North America dominated by Acer, Quercus, Betula, Pinus and Populus has provided ample opportunity to observe how earthworms engineer ecosystems. Impacts vary with

Lee E. Frelich; Cindy M. Hale; Peter B. Reich; Andrew R. Holdsworth; Stefan Scheu; Liam Heneghan; Patrick J. Bohlen

64

The influence of invasive earthworms on indigenous fauna in ecosystems previously uninhabited by earthworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies on earthworm invasion of North American soils report dramatic changes in soil structure, nutrient dynamics\\u000a and plant communities in ecosystems historically free of earthworms. However, the direct and indirect impacts of earthworm\\u000a invasions on animals have been largely ignored. This paper summarizes the current knowledge on the impact of earthworm invasion\\u000a on other soil fauna, vertebrates as well

Sonja Migge-Kleian; Mary Ann McLean; John C. Maerz; Liam Heneghan

65

Earthworm invasions of ecosystems devoid of earthworms: effects on soil microbes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies document North American earthworm invasions and their profound effects on the structure of the soil profile, which is the habitat for soil microorganisms (mainly fungi and bacteria). Dramatic alterations made to these layers during earthworm invasion significantly change microbial community structure and therefore microbial activities such as C transformations. Understanding the impacts of earthworm invasion on the microbes

M. A. McLean; S. Migge-Kleian; D. Parkinson

2006-01-01

66

Antioxidant defense system responses and DNA damage of earthworms exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS).  

PubMed

The use of earthworms as a sublethal endpoint has significantly contributed to the ecological risk assessment of contaminated soils. Few studies have focused on the potential toxicity of PFOS to earthworms in the soil. In this work, artificial soils were tested, and contact filter paper studies were used. The results showed that earthworm growth was generally inhibited. The antioxidant activities of the enzymes superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were initially activated and then inhibited. Reduced glutathione content was observed, and malondialdehyde content was elevated over the duration of the exposure. These results suggested that PFOS induced oxidative stress in earthworms. In addition, the values of olive tail moment, tail DNA% and tail length using SCGE showed similar frequency distributions and increased with increases in the PFOS concentration. These results suggest that all concentrations of PFOS cause DNA damage. PMID:23257261

Xu, Dongmei; Li, Chandan; Wen, Yuezhong; Liu, Weiping

2013-03-01

67

Earthworm Interactions with Soil Enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As one of the dominant members of soil fauna, earthworms fulfill significant tasks in the soil ecosystem by participating\\u000a in the physico-chemical processes of the soil, such as organic matter cycles, nutrient transformations, and modifications\\u000a in soil structure. These processes are also directed by the activities and amounts of the enzymes produced by soil microorganisms\\u000a that inhabit a wide range

Ridvan Kizilkaya; Ayten Karaca; Oguz Can Turgay; Sema Camci Cetin

68

Protein Hydrolysates Are Avoided by Herbivores but Not by Omnivores in Two-Choice Preference Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The negative sensory properties of casein hydrolysates (HC) often limit their usage in products intended for human consumption, despite HC being nutritious and having many functional benefits. Recent, but taxonomically limited, evidence suggests that other animals also avoid consuming HC when alternatives exist. Methodology\\/Principal Findings: We evaluated ingestive responses of five herbivorous species (guinea pig, mountain beaver, gopher, vole,

Kristin L. Field; Alexander A. Bachmanov; Julie A. Mennella; Gary K. Beauchamp; Bruce A. Kimball

2009-01-01

69

Node-avoiding Levy flight - A numerical test of the epsilon expansion. [random walk  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study is conducted of an extension of Levy flight to include self-repulsion in the path of the walk. The extension is called node-avoiding Levy flight and its equivalence to the n approaches 0 limit of a statistical mechanical model for a magnetic system with long-range interactions between the spins is shown. By use of this equivalence it is possible to make a detailed comparison beween the results of the epsilon expansion for the magnetic model, a Monte Carlo simulation of the Levy flight model, and the results of a Flory-type argument. This is the first comparison of the epsilon expansion for epsilon much less than 1 with a numerical simulation for any model. Some speculations are made on applications of the model of node-avoiding Levy flight.

Halley, J. W.; Nakanishi, H.

1985-01-01

70

Protein Hydrolysates Are Avoided by Herbivores but Not by Omnivores in Two-Choice Preference Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe negative sensory properties of casein hydrolysates (HC) often limit their usage in products intended for human consumption, despite HC being nutritious and having many functional benefits. Recent, but taxonomically limited, evidence suggests that other animals also avoid consuming HC when alternatives exist.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe evaluated ingestive responses of five herbivorous species (guinea pig, mountain beaver, gopher, vole, and rabbit) and

Kristin L. Field; Alexander A. Bachmanov; Julie A. Mennella; Gary K. Beauchamp; Bruce A. Kimball; Daniel Tomé

2009-01-01

71

Earthworm invasions of ecosystems devoid of earthworms: effects on soil microbes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies document North American earthworm invasions and their profound effects on the structure of the soil profile,\\u000a which is the habitat for soil microorganisms (mainly fungi and bacteria). Dramatic alterations made to these layers during\\u000a earthworm invasion significantly change microbial community structure and therefore microbial activities such as C transformations.\\u000a Understanding the impacts of earthworm invasion on the microbes

M. A. McLean; S. Migge-Kleian; D. Parkinson

72

Biotic interactions modify the transfer of cesium-137 in a soil-earthworm-plant-snail food web.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the possible influence of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata on the transfer of cesium-137 ((137)Cs) from a contaminated (130 Bq/kg) deciduous forest soil to the lettuce Lactuca sativa and to the snail Cantareus aspersus (formerly Helix aspersa) in two laboratory experiments. In the first experiment, the International Organization for Standardization 15952 test was used to expose snails for five weeks to contaminated soil with or without earthworms. In these conditions, the presence of earthworms caused a two- to threefold increase in (137)Cs concentrations in snails. Transfer was low in earthworms as well as in snails, with transfer factors (TFs) lower than 3.7 x 10(-2). Activity concentrations were higher in earthworms (2.8- 4.8 Bq/kg dry mass) than in snails (<1.5 Bq/kg). In the second experiment, microcosms were used to determine the contribution of soil and lettuce in the accumulation of (137)Cs in snails. Results suggest that the contribution of lettuce and soil is 80 and 20%, respectively. Microcosms also were used to study the influence of earthworms on (137)Cs accumulation in snail tissues in the most ecologically relevant treatment (soil-earthworm-plant-snail food web). In this case, soil-to-plant transfer was high, with a TF of 0.8, and was not significantly modified by earthworms. Conversely, soil-to-snail transfer was lower (TF, approximately 0.1) but was significantly increased in presence of earthworms. Dose rates were determined in the microcosm study with the EDEN (elementary dose evaluation for natural environment) model. Dose rates were lower than 5.5 x 10(-4) mGy/d, far from values considered to have effects on terrestrial organisms (1 mGy/d). PMID:18266477

Fritsch, Clémentine; Scheifler, Renaud; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Hubert, Philippe; Coeurdassier, Michaël; de Vaufleury, Annette; Badot, Pierre-Marie

2008-08-01

73

COMPARISON OF THREE EARTHWORM BIOASSAY PROCEDURES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES CONTAINING HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Three different laboratory earthworm protocols for assessing the potential toxicity of environmental samples were evaluated using Eisenia fetida. The 48-h Contact Test (CT) is a short test and may indicate the presence of water-soluble chemicals. The 14-day Soil Test (ST) is best...

74

Enantioselective acute toxicity and bioaccumulation of benalaxyl in earthworm (Eisenia fedtia).  

PubMed

The enantioselectivities of individual enantiomers of benalaxyl in acute toxicity and bioaccumulation in earthworm ( Eisenia fedtia ) were studied. The acute toxicity was tested by paper contact test. After 48 h of exposure, the calculated LC(50) values of the R-(-)-form, rac-form, and S-(+)-form were 4.99, 5.08, and 6.66 microg/cm(2), respectively. After 72 h of exposure, the calculated LC(50) values were 1.23, 1.73, and 2.45 microg/cm(2), respectively. Therefore, the acute toxicity of benalaxyl enantiomers was enantioselective. A method for determining residues of the two enantiomers of benalaxyl in earthworm tissue by high-performance liquid chromatography based on cellulose tri-(3,5-dimethylphenyl-carbamate) chiral stationary phase was developed. During the bioaccumulation experiment, the enantiomer fraction in earthworm tissue was maintained approximately at 0.6, whereas enantiomer fraction in spiked soil was maintained at 0.5; in other words, the bioaccumulation of benalaxyl was enantioselective in earthworm tissue. Peak-shaped accumulation curves were observed for both enantiomers, and the calculated biota to soil accumulations (kg dry kg(-1) wet weight) at steady state were below 1 for both enantiomers. During the elimination experiment, 79.0% of R-(-)-enantiomer and 89.6% of S-(+)-enantiomer in earthworm tissue were eliminated within 2 days. PMID:19694444

Xu, Peng; Liu, Donghui; Diao, Jinling; Lu, Dahai; Zhou, Zhiqiang

2009-09-23

75

The Thematic Apperception Test and Attitudes Toward Achievement in Women: A New Look At The Motive to Avoid Success and a New Method of Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measurement of females motives to avoid success were evaluated with students taking part in the Horner's Thematic Apperception Tests. Results of the study show that this testing procedure measures a more complex set of attitudes, expectations and personality characteristics than implied by "motive to avoid success" theory. (Author/EK)

Spence, Janet T.

1974-01-01

76

Approach-Avoidance Motivational Profiles in Early Adolescents to the PACER Fitness Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of fitness testing is a practical means for measuring components of health-related fitness, but there is currently substantial debate over the motivating effects of these tests. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the cross-fertilization of achievement and friendship goal profiles for early adolescents involved in the…

Garn, Alex; Sun, Haichun

2009-01-01

77

A series test of the scaling limit of self-avoiding walks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely believed that the scaling limit of self-avoiding walks (SAWs) at the critical temperature is conformally invariant, and consequently describable by Schramm-Loewner evolution with parameter ? = 8/3. We consider SAWs in a rectangle, which originate at its centre and end at the boundary. We assume that the boundary density transforms covariantly in a way that depends precisely on ?, as conjectured by Lawler, Schramm and Werner (2004 Fractal Geometry and Applications: A Jubilee of Benoit Mandelbrot part 2, pp 339-64). It has previously been shown by Guttmann and Kennedy (2013 J. Eng. Math. at press) that, in the limit of an infinitely large rectangle, the ratio of the fraction of SAWs hitting the side of the rectangle to the fraction that hit the end of the rectangle can be calculated. By considering rectangles of fixed aspect ratio 2, and also rectangles of aspect ratio 10, we calculate this ratio exactly for larger and larger rectangles. By extrapolating this data to infinite rectangle size, and invoking the above conjectures, we obtain the estimate ? = 2.666?64 ± 0.000?07 for rectangles of aspect ratio 2 and ? = 2.666?75 ± 0.000?15 for rectangles of aspect ratio 10. We also provide numerical evidence supporting the conjectured distribution of SAWs striking the boundary at various points in the case of rectangles with aspect ratio 2.

Guttmann, Anthony J.; Jacobsen, Jesper L.

2013-11-01

78

Avoidance of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs after negative provocation tests in urticaria/angioedema reactions: Real-world experience.  

PubMed

Drug provocation tests (DPTs) are the gold standard in diagnosing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) hypersensitivity; however, only few data about follow-up of patients with negative DPTs are actually available. The aim of this study was to assess patients' behavior in taking NSAIDs again and to evaluate NSAID tolerability after negative allergological workup. This is a follow-up study involving patients evaluated for history of cutaneous reactions (urticaria and or angioedema) after NSAID intake and with negative DPTs with the suspected NSAID. Patients were asked during a phone interview about the intake of NSAIDs, tolerance, or reasons of avoidance. The negative predictive value (NPV) of NSAIDs DPTs was calculated. One hundred eleven of 142 patients were successfully contacted; 46/111 (41.44%) took the same NSAID previously tested with two adverse reactions reported (4.34%). Fifty-three of 111 (47.74%) patients did not take the same NSAID, but 34 of them took at least another strong cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 inhibitor, with 1 adverse reaction (2.94%) and 19 of them took only weak COX-1 inhibitors. Twelve of 111 patients (10.8%) did not take any NSAID. Reasons for drug avoidance were mainly fear of reactions (70.8%) and no need (29.2%). NPV, overall, was 96.97% (95% confidence interval, 91-99%). Although NSAID hypersensitivity diagnosis was ruled out by oral provocation test, the majority of patients with a history of urticaria/angioedema avoided the intake of the tested NSAIDs for fear of new reactions, particularly when strong COX-1 inhibitor NSAIDs were involved. The high NPV value of DPT resulting from this study should reassure NSAID intake. PMID:24992549

Bommarito, Luisa; Zisa, Giuliana; Riccobono, Francesca; Villa, Elisa; D'Antonio, Cristian; Calamari, Ambra M; Poppa, Mariangela; Moschella, Adele; Di Pietrantonj, Carlo; Galimberti, Maurizio

2014-07-01

79

Nanomaterials: Earthworms lit with quantum dots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yeast, bacteria and fungi have been used to synthesize a variety of nanocrystals. Now, the metal detoxification process in the gut of an earthworm is exploited to produce biocompatible cadmium telluride quantum dots.

Tilley, Richard D.; Cheong, Soshan

2013-01-01

80

Avoiding Snakebites  

MedlinePLUS

... Snakebites Avoiding Snakebites How can I avoid snakebites? Snakes are most active in the spring, early summer ... warm and outdoor activities are popular. Although most snakes are not poisonous, there are several kinds of ...

81

Avoiding Bullying  

MedlinePLUS

... At Play > Avoiding Bullying Safety & Prevention Listen Avoiding Bullying Article Body How can we help our child ... in other ways. Getting that response reinforces the bullying behavior. Your child should try to keep his ...

82

Comparative toxicity of chemicals to earthworms  

SciTech Connect

The concentration-response (mortality) relationships of four species of earthworms, Eisenia fetida (Savigny), Allolobophora tuberculata (Eisen), Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg), and Perionyx excavatus (Perrier) are summarized for 62 chemicals and two test protocols. A Weibull function is used to summarize these data for each chemical in terms of sensitivity and toxicity, in addition to the LC50. The estimation of the Weibull parameters a and k summarize the entire concentration-response relationship. This technique should be applicable to a variety of testing protocols with different species whenever the goal is summarizing the shape of the concentration-response curves to fully evaluate chemical impact on organisms. In some cases for these data four orders of magnitude separate LC50s of the soil test and the contact test for the same chemical and species. All four species appear to be similar in range of toxicity and tolerance to these chemicals, suggesting that Eisenia fetida and may be representative of these four species and these chemicals.

Callahan, C.A.; Shirazi, M.A. (Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR (United States)); Neuhauser, E.F. (Niagara Mohawk Power Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States))

1994-02-01

83

Holography: Use in Training and Testing Drivers on the Road in Accident Avoidance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines holography, identifies visual factors in driving and the techniques used in on-road visual presentations, and presents the design and testing of a holographic system for driver training. (RAO)

Frey, Allan H.; Frey, Donnalyn

1979-01-01

84

An experimental test of the effects of parental modeling on panic-relevant escape and avoidance among early adolescents.  

PubMed

Escape and avoidance behaviors play a prominent role in the maintenance and possibly development of panic disorder, yet the literature regarding the etiology of these emotion-regulation strategies is relatively underdeveloped. The current study experimentally tests hypotheses that parental modeling of escape during a well-established panic-relevant biological challenge increases panic-relevant escape and avoidance among offspring. Fifty physically and psychologically healthy early adolescents (28 females; Mage=11.58; 86% Caucasian), stratified by gender, were randomly assigned to observe one of their parents (39 females; Mage=40.04): either (a) model completing a 3-min voluntary hyperventilation exercise (no escape modeling group) or (b) model premature termination of a similar procedure (escape modeling group). Offspring in the escape modeling group demonstrated a stronger escape response by discontinuing their own challenge sooner than those in the no-escape modeling group (r=.70). No group differences emerged in terms of avoidance responding, as indexed by nearly identical responding in terms of delay time before initiating the challenge, respiration rate, and self-reported willingness to engage in a second proposed challenge. Results suggest that parental behaviors may play an important role in the development of some forms of panic-relevant responding. These preliminary findings may have important implications for future prevention programs targeting parents and at-risk youth. PMID:24912464

Bunaciu, Liviu; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Knapp, Ashley A; Badour, Christal L; Feldner, Matthew T

2014-07-01

85

Biochemical diversity of betaines in earthworms  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? We develop a method for rapid untargetted analysis of betaines. ? We profile betaines in a comparative study of ten earthworm species. ? Earthworms contain a surprisingly high number of different betaine metabolites. ? Earthworms contain betaines normally seen only in plants or marine animals. -- Abstract: The ability to accumulate osmoprotectant compounds, such as betaines, is an important evolutionary feature in many organisms. This is particularly the case for organisms that live in variable environments, which may have fluctuations in moisture and salinity levels. There is, surprisingly, very little known about betaines in soil invertebrates in general, and there is almost no information about earthworms – a group that are important ‘ecosystem engineers’ and key indicators of soil health. Here, we describe a fast and reliable {sup 1}H–{sup 13}C heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) 2D NMR approach for the metabolic profiling of a series of betaines and related metabolites in tissue extracts, and list {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C chemical shifts for the trimethylammonium signal for 23 such compounds. The analysis of ten different species from three different families (Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae and Glossoscolecidae) showed an unexpected diversity of betaines present in earthworms. In total ten betaines were identified, including hydroxyproline-betaine, proline-betaine, taurine-betaine, GABA-betaine and histidine-betaine, and a further eleven as-yet unassigned putative betaine metabolites detected. The findings clearly indicate a hitherto-unappreciated important role for betaine metabolism in earthworms.

Liebeke, Manuel [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)] [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Bundy, Jacob G., E-mail: j.bundy@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

2013-01-25

86

Pyrosequencing of prey DNA in reptile faeces: analysis of earthworm consumption by slow worms.  

PubMed

Little quantitative ecological information exists on the diets of most invertebrate feeding reptiles, particularly nocturnal or elusive species that are difficult to observe. In the UK and elsewhere, reptiles are legally required to be relocated before land development can proceed, but without knowledge of their dietary requirements, the suitability of receptor sites cannot be known. Here, we tested the ability of non-invasive DNA-based molecular diagnostics (454 pyrosequencing) to analyse reptile diets, with the specific aims of determining which earthworm species are exploited by slow worms (the legless lizard Anguis fragilis) and whether they feed on the deeper-living earthworm species that only come to the surface at night. Slow worm faecal samples from four different habitats were analysed using earthworm-specific PCR primers. We found that 86% of slow worms (N=80) had eaten earthworms. In lowland heath and marshy/acid grassland, Lumbricus rubellus, a surface-dwelling epigeic species, dominated slow worm diet. In two other habitats, riverside pasture and calciferous coarse grassland, diet was dominated by deeper-living anecic and endogeic species. We conclude that all species of earthworm are exploited by these reptiles and lack of specialization allows slow worms to thrive in a wide variety of habitats. Pyrosequencing of prey DNA in faeces showed promise as a practical, rapid and relatively inexpensive means of obtaining detailed and valuable ecological information on the diets of reptiles. PMID:22176947

Brown, David S; Jarman, Simon N; Symondson, William O C

2012-03-01

87

[Effects of earthworm activity on phosphorus fraction and available phosphorus content in red soil].  

PubMed

By the methods of incubation test and Hedley's phosphorus fractionation, this paper studied the effects of inoculating earthworm (Pheretinma pingi) on the phosphorus fractions and available phosphorus contents in red soil. The results showed that during a 100-day incubation, earthworm inoculation combined with organic materials (rice straw RS, peanut residue PR, and rape residue RR) amendment increased significantly the content of soil available phosphorus. Statistics analysis showed that there was a significant difference in soil available phosphorus content between treatments PR or RR with and without earthworm inoculation. Compared with the contents of anion-exchange resin P(trace), NaCO3-soluble P(14.5 mg x kg(-1)) and microbial P(1.0 mg x kg(-1)) in CK, those in treatments of earthworm inoculation plus organic materials amendment increased to 10.5 - 17.8 mg kg(-1), 23.5-35.6 mg x kg(-1), and 6.8 - 9.7 mg x kg(-1), respectively, organic phosphorus content enhanced from 37.9 mg x kg(-1) to 50.7-59.3 mg x kg(-1), whereas residual P was reduced. Earthworm performed an activated effect on the availability of phosphorus in red soil. PMID:16422511

Liu, Dehui; Hu, Feng; Hu, Pei; Cheng, Jiemin

2005-10-01

88

Comparison of Three Earthworm Bioassay Procedures for the Assessment of Environmental Samples Containing Hazardous Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three different laboratory earthworm protocols for assessing the potential toxicity of environmental samples were evaluated using Eisenia fetida. The 48-h Contact Test (CT) is a short test and may indicate the presence of water-soluble chemicals. The 14-d...

C. A. Callahan L. K. Russell S. A. Peterson

1985-01-01

89

The implications of copper fungicide usage in vineyards for earthworm activity and resulting sustainable soil quality.  

PubMed

To investigate the impact of copper-containing fungicides (copper oxychloride) on earthworms in South African vineyards, field inventories of earthworms in and between vine rows were carried out and compared to directly adjacent grassland. Also copper content, pH, organic matter content, and soil porosity were determined in these soils. This was combined with laboratory experiments to study the impact of vineyard soil characteristics on the burrowing and dispersal behavior of earthworms. Moreover, the direct toxic action of copper oxychloride on different endpoints of the earthworms (survival and growth) was studied. Copper oxychloride had a negative impact on these endpoints (decreased growth and survival related to increased copper body content) as well as on the behavioral aspect (decreased burrowing rate and avoidance of copper-containing soil). Moreover, there was an inverse relation between burrowing activity and soil bulk density that could also be related to the copper content. This may lead to a decrease in sustainable soil quality in vineyards. PMID:15978295

Eijsackers, H; Beneke, P; Maboeta, M; Louw, J P E; Reinecke, A J

2005-09-01

90

Helicopter Field Testing of NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) System fully integrated with the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed Avionics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project was chartered to develop and mature to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six an autonomous system combining guidance, navigation and control with real-time terrain sensing and recognition functions for crewed, cargo, and robotic planetary landing vehicles. The ALHAT System must be capable of identifying and avoiding surface hazards to enable a safe and accurate landing to within tens of meters of designated and certified landing sites anywhere on a planetary surface under any lighting conditions. This is accomplished with the core sensing functions of the ALHAT system: Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN), Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA), and Hazard Relative Navigation (HRN). The NASA plan for the ALHAT technology is to perform the TRL6 closed loop demonstration on the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed (VTB). The first Morpheus vehicle was lost in August of 2012 during free-flight testing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), so the decision was made to perform a helicopter test of the integrated ALHAT System with the Morpheus avionics over the ALHAT planetary hazard field at KSC. The KSC helicopter tests included flight profiles approximating planetary approaches, with the entire ALHAT system interfaced with all appropriate Morpheus subsystems and operated in real-time. During these helicopter flights, the ALHAT system imaged the simulated lunar terrain constructed in FY2012 to support ALHAT/Morpheus testing at KSC. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest fidelity testing of a system of this kind to date. During this helicopter testing, two new Morpheus landers were under construction at the Johnson Space Center to support the objective of an integrated ALHAT/Morpheus free-flight demonstration. This paper provides an overview of this helicopter flight test activity, including results and lessons learned, and also provides an overview of recent integrated testing of ALHAT on the second Morpheus vehicle.

Rutishauser, David; Epp, Chirold; Robertson, Edward

2013-01-01

91

Helicopter Field Testing of NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) System fully Integrated with the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed Avionics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project was chartered to develop and mature to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six an autonomous system combining guidance, navigation and control with real-time terrain sensing and recognition functions for crewed, cargo, and robotic planetary landing vehicles. The ALHAT System must be capable of identifying and avoiding surface hazards to enable a safe and accurate landing to within tens of meters of designated and certified landing sites anywhere on a planetary surface under any lighting conditions. This is accomplished with the core sensing functions of the ALHAT system: Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN), Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA), and Hazard Relative Navigation (HRN). The NASA plan for the ALHAT technology is to perform the TRL6 closed loop demonstration on the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed (VTB). The first Morpheus vehicle was lost in August of 2012 during free-flight testing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), so the decision was made to perform a helicopter test of the integrated ALHAT System with the Morpheus avionics over the ALHAT planetary hazard field at KSC. The KSC helicopter tests included flight profiles approximating planetary approaches, with the entire ALHAT system interfaced with all appropriate Morpheus subsystems and operated in real-time. During these helicopter flights, the ALHAT system imaged the simulated lunar terrain constructed in FY2012 to support ALHAT/Morpheus testing at KSC. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest fidelity testing of a system of this kind to date. During this helicopter testing, two new Morpheus landers were under construction at the Johnson Space Center to support the objective of an integrated ALHAT/Morpheus free-flight demonstration. This paper provides an overview of this helicopter flight test activity, including results and lessons learned, and also provides an overview of recent integrated testing of ALHAT on the second Morpheus vehicle.

Epp, Chirold D.; Robertson, Edward A.; Ruthishauser, David K.

2013-01-01

92

Earthworm communities of flooded grasslands in Matsalu, Estonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworm communities in the soil of flooded (coastal and floodplain grasslands) and non-flooded (boreo-nemoral) meadows were studied. The average number of species in coastal and floodplain meadows was low, earthworm communities of boreo-nemoral meadows were diverse and the average number of species was high. Specific composition of earthworm communities varied between the three types of meadows. Earthworm communities of flooded

Mari Ivask; Jaak Truu; Annely Kuu; Marika Truu; Aivar Leito

2007-01-01

93

Bioconversion of solid paper-pulp mill sludge by earthworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioconversion of solid paper-pulp mill sludges and primary sewage sludge for 40 days at a ratio of 3:1 dw:dw was studied in containers with and without earthworms (Eisenia andrei). This mixture was a suitable medium for optimum growth and reproduction of the earthworms. Regardless of the presence of earthworms, degradation occurred during the bioconversion period, but the presence of earthworms

C. Elvira; M. Goicoechea; L. Sampedro; S. Mato; R. Nogales

1996-01-01

94

The relative toxicities of insecticides to earthworms of the Pheretima group (Oligochaeta).  

PubMed

An artificial soil test was used to determine the LC50 values of carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, cyfluthrin and fipronil against earthworms of the Pheretima group. For a 24-h interval, carbaryl was the most toxic to earthworms (LC50 = 77 mg kg-1), followed by imidacloprid (155 mg kg-1), cyfluthrin (351 mg kg-1), chlorpyrifos (390 mg kg-1) and fipronil (> 8550 mg kg-1) as the least toxic. For the 48-h and 7-day intervals, imidacloprid was the most toxic to earthworms (LC50 = 5 mg kg-1 and 3 mg kg-1 respectively), followed by carbaryl (16 mg kg-1; 9 mg kg-1), cyfluthrin (128 mg kg-1; 110 mg kg-1), chlorpyrifos (330 mg kg-1; 180 mg kg-1) and the least toxic was fipronil (> 8550 mg kg-1 both intervals). The surface application rates required to achieve these values are compared with the rates recommended for the control of turfgrass pests. PMID:11997970

Mostert, Magdel A; Schoeman, At S; van der Merwe, Mac

2002-05-01

95

Avoid premature liquid loading in tight gas wells by using prefrag and postfrag test data  

SciTech Connect

The purpose is to determine how to improve gas well production by removing liquids which may accumulate in low volume gas producers. This means that the flowing bottom hole pressure may change with time. The reservoir model or a type curve (reservoir model generated) become the tools for predicting when liquid loading will become an operating problem. Postfrac testing can be used to determine the increase in effective wellbore area due to fracturing if the pre-frac data were obtained. Results show that if deliquefication methods are not initiated at the appropriate time, the production can drop into a tubing performance area where liquids can continually accumulate and shut off production.

Lea, J.F.

1982-09-20

96

The hydroxyl radical generation and oxidative stress for the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to tetrabromobisphenol A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biochemical effects of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) on the earthworm Eisenia fetida, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione, GSH\\/GSSG ratio and malondialdehyde (MDA) level, were measured to\\u000a assess ecological toxicity of TBBPA. With OECD standard filter-paper contact test method, earthworms were exposed to TBBPA\\u000a of a range of concentrations (0.00, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg L?1). According to

Yingang Xue; Xueyuan Gu; Xiaorong Wang; Cheng Sun; Xianghua Xu; Jian Sun; Baogang Zhang

2009-01-01

97

Earthworms, Dirt, and Rotten Leaves: An Exploration in Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a model for inviting children to "an exploration in ecology" by observing earthworms. It gives reasons to explore earthworms and guides the investigator through a detailed examination of the worms to answer 21 observation questions. Explores the ways in which earthworms interact with their environment. (LZ)

McLaughlin, Molly

1994-01-01

98

Earthworm community structure on five English golf courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clear understanding of the size and structure of earthworm communities is important to sports turf facilities managers if they are to control the activity of earthworms within the soil. Earthworms are directly linked to a wide range of biogeochemical nutrient cycles, and are frequently described as ecosystem engineers. In this role they assist land managers in maintaining a healthy

Mark Bartlett; Iain James; Jim Harris; Karl Ritz

2008-01-01

99

Design and experimental gait analysis of a multi-segment in-pipe robot inspired by earthworm's peristaltic locomotion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the experimental progress towards developing a multi-segment in-pipe robot inspired by earthworm's body structure and locomotion mechanism. To mimic the alternating contraction and elongation of a single earthworm's segment, a robust, servomotor based actuation mechanism is developed. In each robot segment, servomotor-driven cords and spring steel belts are utilized to imitate the earthworm's longitudinal and circular muscles, respectively. It is shown that the designed segment can contract and relax just like an earthworm's body segment. The axial and radial deformation of a single segment is measured experimentally, which agrees with the theoretical predictions. Then a multisegment earthworm-like robot is fabricated by assembling eight identical segments in series. The locomotion performance of this robot prototype is then extensively tested in order to investigate the correlation between gait design and dynamic locomotion characteristics. Based on the principle of retrograde peristalsis wave, a gait generator is developed for the multi-segment earthworm-like robot, following which gaits of the robot can be constructed. Employing the generated gaits, the 8-segment earthworm-like robot can successfully perform both horizontal locomotion and vertical climb in pipes. By changing gait parameters, i.e., with different gaits, locomotion characteristics including average speed and anchor slippage can be significantly tailored. The proposed actuation method and prototype of the multi-segment in-pipe robot as well as the gait generator provide a bionic realization of earthworm's locomotion with promising potentials in various applications such as pipeline inspection and cleaning.

Fang, Hongbin; Wang, Chenghao; Li, Suyi; Xu, Jian; Wang, K. W.

2014-03-01

100

A field test for host fruit odour discrimination and avoidance behaviour for Rhagoletis pomonella flies in the western United States.  

PubMed

Prezygotic isolation due to habitat choice is important to many models of speciation-with-gene-flow. Habitat choice is usually thought to occur through positive preferences of organisms for particular environments. However, avoidance of non-natal environments may also play a role in choice and have repercussions for post-zygotic isolation that preference does not. The recent host shift of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) from downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis, to introduced apple, Malus domestica, in the eastern United States is a model for speciation-with-gene-flow. However, the fly is also present in the western United States where it was likely introduced via infested apples ? 60 years ago. R. pomonella now attacks two additional hawthorns in the west, the native C. douglasii (black hawthorn) and the introduced C. monogyna (English ornamental hawthorn). Flight tunnel tests have shown that western apple-, C. douglasii- and C. monogyna-origin flies all positively orient to fruit volatile blends of their respective natal hosts in flight tunnel assays. Here, we show that these laboratory differences translate to nature through field-trapping studies of flies in the state of Washington. Moreover, western R. pomonella display both positive orientation to their respective natal fruit volatiles and avoidance behaviour (negative orientation) to non-natal volatiles. Our results are consistent with the existence of behaviourally differentiated host races of R. pomonella in the west. In addition, the rapid evolution of avoidance behaviour appears to be a general phenomenon for R. pomonella during host shifts, as the eastern apple and downy hawthorn host races also are antagonized by non-natal fruit volatiles. PMID:22435643

Sim, S B; Mattsson, M; Feder, Jasmine L; Cha, D H; Yee, W L; Goughnour, R B; Linn, C E; Feder, Jeffrey L

2012-05-01

101

Autogeneic but Not Allogeneic Earthworm Effector Coelomocytes Kill the Mammalian Tumor Cell Target K562  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworm coelomocytes have been used as effector cells against the human tumor target, K562. To first assess the viability of effectors, incorporation of [3H]thymidine was tested and was higher in autogeneic (A ? A, self) than in allogeneic (A ? B, nonself) coelomocytes. A ? A showed significantly greater numbers in S, G2, or M phases than A ? B

EDWIN L. COOPER; ANDREA COSSARIZZA; MICHAEL M. SUZUKI; STEFANO SALVIOLI; MIRIAM CAPRI; DANIELA QUAGLINO; CLAUDIO FRANCESCHI

1995-01-01

102

Assessing the Impact of Triazine Herbicides on Organophosphate Insecticide Toxicity to the Earthworm Eisenia fetida  

Microsoft Academic Search

A standard Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) filter paper test was used to assess the acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos, atrazine, cyanazine, and simazine to the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos was also determined in combination with the three-triazine herbicides. Surprisingly, atrazine and cyanazine caused mortality at concentrations lower than chlorpyrifos. Atrazine and cyanazine also increased the

M. J. Lydy; S. L. Linck

2003-01-01

103

Dehydration does not affect the radial pressures produced by the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a soil dries, the earthworms in that soil dehydrate and become less active. Moisture stress may weaken an earthworm, lowering the radial pressure that the animal can produce. This possibility was investigated for the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny). Pressures were compared for saturated earthworms (worms taken from saturated soil) and stressed earthworms (worms that had been partially dehydrated by

Robert J. Stovold; W. Richard Whalley; Peter J. Harris

2003-01-01

104

Earthworm excreta attract soil springtails: laboratory experiments on Heteromurus nitidus (Collembola : Entomobryidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microarthropods are often found more abundantly in soils with earthworms than in soils without. Earthworms probably create a favourable environment for microarthropods but few studies have aimed to explain this earthworm effect. The soil collembolan (Hexapoda) Heteromurus nitidus, living in soils at pH  5 only and thus rich in earthworms, is particularly attracted by earthworms in humus cores. The effect

Sandrine Salmon; Jean-François Ponge

2001-01-01

105

Copper avoidance and mortality of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) in tests with copper-sulfate-treated water from West Branch Reservoir, Putnam County, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Copper-avoidance tests and acute-toxicity (mortality) tests on hatchery-reared, young-of- the-year brown trout (salmo trutta) were conducted with water from West Branch Reservoir to assess the avoidance response to copper sulfate treatment, which is used occasionally by New York City Department of Environmental Protection to decrease phytoplankton populations in the reservoir. Avoidance-test results indicate that juvenile brown trout tend to avoid dissolved copper concentrations greater than about 55 ?g/L (micrograms per liter), which is the approximate avoidance-response threshold. The mean net avoidance response of brown trout to dissolved copper concentrations of 70 and 100 ?g/L, and possibly 80 ?g/L, was significantly different (at a = 0.1) from the mean net avoidance response of fish to control (untreated) water and to treated water at most other tested concentrations. Mortality-test results indicate that the 96-hr median lethal concentration (LC50) of dissolved copper was 61.5 ?g/L. All (100 percent) of the brown trout died at a dissolved copper concentration of 85 ?g/L, many died at concentrations of 62 ?g/L and 70 ?g/L, and none died in the control waters (7 ?g/L) or at concentrations of 10, 20, or 45 ?g/L. The estimated concentration of dissolved copper that caused fish mortality (threshold) was 53.5 ?g/L, virtually equivalent to the avoidance-response threshold. Additional factors that could affect the copper-avoidance and mortality response of individual brown trout and their populations in West Branch Reservoir include seasonal variations in certain water-quality parameters, copper-treatment regimes, natural fish distributions during treatment, and increased tolerance due to acclimation. These warrant additional study before the findings from this study can be used to predict the effects that copper sulfate treatments have on resident fish populations in New York City reservoirs.

Baldigo, B. P.; Baudanza, T. P.

2001-01-01

106

Microburst avoidance simulation tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Implementation issues for uplinked microburst alerts are presented in the form of view-graphs. The following topics are covered: evaluation, transmission, and presentation of ground-based Doppler weather radar derived information through a limited bandwidth digital data link; electronic cockpit presentation of uplinked wind shear alerts (pilot opinion survey, part-task simulation experiment); presentation modes (verbal, textual, and graphical); and ground evaluation of ground-measures wind shear data.

Hansman, John

1991-01-01

107

Implications of avoiding overlap between training and testing data sets when evaluating genomic predictions of genetic merit.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the importance of avoiding overlap between training and testing subsets of data when evaluating the effectiveness of predictions of genetic merit based on genetic markers. Genomic selection holds great potential for increasing the accuracy of selection in young bulls and is likely to lead quickly to more widespread use of these young bulls with a shorter generation interval and faster genetic improvement. Practical implementations of genomic selection in dairy cattle commonly involve results of national genetic evaluations being used as the dependent variable to evaluate the predictive ability of genetic markers. Selection index theory was used to demonstrate how ignoring correlations among errors of prediction between animals in training and testing sets could result in overestimates of accuracy of genomic predictions. Correlations among errors of prediction occur when estimates of genetic merit of training animals used in prediction are taken from the same genetic evaluation as estimates for validation of animals. Selection index theory was used to show a substantial degree of error correlation when animals used for testing genomic predictions are progeny of training animals, when heritability is low, and when the number of recorded progeny for both training and testing animals is low. Even when training involves a dependent variable that is not influenced by the progeny records of testing animals (i.e., historic proofs), error correlations can still result from records of relatives of training animals contributing to both the historic proofs and the predictions of genetic merit of testing animals. A simple simulation was used to show how an error correlation could result in spurious confirmation of predictive ability that was overestimated in the training population because of ascertainment bias. Development of a method of testing genomic selection predictions that allows unbiased testing when training and testing variables are estimated breeding values from the same genetic evaluation would simplify training and testing of genomic predictions. In the meantime, a 4-step approach for separating records used for training from those used for testing after correction of fixed effects is suggested when use of progeny averages of adjusted records (e.g., daughter yield deviations) would result in inefficient use of the information available in the data. PMID:20630248

Amer, P R; Banos, G

2010-07-01

108

Glycosaminoglycans from earthworms (Eisenia andrei)  

PubMed Central

The whole tissue of the earthworm (Eisenia andrei) was lyophilized and extracted to purify glycosaminoglycans. Fractions, eluting from an anion-exchange column at 1.0 M and 2.0 M NaCl, showed the presence of acidic polysaccharides on agarose gel electrophoresis. Monosaccharide compositional analysis showed that galactose and glucose were most abundant monosaccharides in both fractions. Depolymerization of the polysaccharide mixture with glycosaminoglycandegrading enzymes confirmed the presence of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate in the 2.0 M NaCl fraction. The content of GAGs (uronic acid containing polysaccharide) in the 2.0 M NaCl fraction determined by carbazole assay was 2%. Disaccharide compositional analysis using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analysis after chondroitinase digestion (ABC and ACII), showed that the chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate contained a 4-O-sulfo (76%), 2,4-di-O-sulfo (15%), 6-O-sulfo (6%), and unsulfated (4%) uronic acid linked N-acetylgalactosamine residues. LC-ESI-MS analysis of heparin lyase I/II/III digests demonstrated the presence of N-sulfo (69%), N-sulfo-6-O-sulfo (25%) and 2-O-sulfo-N-sulfo-6-O-sulfo (5%) uronic acid linked N-acetylglucosamine residues.

Im, A-Rang; Park, Youmie; Sim, Joon-Soo; Zhang, Zhenqing; Liu, Zhenling

2012-01-01

109

Assessment of hydraulic conductivity distribution from ERT-monitored tracer tests avoiding the need for petrophysical relationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical methods, such as the Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), have been increasingly used in recent years to analyze the erratic behavior of plumes in natural aquifers. In particular, borehole ERT monitoring of saline tracer tests allows to collect 2D time-lapse electrical data in a control plane, related to spatio-temporal variations of salt concentration within the aquifer. The electrical conductivity (EC) field is reconstructed by means of a geophysical inversion on the basis of raw resistance data, while a petrophysical relationship (e.g., Archie's law) is usually needed to map EC data into solute concentrations, thus retrieving the plume evolution. The latter, in turn, is often used to evaluate the hydraulic conductivity (K) distribution by inverse modeling. To avoid the need for an in-situ specific calibration of a petrophysical relationship and the previous knowledge of the concentration spatio-temporal evolution, this study proposes a new approach for retrieving the K distribution from an ERT monitored saline tracer test, based on travel time modeling of transport integrated with the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). The definition of the solute transport in terms of travel times allows to analyze the sequence of changes in electrical conductivity deduced from an ERT survey without converting the electrical data into concentrations. To do this, a specific travel time procedure is applied: the control plane is subdivided in properly spaced sub-control planes and the cumulative distribution function of the travel time in each of them is independently calculated and then assimilated through EnKF, which allows to update the K distribution. Our approach, initially tested in 3D synthetic aquifers, is here applied to the experimental site of Settolo, Valdobbiadene (TV), where a tracer test monitored by ERT has been carried out. The results show that the suggested method seems to be effective in reproducing the erratic distribution of the hydraulic conductivity at the local scale, which control the non-Fickian evolution of plumes in natural aquifers.

Crestani, E.; Camporese, M.; Salandin, P.

2013-12-01

110

Combined effects of copper, desiccation, and frost on the viability of earthworm cocoons  

SciTech Connect

The effects of heavy metal pollution on earthworms have been extensively studied, but no studies have examined how earthworms react if they are simultaneously exposed to metal pollution and climatic stress. This question has been addressed in a laboratory study where cocoons of Aporrectodea caliginosa and Dendrobaena octaedra were initially exposed to copper in aqueous solutions of copper chloride and thereafter exposed to realistic degrees of either desiccation or frost. Earthworm embryos absorbed copper in amounts comparable to concentrations found in various tissues of earthworms from metal-polluted soils. Desiccation and copper exposure in combination had synergistic effects on survival rates for both species. For example, at full saturation, the NOEC (the highest tested concentration with no statistically significant effect) for copper of A. caliginosa was 12 mg/L, whereas at 97% relative humidity it was only 6 mg/L. Frost and copper exposure in combination also showed synergistic effects in some experiments. No cocoons of A. caliginosa exposed to 20 mg copper/L were viable after exposure to {minus}3 C but at 0 C viability was as high as 95%. The same tendency was seen in D. octaedra but not as clearly as in A/. caliginosa. A change of the environmental conditions (moisture, temperature) to increasing severity caused a shift in the statistically derived NOEC toward lower critical values of copper. The involvement of combination effects in ecotoxicological tests could therefore improve risk assessment of soil-polluting compounds.

Holmstrup, M. [National Environmental Research Inst., Silkeborg (Denmark). Dept. of Terrestrial Ecology; Petersen, B.F. [National Environmental Research Inst., Silkeborg (Denmark). Dept. of Terrestrial Ecology]|[Univ. of Aarhus (Denmark); Larsen, M.M. [National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark). Dept. of Marine Ecology and Microbiology

1998-01-01

111

Transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in soil in the presence of the earthworm Eisenia andrei  

SciTech Connect

The ability of the earthworm Eisenia andrei to metabolize 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) was studied in experiments with TNT-spiked soils, dermal contact tests, and with an in vitro assay. Lethality of TNT in a forest sandy soil was first determined. Then TNT at lethal and sublethal concentrations was applied to the same soil and was monitored along with its metabolites in extracts of soil and earthworm tissue for up to 14 d post application. High performance liquid chromatography-ultra violet analyses indicated that TNT was transformed in the presence of E. andrei by a reductive pathway to 2-amino-3,6-dinitrotoluene (2-ADNT), 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT), 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2.4-DANT), and traces of 2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluene (2,6-DANT) in earthworm tissues. This transformation could be explained by either a metabolic mechanism within the earthworm or by the enhancement of an earthworm-associated microbial activity or both. The TNT concentrations decreased from the spiked soils. However, the monoamino-dinitrotoluene (2-ADNT and 4-ADNT) concentrations increased with exposure duration and were dependent on the initial TNT soil concentrations. This was also observed to a lesser extent in the TNT-spiked soils with no earthworms present. The biotransformation of TNT into 2-ADNT, 4-ADNT, and 2,4-DANT and the presence of these metabolites in E. andrei after dermal contact on TNT-spiked filter paper showed that dermal uptake can be a significant exposure route for TNT. In vitro experiments showed that earthworm homogenate could metabolize TNT and form 2-ADNT and 4-ADNT at room temperature and at 37 C. This effect was inhibited by heat inactivation prior to incubation or by incubation at 4 C, suggesting that the biotransformation of TNT in the presence of E. andrei may be enzymatic in nature.

Renoux, A.Y.; Sarrazin, M.; Hawari, J.; Sunahara, G.I.

2000-06-01

112

The influence of earthworms on the mobility of microelements in soil and their availability for plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of earthworms ( Aporrectodea caliginosa, Lumbricus rubellus, L. terrestris, and Eisenia fetida) on the mobility of microelements and their availability for plants was studied. The contents of water-soluble Fe and Mn compounds extracted from the coprolites were 5-10 times higher than that in the soil (enriched in calcium carbonate and dried) consumed by the earthworms. This digestion-induced effect became higher with the age of the coprolites (up to 9 days) and took place under their alkalization. In the excreta (surface + enteric) of earthworms, the Fe concentration exceeded those of Mn and Zn by many times. Iron and manganese were mostly concentrated (>80% and >60%, respectively) in the organic part of the excrements. In the tests with hydroponics, the excreta were found to be a source of iron compounds available for plants that were similar to Fe2(SO4)3 or Fe-citrate by their physiological effect in the case when the Fe concentration in the excretions was above 0.7 ?M. However, the single application of excreta of different earthworm species into the CaCO3 enriched soil did not significantly affect the plant (cucumber) nutrition. The analysis of the transport of microelements with xylem sap showed that this fact appeared to be due to the absence of an Fe deficit in the cucumber plants because of their high capability for the absorption of weakly soluble iron compounds.

Bityutskii, N. P.; Kaidun, P. I.

2008-12-01

113

Can commonly measurable traits explain differences in metal accumulation and toxicity in earthworm species?  

PubMed

There is no clear consensus in the literature on the metal accumulation pattern and sensitivity of different earthworm species. In the present study, accumulation and toxicity of Cu, Cd, Ni, and Zn in the earthworms Lumbricus rubellus (epigeic), Aporrectodea longa (anecic), and Eisenia fetida (ultra-epigeic) were determined after 28 days exposure in two soils. Metal accumulation and sensitivity were interpreted using the specific traits of different earthworm species. Results showed that for all four metals tested L. rubellus was the most sensitive species, followed by A. longa and E. fetida. At the same exposure concentration, internal concentrations followed the order: L. rubellus > E. fetida > A. longa for Cu and Ni, L. rubellus ? E. fetida ? A. longa for Cd, and L. rubellus > A. longa > E. fetida for Zn. Langmuir isotherms were used to model metal accumulation at both nontoxic and toxic exposure concentrations. The Cu, Cd, and Zn concentrations in E. fetida generally leveled off at high exposure concentrations but not for the other two species. A. longa showed a high capability of regulating internal Ni concentrations. The traits-based approaches suggested that most likely a group of earthworm traits together determined (differences in) metal accumulation and sensitivity. More research is needed in this respect to build up solid relationships between species-specific responses and traits, enabling cross-species extrapolation of accumulation and toxicity data. PMID:24193403

Qiu, Hao; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Vijver, Martina G

2014-01-01

114

Long-term efficiency of soil stabilization with apatite and Slovakite: the impact of two earthworm species (Lumbricus terrestris and Dendrobaena veneta) on lead bioaccessibility and soil functioning.  

PubMed

Remediation soil is exposed to various environmental factors over time that can affect the final success of the operation. In the present study, we assessed Pb bioaccessibility and microbial activity in industrially polluted soil (Arnoldstein, Austria) stabilized with 5% (w/w) of Slovakite and 5% (w/w) of apatite soil after exposure to two earthworm species, Lumbricus terrestris and Dendrobaena veneta, used as model environmental biotic soil factors. Stabilization resulted in reduced Pb bioaccessibility, as assessed with one-step extraction tests and six-step sequential extraction, and improved soil functioning, mirrored in reduced ?-glucosidase activity in soil. Both earthworm species increased Pb bioaccessibility, thus decreasing the initial stabilization efficacy and indicating the importance of considering the long-term fate of remediated soil. The earthworm species had different effects on soil enzyme activity, which can be attributed to species-specific microbial populations in earthworm gut acting on the ingested soil. PMID:23219407

Tica, D; Udovic, M; Lestan, D

2013-03-01

115

Relation of pH and other soil variables to concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Se in earthworms  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Various soil treatments (clay, composted peat, superphosphate, sulfur, calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, zinc chloride, selenous acid) were added to experimental field plots to test the effect of different soil variables on the concentrations of 5 elements in earthworms (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Se). Concentrations of the 5 elements were related to 9 soil variables (soil Pb, soil Cu, soil Zn, pH, organic matter, P, K, Mg, and Ca) with linear multiple regression. Lead concentrations in earthworms were positively correlated with soil Pb and soil organic matter, and negatively correlated with soil pH and soil Mg, with an R2 of 64%. Se concentrations were higher in earthworms from plots amended with Se, and Zn concentrations were higher in earthworms from plots amended with Zn. However, none of the other soil variables had important effects on the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd and Se in earthworms. Although some significant statistical relations were demonstrated, the values of r2 of all relations (> 20%) were so low that they had little predictive value.

Beyer, W.N.; Hensler, G.L.; Moore, J.

1987-01-01

116

Shade avoidance.  

PubMed

The presence of neighboring vegetation modifies the light environment experienced by plants, generating signals that are perceived by phytochromes and cryptochromes. These signals cause large changes in plant body form and function, including enhanced growth of the hypocotyl and petioles, a more erect position of the leaves and early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana. Collectively, these so-called shade-avoidance responses tend to reduce the degree of current or future shade by neighbors. Shade light signals increase the abundance of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4) and PIF5 proteins, promote the synthesis and redirection of auxin, favor the degradation of DELLA proteins and increase the expression of auxin, gibberellins and brassinosteroid-promoted genes, among other events downstream the photoreceptors. Selectively disrupting these events by genetic or pharmacological approaches affects shade-avoidance responses with an intensity that depends on the developmental context and the environment. Shade-avoidance responses provide a model to investigate the signaling networks used by plants to take advantage of the cues provided by the environment to adjust to the challenges imposed by the environment itself. PMID:22582029

Casal, Jorge J

2012-01-01

117

Biochemical diversity of betaines in earthworms.  

PubMed

The ability to accumulate osmoprotectant compounds, such as betaines, is an important evolutionary feature in many organisms. This is particularly the case for organisms that live in variable environments, which may have fluctuations in moisture and salinity levels. There is, surprisingly, very little known about betaines in soil invertebrates in general, and there is almost no information about earthworms - a group that are important 'ecosystem engineers' and key indicators of soil health. Here, we describe a fast and reliable (1)H-(13)C heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) 2D NMR approach for the metabolic profiling of a series of betaines and related metabolites in tissue extracts, and list (1)H and (13)C chemical shifts for the trimethylammonium signal for 23 such compounds. The analysis of ten different species from three different families (Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae and Glossoscolecidae) showed an unexpected diversity of betaines present in earthworms. In total ten betaines were identified, including hydroxyproline-betaine, proline-betaine, taurine-betaine, GABA-betaine and histidine-betaine, and a further eleven as-yet unassigned putative betaine metabolites detected. The findings clearly indicate a hitherto-unappreciated important role for betaine metabolism in earthworms. PMID:23261439

Liebeke, Manuel; Bundy, Jacob G

2013-01-25

118

Determination of arsenic compounds in earthworms  

SciTech Connect

Earthworms and soil collected from six sites in Styria, Austria, were investigated for total arsenic concentrations by ICP-MS and for arsenic compounds by HPLC-ICP-MS. Total arsenic concentrations ranged from 3.2 to 17.9 mg/kg dry weight in the worms and from 5.0 to 79.7 mg/kg dry weight in the soil samples. There was no strict correlation between the total arsenic concentrations in the worms and soil. Arsenic compounds were extracted from soil and a freeze-dried earthworm sample with a methanol/water mixture (9:1, v/v). The extracts were evaporated to dryness, redissolved in water, and chromatographed on an anion- and a cation-exchange column. Arsenic compounds were identified by comparison of the retention times with known standards. Only traces of arsenic acid could be extracted from the soil with the methanol/water (9:1, v/v) mixture. The major arsenic compounds detected in the extracts of the earthworms were arsenous acid and arsenic acid. Arsenobetaine was present as a minor constituent, and traces of dimethylarsinic acid were also detected. Two dimethylarsinoyltribosides were also identified in the extracts by co-chromatography with standard compounds. This is the first report of the presence of dimethylarsinoylribosides in a terrestrial organism. Two other minor arsenic species were present in the extract, but their retention times did not match with the retention times of the available standards.

Geiszinger, A.; Goessler, W.; Kuehnelt, D.; Kosmus, W. [Karl-Franzens-Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. for Analytical Chemistry] [Karl-Franzens-Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. for Analytical Chemistry; Francesconi, K. [Odense Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Biology] [Odense Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Biology

1998-08-01

119

Earthworm numbers, distribution, and sampling under conservation tillage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order for crops to grow, the soil must be porous enough for root penetration and water and gas flow to occur. Conservation tillage involves less mechanical loosening and mixing of soil than plowing, and so depends more on earthworms to do these tasks. Tillage, crop rotation, and chemical application affect earthworms. The effect of a chemical depends on its

John Berendsen Dickey

1990-01-01

120

Axial pressures generated by the earthworm Aporrectodea rosea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The axial forces generated by the earthworm Aporrectodea rosea were measured by directing the earthworm to tunnel into soil discs mounted on an electronic balance connected to a datalogger. The area over which the force acted was estimated from the size of the hole created by the tunnelling. The maximum force recorded by an individual worm was 0.760 N and

B. M. McKenzie; A. R. Dexter

1988-01-01

121

Earthworm effects on movement of water and solutes in soil  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study were to determine and model the effects of earthworms on water and solute movement in soil. Microrelief and rainfall effects on water and solute movement were determined in packed buckets inoculated with earthworms (Aporrectodea tuberculata). A solution of Br[sup [minus

Trojan, M.D.

1993-01-01

122

Earthworms and weed seed distribution in annual crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study was conducted to determine if earthworm activity would affect the abundance and composition of weed seed banks in annual row-crops. The abundance of weed seeds in surface-deposited earthworm casts was determined in continuous monocultures and rotations that included corn, soybean, and winter wheat, with or without cover crop. Casts were collected weekly over the growing season and

R. G. Smith; K. L. Gross; S. Januchowski

2005-01-01

123

Noninducibility of cytochrome P-450 in the earthworm Dendrobaena veneta.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P-450 has been measured in the earthworm Dendrobaena veneta (Rosa) in a direct spectrophotometric procedure. The P-450 was found not in the dense microsomal fraction, but in the less dense overlying fraction often referred to as buffy coat. Earthworm P-450 was not induced by 3-methylcholanthrene or phenobarbitol. PMID:2877809

Milligan, D L; Babish, J G; Neuhauser, E F

1986-01-01

124

Earthworms lost from pesticides application in potato crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioturbation from earthworm's activity contributes to soil creep and soil carbon dynamics, and provide enough aeration conditions for agricultural practices all over the world. In developing countries where there is a long term misuse of pesticides for agricultural purposes, lost of these benefits from earthworms activity might already yielded negative effects in the current crop production. Little research has been

Glenda Garcia-Santos; Karin Forrer; Claudia R. Binder

2010-01-01

125

A method for assessing sublethal effects of contaminants in soils to the earthworm, Eisenia foetida  

SciTech Connect

The authors developed and tested a procedure that allows quantification of the effects of soil contaminants on earthworm (Eisenia foetida) growth and reproduction. The procedure monitors isolated pairs of earthworms and generates a higher ratio of data per organisms than other commonly used procedures. It also incorporates an accurate technique for measuring adult growth, has high sensitivity compared to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 14-d acute toxicity test, and is cost effective. The authors applied the method to a variety of soil-testing problems. A food-and-substrate trial using artificial soil demonstrated the sensitivity of the method and the need for food supplementation to stimulate earthworm reproduction. Application of the procedure to assess efficacy of a soil bioremediation technology revealed the advantage of measuring both growth and reproduction and highlighted the usefulness of a single integrated measure of these two responses. The method also was used as a fast-screening analysis for field soils in a large-scale ecological risk assessment. Finally, a reference toxicant, used in dilution series, demonstrated that responses of E. foetida using the authors` method were similar to their responses in the OECD artificial-soil test method. The results of this study indicate that this procedure can be used both for regulatory and compliance needs within the framework of ecological risk assessment.

Gibbs, M.H. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology; Wicker, L.F.; Stewart, A.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

1996-03-01

126

Field decomposition of leaf litters: earthworm–microorganism interactions —the ploughing-in effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a new decomposition model including the consequences of earthworm mechanical activity, especially the ploughing-in effect. In an experiment we tested this ploughing-in effect on the disappearance of leaf litter from four tree species (sessile oak, Quercus petraea L., holm oak, Quercus ilex L., sweet chestnut, Castanea sativa Mill and beech, Fagus sylvatica L.) during two 2y exposure at

J. Cortez; M. B. Bouché

1998-01-01

127

Earthworms bring compacted and loose soil to a similar mechanical state  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the hypothesis that earthworms stabilise loose soil and loosen compacted soil to a similar mechanical state. Casts collected from initially loose soil (980kgm?3) had 10-fold greater viscosity (31kPas) and 5-fold greater yield stress (200Pa) than a control soil without worms. Lumbricus terrestris; Dendrobaena sp. and Aporrectodea longa were all investigated, with no difference found between species. In compacted

P. Barré; B. M. McKenzie; P. D. Hallett

2009-01-01

128

BIOTIC INTERACTIONS MODIFY THE TRANSFER OF CESIUM137 IN A SOIL–EARTHWORM–PLANT–SNAIL FOOD WEB  

Microsoft Academic Search

137 Cs) from a contaminated (130 Bq\\/kg) deciduous forest soil to the lettuce Lactuca sativa and to the snail Cantareus aspersus (formerly Helix aspersa) in two laboratory experiments. In the first experiment, the International Organization for Stan- dardization 15952 test was used to expose snails for five weeks to contaminated soil with or without earthworms. In these conditions, the presence

Clémentine Fritsch; Renaud Scheifler; Karine Beaugelin-Seiller; Philippe Hubert; Michaël Cœurdassier; Annette de Vaufleury; Pierre-Marie Badot

2008-01-01

129

Effects of metal pollution on earthworm communities in a contaminated floodplain area: Linking biomarker, community and functional responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects on earthworms in the contaminated floodplain area the Biesbosch, the Netherlands, were determined at different levels of organization using a combination of field and laboratory tests. The species Lumbricus rubellus, collected from different polluted sites in the Biesbosch, showed reduced values for the biomarker neutral red retention time (NRRT), mainly explained by high metal concentrations in the soil and

Cornelis A. M. van Gestel; Josée E. Koolhaas; Timo Hamers; Maarten van Hoppe; Martijn van Roovert; Cora Korsman; Sophie A. Reinecke

2009-01-01

130

Distribution of bacteria and fungi in the earthworm Libyodrillus violaceous (Annelida: Oligochaeta), a native earthworm from Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms are soil invertebrates that play a key role in recycling organic matter in soils. In Nigeria, earthworms include Libyodrillus violaceous. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial counts, as well as fungal counts of viable microorganisms in soils and gut sections, were made on twenty L. violaceous collected from different sites on the campus of the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. The

A. B. Idowu; M. O. Edema; A. O. Adeyi

131

Near infrared spectroscopy for identifying the earthworm's participation to soil macroaggregation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As ecosystem engineers, earthworms are major actors of soil aggregation, a process that drives the delivery of ecosystem services by soils. However, our inability to identify the origins of different types of macroaggregates found in soils, the macroaggregates persistence in the soil matrix, their degradation rates, and their role in the dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM) and nutrients remain poorly known. Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) was tested as a tool to discriminate between origins of macroaggregates, collected in the field at the soil surface and in the 25 first cm of the soil. In parallel, NIR spectral signatures of earthworm casts were measured, during the ageing processes of the aggregates. During the first experiment, earthworm casts of unknown origins, collected in the field, were identified by comparing their NIR spectral signatures to the signatures of macroaggregates produced by the same ecosystem engineers in laboratory conditions, living in the same soil. Principal component analysis of NIR spectra permitted us to characterize macroaggregates of each species by a specific spectral signature (p<0.001; total variance explained: 38.3%). The organic matters included in the soil macroaggregates present quantitative and qualitative differences according to the earthworm species that produced them. During the second experiment, realized in laboratory conditions, NIR spectral signatures were measured in subterranean and surface casts of different earthworm species, incubated in controlled laboratory conditions for different periods of time. In parallel, dynamics of total amounts of C and N were assessed in ageing macroaggregates. As casts aged, NIR spectral signatures went through three main stages in the maturation process: (1) rapid changes in the NIR signal during the first 48 h, (2) a maturation period from days 3-30 with much slower change in NIR spectral signatures and (3) a further stage of maturation (days 45-90), where cast spectral signature and C and N contents converged towards those of the control soil. The first two axes of the PCA corresponded closely to the C and N content, respectively, of the casts. These two complementary experiments demonstrate that NIRS allows identifying origins of macroaggregates produced by various earthworm species in different environments. Other complementary experiences we realized in laboratory conditions highlight that OM modifications, caused in aging casts, are large enough to be detected by NIRS in macroaggregates and to estimate a cast's age. We propose a new method to analyse soil macroaggregates origins, to quantify the relative contribution of ecosystem engineers to soil aggregation and to evaluate soil macroaggregates dynamics in the soil structure.

Zangerlé, Anne; Hissler, Christophe; Lavelle, Patrick

2014-05-01

132

Avoidance of failures in solar collector system. IEA Task 3: performance testing of solar collectors, Subtask F: service life testing of solar collector components and materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a compilation of 4 papers on avoidance of failures in solar collector systems. The papers are contributed by participants of the IEA Solar Heating and Colling Programme, Task III, from Sweden, Switzerland, Austria, Germany and Denmark...

P. Vejsig Pedersen

1986-01-01

133

Enantioselective Acute Toxicity Effects and Bioaccumulation of Furalaxyl in the Earthworm (Eisenia foetida).  

PubMed

The enantioselectivities of individual enantiomers of furalaxyl in acute toxicity and bioaccumulation in the earthworm (Eisenia foetida) were studied. The acute toxicity was tested by filter paper contact test. After 48?h of exposure, the calculated LC50 values of the R-form, rac-form, and S-form were 2.27, 2.08, and 1.22?µg?cm(-2) , respectively. After 72?h of exposure, the calculated LC50 values were 1.90, 1.54, and 1.00?µg?cm(-2) , respectively. Therefore, the acute toxicity of furalaxyl enantiomers was enantioselective. During the bioaccumulation experiment, the enantiomer fraction of furalaxyl in earthworm tissue was observed to deviate from 0.50 and maintained a range of 0.55-0.60; in other words, the bioaccumulation of furalaxyl was enantioselective in earthworm tissue with a preferential accumulation of S-furalaxyl. The uptake kinetic of furalaxyl enantiomers fitted the first-order kinetics well and the calculated kinetic parameters were consistent with the low accumulation efficiency. Chirality 26:307-312, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24771637

Qin, Fang; Gao, Yongxin; Guo, Baoyuan; Xu, Peng; Li, Jianzhong; Wang, Huili

2014-06-01

134

Conditioned suppression/avoidance as a procedure for testing hearing in birds: the domestic pigeon (Columba livia).  

PubMed

Although the domestic pigeon is commonly used in learning experiments, it is a notoriously difficult subject in auditory psychophysical experiments, even those in which it need only respond when it detects a sound. This is because pigeons tend to respond in the absence of sound-that is, they have a high false-positive rate-which makes it difficult to determine a pigeon's audiogram. However, false positives are easily controlled in the method of conditioned suppression/avoidance, in which a pigeon is trained to peck a key to obtain food and to stop pecking whenever it detects a sound that signals impending electric shock. Here, we describe how to determine psychophysical thresholds in pigeons using a method of conditioned suppression in which avoidable shock is delivered through a bead chain wrapped around the base of a pigeon's wings. The resulting audiogram spans the range from 2 to 8000 Hz; it falls approximately in the middle of the distribution of previous pigeon audiograms and supports the finding of Kreithen and Quine (Journal of Comparative Physiology 129:1-4, 1979) that pigeons hear infrasound. PMID:23055174

Heffner, Henry E; Koay, Gimseong; Hill, Evan M; Heffner, Rickye S

2013-06-01

135

Does the deep-burrowing earthworm, Aporrectodea longa, compete with resident earthworm communities when introduced to pastures in south-eastern Australia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pastures in southern Australia are dominated by endogeic earthworms such as Aporrectodea caliginosa (Sav.). Introductions of the anecic earthworm, A. longa (Ude), which is mostly restricted to Tasmania at present, are likely to increase the functional diversity of local communities and thereby enhance plant production and agricultural sustainability. However, the potential impact of A. longa on resident earthworm communities first needs assessing.

Geoff Baker; Penny Carter; Vicki Barrett; Jeff Hirth; Pauline Mele; Cameron Gourley

2002-01-01

136

A filter circuit board for the Earthworm Seismic Data Acquisition System  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Earthworm system is a seismic network data acquisition and processing system used by the Northern California Seismic Network as well as many other seismic networks. The input to the system is comprised of many realtime electronic waveforms fed to a multi-channel digitizer on a PC platform. The digitizer consists of one or more National Instruments Corp. AMUX–64T multiplexer boards attached to an A/D converter board located in the computer. Originally, passive filters were installed on the multiplexers to eliminate electronic noise picked up in cabling. It was later discovered that a small amount of crosstalk occurred between successive channels in the digitizing sequence. Though small, this crosstalk will cause what appear to be small earthquake arrivals at the wrong time on some channels. This can result in erroneous calculation of earthquake arrival times, particularly by automated algorithms. To deal with this problem, an Earthworm filter board was developed to provide the needed filtering while eliminating crosstalk. This report describes the tests performed to find a suitable solution, and the design of the circuit board. Also included are all the details needed to build and install this board in an Earthworm system or any other system using the AMUX–64T board. Available below is the report in PDF format as well as an archive file containing the circuit board manufacturing information.

Jensen, Edward Gray

2000-01-01

137

First evidence of the P-glycoprotein gene expression and multixenobiotic resistance modulation in earthworm.  

PubMed

Multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) is an important mechanism of cellular efflux mediated by ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters that bind and actively remove toxic substrates from the cell. This study was the first to identify ABC transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1) as a representative of the MXR phenotype in earthworm (Eisenia fetida). The identified partial cDNA sequence of ABCB1 overlapped with ABCB1 homologues of other organisms from 58.5 % to 72.5 %. We also studied the effect of five modulators (verapamil, cyclosporine A, MK571, probenecid, and orthovanadate) on the earthworm's MXR activity by measuring the accumulation of model substrates rhodamine B and rhodamine 123 in whole body tissue of the adult earthworm. MK571, orthovanadate, and verapamil significantly inhibited MXR activity, and rhodamine 123 turned out to better reflect MXR activity in that species than rhodamine B. Our results show that E. fetida can serve well as a test organism for environmental pollutants that inhibit MXR activity. PMID:24622780

Bošnjak, Ivana; Bielen, Ana; Babi?, Sanja; Sver, Lidija; Popovi?, Natalija Topi?; Strunjak-Perovi?, Ivan?ica; Což-Rakovac, Rozelinda; Klobu?ar, Roberta Sauerborn

2014-03-01

138

Screening of actinomycetes from earthworm castings for their antimicrobial activity and industrial enzymes  

PubMed Central

Actinomycetes from earthworm castings were isolated and screened for their antimicrobial activity and industrial enzymes. A total of 48 isolates were obtained from 12 samples of earthworm castings. Highest numbers of isolates were recovered from forest site (58.33 %) as compared to grassland (25%) and agricultural land (16.66%). The growth patterns, mycelial coloration of abundance actinomycetes were documented. The dominant genera Identified by cultural, morphological and physiological characteristics were Streptomyces (60.41%) followed by Streptosporangium (10.41%),Saccharopolyspora (6.25%) and Nocardia (6.25%). Besides these, other genera like Micromonospora, Actinomadura, Microbispora, Planobispora and Nocardiopsis were also recovered but in low frequency. Among the 48 isolates, 52.08% were found active against one or more test organisms. Out of 25 active isolates 16% showed activity against bacterial, human fungal as well as phytopathogens. Among 48 isolates 38, 32, 21, 20, 16 and 14 produced enzyme amylase, caseinase, cellulase, gelatinase, xylanase and lipase respectively while 10 isolates produced all the enzymes. More interestingly 2, 3, and 1 isolates produced amylase, xylanase and lipase at 45°C respectively. In the view of its antimicrobial activity as well as enzyme production capability the genus Streptomyces was dominant. The isolate EWC 7(2) was most promising on the basis of its interesting antimicrobial activity and was identified as Streptomyces rochei. The results of these findings have increased the scope of finding industrially important actinomycetes from earthworm castings and these organisms could be promising sources for industrially important molecules or enzymes.

Kumar, Vijay; Bharti, Alpana; Negi, Yogesh Kumar; Gusain, Omprakash; Pandey, Piyush; Bisht, Gajraj Singh

2012-01-01

139

Earthworms produce phytochelatins in response to arsenic.  

PubMed

Phytochelatins are small cysteine-rich non-ribosomal peptides that chelate soft metal and metalloid ions, such as cadmium and arsenic. They are widely produced by plants and microbes; phytochelatin synthase genes are also present in animal species from several different phyla, but there is still little known about whether these genes are functional in animals, and if so, whether they are metal-responsive. We analysed phytochelatin production by direct chemical analysis in Lumbricus rubellus earthworms exposed to arsenic for a 28 day period, and found that arsenic clearly induced phytochelatin production in a dose-dependent manner. It was necessary to measure the phytochelatin metabolite concentrations directly, as there was no upregulation of phytochelatin synthase gene expression after 28 days: phytochelatin synthesis appears not to be transcriptionally regulated in animals. A further untargetted metabolomic analysis also found changes in metabolites associated with the transsulfuration pathway, which channels sulfur flux from methionine for phytochelatin synthesis. There was no evidence of biological transformation of arsenic (e.g. into methylated species) as a result of laboratory arsenic exposure. Finally, we compared wild populations of earthworms sampled from the field, and found that both arsenic-contaminated and cadmium-contaminated mine site worms had elevated phytochelatin concentrations. PMID:24278409

Liebeke, Manuel; Garcia-Perez, Isabel; Anderson, Craig J; Lawlor, Alan J; Bennett, Mark H; Morris, Ceri A; Kille, Peter; Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J; Bundy, Jacob G

2013-01-01

140

Application of microcosmic system for assessment of insecticide effects on biomarker responses in ecologically different earthworm species.  

PubMed

Earthworms from different ecological categories-epigeic Eisenia andrei and Lumbricus rubellus, endogeic Octolasion lacteum and anecic Lumbricus terrestris-were exposed in a microcosmic system to three commonly used insecticides. The effects of the insecticides were evaluated by measuring the following molecular biomarkers-the activities of AChE, CES, CAT, GST and the concentration of GSH. The results showed that environmentally relevant doses of organophosphates dimethoate and pirimiphos-methyl significantly affected the measured biomarkers, whereas pyrethroid deltamethrin did not affect the earthworms at the recommended agricultural dose. Considering the ecological category of earthworms, the results were inhomogeneous and species-specific differences in the biomarker responses were recorded. Since the biomarker responses of the investigated earthworm species were different after exposure to organophosphates in a microcosm compared to the exposure via standardized toxicity tests, two types of species sensitivity should be distinguished-physiological and environmental sensitivity. In addition, the hormetic effect of organophosphates on AChE and CES activities was recorded. The detection of hormesis in a microcosm is of great importance for future environmental research and soil biomonitoring, since in a realistic environment pollutants usually occur at low concentrations that could cause a hormetic effect. The results demonstrate the importance of the application of microcosmic systems in the assessment of the effects of environmental pollutants and the necessity of taking into account the possible differences between physiological and environmental species sensitivity. PMID:24650551

Velki, Mirna; Hackenberger, Branimir K; Lon?ari?, Zeljka; Hackenberger, Davorka K

2014-06-01

141

Toxicity and bioaccumulation of reduced TNT metabolites in the earthworm Eisenia andrei exposed to amended forest soil.  

PubMed

Soils contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and TNT primary reduction products have been found to be toxic to certain soil invertebrates, such as earthworms. The mechanism of toxicity of TNT and of its by-products is still not known. To ascertain if one of the TNT reduction products underlies TNT toxicity, we tested the toxicity and bioaccumulation of TNT reduction products. 2-Amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2-ADNT), 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT), 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2,4-DANT) and 2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluene (2,6-DANT) were tested separately in adult earthworms (Eisenia andrei) following a 14-d exposure to amended sandy loam forest soil. TNT, 4-ADNT, and 2-ADNT were lethal to earthworms (14-d LC(50) were: 580, 531 and 1088 micromol kg(-1), or 132, 105 and 215 mgkg(-1) dry soil, respectively) and gave the following order of toxicity: 4-ADNT>TNT>2-ADNT. Exposure to 2,4-DANT and to 2,6-DANT caused no mortality at 600 micromol kg(-1) or 100 mgkg(-1) dry soil. We found that all four TNT reduction products accumulated in earthworm tissues and 2-ADNT reached the highest levels at 3.0+/-0.3 micromol g(-1) tissue. The 14-d bioaccumulation factors were 5.1, 6.4, 5.1 and 3.2 for 2-ADNT, 4-ADNT, 2,4-DANT and 2,6-DANT, respectively. Results also suggest that some TNT metabolites are at least as toxic as TNT and should be considered when evaluating the overall toxicity of TNT-contaminated soil to earthworms. PMID:15081777

Lachance, Bernard; Renoux, Agnès Y; Sarrazin, Manon; Hawari, Jalal; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

2004-06-01

142

Effects of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw additions on selected properties of petroleum-contaminated soils.  

PubMed

Current bioremediation techniques for petroleum-contaminated soils are designed to remove contaminants as quickly and efficiently as possible, but not necessarily with postremediation soil biological quality as a primary objective. To test a simple postbioremediation technique, we added earthworms (Eisenia fetida) or wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw to petroleum land-farm soil and measured biological quality of the soil as responses in plant growth, soil respiration, and oil and grease (O&G) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations. Results indicated that plant growth was greater in earthworm-treated land-farm soil. Furthermore, addition of wheat straw resulted in greater total respiration in all soils tested (land-farm soil, noncontaminated reference soil, and a 1:1 mixture of land-farm and reference soils). We observed a 30% increase in soil respiration in straw-amended oily soil, whereas respiration increased by 246% in straw-amended reference soil. Much of the difference between oily and reference soils was attributable to higher basal respiration rates of nonamended oily soil compared to nonamended reference soil. Addition of earthworms resulted in greater total respiration of all soil and straw treatments except two (the land-farm and the 1:1 mixture soil treatments without straw). Straw and earthworm treatments did not affect O&G or TPH concentrations. Nevertheless, our findings that earthworm additions improved plant growth and that straw additions enhanced microbial activity in land-farm soil suggest that these treatments may be compatible with plant-based remediation techniques currently under evaluation in field trials, and could reduce the time required to restore soil ecosystem function. PMID:12152766

Callaham, Mac A; Stewart, Arthur J; Alarcón, Clara; McMillen, Sara J

2002-08-01

143

Earthworms of the Western United States. Part 1. Lumbricidae.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The earthworm fauna of the western United States is an amalgam of native and introduced elements. While the native species are mostly members of the family Megascolecidae, and closely related to those of Australia and Southeast Asia, the introduced specie...

W. M. Fender

1985-01-01

144

Vermistabilization of Biosolids and Organic Solid Wastes Using Earthworms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vermistabilization, also known as vermicomposting, is a biodegradation process for stabilization of biosolids and organic solid wastes using earthworms. The worms maintain aerobic conditions in the organic substances and accelerate and enhance the biologi...

L. K. Wang

1997-01-01

145

Toxicity of Metals to the Earthworm 'Eisenia fetida'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Development of methods to measure the effect of man's residuals on soil ecosystems is desirable. Earthworms, as one of the largest and most easily obtained components of the soil biota, are suitable for evaluating perturbations to soil ecosystems. The imp...

E. F. Neuhauser R. C. Loehr D. L. Milligan M. R. Malecki

1985-01-01

146

Depth of cocoon deposition by three earthworm species in mesocosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms were maintained in two types of soil-filled mesocosm. Type 1, designed for use in soil-inoculation studies, was only 0.15 m deep. Sampling revealed the position at which cocoons were deposited by earthworms in mono-species culture. Whilst adequate for shallow-working worms, larger species may have experienced restricted burrow formation and associated cocoon deposition. Therefore, Type 2 mesocosms (1.0 m deep) were also

Kevin R. Butt

2002-01-01

147

Resistance reduction by bionic coupling of the earthworm lubrication function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the biological coupling theory, the resistance reduction characteristic of the surface morphology and surface wettability\\u000a of the earthworm were studied in this paper. The parameters of surface dorsal pore and corrugation were extracted. According\\u000a to these parameters, the lubrication mechanism of the earthworm surface was analyzed. The distribution of the pores and surface\\u000a morphology were designed and the

JianQiao Li; BingXue Kou; GuoMin Liu; WenFeng Fan; LinLin Liu

2010-01-01

148

Earthworms ( Eisenia foetida , Savigny) mucus as complexing ligand for imidacloprid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms can excrete copious amounts of mucus that may affect the fraction, transport fate, and bioavailability of contaminants\\u000a in soil. However, interaction of mucus with organic contaminants is still not well-known. In the present study, complexation\\u000a properties of surface mucus (from the earthworm species Eisenia foetida, Savigny) with imidacloprid were investigated using fluorescence excitation emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy. It was

Xiangliang Pan; Wenjuan Song; Daoyong Zhang

2010-01-01

149

Toxicity and bioaccumulation of ethofumesate enantiomers in earthworm Eisenia fetida.  

PubMed

Earthworms represent an important food source for many vertebrates and as a result, predators may encounter toxic effects via the food chain from consumption of contaminated worms. Therefore, including an assessment of xenobiotic to worms in risk assessment procedures is advisable. Here we studied the acute toxicity, bioaccumulation and elimination of ethofumesate enantiomers in earthworm, Eisenia fetida, in a soil. A slight difference in toxicity to earthworm between two enantiomers was found, and the calculated LC50 values for (+)-, rac- and (-)-ethofumesate were 4.51, 5.93 and 7.98?g/cm(2), respectively, indicating that the acute toxicity of ethofumesate enantiomers was enantioselective. Earthworm can uptake ethofumesate but the bioaccumulation curve did not reach the steady state. In the elimination experiment, the concentrations of ethofumesate in earthworm declined following a first-order decay model with a short half life of 1.8d. The bioaccumulation and elimination of ethofumesate in earthworm were both nonenantioselective. In combination with other studies, a linear relationship between Log BSAFs and Log Kow was observed, and the Log BSAFs increased with increasing Log Kow. But the elimination rate did not show any correlation with the Kow value. PMID:25048902

Xu, Peng; Wang, Yinghuan; Zhang, Yanfeng; Li, Jianzhong; Wang, Huili

2014-10-01

150

Treating swine wastewater by integrating earthworms into constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the application of integrating earthworms (Pheretima peguana) into two-stage pilot-scale subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (SFCWs) receiving swine wastewater in terms of their treatment performance, namely organic content, total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), and solid reduction as well as the quantity of sludge production. There was a minor difference in terms of removal efficiency according to each parameter when comparing the unit with earthworms to the one without earthworms. Both achieved the TKN, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total volatile suspended solids (TVSS), suspended solids (SS), and total solids (TS) removal by more than 90 %. The earthworms helped in reducing the sludge production on the surface of constructed wetlands 40 % by volume, which resulted in lowering operational costs required to empty and treat the sludge. The plant biomass production was higher in the wetlands without earthworms. Further research could be undertaken in order to effectively apply earthworms inside the wetlands. PMID:21644160

Nuengjamnong, Chackrit; Chiarawatchai, Nathasith; Polprasert, Chongrak; Otterpohl, Ralf

2011-01-01

151

Zaprinast and Rolipram Enhances Spatial and Emotional Memory in the Elevated Plus Maze and Passive Avoidance Tests and Diminishes Exploratory Activity in Naive Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors in the central nervous system have been shown to stimulate neuronal functions and increase neurogenesis in Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. Material/Methods The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of zaprinast, a PDE5 inhibitor, and rolipram, a PDE4 inhibitor, on learning and memory in elevated plus maze (EPM) and passive avoidance (PA) tests in naive mice. Male Balb-c mice received short-term treatment with zaprinast (3 and 10 mg/kg) and rolipram (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) before the acquisition trial of the EPM and PA tests. The exploratory activity of the animals was also investigated in the Hughes box test. Results Both zaprinast (10 mg/kg) and rolipram (0.1 mg/kg) significantly decreased second-day latency compared to the control group in the EPM test, while only rolipram (0.1 mg/kg) significantly increased second-day latency in the PA test. Both zaprinast (10 mg/kg) and rolipram (0.1 mg/kg) significantly decreased the number of entries to new areas and time spent in new areas in the Hughes box test. Conclusions Our study revealed that both zaprinast and rolipram enhanced spatial memory in EPM, while rolipram seemed to have more emotional memory-enhancing effects in the PA test compared to zaprinast. Both zaprinast and rolipram diminished exploratory activity in the Hughes box test, which can be attributed to the drugs’ anxiogenic effects.

Akar, Furuzan; Mutlu, Oguz; Celikyurt, Ipek Komsuoglu; Ulak, Guner; Erden, Faruk; Bektas, Emine; Tanyeri, Pelin

2014-01-01

152

Gene Expression Analysis of CL-20-induced Reversible Neurotoxicity Reveals GABAA Receptors as Potential Target in the Earthworm Eisenia fetida  

PubMed Central

The earthworm Eisenia fetida is one of the most used species in standardized soil ecotoxicity tests. Endpoints such as survival, growth and reproduction are eco-toxicologically relevant but provide little mechanistic insight into toxicity pathways, especially at the molecular level. Here we applied a toxicogenomic approach to investigate the mode of action underlying the reversible neurotoxicity of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20), a cyclic nitroamine explosives compound. We developed an E. fetida-specific shotgun microarray targeting 15119 unique E. fetida transcripts. Using this array we profiled gene expression in E. fetida in response to exposure to CL-20. Eighteen earthworms were exposed for 6 days to 0.2 ?g/cm2 of CL-20 on filter paper, half of which were allowed to recover in a clean environment for 7 days. Nine vehicle control earthworms were sacrificed at day 6 and 13, separately. Electrophysiological measurements indicated that the conduction velocity of earthworm medial giant nerve fiber decreased significantly after 6-day exposure to CL-20, but was restored after 7 days of recovery. Total RNA was isolated from the four treatment groups including 6-day control, 6-day exposed, 13-day control and 13-day exposed (i.e. 6-day exposure followed by 7-day recovery), and was hybridized to the 15K shot-gun oligo array. Statistical and bioinformatic analyses suggest that CL-20 initiated neurotoxicity by non-competitively blocking the ligand-gated GABAA receptor ion channel, leading to altered expression of genes involved in GABAergic, cholinergic, and Agrin-MuSK pathways. In the recovery phase, expression of affected genes returned to normality, possibly as a result of autophagy and CL-20 dissociation/metabolism. This study provides significant insights into potential mechanisms of CL-20-induced neurotoxicity and the recovery of earthworms from transient neurotoxicity stress.

Gong, Ping; Guan, Xin; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Liang, Chun; Perkins, Edward J.

2012-01-01

153

Aircraft wake turbulence avoidance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical studies and flight tests are used to describe the formation and severity of trailing vortices and the spatial extent of their influence. This information is then used to outline procedures for ready application by pilots, tower operators, and others concerned with the flow of traffic. The procedures provide the necessary appreciation of the physical attributes of trailing vortices, the potential hazards involved when encountering them, and how best to avoid the dangerous portions of the wake during flight operations.

Mcgowan, W. A.

1971-01-01

154

Trade-offs between the shade-avoidance response and plant resistance to herbivores? Tests with mutant Cucumis sativus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Plants exhibit adaptations to many stresses, including light competition and herbivory. The expression of these traits may interact negatively, potentially instigating a trade-off. 2. We employed a combination of genetically altered Cucumis sativus varieties and phenotypic manipulations to test for trade-offs in field experiments. The different genetic lines of C. sativus were altered in their phytochrome-mediated shade responses

R. McGUIRE; A. A. AGRAWAL

2005-01-01

155

Flight Testing of a Fault-Tolerant Control and Vision-based Obstacle Avoidance System for UAVs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the development, implementation and ight testing of the Visual Threat Awareness (VISTA) system and the Multi-layer Architecture for Trajectory Replanning and Intelligent plan eXecution (MATRIX) for autonomous intelligent control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The VISTA system generates information on the threats and obstacles in real-time, and passes it on to the MATRIX system that makes mission-related

Raman K. Mehra; Jeffrey Byrne; Jovan Bo

156

Effect of earthworms on the performance and microbial communities of excess sludge treatment process in vermifilter.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that the stabilization of excess sludge by vermifiltration can be improved significantly through the use of earthworms. To investigate the effect of earthworms on enhancing sludge stabilization during the vermifiltration process, a vermifilter (VF) with earthworms and a conventional biofilter (BF) without earthworms were compared. The sludge reduction capability of the VF was ?85% higher than that of the BF. Specifically, elemental analysis indicated that earthworms enhanced the stabilization of organic matter. Furthermore, earthworm predation strongly regulated microbial biomass while improving microbial activity. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis showed that the most abundant microbes in the VF biofilms and earthworm casts were Flavobacterium, Myroides, Sphingobacterium, and Myxococcales, all of which are known to be highly effective at degrading organic matter. These results indicate that earthworms can improve the stabilization of excess sludge during vermifiltration, and reveal the processes by which this is achieved. PMID:22613898

Liu, Jing; Lu, Zhibo; Yang, Jian; Xing, Meiyan; Yu, Fen; Guo, Meiting

2012-08-01

157

Conversion of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Residual Sludges into Earthworm Castings for Use as Topsoil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This experiment demonstrates the physical abilities of earthworms to convert sizable amounts of municipal sewage sludges into worm manure, a stabilized soil known as castings. The process of composting wastes with domesticated earthworms under controlled ...

J. E. Collier

1978-01-01

158

Conversion of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Residual Sludges into Earthworm Castings for Use as Topsoil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vermicomposting, or biodegradation of waste water sludge from the San Jose and Santa Clara Wastewater Treatment Plants in California, was accomplished by the use of earthworms of the redworm (Eisenia foetida) species. Ninety tons of earthworm manure were ...

J. E. Collier D. Livingstone

1981-01-01

159

Avoidance: Grammatical or Semantic Causes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Follows up on a study by Dagut and Laufer (1985), who found that Hebrew learners of English avoid phrasal verbs. Three tests (multiple choice, memorization, and translation) were administered to Dutch learners of English to determine whether Dutch learners would tend not to avoid English phrasal verbs because they do not exist in Dutch. (Author/OD)

Hulstijn, Jan H.; Marchena, Elaine

1989-01-01

160

Earthworms newly from Mongolia (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae, Eisenia)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two new megadrile earthworms from the steppes, the first species wholly from Outer Mongolia, are ascribed to the partially parthenogenetic Eisenia nordenskioldi (Eisen, 1879) species-complex. Taxonomic justification of sympatric Eisenia nordenskioldi mongol and Eisenia nordenskioldi onon ssp. n. are supported by mtDNA COI barcodes. The unreliability of molecular differentiation based on voucher names compared to definitive types is again demonstrated, as pertains to the ultimate Eisenia andrei Bouché, 1972 synonym of the Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826) sibling species-complex composed of more than a dozen prior names. Similar species described from Northeast China [formerly Manchuria] and North Korea are briefly considered, albeit they are intermittently held in synonymy of cosmopolitan Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826) along with many other taxa including some exotic lumbricids initially found in India. Japanese and North American lumbricids are also mentioned. Distributions are discussed and an annotated checklist of all nine Siberian/sub-arctic Eisenia nordenskioldi ssp. is appended.

Blakemore, Robert J.

2013-01-01

161

Soil and elemental mixing rates across an earthworm invasion chronosequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Burrowing soil fauna significantly contribute to earth surface processes. In particular, earthworms are well known for their ability to move large masses of soil through ingestion and burrowing activities. Over the past decades, humans have increased the geographic range of earthworms through agricultural and recreational activities, exacerbating their invasion into soils devoid of native earthworms since the Last Glacial Maximum. Invasive earthworms, by mixing soils, have substantially altered forest floor ecology and soil morphology. Though the depth extent of mixing can be inferred from altered soil horizonation, mixing rates of various elements in earthworm invaded soils have not previously been calculated. The earthworm invasion chronosequence in a sugar maple forest in Northern Minnesota provides an ideal outdoor laboratory to understand the relationships between dynamics of invasive earthworm populations and soil elemental mixing rates. In this study we used 137-Cs as a tracer for soil mixing due to its strong adsorption to clays and organic matter and its atmospheric origin. Least invaded soils show high 137-Cs activity in the upper 5 centimeters which quickly disappears with depth, while heavily invaded soils show a greater depth reach and homogenized depth profiles of 137-Cs activity. Along the invasion gradient, the depth profiles of many elements are consistent with 137-Cs activities. Currently, a mass balance equation is being combined with 137-Cs activities and total elemental chemistry to determine mixing rates of major elements: Fe, Si, Al and biologically important: Ca, Mg, and P. It is also evident that mixing alone cannot explain the invasive earthworms' impacts on depth profiles of several elements. Geochemical mass balance calculations show a reduction of Ca, Mg, and K in 0-7cm depths. The loss of Ca from the biologically active zone may have ecological consequences. In contrast, we found greater contents of Fe and Al and dithionite-citrate extractable Fe and Al, which may help stabilize organic matter and may impede chemical weathering of minerals by coating their reactive surfaces. We expect that the behavior of a given element will be based upon its biological demand, complexation with organic matter, and hydrological mobility. Understanding how quickly and what extent various elements are mixed by invasive earthworms will help determine the magnitude of invasive earthworms' impact on the future nutrient cycles in hardwood forests.

Resner, K. E.; Yoo, K.; Lyttle, A.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Sebestyen, S. D.

2012-12-01

162

Fostering assumption-based stress-test thinking in managing groundwater systems: learning to avoid failures due to basic dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable groundwater resource management can only be achieved if planning processes address the basic dynamics of the groundwater system. Conceptual and distributed groundwater models do not necessarily translate into an understanding of how a plan might operate in reality. Prompted by Australian experiences, `iterative closed-question modelling' has been used to develop a process of iterative dialogue about management options, objectives and knowledge. Simple hypothetical models of basic system dynamics that satisfy agreed assumptions are used to stress-test the ability of a proposed management plan to achieve desired future conditions. Participants learn from models in which a plan succeeds and fails, updating their assumptions, expectations or plan. Their new understanding is tested against further hypothetical models. The models act as intellectual devices that confront users with new scenarios to discuss. This theoretical approach is illustrated using simple one and two-cell groundwater models that convey basic notions of capture and spatial impacts of pumping. Simple extensions can address uncertain climate, managed-aquifer recharge and alternate water sources. Having learnt to address the dynamics captured by these models, participants may be better placed to address local conditions and develop more effective arrangements to achieve management outcomes.

Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; El Sawah, Sondoss

2014-06-01

163

Pilot-scale vermicomposting of pineapple wastes with earthworms native to Accra, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pineapple wastes, an abundant organic waste in Accra, Ghana, were vermicomposted using native earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae Kinberg) collected from the banks of streams and around bath houses of this city. Triplicate pilot-scale vermidigesters containing about 90 earthworms and three other control boxes with no earthworms were fed pineapple pulp or peels, and the loss of wet mass was monitored over

Nana O. K. Mainoo; Suzelle Barrington; Joann K. Whalen; Luis Sampedro

2009-01-01

164

Earthworm abundance related to soil physicochemical and microbial properties in Accra, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of vermicomposting as a cost effective method of managing organic waste in Ghana depends on the suitability of local earthworms. At nine locations across Accra, the capital of Ghana, the soil-litter layer was sampled to evaluate the occurrence and abundance of surface dwelling earthworms (0 - 10 cm depth) and to investigate the relationship between earthworm abundance and

Nana-Osei K. Mainoo; Joann K. Whalen; Suzelle Barrington; Ste Anne de Bellevue

2008-01-01

165

Associations between soil texture, soil water characteristics and earthworm populations in grassland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between soil physical characteristics and earthworms in a regional-scale field study in Denmark. The earthworm populations along within-field gradients in soil texture were quantified at five field sites, representing dominant soil types of Denmark. Eleven earthworm species were found, but populations were mainly dominated by Aporrectodea tuberculata and A.

Martin Holmstrup; Mathieu Lamandé; Søren B. Torp; Mogens H. Greve; Rodrigo Labouriau; Goswin Heckrath

2011-01-01

166

Earthworms disseminate a soil-borne plant pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radish plants infested with a soil-borne plant pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani PEG-4, which is resistant to hygromycin B, were placed on the surface of a soil microcosm containing earthworms (Pheretima sp.). The earthworms ate the radish plants and scattered individual casts everywhere in the burrows. The fungal propagules were detected in the gut of the earthworms and in

K. Toyota; M. Kimura

1994-01-01

167

Influence of earthworm invasion on soil microbial biomass and activity in a northern hardwood forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent invasion and activity of exotic earthworms has profoundly altered the chemical and physical environment of surface soils in northern hardwood forests that previously had mor humus horizons. We investigated the influence of earthworm invasion on soil microbial biomass and activity in surface soils of Allegheny northern hardwood forests in central New York state. Earthworm activity in these sites had

Xuyong Li; Melany C Fisk; Timothy J Fahey; Patrick J Bohlen

2002-01-01

168

Influence of temperature on the toxicity of zinc to the earthworm Eisenia fetida  

SciTech Connect

A range of toxicity tests have been proposed to assess the potential hazards of pollutants to earthworms. Of these, the two acute toxicity tests using Eisenia fetida recommended by the OECD and EEC have become routinely used in the risk assessment and regulation of new and existing chemicals. In addition to the acute tests, procedures have also been proposed for measuring the sub-lethal effects of chemicals on parameter such as reproduction and weight change. In both the lethal and sub-lethal toxicity tests developed with worms, attempts have been made to standardise test conditions to allow results from different laboratories to be directly compared. However, variability in exposure conditions and responses are fundamental to determine the effects of pollutants under natural conditions. In the field, conditions such as light, moisture availability, pH, temperature and humidity all fluctuate over time. Such variations affect both the sensitivity and exposure of individuals to toxic chemicals. Hence when evaluating the potential effects of pollutants, it may be important to known how changes in test conditions influence toxicity. This study assessed the effects of different temperatures on the lethal and sub-lethal toxicity of zinc for the earthworm Eisenia fetida. 23 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Spurgeon, D.J.; Tomlin, M.A.; Hopkin, S.P. [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom)

1997-02-01

169

Chronic caffeine exposure in rats blocks a subsequent nicotine-conditioned taste avoidance in a one-bottle, but not a two-bottle test.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted in order to investigate nicotine-conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) following chronic preexposure to caffeine. Rats were given daily intraperitoneal injections of caffeine anhydrous (0, 10, or 30 mg/kg) for 10 or 30 days. Training of the nicotine-CTA began after the last day of caffeine preexposure. On five separate occasions access to a saccharin solution was followed immediately by an injection of 1.2 mg/kg nicotine hydrogen tartrate salt or saline. Nicotine-CTA readily developed in saline-preexposed controls. That is, paired rats drank less saccharin solution than unpaired rats after repeated saccharin-nicotine pairings. A similar pattern of nicotine-CTA was found for rats preexposed to 30 mg/kg caffeine for 10 days. Following 10 days of preexposure to 10 mg/kg caffeine, however, CTA did not develop under standard testing conditions. Thirty days of caffeine preexposure did not affect the development of a nicotine-CTA even though the anorexic effects of caffeine were evident after exposure to 30 mg/kg for this duration. Thus, caffeine exposure appears to weaken acquisition or expression of the conditioned avoidance properties of nicotine. This effect is sensitive to the dose of caffeine and duration of preexposure. Importantly, the pattern of nicotine-CTA does not appear to be due to nonspecific effects of caffeine. PMID:11701199

Palmatier, M I; Bevins, R A

2001-01-01

170

Zaprinast and rolipram enhances spatial and emotional memory in the elevated plus maze and passive avoidance tests and diminishes exploratory activity in naive mice.  

PubMed

Background Phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors in the central nervous system have been shown to stimulate neuronal functions and increase neurogenesis in Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. Material and Methods The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of zaprinast, a PDE5 inhibitor, and rolipram, a PDE4 inhibitor, on learning and memory in elevated plus maze (EPM) and passive avoidance (PA) tests in naive mice. Male Balb-c mice received short-term treatment with zaprinast (3 and 10 mg/kg) and rolipram (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) before the acquisition trial of the EPM and PA tests. The exploratory activity of the animals was also investigated in the Hughes box test. Results Both zaprinast (10 mg/kg) and rolipram (0.1 mg/kg) significantly decreased second-day latency compared to the control group in the EPM test, while only rolipram (0.1 mg/kg) significantly increased second-day latency in the PA test. Both zaprinast (10 mg/kg) and rolipram (0.1 mg/kg) significantly decreased the number of entries to new areas and time spent in new areas in the Hughes box test. Conclusions Our study revealed that both zaprinast and rolipram enhanced spatial memory in EPM, while rolipram seemed to have more emotional memory-enhancing effects in the PA test compared to zaprinast. Both zaprinast and rolipram diminished exploratory activity in the Hughes box test, which can be attributed to the drugs' anxiogenic effects. PMID:25057848

Akar, Furuzan; Mutlu, Oguz; Komsuoglu Celikyurt, Ipek; Ulak, Guner; Erden, Faruk; Bektas, Emine; Tanyeri, Pelin

2014-01-01

171

Fate and Uptake of Pharmaceuticals in Soil-Earthworm Systems  

PubMed Central

Pharmaceuticals present a potential threat to soil organisms, yet our understanding of their fate and uptake in soil systems is limited. This study therefore investigated the fate and uptake of 14C-labeled carbamazepine, diclofenac, fluoxetine, and orlistat in soil–earthworm systems. Sorption coefficients increased in the order of carbamazepine < diclofenac < fluoxetine < orlistat. Dissipation of 14C varied by compound, and for orlistat, there was evidence of formation of nonextractable residues. Uptake of 14C was seen for all compounds. Depuration studies showed complete elimination of 14C for carbamazepine and fluoxetine treatments and partial elimination for orlistat and diclofenac, with greater than 30% of the 14C remaining in the tissue at the end of the experiment. Pore-water-based bioconcentration factors (BCFs), based on uptake and elimination of 14C, increased in the order carbamazepine < diclofenac < fluoxetine and orlistat. Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography–Fourier transform mass spectrometry indicated that the observed uptake in the fluoxetine and carbamazepine treatments was due to the parent compounds but that diclofenac was degraded in the test system so uptake was due to unidentifiable transformation products. Comparison of our data with outputs of quantitative structure?activity relationships for estimating BCFs in worms showed that these models tend to overestimate pharmaceutical BCFs so new models are needed.

2014-01-01

172

Fate and uptake of pharmaceuticals in soil-earthworm systems.  

PubMed

Pharmaceuticals present a potential threat to soil organisms, yet our understanding of their fate and uptake in soil systems is limited. This study therefore investigated the fate and uptake of (14)C-labeled carbamazepine, diclofenac, fluoxetine, and orlistat in soil-earthworm systems. Sorption coefficients increased in the order of carbamazepine < diclofenac < fluoxetine < orlistat. Dissipation of (14)C varied by compound, and for orlistat, there was evidence of formation of nonextractable residues. Uptake of (14)C was seen for all compounds. Depuration studies showed complete elimination of (14)C for carbamazepine and fluoxetine treatments and partial elimination for orlistat and diclofenac, with greater than 30% of the (14)C remaining in the tissue at the end of the experiment. Pore-water-based bioconcentration factors (BCFs), based on uptake and elimination of (14)C, increased in the order carbamazepine < diclofenac < fluoxetine and orlistat. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-Fourier transform mass spectrometry indicated that the observed uptake in the fluoxetine and carbamazepine treatments was due to the parent compounds but that diclofenac was degraded in the test system so uptake was due to unidentifiable transformation products. Comparison of our data with outputs of quantitative structure-activity relationships for estimating BCFs in worms showed that these models tend to overestimate pharmaceutical BCFs so new models are needed. PMID:24762061

Carter, Laura J; Garman, Catherine D; Ryan, James; Dowle, Adam; Bergström, Ed; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Boxall, Alistair B A

2014-05-20

173

Laboratory Protocol for Measuring the Bioaccumulation of Mercury by Earthworms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protocol was developed for a series of laboratory tests to determine if Canadian earthworms ( Lumbricus terrestris) can hyperaccumulate mercury from the soil in which they live. Two batches of 300 hundred worms each were measured for mercury uptake by establishing 3 populations (one control and two of known contamination). Populations were sampled every two weeks. Worm lengths were measured as an indicator of worm age and health. Worm tissue was processed by a modified EPA Method 7470 consisting of freeze drying, vacuum extraction, oxidation and acid extraction of the mercury. Each sample needed 2.000 g dry weight of worm tissue required 5 to 6 worms to be homogenized. Mercury concentration in the extraction fluid was measured by a CETAC M-6100 cold vapor mercury analyzer with an ASX-400 Autosampler having a method detection limit of 0.05 ppb. QA/QC activities such as calibration of instrumentation, spike samples, blank samples, reagent control samples, triplicate samples, and standard samples ensure acurate and precise measurements of mercury levels in tissue samples.

Steffy, D.; Nichols, A.; McLaughlin, A.

2007-12-01

174

Toxicity and bioaccumulation of reduced TNT metabolites in the earthworm Eisenia andrei exposed to amended forest soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and TNT primary reduction products have been found to be toxic to certain soil invertebrates, such as earthworms. The mechanism of toxicity of TNT and of its by-products is still not known. To ascertain if one of the TNT reduction products underlies TNT toxicity, we tested the toxicity and bioaccumulation of TNT reduction products. 2-Amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene

Bernard Lachance; Agnès Y. Renoux; Manon Sarrazin; Jalal Hawari; Geoffrey I. Sunahara

2004-01-01

175

Methylation of Mercury in Earthworms and the Effect of Mercury on the Associated Bacterial Communities  

PubMed Central

Methylmercury compounds are very toxic for most organisms. Here, we investigated the potential of earthworms to methylate inorganic-Hg. We hypothesized that the anaerobic and nutrient-rich conditions in the digestive tracts of earthworm's promote the methylation of Hg through the action of their gut bacteria. Earthworms were either grown in sterile soils treated with an inorganic (HgCl2) or organic (CH3HgCl) Hg source, or were left untreated. After 30 days of incubation, the total-Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations in the soils, earthworms, and their casts were analyzed. The impact of Hg on the bacterial community compositions in earthworms was also studied. Tissue concentrations of methyl-Hg in earthworms grown in soils treated with inorganic-Hg were about six times higher than in earthworms grown in soils without Hg. Concentrations of methyl-Hg in the soils and earthworm casts remained at significantly lower levels suggesting that Hg was mainly methylated in the earthworms. Bacterial communities in earthworms were mostly affected by methyl-Hg treatment. Terminal-restriction fragments (T-RFs) affiliated to Firmicutes were sensitive to inorganic and methyl-Hg, whereas T-RFs related to Betaproteobacteria were tolerant to the Hg treatments. Sulphate-reducing bacteria were detected in earthworms but not in soils.

Rieder, Stephan Raphael; Brunner, Ivano; Daniel, Otto; Liu, Bian; Frey, Beat

2013-01-01

176

Effects of 7-NI and ODQ on memory in the passive avoidance, novel object recognition, and social transmission of food preference tests in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Nitric oxide (NO) is an intercellular messenger that plays a critical role in learning and memory processes. Effects of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors and guanylate cyclase (GC) inhibitors on cognitive function remain controversial. Material/Methods The aim of this study was to investigate effects of an NOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), and a GC inhibitor, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), on different aspects of memory in passive avoidance (PA), novel object recognition (NOR), and social transmission of food preference (STFP) tests. Male Balb-c mice were treated intraperitoneally with 7-NI (15 mg/kg), ODQ (3,10 mg/kg), L-arginine (100 mg/kg) + 7-NI (15 mg/kg), or physiological saline. Results ODQ (10 mg/kg) and 7-NI (15 mg/kg) significantly decreased second-day latency in PA test. 7-NI (15 mg/kg) and ODQ (10 mg/kg) significantly decreased the ratio index in the NOR test. 7-NI and ODQ (10 mg/kg) decreased cued/non-cued food eaten in STFP test. Amount of time spent in center zone significantly increased in ODQ (10 mg/kg) and 7-NI (15 mg/kg) groups in open field test, but there was no effect on total distance moved and speed of animals. ODQ (10 mg/kg) significantly increased number of entries into new compartments in exploratory activity apparatus, while 7-NI had no effect. Administration of L-arginine (100 mg/kg) before 7-NI reversed 7-NI-induced effects, supporting the role of NO in cognition. Conclusions Our results confirm that inhibition of NO/cGMP/GS pathway might disturb emotional, visual, and olfactory memory in mice. Also, 7-NI and ODQ had anxiolytic effects in open field test, and ODQ also enhanced exploratory activity.

Akar, Furuzan; Mutlu, Oguz; Celikyurt, Ipek Komsuoglu; Bektas, Emine; Tanyeri, Pelin; Ulak, Guner; Erden, Faruk

2014-01-01

177

Assessment of soil stabilization by chemical extraction and bioaccumulation using earthworm, Eisenia fetida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil stabilization does not remove heavy metals from contaminated soil, but lowers their exposures to ecosystem. Thus, it should be evaluated by measuring the fractions of heavy metals which are mobile and/or bioavailable in soils. The study compared several chemical extractions which intended to quantify the mobile or bioaccessible fractions with uptake and bioaccumulation by earthworm, Eisenia fetida. Soil samples were taken from the abandoned mine area contaminated with As, Cd, Cu, Pb and/or Zn. To stabilize heavy metals, the soils were amended with limestone and steel slag at 5% and 2% (w/w), respectively. All chemical extractions and earthworm tests were applied to both the contaminated and the stabilized soils with triplicates. The chemical extractions consisted of six single extractions which were 0.01M CaCl2 (unbufferred), EDTA or DTPA (chelating), TCLP (acidic), Mehlich 3 (mixture), and aqua regia (peudo-total). Sequential extractions were also applied to fractionate heavy metals in soils. In earthworm tests, worms were exposed to the soils for uptake of heavy metals. After 28 days of exposure to soils, worms were transferred to clean soils for elimination. During the tests, three worms were randomly collected at proper sampling events. Worms were rinsed with DI water and placed on moist filter paper for 48 h for depuration. Filter paper was renewed at 24 h to prevent coprophagy. The worms were killed with liquid nitrogen, dried in the oven, and digested with aqua regia for ICP-MS analysis. In addition to the bioaccumulation, several toxicity endpoints were observed such as burrowing time, mortality, cocoon production, and body weight changes. Toxicokinetics was applied to determine the uptake and elimination heavy metals by the earthworms. Bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was estimated using total metal concentrations and body burdens. Pearson correlation and simple linear regression were applied to evaluate the relationship between metal fractions by single extractions or sequential extractions with bioaccumulations. Finally, we discussed the advantages or disadvantages of simple chemical extractions which are commonly used to estimate the efficacy of stabilization.

Lee, Byung-Tae; Abd Aziz, Azilah; Han, Heop Jo; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

2014-05-01

178

Interactions between the nematode parasite of pigs, Ascaris suum, and the earthworm Aporrectodea longa.  

PubMed

Pig faeces in which Ascaris suum eggs had been embryonating for 57 days were placed in buckets of soil containing either 30 or no earth-worms (Aporrectodea longa). When present, earthworms consumed the faeces and transported the eggs down into the soil, without inflicting any visible damage on the eggs. In later experiments 10 earthworms from the above experiment were fed to each of ten pigs, and another 40 earthworms were dissected. None of the 10 pigs became infected with A. suum through consumption of earthworms, and none of the dissected earthworms were found to contain A. suum larvae. This experiment indicates that A. longa did not act as a paratenic host for A. suum but shows that earthworms are very efficient in transporting A. suum eggs from faeces deposited on the soil surface into the soil. PMID:9926459

Kraglund, H O; Grønvold, J; Roepstorff, A; Rawat, H

1998-01-01

179

Earthworm bioturbation influences the phytoavailability of metals released by particles in cultivated soils.  

PubMed

The influence of earthworm activity on soil-to-plant metal transfer was studied by carrying out six weeks mesocosms experiments with or without lettuce and/or earthworms in soil with a gradient of metal concentrations due to particles fallouts. Soil characteristics, metal concentrations in lettuce and earthworms were measured and soil porosity in the mesocosms was determined. Earthworms increased the soil pH, macroporosity and soil organic matter content due to the burying of wheat straw provided as food. Earthworm activities increased the metals concentrations in lettuce leaves. Pb and Cd concentrations in lettuce leaves can increase up to 46% with earthworm activities … These results and the low correlation between estimated by CaCl2 and EDTA and measured pollutant phytoavailability suggest that earthworm bioturbation was the main cause of the increase. Bioturbation could affect the proximity of pollutants to the roots and soil organic matter. PMID:24858803

Leveque, Thibaut; Capowiez, Yvan; Schreck, Eva; Xiong, Tiantian; Foucault, Yann; Dumat, Camille

2014-08-01

180

Combined effects of oxytetracycline and Pb on earthworm Eisenia fetida.  

PubMed

Combined effects of oxytetracycline (OTC) and Pb on lysosomal membrane stability and coelomocyte apoptosis of earthworm were studied in the paper. Compared with control, the lysosomal membrane stability decreased and coelomocyte apoptosis increased in the treatments of single OTC and Pb contamination. As for compound pollution, combined effect of (5 mg/kg OTC+50 mg/kg Pb) treatment on earthworm lysosomal was synergistic (except 28 d). However, it was antagonistic at higher concentration of (10 mg/kg OTC+50 mg/kg Pb) and (20 mg/kg OTC+50 mg/kg Pb) treatment. In addition, coelomocyte apoptosis of earthworm decreased significantly compared with single OTC, indicating an antagonistic reaction. And joint toxicity of OTC and Pb decreased significantly with the increasing OTC concentration. PMID:24607684

Gao, Minling; Zhou, Qian; Song, Wenhua; Ma, Xiaojun

2014-03-01

181

Genotoxic effects of glyphosate or paraquat on earthworm coelomocytes.  

PubMed

The potential genotoxicity (nuclear anomalies, damage to single-strand DNA) and pinocytic adherence activity of two (glyphosate-based and paraquat-based) commercial herbicides to earthworm coelomocytes (immune cells in the coelomic cavity) were assessed. Coelomocytes were extracted from earthworms (Pheretima peguana) exposed to concentrations earthworms exposed to glyphosate at 25 × 10(-1) (10(-3) LC50) and paraquat at 39 × 10(-5) (10(-4) LC50) ?g cm(-2) filter paper. In earthworms exposed to glyphosate, no differences in tail DNA%, tail length, and tail moment of coelomocytes were detected. In contrast, for paraquat at 10(-1) LC50 concentration, there were significant (P < 0.05) differences between tail DNA % and tail length, and at LC50 concentration, tail moment was also significantly different when compared with controls. A decline in pinocytic adherence activity in coelomocytes occurred on exposure to glyphosate or paraquat at 10(-3) LC50 concentration. This study showed that, at concentrations well below field application rates, paraquat induces both clastogenic and aneugenic effects on earthworm coelomocytes whereas glyphosate causes only aneugenic effects and therefore does not pose a risk of gene mutation in this earthworm. PMID:22644885

Muangphra, Ptumporn; Kwankua, Wimon; Gooneratne, Ravi

2014-06-01

182

Accumulation of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms  

SciTech Connect

Chlorinated benzenes are widespread in the environment. Hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene and all isomers of dichlorobenzenes, trichlorobenzenes, and tetrachlorobenzenes, have been detected in fish, water, and sediments from the Great Lakes. They probably entered the water as leachates from chemical waste dumps and as effluents from manufacturing. Hexachlorobenzene and pentachlorobenzene are commonly present in Herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs from the Great Lakes, and some of the isomers of trichlorobenzene and tetrachlorobenzene are occasionally detected at low concentrations. Hexachlorobenzene, which was formerly used as a fungicide, has been the most thoroughly studied chlorinated benzene, and has been detected in many species. Its use as a fungicide in the United States was canceled in 1984. Since about 1975 hexachlorobenzene has been formed mainly in the production of chlorinated solvents. It is highly persistent in the environment and some species are poisoned by hexachlorobenzene at very low chronic dietary exposures. As little as 1 ppm in the diet of mink (Mustela vison) reduced the birth weights of young, and 5 ppm in the diet of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) caused slight liver damage. This paper describes a long-term (26 wk) experiment relating the concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to length of exposure and three 8 wk experiments relating concentration to the concentration in soil the soil organic matter content, and the degree of chlorination. 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Beyer, W.N. [Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD (United States)] [Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD (United States)

1996-12-31

183

Screening of actinomycetes from earthworm castings for their antimicrobial activity and industrial enzymes.  

PubMed

Actinomycetes from earthworm castings were isolated and screened for their antimicrobial activity and industrial enzymes. A total of 48 isolates were obtained from 12 samples of earthworm castings. Highest numbers of isolates were recovered from forest site (58.33 %) as compared to grassland (25%) and agricultural land (16.66%). The growth patterns, mycelial coloration of abundance actinomycetes were documented. The dominant genera Identified by cultural, morphological and physiological characteristics were Streptomyces (60.41%) followed by Streptosporangium (10.41%),Saccharopolyspora (6.25%) and Nocardia (6.25%). Besides these, other genera like Micromonospora, Actinomadura, Microbispora, Planobispora and Nocardiopsis were also recovered but in low frequency. Among the 48 isolates, 52.08% were found active against one or more test organisms. Out of 25 active isolates 16% showed activity against bacterial, human fungal as well as phytopathogens. Among 48 isolates 38, 32, 21, 20, 16 and 14 produced enzyme amylase, caseinase, cellulase, gelatinase, xylanase and lipase respectively while 10 isolates produced all the enzymes. More interestingly 2, 3, and 1 isolates produced amylase, xylanase and lipase at 45°C respectively. In the view of its antimicrobial activity as well as enzyme production capability the genus Streptomyces was dominant. The isolate EWC 7(2) was most promising on the basis of its interesting antimicrobial activity and was identified as Streptomyces rochei. The results of these findings have increased the scope of finding industrially important actinomycetes from earthworm castings and these organisms could be promising sources for industrially important molecules or enzymes. PMID:24031819

Kumar, Vijay; Bharti, Alpana; Negi, Yogesh Kumar; Gusain, Omprakash; Pandey, Piyush; Bisht, Gajraj Singh

2012-01-01

184

Bioaccumulation of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) in earthworms in the presence of lead (Pb).  

PubMed

BDE209 (decabromodiphenyl ether) and lead (Pb) are the main contaminants at e-waste recycling sites, and their potential toxicological effects on terrestrial organisms have received extensive attention. However, the impact on earthworms of exposure to the two chemicals remains almost unknown. Therefore, indoor incubation tests were performed on control and contaminated soil samples to determine the uptake and transformation of BDE209 in the presence of Pb for the first time. The results have demonstrated that Pb addition can affect BDE209 bioaccumulation efficiency compared with exposure to BDE209 alone. For a low BDE209 concentration (1mgkg(-1)), Pb addition barely affected the uptake of BDE209, whereas for a high BDE209 concentration (100mgkg(-1)), Pb addition elicited a complex response. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation indicated that a higher level of Pb (250 and 500mgkg(-1)) facilitated the uptake of BDE209 through the skin. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis showed that the peak of BDE209 accumulation usually appeared in the joint exposure groups involving 10 or 100mgkg(-1) BDE209 and 250mgkg(-1) Pb, and the average bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was 0.53, which is more than 1.2 times that of single exposure to BDE209 (average=0.44). Also, the earthworms eliminated more BDE209 after 21d, and the biodegradation products were mainly BDE206 and BDE208. Furthermore, Pb addition can affect the transformation efficiency of BDE209 in earthworms, and several lower bromodiphenyl ethers can be detected. The results of these observations have provided a basic understanding of the potential ecotoxicological effects of joint PBDE and heavy metal exposure on terrestrial invertebrates. PMID:24556543

Zhang, Wei; Chen, Lin; Liu, Kou; Chen, Lei; Lin, Kuangfei; Chen, Yongsheng; Yan, Zenguang

2014-07-01

185

Solid phase microextraction of organic pollutants from natural and artificial soils and comparison with bioaccumulation in earthworms.  

PubMed

The presented study investigates the use of passive sampling, i.e. solid phase microextraction with polydimethylsiloxane fibers (PDMS-SPME), to assess the bioavailability of fiver neutral organic chemicals (phenanthrene, pyrene, lindane, p,p'-DDT, and PCB 153) spiked to natural and artificial soils after different aging times. Contaminant bioavailability was assessed by comparing PDMS concentrations with results from a 10 day bioaccumulation test with earthworms (Eisenia fetida). The hypotheses tested were (i) organic carbon (OC) normalization, which is commonly used to account for sorption and bioavailability of hydrophobic organic chemicals in soil risk assessment, has limitations due to differences in sorptive properties of OC and aging processes (i.e. sequestration and biodegradation) and (ii) PDMS-SPME provides a more reliable measure of soil contaminant bioavailability than OC normalized soil concentrations. The above stated hypotheses were confirmed since the results showed that: (i) the PDMS/soil organic carbon partition ratio (R) accounting for the role that OC plays in partitioning significantly differed between soils and aging times and (ii) the correlation with earthworm concentrations was better using porewater concentrations derived from PDMS concentrations than when organic normalized soil concentrations were used. Capsule: Sorption of organic compounds measured by SPME method and their bioavailability to earthworms cannot be reliably predicted using OC content. PMID:24433790

Bielská, Lucie; Šmídová, Klára; Hofman, Jakub

2014-02-01

186

How to reduce false positive results when undertaking in vitro genotoxicity testing and thus avoid unnecessary follow-up animal tests: Report of an ECVAM Workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Workshop participants agreed that genotoxicity tests in mammalian cells in vitro produce a remarkably high and unacceptable occurrence of irrelevant positive results (e.g. when compared with rodent carcinogenicity). As reported in several recent reviews, the rate of irrelevant positives (i.e. low specificity) for some studies using in vitro methods (when compared to this “gold standard”) means that an increased number

David Kirkland; Stefan Pfuhler; David Tweats; Marilyn Aardema; Raffaella Corvi; Firouz Darroudi; Azeddine Elhajouji; Hansruedi Glatt; Paul Hastwell; Makoto Hayashi; Peter Kasper; Stephan Kirchner; Anthony Lynch; Daniel Marzin; Daniela Maurici; Jean-Roc Meunier; Lutz Müller; Gerhard Nohynek; James Parry; Elizabeth Parry; Veronique Thybaud; Ray Tice; Jan van Benthem; Philippe Vanparys; Paul White

2007-01-01

187

Effects of intermittent aerobic training on passive avoidance test (shuttle box) and stress markers in the dorsal hippocampus of wistar rats exposed to administration of homocysteine.  

PubMed

Objective: Elevated amino acid homocysteine (Hcy) levels and insufficient physical activity are the risk factors in Alzheimer disease (AD) development. The effect of intermittent aerobic training on memory retention test and Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in the dorsal hippocampus of rats which were stimulated with Hcy is investigated. Methods: In order to determine the dose at which using Shuttle Box Test recognizes degenerative changes and/or memory impairment, 40 rats were injected by different dosages of Hcy to the dorsal hippocampus. It was observed that the required Hcy dose is 0.6 M. Then 44 rats were divided into four groups including training and control groups at 4 weeks of aerobic exercise in training and control groups at 8 weeks. To determine the effect of homocysteine on the memory impairment, Shuttle Box Test was used on treadmill (5 sessions/week, 12-18 m/min and 10-58.5 min). Results: Hcy administration caused memory impairment and significant increase in TBARS. Significant decrease in TBARS level was noted after 8 weeks of aerobic exercise, but not after just 4 weeks of exercise compared with control group. In addition, performing 8 weeks of aerobic training led to significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) level and the time of avoidance learning test. Conclusion: Hyperhomocysteinemia caused learning and memory deficits probably by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the present study showed that regular moderate intensity intermittent exercise may reverse this process and exercise is recommended as a strategy to improve symptoms of senile neurodegenerative disease . Declaration of Interest: None. PMID:24644498

Hosseinzadeh, Somayeh; Dabidi Roshan, Valiollah; Pourasghar, Mehdi

2013-01-01

188

Diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) for the prediction of bioavailability of heavy metals in contaminated soils to earthworm (Eisenia foetida) and oral bioavailable concentrations.  

PubMed

The applicability of diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) as a biomimic surrogate was investigated to determine the bioavailable heavy metal concentrations to earthworm (Eisenia foetida). The relationships between the amount of DGT and earthworm uptake; DGT uptake and the bioavailable concentrations of heavy metals in soils were evaluated. The one-compartment model for the dynamic uptake of heavy metals in the soil fitted well to both the earthworm (R(2)=0.641-0.990) and DGT (R(2)=0.473-0.998) uptake data. DGT uptake was linearly correlated with the total heavy metal concentrations in the soil (aqua regia), the bioavailable heavy metal concentrations estimated by fractions I+II of the standard measurements and testing (SM&T) and physiologically based extraction test (PBET, stomach+intestine). The coefficients of determination (R(2)) of DGT uptake vs. aqua regia were 0.433, 0.929 and 0.723; vs. SM&T fractions (I+II) were 0.901, 0.882 and 0.713 and vs. PBET (stomach+intestine) were 0.913, 0.850 and 0.649 for Pb, Zn and Cu, respectively. These results imply that DGT can be used as a biomimic surrogate for the earthworm uptake of heavy metals in contaminated soils as well as predict bioavailable concentrations of heavy metals estimated by SM&T (I+II) and PBET as a human oral bioavailable concentrations of heavy metals. PMID:22134028

Bade, Rabindra; Oh, Sanghwa; Shin, Won Sik

2012-02-01

189

Behavioral methods for the study of the Ras-ERK pathway in memory formation and consolidation: passive avoidance and novel object recognition tests.  

PubMed

Memory is a high-level brain function that enables organisms to adapt their behavioral responses to the environment, hence increasing their probability of survival. The Ras-ERK pathway is a key molecular intracellular signalling cascade for memory consolidation. In this chapter we will describe two main one-trial behavioral tests commonly used in the field of memory research in order to assess the role of Ras-ERK signalling in long-term memory: passive avoidance and object recognition. Passive avoidance (PA) is a fear-motivated instrumental learning task, designed by Jarvik and Essman in 1960, in which animals learn to refrain from emitting a behavioral response that has previously been associated with a punishment. We will describe here the detailed protocol and show some examples of how PA can reveal impairments or enhancements in memory consolidation following loss or gain of function genetic manipulations of the Ras-ERK pathway. The phenotypes of global mutants as Ras-GRF1 KO, GENA53, and ERK1 KO mice, as well as of conditional region-specific mutants (striatal K-CREB mice), will be illustrated as examples. Novel object recognition (NOR), developed by Ennaceur and Delacour in 1988, is instead a more recent and highly ecological test, which relies on the natural tendency of rodents to spontaneously approach and explore novel objects, representing hence a useful non-stressful tool for the study of memory in animals without the employment of punishments or starvation/water restriction regimens. Careful indications will be given on how to select the positions for the novel object, in order to counterbalance for individual side preferences among mice during the training. Finally, the methods for calculating two learning indexes will be described. In addition to the classical discrimination index (DI) that measures the ability of an animal to discriminate between two different objects which are presented at the same time, we will describe the formula of a new index that we present here for the first time, the recognition index (RI), which quantifies the ability of an animal to recognize a same object at different time points and that, by taking into account the basal individual preferences displayed during the training, can give a more accurate measure of an animal's actual recognition memory. PMID:24470023

d'Isa, Raffaele; Brambilla, Riccardo; Fasano, Stefania

2014-01-01

190

Heavy metal concentrations in earthworms from soil amended with sewage sludge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Metal concentrations in soil may be elevated considerably when metal-laden sewage sludge is spread on land. Metals in earthworms (Lumbricidae) from agricultural fields amended with sewage sludge and from experimental plots were examined to determine if earthworms are important in transferring metals in soil to wildlife. Earthworms from four sites amended with sludge contained significantly (P . < 0.05) more Cd (12 times), Cu (2.4 times), Zn (2.0 times), and Pb (1.2 times) than did earthworms from control sites, but the concentrations detected varied greatly and depended on the particular sludge application. Generally, Cd and Zn were concentrated by earthworms relative to soil, and Cu, Pb, and Ni were not concentrated. Concentrations of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb in earthworms were correlated (P < 0.05) with those in soil. The ratio of the concentration of metals in earthworms to the concentration of metals in soil tended to be lower in contaminated soil than in clean soil. Concentrations of Cd as high as 100 ppm (dry wt) were detected in earthworms from soil containing only 2 ppm Cd. These concentrations are considered hazardous to wildlife that eat worms. Liming soil decreased Cd concentrations in earthworms slightly (P < 0.05) but had no discernible effect on concentrations of the other metals studied. High Zn concentrations in soil substantially reduced Cd concentrations in earthworms.

Beyer, W.N.; Chaney, R.L.; Mulhern, B.M.

1982-01-01

191

The earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa stimulates abundance and activity of phenoxyalkanoic acid herbicide degraders  

PubMed Central

2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) is a widely used phenoxyalkanoic acid (PAA) herbicide. Earthworms represent the dominant macrofauna and enhance microbial activities in many soils. Thus, the effect of the model earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) on microbial MCPA degradation was assessed in soil columns with agricultural soil. MCPA degradation was quicker in soil with earthworms than without earthworms. Quantitative PCR was inhibition-corrected per nucleic acid extract and indicated that copy numbers of tfdA-like and cadA genes (both encoding oxygenases initiating aerobic PAA degradation) in soil with earthworms were up to three and four times higher than without earthworms, respectively. tfdA-like and 16S rRNA gene transcript copy numbers in soil with earthworms were two and six times higher than without earthworms, respectively. Most probable numbers (MPNs) of MCPA degraders approximated 4 × 105?gdw?1 in soil before incubation and in soil treated without earthworms, whereas MPNs of earthworm-treated soils were approximately 150 × higher. The aerobic capacity of soil to degrade MCPA was higher in earthworm-treated soils than in earthworm-untreated soils. Burrow walls and 0–5?cm depth bulk soil displayed higher capacities to degrade MCPA than did soil from 5–10?cm depth bulk soil, expression of tfdA-like genes in burrow walls was five times higher than in bulk soil and MCPA degraders were abundant in burrow walls (MPNs of 5 × 107?gdw?1). The collective data indicate that earthworms stimulate abundance and activity of MCPA degraders endogenous to soil by their burrowing activities and might thus be advantageous for enhancing PAA degradation in soil.

Liu, Ya-Jun; Zaprasis, Adrienne; Liu, Shuang-Jiang; Drake, Harold L; Horn, Marcus A

2011-01-01

192

{sup 32}P-postlabeling determination of DNA adducts in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris exposed to PAH-contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

The importance of the search for reliable biomarkers of DNA damage in environmental health assessment is well recognized by the scientific community and regulatory agencies. Among the major biomarkers of DNA damage is the measurement of DNA adducts in target cells or tissues. Up to now, DNA adduct determinations have been directed mostly toward human exposure to toxic substances from the workplace and environment. Moreover, techniques for measuring DNA adducts, and in particular the {sup 32}P-postlabelling technique, presented also the possibility of determining DNA adduct levels in endogenous animal populations exposed to polluted environments as early warning monitors of ecotoxicity. Soil contamination is becoming a major environmental issue. Therefore, numerous contaminated sites must now be remediated to protect human health and to permit new uses of these sites as agricultural, residential, or industrial areas. Fulfillment of this task requires standardized and sensitive bioassays to carry out site evaluations and to establish scientifically defensible soil quality criteria. To that effect, the earthworm appears to be one of the best organisms for use in soil toxicity evaluation. Earthworms are probably the most relevant soil species, representing 60 to 80% of the total animal biomass in soil. Present soil bioassays focus mostly on plant species with end points like seed germination, root elongation, seedling growth and seedling emergence, and on acute toxicity evaluation (re: LC 50) on the earthworm Eisenia fetida. As yet, a standardized soil invertebrate test for teratogenic or mutagenic end points has not been developed. In this paper, we report the feasibility of DNA adduct determination by {sup 32}P-postlabelling in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris as a way to detect the presence of genotoxic substances in soils. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Walsh, P. [Laval Univ. Research Center, Quebec (Canada)]|[Ministere de l`Environnement et de la Faune du Quebec (Canada); El Adlouni, C.; Mukhopadhyay, M.J.; Nadeau, D.; Poirier, G.G. [Laval Univ. Research Center, Quebec (Canada); Viel, G. [CreaLab., Quebec (Canada)

1995-05-01

193

Soil management to prevent earthworms from riddling irrigation ditch banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworm activities were observed under subdued light in lucite fronted soil filled boxes in which bean plants were growing. They formed their burrows by ingesting a relatively small core of soil about 2 mm in diameter and expanding these holes to a diameter of about 5 mm by flexing their muscles. The compacted zone extended about 4 mm from the

W. D. Kemper; Paula Jolley; R. C. Rosenau

1988-01-01

194

Do earthworms increase N 2O emissions in ploughed grassland?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworm activity has been reported to lead to increased production of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). This is due to emissions from worms themselves, their casts and drilosphere, as well as to general changes in soil structure. However, it remains to be determined how important this effect is on N2O fluxes from agricultural systems under realistic conditions in terms

Chiara Bertora; Petra C. J. van Vliet; Eduard W. J. Hummelink; Jan Willem van Groenigen

2007-01-01

195

Do earthworms increase N2O emissions in ploughed grassland?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworm activity has been reported to lead to increased production of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). This is due to emissions from worms themselves, their casts and drilosphere, as well as to general changes in soil structure. However, it remains to be determined how important this effect is on N2O fluxes from agricultural systems under realistic conditions in terms

C. Bertora; Vliet van P. C. J; E. W. J. Hummelink; Groenigen van J. W

2007-01-01

196

A Colony of Highly Phosphorescent EarthWorms  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN the sheltered westward corner of a small grass-plat in this city there is a colony of highly phosphorescent earth-worms. The annelid is round, pellucid, slender, of a faint yellowish tint, is about two inches long, and is not flattened behind. I have been unable to distinguish segmentation. The worm is entirely luminous. The phosphorescence has precisely the bright greenish

J. Lloyd-Bozward

1897-01-01

197

Earthworm Biomass Measurement: A Science Activity for Middle School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an activity on biomass measurement which, in this case, is the weight of a group of living things in a given area. The earthworm activity gives students a greater understanding of ecology, practical math applications, and the scientific method. (ASK)

Haskett, Jonathan; Levine, Elissa; Carey, Pauline B.; Niepold III, Frank

2000-01-01

198

Abundance of earthworm species in Estonian arable soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific composition of earthworm community has indicative value for evaluating the impact of agricultural practice on soil. The occurrence of species only like Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea, Lumbricus rubellus tolerant to disturbance is the result of intensive tillage and agricultural practice or the influence of strong limiting ecological factor. A community including more sensitive species Lumbricus terrestris and Aporrectodea longa,

Mari Ivask; Annely Kuu; Eduard Sizov

2007-01-01

199

Isolation of genomic DNA from the earthworm species Eisenia fetida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our interest in detecting genotoxic exposure in earthworms led us to isolate high quality DNA from theEisenia fetida species. For that, we compared a modification of the conventional phenol-chloroform extraction procedure, usually refered to as the Maniatis procedure, to two commercially available kits reportedly eliminating multiple partitions in phenol and chloroform, namely the Qiagen and Nucleon protocols. From the 260

C. Adlouni; M. J. Mukhopadhyay; P. Walsh; G. G. Poirier; D. Nadeau

1995-01-01

200

TOXICITY OF METALS TO THE EARTHWORM 'EISENIA FETIDA'  

EPA Science Inventory

Development of methods to measure the effect of man's residuals on soil ecosystems is desirable. Earthworms, as one of the largest and most easily obtained components of the soil biota, are suitable for evaluating perturbations to soil ecosystems. The impact of five metals (Cd, C...

201

Population dynamics of earthworm communities in corn agroecosystems receiving organic or inorganic fertilizer amendments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of earthworm populations were investigated in continuously-cropped, conventional disk-tilled corn agroecosystems\\u000a which had received annual long-term (6 years) amendments of either manure or inorganic fertilizer. Earthworm populations were\\u000a sampled at approximately monthly intervals during the autumn of 1994 and spring and autumn of 1995 and 1996. The dominant\\u000a earthworm species were Lumbricus terrestris L. and Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen),

J. K. Whalen; R. W. Parmelee; C. A. Edwards

1998-01-01

202

Soil pH governs production rate of calcium carbonate secreted by the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lumbricus terrestris earthworms exposed to 11 soils of contrasting properties produced, on average, 0.8±0.1mgCaCO3earthworm?1day?1 in the form of granules up to 2mm in diameter. Production rate increased with soil pH (r2=0.68, p<0.01). Earthworms could be a significant source of calcite in soils.

D. C. Lambkin; K. H. Gwilliam; C. Layton; M. G. Canti; T. G. Piearce; M. E. Hodson

2011-01-01

203

Accumulation of methylmercury in the earthworm, Eisenia foetida, and its effect on regeneration  

SciTech Connect

Earthworms provide an appropriate model for evaluating the environmental hazards of metals in soil, and they are also excellent organisms for studying the process of regeneration. Two studies have found that concentrations of mercury in earthworms were higher than those in the soil where they lived. This study investigates the accumulation of methylmercury in the earthworm, Eisenia foetida (Savigny), and its effect on regeneration after excision of the caudal end.

Beyer, W.N.; Cromartie, E.; Moment, G.B.

1985-08-01

204

New earthworm records from Turkey, with description of three new species (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae).  

PubMed

Identifying the earthworm material recently collected in different parts of Turkey (Marmara Region, Upper Mesopotamia, Hatay Province and East Anatolia) resulted in records of 29 earthworm species including three lumbricids new to science: Dendrobaena cevdeti, D. szalokii and Eisenia patriciae spp. nov. In addition, Dendrobaena cognettii is reported for the first time from the country. With this contribution, the number of earthworm species and subspecies registered in Turkey is raised to 80. PMID:24870656

Szederjesi, Tímea; Pavlí?ek, Tomás; Co?kun, Yüksel; Csuzdi, Csaba

2014-01-01

205

Treatment Planning Constraints to Avoid Xerostomia in Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy: An Independent Test of QUANTEC Criteria Using a Prospectively Collected Dataset  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The severe reduction of salivary function (xerostomia) is a common complication after radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer. Consequently, guidelines to ensure adequate function based on parotid gland tolerance dose-volume parameters have been suggested by the QUANTEC group and by Ortholan et al. We perform a validation test of these guidelines against a prospectively collected dataset and compared with a previously published dataset. Methods and Materials: Whole-mouth stimulated salivary flow data from 66 head-and-neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy at the British Columbia Cancer Agency (BCCA) were measured, and treatment planning data were abstracted. Flow measurements were collected from 50 patients at 3 months, and 60 patients at 12-month follow-up. Previously published data from a second institution, Washington University in St. Louis (WUSTL), were used for comparison. A logistic model was used to describe the incidence of Grade 4 xerostomia as a function of the mean dose of the spared parotid gland. The rate of correctly predicting the lack of xerostomia (negative predictive value [NPV]) was computed for both the QUANTEC constraints and Ortholan et al. recommendation to constrain the total volume of both glands receiving more than 40 Gy to less than 33%. Results: Both datasets showed a rate of xerostomia of less than 20% when the mean dose to the least-irradiated parotid gland is kept to less than 20 Gy. Logistic model parameters for the incidence of xerostomia at 12 months after therapy, based on the least-irradiated gland, were D{sub 50} = 32.4 Gy and and {gamma} = 0.97. NPVs for QUANTEC guideline were 94% (BCCA data), and 90% (WUSTL data). For Ortholan et al. guideline NPVs were 85% (BCCA) and 86% (WUSTL). Conclusion: These data confirm that the QUANTEC guideline effectively avoids xerostomia, and this is somewhat more effective than constraints on the volume receiving more than 40 Gy.

Moiseenko, Vitali, E-mail: vmoiseenko@bccancer.bc.ca [Department of Medical Physics, Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Wu, Jonn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Hovan, Allan [Department of Oral Oncology, Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Saleh, Ziad; Apte, Aditya; Deasy, Joseph O. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Harrow, Stephen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Rabuka, Carman; Muggli, Adam [Department of Oral Oncology, Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Thompson, Anna [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

2012-03-01

206

Gene expression analysis of CL-20-induced reversible neurotoxicity reveals GABA(A) receptors as potential targets in the earthworm Eisenia fetida.  

PubMed

The earthworm Eisenia fetida is one of the most used species in standardized soil ecotoxicity tests. End points such as survival, growth, and reproduction are eco-toxicologically relevant but provide little mechanistic insight into toxicity pathways, especially at the molecular level. Here we apply a toxicogenomic approach to investigate the mode of action underlying the reversible neurotoxicity of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20), a cyclic nitroamine explosives compound. We developed an E. fetida-specific shotgun microarray targeting 15119 unique E. fetida transcripts. Using this array we profiled gene expression in E. fetida in response to exposure to CL-20. Eighteen earthworms were exposed for 6 days to 0.2 ?g/cm(2) of CL-20 on filter paper, half of which were allowed to recover in a clean environment for 7 days. Nine vehicle control earthworms were sacrificed at days 6 and 13, separately. Electrophysiological measurements indicated that the conduction velocity of earthworm medial giant nerve fiber decreased significantly after 6-day exposure to CL-20, but was restored after 7 days of recovery. Total RNA was isolated from the four treatment groups including 6-day control, 6-day exposed, 13-day control, and 13-day exposed (i.e., 6-day exposure followed by 7-day recovery), and was hybridized to the 15K shotgun oligo array. Statistical and bioinformatic analyses suggest that CL-20 initiated neurotoxicity by noncompetitively blocking the ligand-gated GABA(A) receptor ion channel, leading to altered expression of genes involved in GABAergic, cholinergic, and Agrin-MuSK pathways. In the recovery phase, expression of affected genes returned to normality, possibly as a result of autophagy and CL-20 dissociation/metabolism. This study provides significant insights into potential mechanisms of CL-20-induced neurotoxicity and the recovery of earthworms from transient neurotoxicity stress. PMID:22191394

Gong, Ping; Guan, Xin; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Liang, Chun; Perkins, Edward J

2012-01-17

207

Role of soil interstitial water in the accumulation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine in the earthworm Eisenia andrei.  

PubMed

The uptake of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) from soil by the earthworm Eisenia andrei was examined by using the equilibrium partitioning (EqP) theory and a three-compartment model including soil (S), interstitial water (IW), and earthworms (E). The RDX concentrations were measured using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Method 8330A and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The S-IW studies were conducted using four natural soils with contrasting physicochemical properties that were hypothesized to affect the bioavailability of RDX. Each soil was amended with nominal RDX concentrations ranging from 1 to 10,000 mg/kg. The HPLC analysis showed that the IW extracted from soil was saturated with RDX at 80 mg/kg or greater soil concentrations. The calculated S-IW coefficient (K(p)) values for RDX ranged from 0.4 to 1.8 ml/g soil, depending on the soil type, and were influenced by the organic matter content. In the IW-E studies, earthworms were exposed to nonlethal RDX concentrations in aqueous media. The uptake of RDX by the earthworms correlated well (r(2) = 0.99) with the dissolved RDX concentrations. For the E-S studies, earthworms were exposed to RDX-amended soils used in the S-IW studies. The bioconcentration factors (BCF; ratios of E-to-IW RDX concentrations) were relatively constant ( approximately 5) up to 80 mg/kg soil RDX concentrations, which encompass the RDX saturation limit in the interstitial water of the tested soils. At this concentration range, the RDX uptake from interstitial water was likely dominated by passive diffusion and could be used as an indicator of bioavailability. Other mechanisms may be involved at greater RDX soil concentrations. PMID:20821531

Savard, Kathleen; Sarrazin, Manon; Dodard, Sabine G; Monteil-Rivera, Fanny; Kuperman, Roman G; Hawari, Jalal; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

2010-04-01

208

Do non-native earthworms in Southeast Alaska use streams as invasional corridors in watersheds harvested for timber?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exotic earthworms from Europe and Asia have invaded previously earthworm-free areas of North America where they consume leaf\\u000a litter, mix soil horizons, and alter nutrient cycling. Primarily, earthworm introductions occur through human activities;\\u000a we hypothesized that the combination of logging (i.e., road construction and soil disturbance) and stream transport (i.e.,\\u000a hydrochory) allows earthworms to invade new ecosystems and spread within

David M. CostelloScott; Scott D. Tiegs; Gary A. Lamberti

2011-01-01

209

Susceptibility of epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida to agricultural application of six insecticides.  

PubMed

Ecotoxicological risks of agricultural application of six insecticides to soil organisms were evaluated by acute toxicity tests under laboratory condition following OECD guidelines using the epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida as the test organism. The organochlorine insecticide endosulfan (LC(50) - 0.002 mg kg(-1)) and the carbamate insecticides aldicarb (LC(50) - 9.42 mg kg(-1)) and carbaryl (LC(50) - 14.81 mg kg(-1)) were found ecologically most dangerous because LC(50) values of these insecticides were lower than the respective recommended agricultural dose (RAD). Although E. fetida was found highly susceptible to the pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin (LC(50) - 0.054 mg kg(-1)), the value was higher than its RAD. The organophosphate insecticides chlorpyrifos (LC(50) - 28.58 mg kg(-1)), and monocrotophos (LC(50) - 39.75 mg kg(-1)) were found less toxic and ecologically safe because the LC(50) values were much higher than their respective RAD. PMID:21489602

Gupta, R Das; Chakravorty, P P; Kaviraj, A

2011-07-01

210

Earthworm-Mycorrhiza Interactions Can Affect the Diversity, Structure and Functioning of Establishing Model Grassland Communities  

PubMed Central

Both earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important ecosystem engineers co-occurring in temperate grasslands. However, their combined impacts during grassland establishment are poorly understood and have never been studied. We used large mesocosms to study the effects of different functional groups of earthworms (i.e., vertically burrowing anecics vs. horizontally burrowing endogeics) and a mix of four AMF taxa on the establishment, diversity and productivity of plant communities after a simulated seed rain of 18 grassland species comprising grasses, non-leguminous forbs and legumes. Moreover, effects of earthworms and/or AMF on water infiltration and leaching of ammonium, nitrate and phosphate were determined after a simulated extreme rainfall event (40 l m?2). AMF colonisation of all three plant functional groups was altered by earthworms. Seedling emergence and diversity was reduced by anecic earthworms, however only when AMF were present. Plant density was decreased in AMF-free mesocosms when both anecic and endogeic earthworms were active; with AMF also anecics reduced plant density. Plant shoot and root biomass was only affected by earthworms in AMF-free mesocosms: shoot biomass increased due to the activity of either anecics or endogeics; root biomass increased only when anecics were active. Water infiltration increased when earthworms were present in the mesocosms but remained unaffected by AMF. Ammonium leaching was increased only when anecics or a mixed earthworm community was active but was unaffected by AMF; nitrate and phosphate leaching was neither affected by earthworms nor AMF. Ammonium leaching decreased with increasing plant density, nitrate leaching decreased with increasing plant diversity and density. In order to understand the underlying processes of these interactions further investigations possibly under field conditions using more diverse belowground communities are required. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that belowground-aboveground linkages involving earthworms and AMF are important mediators of the diversity, structure and functioning of plant communities.

Zaller, Johann G.; Heigl, Florian; Grabmaier, Andrea; Lichtenegger, Claudia; Piller, Katja; Allabashi, Roza; Frank, Thomas; Drapela, Thomas

2011-01-01

211

Avoiding Statistical Mistakes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Avoiding statistical mistakes is important for educators at all levels. Basic concepts will help you to avoid making mistakes using statistics and to look at data with a critical eye. Statistical data is used at educational institutions for many purposes. It can be used to support budget requests, changes in educational philosophy, changes to…

Strasser, Nora

2007-01-01

212

Inbreeding avoidance in animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenon of inbreeding depression is well documented and behavioral adaptations for inbreeding avoidance have been described. However, there is debate over whether inbreeding depression is always an important selective force on behavior. Here, we summarize recent evidence for inbreeding depression under natural conditions, review inbreeding avoidance mechanisms, and discuss how these are influenced by social structure. We also examine

Anne Pusey; Marisa Wolf

1996-01-01

213

Mobilizing Communities to Implement Tested and Effective Programs to Help Youth Avoid Risky Behaviors: The Communities That Care Approach. Research Brief. Publication #2011-25  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communities across the country have a vested interest in making sure that young people develop into healthy productive citizens and avoid behaviors that can jeopardize their own health and well-being and threaten the well-being of their families and neighborhoods as well. Substance abuse and delinquency are prime examples of behaviors that get in…

Hawkins, J. David; Catalano, Richard F.; Kuklinski, Margaret R.

2011-01-01

214

Short-term stabilization of grape marc through earthworms.  

PubMed

The winery industry generates vast amounts of organic waste during the various stages of wine production. Among the possible methodological alternatives available for its treatment, vermicomposting is one of the best-known processes for the biological stabilization of solid organic wastes by transforming them into safer and more stabilized materials suitable for application to soil. In this study we carried out a mesocosm experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of the active phase of vermicomposting for the stabilization of grape marc, an enriched lignocellulosic by-product obtained after the grape crushing and pressing stages in wine production. For this we analysed the chemical, biochemical and microbiological properties of the product resulting from this phase, in comparison with those in a control treatment. Earthworm activity reduced the abundance of both bacterial and fungal PLFA biomarkers. Decreases in microbial activity and in protease and cellulase activities were also attributed to the presence of earthworms. The differences in microbial communities were accompanied by a reduction in the labile C pool and the cellulose content. These results indicate that earthworms played a key role in the stabilization of the grape marc in the short-term, via its effects on organic matter decomposition and microbial biomass and activity. PMID:21277083

Gómez-Brandón, María; Lazcano, Cristina; Lores, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge

2011-03-15

215

Earthworm-produced calcite granules: A new terrestrial palaeothermometer?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we show for the first time that calcite granules, produced by the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris, and commonly recorded at sites of archaeological interest, accurately reflect temperature and soil water ?18O values. Earthworms were cultivated in an orthogonal combination of two different (granule-free) soils moistened by three types of mineral water and kept at three temperatures (10, 16 and 20 °C) for an acclimatisation period of three weeks followed by transfer to identical treatments and cultivation for a further four weeks. Earthworm-secreted calcite granules were collected from the second set of soils. ?18O values were determined on individual calcite granules (?18Oc) and the soil solution (?18Ow). The ?18Oc values reflect soil solution ?18Ow values and temperature, but are consistently enriched by 1.51 (± 0.12)‰ in comparison to equilibrium in synthetic carbonates. The data fit the equation 1000 ln ? = [20.21 ± 0.92] (103 T-1) - [38.58 ± 3.18] (R2 = 0.95; n = 96; p < 0.0005). As the granules are abundant in modern soils, buried soils and archaeological contexts, and can be dated using U-Th disequilibria, the developed palaeotemperature relationship has enormous potential for application to Holocene and Pleistocene time intervals.

Versteegh, Emma A. A.; Black, Stuart; Canti, Matthew G.; Hodson, Mark E.

2013-12-01

216

Potential of two epigeic and two anecic earthworm species in vermicomposting of water hyacinth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of two epigeic species (Eudrilus eugeniae Kinberg, and Perionyx excavatus Perrier) and two anecic species (Lampito mauritii Kinberg and Drawida willsi Michaelson) of earthworms was assessed in terms of efficiency and sustainability of vermicomposting water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, Mart. Solm.). In different vermireactors, each run in duplicate with one of the four species of earthworms, and 75 g

S Gajalakshmi; E. V Ramasamy; S. A Abbasi

2001-01-01

217

Earthworms and radionuclides, with experimental investigations on the uptake and exchangeability of radiocaesium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential influence of earthworm activity on the mobility of radionuclides in soils and their subsequent availability for uptake by plants and transfer to higher trophic levels is briefly reviewed. The accumulation of caesium by the earthworm Aporrectodea longa from soil and from plant litter was investigated in laboratory experiments, as was the effect of reworking (through burrowing and ingestion)

S. L. Brown; J. N. B. Bell

1995-01-01

218

Earthworm effects on selected physical and chemical properties of soil aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some physical and chemical properties of 1-to 2-mm aggregates obtained from casts and the burrow-wall material of the earthworm species Lumbricus terrestris, Aporrectodea longa, and Aporrectodea caliginosa were determined in order to show the effects of earthworms on the stabilization of soil aggregates. The results were compared with those of the natural soil from the Ap horizon of a Parabraunerde

H. Zhang; S. Schrader

1993-01-01

219

The effects of metal contamination on earthworm populations around a smelting works: quantifying species effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of metal contaminants on the population density and species composition of earthworms were studied at 22 sites around a primary smelting works situated at Avonmouth, southwest England. All worms were absent from six sites within 1 km of the factory and numbers were also reduced significantly at an additional four sites 2 km from the plant. Total earthworm

David J. Spurgeon; Stephen P. Hopkin

1996-01-01

220

Effect of earthworm casts on protein synthesis in radish ( Raphanus sativum ) and lettuce ( Lactuga sativa ) seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protein-synthesizing capacity of 3-day-old seedlings of radish and lettuce grown in the presence of earthworm casts was investigated using L-14-C-leucine incorporation. The results showed that earthworm casts increased protein synthesis by 24% for lettuce and 32% for radish, althought no significant differences in protein content were evident.

U. Tomati; E. Galli; A. Grappelli; G. Di Lena

1990-01-01

221

Application of willows ( Salix viminalis) and earthworms ( Eisenia fetida) in sewage sludge treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to verify the suitability of willows (Salix viminalis) and earthworms (Eisenia fetida) for sewage sludge management. The study was conducted in Tarnów city sewage plant. In April 2004, 81 pots were filled with concentrated sludge, 27 of which acted as controls, another 54 were planted with willows. In May, 20 mature earthworms were introduced

Agnieszka Kocik; Monika Truchan; Anna Rozen

2007-01-01

222

The implications of copper fungicide usage in vineyards for earthworm activity and resulting sustainable soil quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the impact of copper-containing fungicides (copper oxychloride) on earthworms in South African vineyards, field inventories of earthworms in and between vine rows were carried out and compared to directly adjacent grassland. Also copper content, pH, organic matter content, and soil porosity were determined in these soils. This was combined with laboratory experiments to study the impact of vineyard

H. J. P. Eijsackers; P. Beneke; M. Maboeta; J. P. E. Louw; A. J. Reinecke

2005-01-01

223

EXOTIC EUROPEAN EARTHWORM INVASION DYNAMICS IN NORTHERN HARDWOOD FORESTS OF MINNESOTA, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

European earthworms are invading previously worm-free hardwood forests across Minnesota and the Great Lakes region. In many of these forests, earthworm invasions have been associated with the loss of a previously thick forest floor. The ability of earth- worms to alter and control ecosystem processes has been demonstrated in agricultural systems, but the dynamics and impact of these invasions in

Cindy M. Hale; Lee E. Frelich; Peter B. Reich

2005-01-01

224

The role of earthworms for assessment of sustainability and as bioindicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms, which inhabit soils and litter layers in most landscapes, can offer an important tool to evaluate different environmental transformations and impacts. Agricultural landscapes, urban and industrialized habitats have some earthworms that represent interesting indicators to monitor different contaminations, to assess different farming practices and different landscape structures and transformations. Species number, abundance and biomass can give easily measurable elements.

Maurizio G. Paoletti

1999-01-01

225

Portable Conduction Velocity Experiments Using Earthworms for the College and High School Neuroscience Teaching Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The earthworm is ideal for studying action potential conduction velocity in a classroom setting, as its simple linear anatomy allows easy axon length measurements and the worm's sparse coding allows single action potentials to be easily identified. The earthworm has two giant fiber systems (lateral and medial) with different conduction…

Shannon, Kyle M.; Gage, Gregory J.; Jankovic, Aleksandra; Wilson, W. Jeffrey; Marzullo, Timothy C.

2014-01-01

226

Effects of Exotic Earthworms on Soil Phosphorus Cycling in Two Broadleaf Temperate Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus (P) in northern hardwood forest plots invaded by exotic earthworms versus adjacent uninvaded reference plots. In three of the six pairs of plots, earthworm invasion resulted in significantly more total P in the upper 12 cm of soil. The finding of increased amounts of unavailable and occluded inorganic P forms in the invaded

Esteban R. Suárez; Derek M. Pelletier; Timothy J. Fahey; Peter M. Groffman; Patrick J. Bohlen; Melany C. Fisk

2004-01-01

227

Effects of treatment with sodium fluoride and subsequent starvation on fluoride content of earthworms  

SciTech Connect

The two experiments described here originated during a long-term investigation into the occurrence and movement of pollutant fluoride in a terrestrial ecosystem. Moles (Talpa europaea) whose diet consist largely of various species of earthworm Lumbricidae, are one of the species under investigation. Bone fluoride in moles was found to be higher, on average, than in foxes or small rodents. Moles probably acquire fluoride from their earthworm diet. Earthworms do not have any readily identifiable tissue in which to store large amounts of fluoride but, for their size, they have a considerable amount of soil in their gut, up oto 20% of their dry weight. Preliminary measurements of fluoride in whole earthworms suggested that observed levels could probably be accounted for by fluoride bound in the mineral part of contained soil and released during preparatory ashing. Two experiments to investigate this situation are described; here their aims were: to expose earthworms kept in soil to different concentrations of sodium fluoride; to measure resulting fluoride in earthworms when soil was removed from their gut by starvation for varying periods of time; and to compare amounts of fluoride in whole starved earthworms with those in starved earthworms from which remaining soil had also been physically removed by dissection and washing.

Walton, K.C.

1987-01-01

228

Development of a Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose was to design a self-report measure of behavioral tendencies that frequently accompany body-image disturbance. The result was a 19-item questionnaire that dealt with avoidance of situations that provoke concern about physical appearance, such as avoidance of tight-fitting clothes, social outings, and physical intimacy. The Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire had adequate internal consistency and test–retest reliability. The measure correlated

James C. Rosen; Debra Srebnik; Elayne Saltzberg; Sally Wendt

1991-01-01

229

In vitro nanoparticle toxicity to rat alveolar cells and coelomocytes from the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus.  

PubMed

Sensitivity of immune cells (coelomocytes) of Lumbricus rubellus earthworms was investigated for exposure to selected nanoparticles, in order to obtain further insight in mechanisms of effects observed after in vivo C60 exposure. In the in vivo study, tissue damage appeared to occur without accompanying increased immune responses. Coelomocytes exposed in vitro to C60 showed no decrease of their cellular viability, but demonstrated a decrease in gene expression of the cytokine-like protein CCF-1, indicating immunosuppression. Experiments with NR8383 rat macrophage cells and tri-block copolymer nanoparticles were used to compare sensitivity and to demonstrate the usefulness of coelomocytes as a test system for nano-immunotoxicity, respectively. Overall, the results imply that sensitivity towards nanoparticles differs between cell types and nanoparticles. Moreover, this study indicates that injuries in absence of an immune response, observed after in vivo C60 exposure in our earlier work, are caused by immunosuppression rather than coelomocyte mortality. PMID:23102209

van der Ploeg, Merel J C; van den Berg, Johannes H J; Bhattacharjee, Sourav; de Haan, Laura H J; Ershov, Dmitry S; Fokkink, Remco G; Zuilhof, Han; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; van den Brink, Nico W

2014-02-01

230

Arsenic resistance and cycling in earthworms residing at a former gold mine in Canada.  

PubMed

Earthworms (Lumbricus castaneous and Dendrodrilus rubidus), their host soils and leaf litter were collected from a former gold mine with widespread arsenic (As) contamination in Nova Scotia, Canada and determined for total and speciated As. Resistance to As toxicity was investigated by measurement of DNA damage in exposed earthworm populations using the comet assay. Arsenobetaine (AB) was observed at low concentration in the earthworms but not in the host soil or leaf litter. Several different organoarsenic species were observed in the leaf litter and only inorganic As was found in the host soils. The results suggest that 1) adaptation to As toxicity in earthworms is widespread and not particular to a single species, 2) AB originates in the earthworm and not the consumed soil or leaf litter and 3) as previously hypothesised (Button et al., 2010), biotransformation of inorganic As to AB is not likely involved in the adaptation. PMID:22683483

Button, Mark; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J

2012-10-01

231

Fluoride accumulation in different earthworm species near an industrial emission source in southern Germany  

SciTech Connect

The information on fluorides (F)-pollution of soil invertebrates is sparse and only a few recent publications deal with F accumulation in some taxonomic groups of soil fauna. Earthworms in particular become the focus of soil-soil fauna interactions in F-polluted sites, even more so since a significant relationship between soil pollution and F load in earthworms was observed. Earthworms coat their burrowings and this may be a mechanism of F-dissemination and subsoil contamination. Evidence is growing that fluorides pass through food chains. Earthworms as the preferred prey of a wide range of animals are therefore in the center of interest as a possible way of F-bioaccumulation in higher trophic levels. For a risk assessment of F-pollution and pathways of F through organisms and ecosystems, detailed knowledge of F-accumulation in soil fauna, and in earthworms in particular is required.

Vogel, J.; Ottow, J.C.G. (Justus-Liebig Univ., Giessen (Germany))

1991-10-01

232

Effect of the Heavy Metals Cu, Ni, Cd and Zn on the Growth and Reproduction of Epigeic Earthworms ( E. fetida ) during the Vermistabilization of Municipal Sewage Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to enhance the removal of heavy metals such as Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd from wastewater, different cow dung\\/sewage sludge\\u000a ratios were tested to assess the effect of these metals on the adaptability of Eisenia fetida earthworms to the treatment process carried out in a typical plant located in Tamaulipas, Mexico. Two experimental water\\u000a treatment setups were proposed.

Miguel A. Domínguez-Crespo; Z. Erika Sánchez-Hernández; Aidé M. Torres-Huerta; Ma. de la Luz X. Negrete-Rodríguez; Eloy Conde-Barajas; Abelardo Flores-Vela

233

Avoiding Construction Snafus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses risk management planning tips that help schools avoid project-delaying construction problems. Preconstruction planning topics explored include the type of construction method to use, contract selection, and the need for efficient project management. (GR)

Rochefort, Mark; Gosch, Jerry

2001-01-01

234

Reduction of total coliform numbers during vermicomposting is caused by short-term direct effects of earthworms on microorganisms and depends on the dose of application of pig slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

During vermicomposting of organic waste, the interactions between epigeic earthworms and the detrital microbial community lead to decreases in the abundance of some potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Despite its importance, little is known about the mechanisms involved and the factors that affect the intensity of this effect. In the present study, we carried out three experiments to test the effect of

Fernando Monroy; Manuel Aira; Jorge Domínguez

2009-01-01

235

Avoiding the SCAMs.  

PubMed

Dendrites from the same neuron usually avoid contact with one another, a behavior known as self-avoidance. In this issue of Neuron and in the upcoming May 4, 2007 issue of Cell, a pair of studies by Soba et al. and Hughes et al. and a study by Matthews et al., respectively, identify products from the highly alternatively spliced Dscam gene as central to this behavior in Drosophila. Signaling induced by adhesion between identical isoforms triggers repulsion between sister dendrites. PMID:17481387

Kidd, Thomas; Condron, Barry

2007-05-01

236

Impact of age of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantation on earthworm communities of West Tripura (India).  

PubMed

A comparative analysis of earthworm communities was carried out in the rubber plantations (Hevea brasiliensis) of different age groups in West Tripura to understand the impact of such exotic and monoculture plantation in biodiversity conservation. Earthworm communities were studied on monthly basis over a period of one year (2006-2007) in the 3, 10, 14, 20 and 25 year-old plantations. Among twelve earthworm species collected from the studied sites, six species belonged to Octochaetidae [Eutyphoeus assomensis Stephenson, Eutyphoeus comillahnus Michaelsen, Lennogaster chittagongensis (Stephensen), Octochaetona beatrix Gates, Dichogaster offinis Michaelsen, Lennogaster yeicus (Stephensen)], two species each to Megascolecidae [Metaphire houlleti (Perrier), Konchurio sp. 1] and Moniligastridae [Drowida nepalensis Michaelsen, Drawida papillifer papillifer Stephenson], one species each to Glossoscolecidae [Pontoscolex corethrurus (Muller)] and Ocnerodrilidae [Gordiodrilus elegans Beddard]. Exotic species P corethrurus, M. houlleti and native peregrine species like D. nepolensis and D. papillifer papillifer were distributed in all the age groups of plantation, while other species showed restricted distribution. P. corethrurus contributed more than 60% biomass and 70% density of earthworm communities in rubber plantation. With aging of rubber plantations both the densities and biomasses of earthworms increased. High contents of polyphenol, flavonoid and lignin in the litters of 3 and 10 year-old-rubber plantations through their effects on food intake, probably resulted to low biomass values of earthworms in those age groups of plantation. With further increase in the age of plantations beyond 10 years, polyphenol, flavonoid and lignin contents decreased. Accordingly the biomass of earthworms increased with increase in the age of plantation. Soil moisture increased with increase in the age of plantation and there was a good positive correlation between soil moisture and earthworm biomass (p < 0.01). Density, biomass and dominance of earthworms increased while species diversity, species richness and species evenness of earthworm community were decreased with increase in the age of rubber plantation. PMID:24006808

Chaudhuri, P S; Bhattacharjee, Subhalaxmi; Dey, Animesh; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila; Bhattacharya, Dipto

2013-01-01

237

Earthworms as colonisers: primary colonisation of contaminated land, and sediment and soil waste deposits.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the role of earthworms in the early colonisation of contaminated soils as well as sediment and waste deposits, which are worm-free because of anthropogenic activities such as open-cast mining, soil sterilisation, consistent pollution or remediation of contaminated soil. Earthworms live in close interaction with their soil environment and are able to change it considerably by their burrowing and litter comminuting behaviour. While earthworms have been studied extensively, several questions still remain unanswered such as: What are the characteristics of successful early colonisers? Do they function well in dispersal, individual establishment or population growth? Do the negative environmental conditions in these kinds of anthropogenic soils hamper colonization or are these colonizers relatively resistant to it? To what extent does colonization change the characteristics of the colonized substrate? In short, do earthworms impact the soil? In this paper, the characteristics that make earthworms successful colonisers are briefly described as well as which species are the most successful and under what circumstances, and what do earthworms contribute to the total process of succession. We propose that it is not so much eco-type or r-K strategy that govern success and succession of earthworm colonisation but rather environmental flexibility not only towards pH, desiccation, and temperature but also towards contaminants such as heavy metals. Moreover, the formation of an organic litter layer, in close connection with re-vegetation of the area, is essential for establishing earthworm populations, which, at first, are mainly superficially and shallow active species. The burrowing and organic matter digesting activity of these earthworms changes the upper soil to a well mixed humus layer suitable for deep burrowing earthworm species. PMID:20138645

Eijsackers, H

2010-03-15

238

Structured interviewing: avoiding selection problems.  

PubMed

In place of the old-fashioned, casual interview, which is unreliable and occasionally invalid in the context of EEO and affirmative action developments, the authors propose the adoption of structured interviewing for job selection. They contend that objective testing--oral, written and physical--would be more reliable, avoid the labyrinth of EEO, and ultimately yield better candidates for the jobs offered. PMID:10249193

Pursell, E D; Campion, M A; Gaylord, S R

1980-11-01

239

Aggregate formation and soil carbon sequestration by earthworms at the ORNL FACE experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthworms have an important role in soil carbon sequestration, but their contribution to carbon sequestration in soils exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations has been largely overlooked. Previous studies at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Free Air CO2 Experiment (ORNL FACE) site showed that the formation of soil aggregates is a key mechanism for soil carbon sequestration. We did a microcosm experiment to quantify earthworm-mediated aggregate formation and compare between two earthworm species with different feeding habits (endogeic vs. epi-edogeic). In addition, we wanted to identify the carbon source (soil, leaf litter or root litter) within aggregates formed by earthworms. We used 13C-depleted soil and 15N-enriched sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) leaf and root litter collected from the ORNL FACE site to assess soil aggregate formation of the native, endogeic earthworm Diplocardia sp. and European, epi-endogeic earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. Both earthworm species are present at the ORNL FACE site. We crushed, sieved (< 250 ?m) soil and prepared four treatments: (I) soil only; (II) soil and plant material; (III) soil, plant material and Diplocardia sp.; (IV) soil, plant material and L. rubellus. All treatments were at 30% water content and temperature was maintained at 20°C. The incubation period lasted 26 days. We measured aggregate size distribution, total aggregate carbon content and 13C and 15N to elucidate aggregate carbon source. Newly formed soil macroaggregates (> 250 ?m) were higher in treatments with earthworms (III and IV) than in treatments without earthworms (I and II) (p = 0.02). Within macroaggregates, most of the carbon was soil-derived. Leaf and root-derived carbon was found in treatment IV only. Our results suggest that earthworms at the ORNL FACE site directly contribute to the formation of soil aggregates, thus contributing to soil carbon sequestration. Carbon source within macroaggregates correspond with earthworm feeding habits, with endogeic earthworms (Diplocardia sp.) feeding mostly on mineral soil and epi-endogeic earthworm (L. rubellus) feeding on both plant residues and soil organic matter.

Sanchez-de Leon, Y.; Gonzalez-Meler, M. A.; Lugo-Perez, J.; Wise, D. H.; Jastrow, J. D.

2012-12-01

240

Utilizing thin-film solid-phase extraction to assess the effect of organic carbon amendments on the bioavailability of DDT and dieldrin to earthworms  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Improved approaches are needed to assess bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds in contaminated soils. Performance of thin-film solid-phase extraction (TF-SPE) using vials coated with ethylene vinyl acetate was compared to earthworm bioassay (Lumbricus terrestris). A DDT and dieldrin contaminated soil was amended with four organic carbon materials to assess the change in bioavailability. Addition of organic carbon significantly lowered bioavailability for all compounds except for 4,4?-DDT. Equilibrium concentrations of compounds in the polymer were correlated with uptake by earthworms after 48d exposure (R2 = 0.97; p 40yr of aging. Results show that TF-SPE can be useful in examining potential risks associated with contaminated soils and to test effectiveness of remediation efforts.

Andrade, Natasha A.; Centofanti, Tiziana; McConnell, Laura L.; Hapeman, Cathleen J.; Torrents, Alba; Anh, Nguyen; Beyer, W. Nelson; Chaney, Rufus L.; Novak, Jeffrey M.; Anderson, Marya O.; Cantrell, Keri B.

2014-01-01

241

Reactive Collision Avoidance Algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reactive collision avoidance (RCA) algorithm allows a spacecraft to find a fuel-optimal trajectory for avoiding an arbitrary number of colliding spacecraft in real time while accounting for acceleration limits. In addition to spacecraft, the technology can be used for vehicles that can accelerate in any direction, such as helicopters and submersibles. In contrast to existing, passive algorithms that simultaneously design trajectories for a cluster of vehicles working to achieve a common goal, RCA is implemented onboard spacecraft only when an imminent collision is detected, and then plans a collision avoidance maneuver for only that host vehicle, thus preventing a collision in an off-nominal situation for which passive algorithms cannot. An example scenario for such a situation might be when a spacecraft in the cluster is approaching another one, but enters safe mode and begins to drift. Functionally, the RCA detects colliding spacecraft, plans an evasion trajectory by solving the Evasion Trajectory Problem (ETP), and then recovers after the collision is avoided. A direct optimization approach was used to develop the algorithm so it can run in real time. In this innovation, a parameterized class of avoidance trajectories is specified, and then the optimal trajectory is found by searching over the parameters. The class of trajectories is selected as bang-off-bang as motivated by optimal control theory. That is, an avoiding spacecraft first applies full acceleration in a constant direction, then coasts, and finally applies full acceleration to stop. The parameter optimization problem can be solved offline and stored as a look-up table of values. Using a look-up table allows the algorithm to run in real time. Given a colliding spacecraft, the properties of the collision geometry serve as indices of the look-up table that gives the optimal trajectory. For multiple colliding spacecraft, the set of trajectories that avoid all spacecraft is rapidly searched on-line. The optimal avoidance trajectory is implemented as a receding-horizon model predictive control law. Therefore, at each time step, the optimal avoidance trajectory is found and the first time step of its acceleration is applied. At the next time step of the control computer, the problem is re-solved and the new first time step is again applied. This continual updating allows the RCA algorithm to adapt to a colliding spacecraft that is making erratic course changes.

Scharf, Daniel; Acikmese, Behcet; Ploen, Scott; Hadaegh, Fred

2010-01-01

242

The Impact of Invasive Earthworm Activity on Biopolymer Character of ýDecayed Litter ý  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last 400-500 years invasive European earthworm populations have ýmoved steadily into North American forests either previously devoid of ýearthworms or that contained their own native populations. This has profound ýimpacts upon litter decay and soil organic matter dynamics. To determine the ýimpact of earthworm activity on the biopolymer and stable isotope chemistry of ýlitter residues and the nature of organic carbon moved to the soil profile we ýanalyzed tulip poplar leaves from a multi-year addition experiment in open ýsurface decay litter and litter bag decay experiments, as well as the associated ýsoils among forest plots that varied in non-native earthworm density and ýbiomass. The chemical alteration of biopolymers was tracked with FTIR ýspectroscopy, 13C-TMAH thermochemolysis, alkaline CuO extraction, and stable ýisotope mass spectrometry. Earthworm activity resulted in residues and soil ýparticulate organic matter depleted in cuticular aliphatic components and ýpolyphenols but highly enriched in ether-linked lignin with respect to initial litter ýmaterial. Decay in low earthworm abundance plots, as well as all experiments ýwith earthworm-excluding litter bags, resulted in enrichment in cutin aliphatics ýand only minor increases in ether linked lignin phenols which was also reflected ýin the soils below the amendments. Additionally, the stable carbon and nitrogen ýisotope composition of tulip poplar residues became isotopically distinct. The ýresults from litter bag decays were only reflective of the chemistry at sites with ývery low earthworm abundances. ý

Filley, T.; Crow, S.; Johnston, C.; McCormick, M.; Szlavecz, K.

2007-12-01

243

Effects of heavy metals on the litter consumption by the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus in field soils  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aim of this study was to determine effects of heavy metals on litter consumption by the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus in National Park the "Brabantsche Biesbosch", the Netherlands. Adult L. rubellus were collected from 12 polluted and from one unpolluted field site. Earthworms collected at the unpolluted site were kept in their native soil and in soil from each of the 12 Biesbosch sites. Earthworms collected in the Biesbosch were kept in their native soils. Non-polluted poplar (Populus sp.) litter was offered as a food source and litter consumption and earthworm biomass were determined after 54 days. Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations were determined in soil, pore water and 0.01 M CaCl2 extracts of the soil and in earthworms. In spite of low available metal concentrations in the polluted soils, Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations in L. rubellus were increased. The litter consumption rate per biomass was positively related to internal Cd and Zn concentrations of earthworms collected from the Biesbosch and kept in native soil. A possible explanation is an increased demand for energy, needed for the regulation and detoxification of heavy metals. Litter consumption per biomass of earthworms from the reference site and kept in the polluted Biesbosch soils, was not related to any of the determined soil characteristics and metal concentrations. ?? 2005 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

Hobbelen, P. H. F.; Koolhaas, J. E.; Van Gestel, C. A. M.

2006-01-01

244

Concentration of cadmium in Coturnix quail fed earthworms  

SciTech Connect

Earthworms (Lumbriscus terrestris), collected from soils in southern Ontario, Canada, that had no previous history of cadmium application, contained 3 ppm cadmium. They were fed to Coturnix quail as 60% dry weight of their diet for 63 d to examine the extent of deposition of native cadmium. Cadmium in kidney, liver, and excreta was greatly elevated above that of birds fed a control diet without worms. No increase in the level of cadmium in eggs was found. The factors affecting the association of cadmium in soils and worms and their assimilation and possible toxic effects in foraging birds are discussed.

Stoewsand, G.S.; Bache, C.A.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Lisk, D.J.

1986-01-01

245

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) depress allogeneic natural cytotoxicity by earthworm coelomocytes  

SciTech Connect

Coelomocytes of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris caused significant spontaneous allogeneic cytotoxicity in a 24-h trypan blue assay, but not in an assay using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Allogeneic cytotoxicity assays using cells from worms exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) suggest that PCBs can suppress a natural killing (NK-like) reaction. The implications of this work are twofold: understanding the evolution of natural killing (NK-like) activity and providing preliminary information on how spontaneous killing, a component of cellular immunity, may be compromised by pollutants.

Suzuki, M.M.; Cooper, E.L. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Lab. of Comparative Immunology; Eyambe, G.S.; Goven, A.J.; Fitzpatrick, L.C. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Venables, B.J. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences]|[TRAC Labs., Denton, TX (United States)

1995-10-01

246

Potential negative effects of earthworm prey on damage to turfgrass by omnivorous mole crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae).  

PubMed

The severity of damage to host plants by omnivorous pests can vary according to the availability of plant and animal prey. Two omnivorous mole crickets, Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder and S. borellii Giglio-Tos, were used to determine if the availability of prey influences damage to hybrid bermudagrass by adult mole crickets. Experiments were conducted in arenas with either grass alone (control), grass plus one mole cricket, grass plus earthworms (Eisenia fetida Savigny), or grass with earthworms and a mole cricket. Root growth variables (e.g., volume, dry weight) after 4 wk and weekly measurements of top growth were compared among the treatments. Surprisingly, bermudagrass infested with either mole cricket species caused no significant reduction in root growth and a minimal reduction on top growth with S. vicinus compared with controls. Survival of earthworms with S. borellii was significantly lower than survival in the earthworm-only treatment suggesting predation. Survival of earthworms with S. vicinus, however, was not different from the earthworm-only treatment. The addition of earthworm prey with mole crickets did not significantly impact bermudagrass root or shoot growth relative to grass with only mole crickets. Despite no negative impacts from earthworms or mole crickets separately, earthworms plus mole crickets negatively impact several root parameters (e.g., length) suggesting an interaction between these two soil-dwelling invertebrates. Increased use of more target-selective insecticides in turfgrass may increase available prey. This work suggests that alternative prey, when present, may result in a negative impact on turfgrass roots from foraging omnivorous mole crickets. PMID:23068170

Xu, Yao; Held, David W; Hu, Xing Ping

2012-10-01

247

Avoiding the "M" Word.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of roundtable discussions by top business officers about how higher education can capitalize on strategic alliances. Describes how, by working with one another and with corporate partners, colleges and universities can avoid closing their doors or merging with stronger institutions. (EV)

Klinger, Donna

2001-01-01

248

Relative Complexity: Beyond Avoidance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses two influential studies on relative clauses (RC), and addresses the development of relative clauses in the interlanguage of advanced Chinese English-as-a-Second-Language speakers in light of the theory of Accessibility Hierarchy (AH). As the two theories predict, avoidance of RCs is typically found with oblique and genitive…

Yip, Virginia; Matthews, Stephen

1991-01-01

249

Avoiding medical emergencies.  

PubMed

Medical emergencies can occur at any time in any location. This article and associated presentation at the forthcoming British Dental Conference Exhibition provide key advice on avoiding medical emergencies in dental practice; including advice on risk assessing all patients, understanding the importance of a checklist, and using a National Early Warning Score (NEWS). PMID:23470404

Omar, Y

2013-03-01

250

Avoiding the Flu  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Avoiding the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Children ... should still get the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. H1N1 Flu: Who Should Be Vaccinated First The Centers for ...

251

Avoiding Cross-Contact  

MedlinePLUS

Avoiding Cross-Contact Cross-contact happens when one food comes into contact with another food and their proteins mix. As a ... Understanding the difference between Cross-Contamination vs. Cross-Contact When dining at a restaurant, you will need ...

252

Avoiding object misconceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identifies and describes a number of misconceptions observed in students learning about object technology. It identifies simple, concrete, measures course designers and teachers can take to avoid these misconceptions arising. The context for this work centres on an introductory undergraduate course and a postgraduate course. Both these courses are taught by distance education. These courses both use Smalltalk

Simon Holland; Robert Griffiths; Mark Woodman

1997-01-01

253

Integration of Weather Avoidance and Traffic Separation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a dynamic convective weather avoidance concept that compensates for weather motion uncertainties; the integration of this weather avoidance concept into a prototype 4-D trajectory-based Airborne Separation Assurance System (ASAS) application; and test results from a batch (non-piloted) simulation of the integrated application with high traffic densities and a dynamic convective weather model. The weather model can simulate a number of pseudo-random hazardous weather patterns, such as slow- or fast-moving cells and opening or closing weather gaps, and also allows for modeling of onboard weather radar limitations in range and azimuth. The weather avoidance concept employs nested "core" and "avoid" polygons around convective weather cells, and the simulations assess the effectiveness of various avoid polygon sizes in the presence of different weather patterns, using traffic scenarios representing approximately two times the current traffic density in en-route airspace. Results from the simulation experiment show that the weather avoidance concept is effective over a wide range of weather patterns and cell speeds. Avoid polygons that are only 2-3 miles larger than their core polygons are sufficient to account for weather uncertainties in almost all cases, and traffic separation performance does not appear to degrade with the addition of weather polygon avoidance. Additional "lessons learned" from the batch simulation study are discussed in the paper, along with insights for improving the weather avoidance concept. Introduction

Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Wilson, Sara R.

2011-01-01

254

Capacitor Test, Evaluation. and Modeling Within NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program. "Why Ceramic Capacitors Fracture During Manual Soldering and How to Avoid Failures"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presentation discusses: (1) Why Multi-Layer Ceramic Capacitors(MLCCs) crack during manual soldering? Workmanship and parts issues. (2) Do existing qualification requirements assure crack-free soldering? MIL-spec Thermal Shock (TS) testing. MIL-spec Resistance to Soldering Heat (RSH) test. (3) What test can assure reliable soldering? Mechanical characteristics of ceramics. Comparison of three TS techniques: LND, TSD, and IWT. (4) Simulation of TS conditions.

Teverovsky, Alexander

2011-01-01

255

Earthworm coelomocytes as nanoscavenger of ZnO NPs  

PubMed Central

Earthworms can ‘biotransform’ or ‘biodegrade’ chemical contaminants, rendering them harmless in their bodies, and can bioaccumulate them in their tissues. They ‘absorb’ the dissolved chemicals through their moist ‘body wall’ due to the interstitial water and also ingest by ‘mouth’ while soil passes through the gut. Since the advent of the nanotechnology era, the environmental sink has been continuously receiving engineered nanomaterials as well as their derivatives. Our current understanding of the potential impact of nanomaterials and their natural scavenger is limited. In the present investigation, we studied the cellular uptake of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) by coelomocytes especially by chloragocytes of Eisenia fetida and their role as nanoscavenger. Results from exposure to 100- and 50-nm ZnO NPs indicate that coelomocytes of the earthworm E. fetida show no significant DNA damage at a dose lower than 3 mg/l and have the potential ability to uptake ZnO NPs from the soil ecosystem and transform them into microparticles.

2014-01-01

256

Biosynthesis of luminescent quantum dots in an earthworm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synthesis of designer solid-state materials by living organisms is an emerging field in bio-nanotechnology. Key examples include the use of engineered viruses as templates for cobalt oxide (Co3O4) particles, superparamagnetic cobalt-platinum alloy nanowires and gold-cobalt oxide nanowires for photovoltaic and battery-related applications. Here, we show that the earthworm's metal detoxification pathway can be exploited to produce luminescent, water-soluble semiconductor cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots that emit in the green region of the visible spectrum when excited in the ultraviolet region. Standard wild-type Lumbricus rubellus earthworms were exposed to soil spiked with CdCl2 and Na2TeO3 salts for 11 days. Luminescent quantum dots were isolated from chloragogenous tissues surrounding the gut of the worm, and were successfully used in live-cell imaging. The addition of polyethylene glycol on the surface of the quantum dots allowed for non-targeted, fluid-phase uptake by macrophage cells.

Stürzenbaum, S. R.; Höckner, M.; Panneerselvam, A.; Levitt, J.; Bouillard, J.-S.; Taniguchi, S.; Dailey, L.-A.; Khanbeigi, R. Ahmad; Rosca, E. V.; Thanou, M.; Suhling, K.; Zayats, A. V.; Green, M.

2013-01-01

257

Biosynthesis of luminescent quantum dots in an earthworm.  

PubMed

The synthesis of designer solid-state materials by living organisms is an emerging field in bio-nanotechnology. Key examples include the use of engineered viruses as templates for cobalt oxide (Co(3)O(4)) particles, superparamagnetic cobalt-platinum alloy nanowires and gold-cobalt oxide nanowires for photovoltaic and battery-related applications. Here, we show that the earthworm's metal detoxification pathway can be exploited to produce luminescent, water-soluble semiconductor cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots that emit in the green region of the visible spectrum when excited in the ultraviolet region. Standard wild-type Lumbricus rubellus earthworms were exposed to soil spiked with CdCl(2) and Na(2)TeO(3) salts for 11 days. Luminescent quantum dots were isolated from chloragogenous tissues surrounding the gut of the worm, and were successfully used in live-cell imaging. The addition of polyethylene glycol on the surface of the quantum dots allowed for non-targeted, fluid-phase uptake by macrophage cells. PMID:23263722

Stürzenbaum, S R; Höckner, M; Panneerselvam, A; Levitt, J; Bouillard, J-S; Taniguchi, S; Dailey, L-A; Ahmad Khanbeigi, R; Rosca, E V; Thanou, M; Suhling, K; Zayats, A V; Green, M

2013-01-01

258

Earthworm coelomocytes as nanoscavenger of ZnO NPs.  

PubMed

Earthworms can 'biotransform' or 'biodegrade' chemical contaminants, rendering them harmless in their bodies, and can bioaccumulate them in their tissues. They 'absorb' the dissolved chemicals through their moist 'body wall' due to the interstitial water and also ingest by 'mouth' while soil passes through the gut. Since the advent of the nanotechnology era, the environmental sink has been continuously receiving engineered nanomaterials as well as their derivatives. Our current understanding of the potential impact of nanomaterials and their natural scavenger is limited. In the present investigation, we studied the cellular uptake of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) by coelomocytes especially by chloragocytes of Eisenia fetida and their role as nanoscavenger. Results from exposure to 100- and 50-nm ZnO NPs indicate that coelomocytes of the earthworm E. fetida show no significant DNA damage at a dose lower than 3 mg/l and have the potential ability to uptake ZnO NPs from the soil ecosystem and transform them into microparticles. PMID:24959107

Gupta, Shruti; Kushwah, Tanuja; Yadav, Shweta

2014-01-01

259

AVOIDING MANUSCRIPT MISTAKES  

PubMed Central

Writing a scientific manuscript can be a consuming, but rewarding task with a number of intrinsic and extrinsic benefits. The ability to write a scientific manuscript is typically not an emphasized component of most entry?level professional programs. The purpose of this overview is to provide authors with suggestions to improve manuscript quality and to provide mechanisms to avoid common manuscript mistakes that are often identified by journal reviewers and editors.

Saliba, Susan A.

2012-01-01

260

Interactions between plant species and earthworm casts in a calcareous grassland under elevated CO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

The authors tested the hypothesis that the spatial proximity of a plant species to nutrient-rich earthworm casts (e.g., 100% more ammonium and 30% more phosphate than in adjacent soil) is an important determinant of a plant`s responsiveness to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2}. In 1995 the authors mapped the location of both earthworm surface casts and plants in each of 16 1.2-m{sup 2} plots in a species-rich calcareous grassland in northwestern Switzerland. Eight plots have been maintained under current ambient CO{sub 2} concentrations and eight have been maintained at elevated CO{sub 2} since March 1994. In addition, total ramet production of each species, as a measure of performance, and cumulative cast production at each location (cell) were recorded at peak community biomass in 1995. Plant species within functional groups differed markedly in their degree of association with casts; however, after two growing seasons elevated CO{sub 2} had no effect on plant species or functional group associations with casts. No statistically significant relationship could be demonstrated between plant-species response to elevated CO{sub 2} and the degree of association with casts within any of the functional groups. However, a positive relationship was observed between the mean response of graminoid species to elevated CO{sub 2} and their mean degree of association with surface casts at ambient CO{sub 2}.

Zaller, J.G.; Arnone, J.A. III [Univ. Basel (Switzerland). Botanisches Inst.

1999-04-01

261

Mercury, cadmium and lead concentrations in different ecophysiological groups of earthworms in forest soils.  

PubMed

Bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd and Pb by eight ecophysiologically distinct earthworm species was studied in 27 polluted and uncontaminated forest soils. Lowest tissue concentrations of Hg and Cd occurred in epigeic Lumbricus rubellus and highest in endogeic Octolasion cyaneum. Soils dominated by Dendrodrilus rubidus possess a high potential of risk of Pb biomagnification for secondary predators. Bioconcentration factors (soil-earthworm) followed the sequence ranked Cd>Hg>Pb. Ordination plots of redundancy analysis were used to compare HM concentrations in earthworm tissues with soil, leaf litter and root concentrations and with soil pH and CEC. Different ecological categories of earthworms are exposed to Hg, Cd and Pb in the topsoil by atmospheric deposition and accumulate them in their bodies. Species differences in HM concentrations largely reflect differences in food selectivity and niche separation. PMID:18400348

Ernst, Gregor; Zimmermann, Stefan; Christie, Peter; Frey, Beat

2008-12-01

262

Glyphosate herbicide affects belowground interactions between earthworms and symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi in a model ecosystem  

PubMed Central

Herbicides containing glyphosate are widely used in agriculture and private gardens, however, surprisingly little is known on potential side effects on non-target soil organisms. In a greenhouse experiment with white clover we investigated, to what extent a globally-used glyphosate herbicide affects interactions between essential soil organisms such as earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We found that herbicides significantly decreased root mycorrhization, soil AMF spore biomass, vesicles and propagules. Herbicide application and earthworms increased soil hyphal biomass and tended to reduce soil water infiltration after a simulated heavy rainfall. Herbicide application in interaction with AMF led to slightly heavier but less active earthworms. Leaching of glyphosate after a simulated rainfall was substantial and altered by earthworms and AMF. These sizeable changes provide impetus for more general attention to side-effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on key soil organisms and their associated ecosystem services.

Zaller, Johann G.; Heigl, Florian; Ruess, Liliane; Grabmaier, Andrea

2014-01-01

263

FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIONS ARE ESTABLISHED BETWEEN GIANT NERVE FIBERS IN GRAFTED EARTHWORMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Giant fiber interconnections were examined in successful grafts between two posterior portions of earthworms (Eisenia foetida). Electrophysiological and histological results indicated that cell-specific interanimal connections were formed between the medial giant fibers (MGF) in ...

264

Is carbon sequestration on post mining sites driven by earthworm activity?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon storage was measured in seven types of forest (alder, oak, lime, willow-birch, pine, spruce and larch) about 30 years old developed in on e large post mining site as split plot design. The carbon storage in soil wary substantial and represent 10-100% of carbon storage in aboveground wood biomass. Carbon storage in soil do not show any correlation with litter input but correlate significantly and positively with earthworm abundance, and micromorphological traces of earthworm activity. Field and laboratory microcosm experiment showed that earthworm mediated soil mixing support carbon storage in soil. Detailed study of soil aggregates created by worms and other forces indicated that worm aggregates contain much larger content of POC. This indicate that soil bioturbation by earthworms may significantly increase carbon storage in soil.

Frouz, J.; Pizl, V.

2009-04-01

265

Glyphosate herbicide affects belowground interactions between earthworms and symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi in a model ecosystem.  

PubMed

Herbicides containing glyphosate are widely used in agriculture and private gardens, however, surprisingly little is known on potential side effects on non-target soil organisms. In a greenhouse experiment with white clover we investigated, to what extent a globally-used glyphosate herbicide affects interactions between essential soil organisms such as earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We found that herbicides significantly decreased root mycorrhization, soil AMF spore biomass, vesicles and propagules. Herbicide application and earthworms increased soil hyphal biomass and tended to reduce soil water infiltration after a simulated heavy rainfall. Herbicide application in interaction with AMF led to slightly heavier but less active earthworms. Leaching of glyphosate after a simulated rainfall was substantial and altered by earthworms and AMF. These sizeable changes provide impetus for more general attention to side-effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on key soil organisms and their associated ecosystem services. PMID:25005713

Zaller, Johann G; Heigl, Florian; Ruess, Liliane; Grabmaier, Andrea

2014-01-01

266

Earthworm activity in a simulated landfill cover soil shifts the community composition of active methanotrophs.  

PubMed

Landfills represent a major source of methane in the atmosphere. In a previous study, we demonstrated that earthworm activity in landfill cover soil can increase soil methane oxidation capacity. In this study, a simulated landfill cover soil mesocosm (1 m × 0.15 m) was used to observe the influence of earthworms (Eisenia veneta) on the active methanotroph community composition, by analyzing the expression of the pmoA gene, which is responsible for methane oxidation. mRNA-based pmoA microarray analysis revealed that earthworm activity in landfill cover soil stimulated activity of type I methanotrophs (Methylobacter, Methylomonas, Methylosarcina spp.) compared to type II methanotrophs (particularly Methylocystis spp.). These results, along with previous studies of methanotrophs in landfill cover soil, can now be used to plan in situ field studies to integrate earthworm-induced methanotrophy with other landfill management practises in order to maximize soil methane oxidation and reduce methane emissions from landfills. PMID:21925596

Kumaresan, Deepak; Héry, Marina; Bodrossy, Levente; Singer, Andrew C; Stralis-Pavese, Nancy; Thompson, Ian P; Murrell, J Colin

2011-12-01

267

NON-INVASIVE ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL MONITORING: A SENSITIVE METHOD FOR DETECTING SUBLETHAL NEUROTOXICITY IN EARTHWORMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Earthworms were exposed, by external surface contact, to three chemical pollutants: dieldrin (a known neurotoxicant), dimethyl phthalate and fluorene (a possible neurotoxicant). After 48 h of exposure, LC50 values were determined and compared with concentrations required for subl...

268

The Earthworm Gut: an Ideal Habitat for Ingested N2O-Producing Microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vivo production of nitrous oxide (N2O) by earthworms is due to their gut microbiota, and it is hypothesized that the microenvironment of the gut activates ingested N2O-producing soil bacteria. In situ measurement of N2O and O2 with microsensors demonstrated that the earthworm gut is anoxic and the site of N2O production. The gut had a pH of 6.9

Marcus A. Horn; Andreas Schramm; Harold L. Drake

2003-01-01

269

Weight response to the soil water potential of the earthworm Aporrectodea longa  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the ability of endogeic earthworms to tolerate variations in soil water potential, groups of these worms were subjected to different, constant levels of soil water suction (?) over a period of 17 days. At water suctions varying from 0.3 kPa (pF 0.5) to 1990 kPa (pF 4.3), the earthworms showed no physiological ability to a maintain constant internal

A. Kretzschmar; C. Bruchou

1991-01-01

270

Pesticide-induced surface migration by lumbricid earthworms in grassland: life-stage and species differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pesticide-induced changes in surface migration by earthworms in grassland were investigated using trapping and the fungicide benomyl. Traps were tended daily for 15 days after spraying, resulting in 2152 earthworms, five species, and juvenile predominance which reflected species\\/life-stage composition in the soil. Significant increases in migration (all worms) occurred already by day 2 due to spraying, final treatment level being

O. M Christensen; J. G Mather

2004-01-01

271

Exotic earthworm effects on hardwood forest floor, nutrient availability and native plants: a mesocosm study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A greenhouse mesocosm experiment, representing earthworm-free North American Acer-dominated forest floor and soil conditions, was used to examine the individual and combined effects of initial invasion by\\u000a three European earthworm species (Dendrobaena octaedra, Lumbricus rubellus and Lumbricus terrestris) on the forest floor and upper soil horizons, N and P availability, and the mortality and biomass of four native understory\\u000a plant

Cindy M. Hale; Lee E. Frelich; Peter B. Reich; John Pastor

2008-01-01

272

Earthworm activity in a simulated landfill cover soil shifts the community composition of active methanotrophs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landfills represent a major source of methane in the atmosphere. In a previous study, we demonstrated that earthworm activity in landfill cover soil can increase soil methane oxidation capacity. In this study, a simulated landfill cover soil mesocosm (1 m × 0.15 m) was used to observe the influence of earthworms (Eisenia veneta) on the active methanotroph community composition, by analyzing the expression of

Deepak Kumaresan; Marina Héry; Levente Bodrossy; Andrew C. Singer; Nancy Stralis-Pavese; Ian P. Thompson; J. Colin Murrell

273

Profiling of Microbial Community Diversity in Vermifiltration of Different Earthworm Abundances by PCR-DGGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In three vermifiltration column disposing residual sludge, where there were different densities of earthworm (0 g\\/L, 40 g\\/L, 60 g\\/L), microbial community diversity were studies by PCR-DGGE. Results showed that different vermifiltration had different microbial diversity. Shannon-Weaver index analysis revealed that Hs in column 2 and column 3 with earthworm were higher than that in column 1. In depth distribution,

Xiaowei Li; Jian Yang; Limin Zhao; Meiyan Xing; Dehan Deng; Danghao Yi

2009-01-01

274

Determination of MBT-waste reactivity - An infrared spectroscopic and multivariate statistical approach to identify and avoid failures of biological tests.  

PubMed

The Austrian Landfill Ordinance provides limit values regarding the reactivity for the disposal of mechanically biologically treated (MBT) waste before landfilling. The potential reactivity determined by biological tests according to the Austrian Standards (OENORM S 2027 1-2) can be underestimated if the microbial community is affected by environmental conditions. New analytical tools have been developed as an alternative to error-prone and time-consuming biological tests. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy in association with Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS-R) was used to predict the reactivity parameters respiration activity (RA(4)) and gas generation sum (GS(21)) as well as to detect errors resulting from inhibiting effects on biological tests. For this purpose 250 MBT-waste samples from different Austrian MBT-plants were investigated using FT-IR spectroscopy in the mid (MIR) and near infrared (NIR) area and biological tests. Spectroscopic results were compared with those from biological tests. Arising problems caused by interferences of RA(4) and GS(21) are discussed. It is shown that FT-IR spectroscopy predicts RA(4) and GS(21) reliably to assess stability of MBT-waste materials and to detect errors. PMID:19854633

Böhm, K; Smidt, E; Binner, E; Schwanninger, M; Tintner, J; Lechner, P

2010-04-01

275

Effects of earthworms on surface clogging characteristics of intermittent sand filters.  

PubMed

Intermittent sand filters (ISFs) are effective and economical in treating wastewater, but they are easy to clog up. To explore a feasible and simple method to alleviate clogging, two pilot-scale ISFs were constructed, one of which contained earthworms and the other did not. During the operation, the effects of earthworms on the hydraulic behaviour of ISFs were investigated. The results showed that both ISFs exhibited good performance in wastewater treatment. However, they showed different hydraulic characteristics although operated at the same organic loading rate (approximately 300 g m(-2) d(-1)). The ISF without earthworms clogged only after 53 d operation, and was partially recovered after 7 d resting, but after that, clogging occurred again, and more rapidly than the initial clogging event (40 d). However, water on the medium surface of the ISF with earthworms was not observed during the whole experiments. In addition, 11-13% of effective porosity and 0.015-0.026 cm s(-1) of infiltration rate were measured in the upper 20 cm of the ISF at the end of the experiments. The facts demonstrated that earthworms played a positive role in alleviating clogging and earthworms fed filter could alleviate surface clogging effectively. PMID:20489261

Wang, Dong-bo; Zhang, Zi-yun; Li, Xiao-ming; Zheng, Wei; Ding, Yan; Yang, Bo; Yang, Qi; Zeng, Tian-jing; Cao, Jian-bin; Yue, Xiu; Shen, Ting-ting; Zeng, Guang-ming; Deng, Jiu-hua; He, Xun

2010-01-01

276

Influence of plant-earthworm interactions on SOM chemistry and p,p'-DDE bioaccumulation.  

PubMed

Laboratory experiments assessed how bioaccumulation of weathered p,p'-DDE from soil and humic acid (HA) chemistry are affected by interactions between the plants Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo and ssp. ovifera and the earthworms Eisenia fetida, Lumbricus terrestris, and Apporectodea caliginosa. Total organochlorine phytoextraction by ssp. pepo increased at least 25% in the presence of any of the earthworm species (relative to plants grown in isolation). Uptake of the compound by ssp. ovifera was unaffected by earthworms. Plants influenced earthworm bioaccumulation as well. When combined with pepo, p,p'-DDE levels in E. fetida decreased by 50%, whereas, in the presence of ovifera, bioconcentration by L. terrestris increased by more than 2-fold. Spectral analysis indicated a decrease in hydrophobicity of HA in each of the soils in which both pepo and earthworms were present. However, HA chemistry from ovifera treatments was largely unaffected by earthworms. Risk assessments of contaminated soils should account for species interactions, and SOM chemistry may be a useful indictor of pollutant bioaccumulation. PMID:21421253

Kelsey, Jason W; Slizovskiy, Ilya B; Petriello, Michael C; Butler, Kelly L

2011-05-01

277

Enantioselective toxicity, bioaccumulation and degradation of the chiral insecticide fipronil in earthworms (Eisenia feotida).  

PubMed

The enantioselective acute toxicity to earthworms of racemic fipronil and its individual enantiomers was studied. R-(-)-fipronil was approximately 1.5 times more toxic than the racemate and approximately 2 times more toxic than S-(+)-fipronil after 72 and 96 h of exposure, respectively. Assays of fipronil enantiomer bioaccumulation and degradation in earthworms were conducted. The bio-concentration factors (BCFs) were slightly different between the two enantiomers. The enantiomeric fraction (EF) values in earthworms in the bioaccumulation period were approximately 0.5, which indicated there was no enantioselective bioaccumulation. In contrast, the degradation of fipronil in earthworms was enantioselective: the t1/2 values for R- and S-fipronil were 3.3 and 2.5 days, respectively, in natural soil, and 2.1 and 1.4 days, respectively, in artificial soil. The results of soil analyses showed that the degradation of fipronil was not enantioselective, which suggested that the enantioselectivity of fipronil in earthworms results from the organism's metabolism. The study also demonstrated that the presence of earthworms could accelerate the degradation of fipronil in soil. PMID:24742550

Qu, Han; Wang, Peng; Ma, Rui-xue; Qiu, Xing-xu; Xu, Peng; Zhou, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Dong-hui

2014-07-01

278

The influence of earthworms on nutrient dynamics during the process of vermicomposting.  

PubMed

In the present study the potential of the earthworm Eisenia andrei to modify chemical and microbiological properties, with a special focus on the nutrient content of fresh organic matter, was evaluated during 16 weeks of vermicomposting of cattle manure and sewage sludge. Samples were periodically collected in order to determine the changes in inorganic nitrogen (N), in total microbial biomass and activity, as well as in the total and available content of macro- and micronutrients. An optimal moisture level, ranging from 75% to 88%, was maintained throughout the process. The content of organic matter decreased over time, but no changes were found in this parameter as a result of earthworm activity. The carbon/N ratio rapidly decreased, but only in the manure, reflecting rapid decomposition and mineralisation of the organic matter by the earthworms. An increase in N mineralisation was also attributable to the presence of earthworms, although in the manure this effect was hardly detectable before the eighth week of vermicomposting. Earthworm activity also enhanced the total content of potassium, calcium and iron together with an increase in the availability of phosphorus and zinc. We did not detect a significant earthworm effect on microbial respiration, but their activity increased greatly microbial biomass nitrogen in sewage sludge. PMID:23831778

Domínguez, Jorge; Gómez-Brandón, María

2013-08-01

279

Earthworms Dilong: Ancient, Inexpensive, Noncontroversial Models May Help Clarify Approaches to Integrated Medicine Emphasizing Neuroimmune Systems  

PubMed Central

Earthworms have provided ancient cultures with food and sources of medicinal cures. Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and practices in Japan, Vietnam, and Korea have focused first on earthworms as sources of food. Gradually fostering an approach to potential beneficial healing properties, there are renewed efforts through bioprospecting and evidence-based research to understand by means of rigorous investigations the mechanisms of action whether earthworms are used as food and/or as sources of potential medicinal products. Focusing on earthworms grew by serendipity from an extensive analysis of the earthworm's innate immune system. Their immune systems are replete with leukocytes and humoral products that exert credible health benefits. Their emerging functions with respect to evolution of innate immunity have long been superseded by their well-known ecological role in soil conservation. Earthworms as inexpensive, noncontroversial animal models (without ethical concerns) are not vectors of disease do not harbor parasites that threaten humans nor are they annoying pests. By recognizing their numerous ecological, environmental, and biomedical roles, substantiated by inexpensive and more comprehensive investigations, we will become more aware of their undiscovered beneficial properties.

Cooper, Edwin L.; Balamurugan, Mariappan; Huang, Chih-Yang; Tsao, Clara R.; Heredia, Jesus; Tommaseo-Ponzetta, Mila; Paoletti, Maurizio G.

2012-01-01

280

Radiocesium ([sup 137]Cs) from the Chernobyl reactor in Eurasian woodcock and earthworms in Norway  

SciTech Connect

To understand the ecological effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident, we investigated radiocesium ([sup 137]Cs) levels in Eurasian woodcock (Scolopax rusticola), earthworms (Lambricidae), litter (dead organic materials lying on the ground), humus (beneath litter 2 cm deep), and mineral soil samples (3-6 cm deep) from a heavily effected (20-60 kBq/m[sup 2][1 Bq = 1 nuclear fission/sec]) area in Norway. The highest concentrations measured in earthworms (1988 median = 142 Bq/Kg) and woodcock (1986 median = 730 Bq/kg) for human food (600 Bq/kg fresh mass) only were found in woodcock during 1986. Radiocesium concentrations decreased (P < 0.001) in earthworms (40%) and woodcock (95%) from 1986 to 1990. There was no reduction in total radiocesium in soil over the same period. The relatively high radiocesium concentrations in woodcock during 1986 and the decreasing radiocesium ratio in woodcock to earthworms during the first years following fallout could have been caused by woodcock ingesting abiotic radiocesium with earthworms. The decrease in radiocesium in woodcock and earthworms during the study (1986-90) probably resulted from decreasing bioavailability of radiocesium during the first years after fallout rather than by radiocesium disappearing from the ecosystem. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Kalas, J.A. (Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim (Norway)); Bretten, S.; Njastad, O. (Univ. of Trondheim (Norway)); Byrkjedal, I. (Univ. of Bergen (Norway))

1994-01-01

281

Earthworms dilong: ancient, inexpensive, noncontroversial models may help clarify approaches to integrated medicine emphasizing neuroimmune systems.  

PubMed

Earthworms have provided ancient cultures with food and sources of medicinal cures. Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and practices in Japan, Vietnam, and Korea have focused first on earthworms as sources of food. Gradually fostering an approach to potential beneficial healing properties, there are renewed efforts through bioprospecting and evidence-based research to understand by means of rigorous investigations the mechanisms of action whether earthworms are used as food and/or as sources of potential medicinal products. Focusing on earthworms grew by serendipity from an extensive analysis of the earthworm's innate immune system. Their immune systems are replete with leukocytes and humoral products that exert credible health benefits. Their emerging functions with respect to evolution of innate immunity have long been superseded by their well-known ecological role in soil conservation. Earthworms as inexpensive, noncontroversial animal models (without ethical concerns) are not vectors of disease do not harbor parasites that threaten humans nor are they annoying pests. By recognizing their numerous ecological, environmental, and biomedical roles, substantiated by inexpensive and more comprehensive investigations, we will become more aware of their undiscovered beneficial properties. PMID:22888362

Cooper, Edwin L; Balamurugan, Mariappan; Huang, Chih-Yang; Tsao, Clara R; Heredia, Jesus; Tommaseo-Ponzetta, Mila; Paoletti, Maurizio G

2012-01-01

282

Persistence in earthworms and potential hazards to birds of soil applied DDT, dieldrin, and heptachlor  

USGS Publications Warehouse

(1) DDT, dieldrin, and heptachlor were each applied to separate replicate plots in a hay field at 0.6, 2.2, or 9.0 kg/ha. For 11 yr thereafter, soil and earthworms were analysed for residues. (2) The average ratios of residues in earthworms (dry weight) to residues in soil (dry weight) were: total DDT, 5; dieldrin, 8; and heptachlor epoxide, 10. The average time for the initial residues in soil to be reduced by 50% were: total DDT, 3.2 yr; dieldrin, 5.1 yr; and heptachlor epoxide, 3.2 yr. The corresponding times for residues in earthworms were: total DDT, 3.2 yr; dieldrin, 2.6 yr; and heptachlor epoxide, 3.0 yr. (3) DDE was most persistent, and in plots treated at 9.0 kg/ha its concentration remained constant at about 0.4 ppm in soil and about 7 ppm in earthworms. (4) When applied at 9.0 kg/ha, DDT accumulated in earthworms to concentrations (32 ppm) which laboratory studies have shown to be hazardous to some sensitive bird species. When heptachlor was applied at 2.2 or 9.0 kg/ha, heptachlor epoxide in earthworms reached concentrations (8 ppm) potentially hazardous to woodcock. Dieldrin remained at potentially hazardous concentrations (8 ppm) for 3 yr in plots treated with 2.2 kg/ha and for 11 yr in plots treated with 9.0 kg/ha.

Beyer, W.N.; Gish, C.D.

1980-01-01

283

Self-assemblage and quorum in the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Oligochaete, Lumbricidae).  

PubMed

Despite their ubiquity and ecological significance in temperate ecosystems, the behavioural ecology of earthworms is not well described. This study examines the mechanisms that govern aggregation behaviour specially the tendency of individuals to leave or join groups in the compost earthworm Eisenia fetida, a species with considerable economic importance, especially in waste management applications. Through behavioural assays combined with mathematical modelling, we provide the first evidence of self-assembled social structures in earthworms and describe key mechanisms involved in cluster formation. We found that the probability of an individual joining a group increased with group size, while the probability of leaving decreased. Moreover, attraction to groups located at a distance was observed, suggesting a role for volatile cues in cluster formation. The size of earthworm clusters appears to be a key factor determining the stability of the group. These findings enhance our understanding of intra-specific interactions in earthworms and have potential implications for extraction and collection of earthworms in vermicomposting processes. PMID:22396774

Zirbes, Lara; Brostaux, Yves; Mescher, Mark; Jason, Maxime; Haubruge, Eric; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

2012-01-01

284

Self-Assemblage and Quorum in the Earthworm Eisenia fetida (Oligochaete, Lumbricidae)  

PubMed Central

Despite their ubiquity and ecological significance in temperate ecosystems, the behavioural ecology of earthworms is not well described. This study examines the mechanisms that govern aggregation behaviour specially the tendency of individuals to leave or join groups in the compost earthworm Eisenia fetida, a species with considerable economic importance, especially in waste management applications. Through behavioural assays combined with mathematical modelling, we provide the first evidence of self-assembled social structures in earthworms and describe key mechanisms involved in cluster formation. We found that the probability of an individual joining a group increased with group size, while the probability of leaving decreased. Moreover, attraction to groups located at a distance was observed, suggesting a role for volatile cues in cluster formation. The size of earthworm clusters appears to be a key factor determining the stability of the group. These findings enhance our understanding of intra-specific interactions in earthworms and have potential implications for extraction and collection of earthworms in vermicomposting processes.

Zirbes, Lara; Brostaux, Yves; Mescher, Mark; Jason, Maxime; Haubruge, Eric; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

2012-01-01

285

Derived Avoidance Learning: Transformation of Avoidance Response Functions in Accordance with Same and Opposite Relational Frames  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments were designed to replicate and extend previous findings on the transformation of avoidance response functions in accordance with the relational frames of Same and Opposite. Participants were first exposed to non-arbitrary and arbitrary relational training and testing. Next, during avoidance conditioning, one stimulus from the…

Dymond, Simon; Roche, Bryan; Forsyth, John P.; Whelan, Robert; Rhoden, Julia

2008-01-01

286

Avoiding Death by Vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two-Higgs doublet model (2HDM) can have two electroweak breaking, CP-conserving, minima. The possibility arises that the minimum which corresponds to the known elementary particle spectrum is metastable, a possibility we call the "panic vacuum". We present analytical bounds on the parameters of the softly broken Peccei-Quinn 2HDM which are necessary and sufficient conditions to avoid this possibility. We also show that, for this particular model, the current LHC data already tell us that we are necessarily in the global minimum of the theory, regardless of any cosmological considerations about the lifetime of the false vacua.

Barroso, A.; Ferreira, P. M.; Ivanov, I.; Santos, R.; Silva, João P.

2013-07-01

287

Earthworm invasion as the driving force behind plant invasion and community change in northeastern North American forests.  

PubMed

Identification of factors that drive changes in plant community structure and contribute to decline and endangerment of native plant species is essential to the development of appropriate management strategies. Introduced species are assumed to be driving causes of shifts in native plant communities, but unequivocal evidence supporting this view is frequently lacking. We measured native vegetation, non-native earthworm biomass, and leaf-litter volume in 15 forests in the presence and absence of 3 non-native plant species (Microstegium vimineum, Alliaria petiolata, Berberis thunbergii) to assess the general impact of non-native plant and earthworm invasions on native plant communities in northeastern United States. Non-native plant cover was positively correlated with total native plant cover and non-native earthworm biomass. Earthworm biomass was negatively associated with cover of native woody and most herbaceous plants and with litter volume. Graminoid cover was positively associated with non-native earthworm biomass and non-native plant cover. These earthworm-associated responses were detected at all sites despite differences in earthworm species and abundance, composition of the native plant community, identity of invasive plant species, and geographic region. These patterns suggest earthworm invasion, rather than non-native plant invasion, is the driving force behind changes in forest plant communities in northeastern North America, including declines in native plant species, and earthworm invasions appear to facilitate plant invasions in these forests. Thus, a focus on management of invasive plant species may be insufficient to protect northeastern forest understory species. PMID:19236448

Nuzzo, Victoria A; Maerz, John C; Blossey, Bernd

2009-08-01

288

Effects of biochar and the geophagous earthworm Metaphire guillelmi on fate of (14)C-catechol in an agricultural soil.  

PubMed

Both biochar and earthworms can exert influence on behaviors of soil-borne monomeric phenols in soil; however, little was known about the combined effects of biochar and earthworm activities on fate of these chemicals in soil. Using (14)C-catechol as a representative, the mineralization, transformation and residue distribution of phenolic humus monomer in soil amended with different amounts of biochar (0%, 0.05%, 0.5%, and 5%) without/with the geophagous earthworm Metaphire guillelmi were investigated. The results showed biochar at amendment rate <0.5% did not affect (14)C-catechol mineralization, whereas 5% biochar amendment significantly inhibited the mineralization. Earthworms did not affect the mineralization of (14)C-catechol in soil amended with <0.5% biochar, but significantly enhanced the mineralization in 5% biochar amended soil when they were present in soil for 9 d. When earthworms were removed from the soil, the mineralization of (14)C-catechol was significantly lower than that of in earthworm-free soil indicating that (14)C-catecholic residues were stabilized during their passage through earthworm gut. The assimilation of (14)C by earthworms was low (1.2%), and was significantly enhanced by biochar amendment, which was attributed to the release of biochar-associated (14)C-catecholic residues during gut passage of earthworm. PMID:24875877

Shan, Jun; Wang, Yongfeng; Gu, Jianqiang; Zhou, Wenqiang; Ji, Rong; Yan, Xiaoyuan

2014-07-01

289

Avoidable waste management costs  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

1995-01-01

290

Measuring Experiential Avoidance in Adults: The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To date, general levels of experiential avoidance are primarily measured by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), but it includes items of questionable comprehensibility. The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y), previously validated as a measure of experiential avoidance with children and adolescents, was…

Schmalz, Jonathan E.; Murrell, Amy R.

2010-01-01

291

Interference with avoidance behavior: Failure to avoid traumatic shock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposed 35 dogs to inescapable traumatic shock. Either 24, 48, 72, or 144 hr. later, they were given instrumental avoidance training using a technique which eliminated all escape contingencies. Short time intervals between inescapable shock and avoidance training produced severe interference with the acquisition of avoidance responding as compared with a control group. But at longer intervals the amount of

J. Bruce Overmier

1968-01-01

292

Avoiding dangerous climate change  

SciTech Connect

In 2005 the UK Government hosted the Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change conference to take an in-depth look at the scientific issues associated with climate change. This volume presents the most recent findings from the leading international scientists that attended the conference. The topics addressed include critical thresholds and key vulnerabilities of the climate system, impacts on human and natural systems, socioeconomic costs and benefits of emissions pathways, and technological options for meeting different stabilisation levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Contents are: Foreword from Prime Minister Tony Blair; Introduction from Rajendra Pachauri, Chairman of the IPCC; followed by 41 papers arranged in seven sections entitled: Key Vulnerabilities of the Climate System and Critical Thresholds; General Perspectives on Dangerous Impacts; Key Vulnerabilities for Ecosystems and Biodiversity; Socio-Economic Effects; Regional Perspectives; Emission Pathways; and Technological Options. Four papers have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

Hans Joachim Schellnhuber; Wolfgang Cramer; Nebojsa Nakicenovic; Tom Wigley; Gary Yohe (eds.)

2006-02-15

293

Earthworm biomass as additional information for risk assessment of heavy metal biomagnification: a case study for dredged sediment-derived soils and polluted floodplain soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The important role of earthworms in the biomagnification of heavy metals in terrestrial ecosystems is widely recognised. Differences in earthworm biomass between sites is mostly not accounted for in ecological risk assessment. These differences may be large depending on soil properties and pollution status. A survey of earthworm biomass and colonisation rate was carried out on dredged sediment-derived soils (DSDS).

Bart Vandecasteele; Jurgen Samyn; Paul Quataert; Bart Muys; Filip M. G. Tack

2004-01-01

294

Avoidance of hydrolyzed casein by mice  

PubMed Central

When casein, a milk protein, is hydrolyzed, it renders human foods that contain it (e.g., hypoallergenic infant formula, cheeses) distasteful to many people. This rejection of hydrolyzed casein (HC)-containing foods has recently been found to also occur in a non-human species (deer, Odocoileus spp.). Identifying other animals that avoid HC would facilitate understanding how and why HC-containing food is often rejected. This study determined whether HC-containing food is avoided by Mus musculus and whether consumption patterns were sensitive to testing conditions, specifically food form (powder, pellet or dough) and food access (ad libitum or 1.5 h/day following 6 h of food deprivation). Diets were offered in two-choice tests that paired an HC-containing food with an intact casein-containing alternative at seven protein concentrations (0%–50% w/w). Five experimental groups were tested under different combinations of food form and food access. Three groups (ad lib/powder, ad lib/pellet, and 1.5 h/pellet) avoided the HC diet starting at the 30% protein level. At the 40% and 50% protein levels, all groups showed strong avoidance of HC. Although testing conditions influenced total caloric intake and body weight gain, avoidance of HC at the highest concentrations was robust to the manipulations in experimental conditions. Our study suggests that mice may be a useful model for understanding the mechanisms of HC rejection.

Field, Kristin L.; Kimball, Bruce A.; Mennella, Julie A.; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.

2008-01-01

295

[Effects of different vegetation restoration of degraded red soil on earthworm population dynamics].  

PubMed

This study was conducted at the long-term experimental plots in Ecological Experimental Station of Red Soil in Yujiang County (28 degrees 15'30''N, 116 degrees 55'30''E ), Jiangxi Province, subtropical China. Earthworm population was investigated seasonally from May 1999 to February 2000, under different vegetations including four artificial woodlands [deciduous broadleaf woodland (Quercus chenii, Qc), evergreen broadleaf woodland (Schima superba, Ss), coniferous woodland (Pinus massonina, Pm) and mixed woodland (Schima superba-Pinus massonina, Sm)], two grasslands [gently-disturbed grassland (G1), undisturbed grassland (G2)] and control wasteland (CK). The results indicated that the population structure was very simple. Only Drawinda gisti characterized by pioneer was found. The seasonal averages of density and biomass were in the order of G2 > G1 > Qc > Ss > Pm > Sm > CK, and those of G2, G1 and Qc were significantly higher than those of the latters (P < 0.05). Seasonal fluctuations were obvious with dry-hot summer depressing the earthworm population sharply, leading to the aestivation of earthworm. Based on the variation coefficients of density and biomass, Qc had the highest ecosystem stability, followed by Sm and Ss, and G1, G2, and Pm had the lowest stability. The overall differentiation of earthworm population could be drawn through canonical discriminant analysis. There were significant correlations between earthworms and some soil properties (P < 0.01). Overall, the differentiation of earthworm population was driven by the quantity and quality of soil organic matter returned by the vegetations. Additionally, based on earthworm population, the importance of selecting appropriate vegetation types during the restoration of degraded red soil was emphasized. PMID:15707332

Liu, Manqiang; Hu, Feng; Chen, Xiaoyun; He, Yuanqiu; Li, Huixin

2004-11-01

296

Avoidance learning in neonatal dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using cloth as the CS and cold air as the UCS, 6 beagle puppies were trained to crawl over a barrier in a 1-way avoidance box. 10 control puppies were run to assess the effects of noncontingent exposures to the CS and UCS. All avoidance-trained Ss met a performance criterion of 14 avoidance responses in 15 consecutive trials, while the

W. Edward Bacon; Walter C. Stanley

1970-01-01

297

Tax evasion and avoidance typologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore tax evasion and avoidance typologies with a view to understanding how they work and the implications for those who handle the wealth of others. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – American, Canadian and UK cases of tax avoidance and tax evasion are studied. Findings – Structuring transactions to avoid or minimize taxes is highly

Jeffrey Simser

2008-01-01

298

CAT altitude avoidance system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus are provided for indicating the altitude of the tropopause or of an inversion layer wherein clear air turbulence (CAT) may occur, and the likely severity of any such CAT, includes directing a passive microwave radiometer on the aircraft at different angles with respect to the horizon. The microwave radiation measured at a frequency of about 55 GHz represents the temperature of the air at an ""average'' range of about 3 kilometers, so that the sine of the angle of the radiometer times 3 kilometers equals the approximate altitude of the air whose temperature is measured. A plot of altitude (with respect to the aircraft) versus temperature of the air at that altitude, can indicate when an inversion layer is present and can indicate the altitude of the tropopause or of such an inversion layer. The plot can also indicate the severity of any CAT in an inversion layer. If CAT has been detected in the general area, then the aircraft can be flown at an altitude to avoid the tropopause or inversion layer.

Gary, B. L. (inventor)

1982-01-01

299

Assessment of earthworm burrowing efficiency in compacted soil with a combination of morphological and soil physical measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Column experiments were carried out to quantify the effect of earthworms on compacted soil. The earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) were able to burrow into soil which was artificially compacted to a pore volume as low as 40%; they may also penetrate an artificial “plough pan” deep in the soil. The effect of the burrowing activity of Lumbricus terrestris was quantified by

M. Joschko; H. Diestel; O. Larink

1989-01-01

300

Effects of fungicides and insecticides on feeding behavior and community dynamics of earthworms: Implications for casting control in turfgrass systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms play important roles in sustaining turfgrass systems through enhancing soil aeration, water filtration, and thatch mixing and decomposition. However, high surface activities of earthworms can lead to uneven playing surfaces, soil erosion and new niches favorable to weed invasion in the playing area of a golf course. Shifts from highly toxic and persistent to less toxic and easily degradable

Cong Tu; Yi Wang; Wenxia Duan; Peter Hertl; Rick Brandenburg; David Lee; Mark Snell; Shuijin Hu

2011-01-01

301

A survey of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, As, and Se in earthworms and soil from diverse sites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Earthworms and soils were collected from 20 diverse sites in Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, and were analyzed for Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, As, and Se. Correlation coefficients relating Iconcentrations of the elements in earthworms to concentrations in soil were low (-0.20earthworms. The maximum concentrations of Pb (2100 ppm), Zn (1600 ppm), Cd (23 ppm) and Se (7.6 ppm) detected in earthworms were in the range reported to be toxic to animals fed diets containing these elements; however, even in the absence of any environmental contamination, some species of earthworms may contain high concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Se. Earthworms of the genus Eisenoides, for example, were exceptional in their ability to concentrate Pb. When earthworms are used as indicators of environmental contamination, it is important to identify the species, to report the soil characteristics, and to collect similar earthworms from very similar but uncontaminated soil.

Beyer, W.N.; Cromartie, E.J.

1987-01-01

302

Earthworms strongly modify microbial biomass and activity triggering enzymatic activities during vermicomposting independently of the application rates of pig slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the relationships between earthworm activity, microbial biomass and the activation and dynamics of several enzyme activities. We carried out an experiment in which low and high rates (1.5 and 3 kg respectively) of pig slurry were applied to small scale reactors with and without earthworms. We found that extracellular enzyme activity increased with rate of pig slurry. In both

Manuel Aira; Fernando Monroy; Jorge Domínguez

2007-01-01

303

[Effects of straw application and earthworm inoculation on soil labile organic carbon].  

PubMed

A six-year field plot experiment of rice-wheat rotation was conducted to study the effects of straw application and earthworm inoculation on cropland soil organic carbon and labile organic carbon. Five treatments were installed, i.e., CK, straw mulch (M), straw mulch plus earthworm inoculation (ME), incorporated straw with soil (I), and incorporated straw with soil plus earthworm inoculation (IE). The results showed that soil organic carbon content increased significantly after six years straw application, and treatment I was more efficient than treatment M. Earthworm inoculation under straw application had no significant effects on soil organic carbon content. Straw application, whether straw mulch or incorporated straw with soil, increased the content of soil labile organic carbon, and incorporated straw with soil was more beneficial to the increase of the contents of hot water-extractable carbon, potentially mineralizable carbon, acid-extractable carbon, readily oxidizable carbon, particulate organic carbon, and light fraction organic carbon. There was a little relationship between the quantitative variations of soil dissoluble organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon and the patterns of straw application. Among the treatments, the activity of soil organic carbon was decreased in the order of IF > I > M > ME > CK. Straw application pattern was the main factor affecting soil organic carbon and labile organic carbon, while earthworm inoculation was not universally significanfly effective to all kinds of soil labile organic carbon. PMID:17615878

Yu, Jian-Guang; Li, Hui Xin; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Hu, Feng

2007-04-01

304

The Mechanics and Energetics of Soil Bioturbation by Plant Roots and Earthworms - Plastic Deformation Considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil structure plays a critical factor in the agricultural, hydrological and ecological functions of soils. These services are adversely impacted by soil compaction, a damage that could last for many years until functional structure is restored. An important class of soil structural restoration processes are related to biomechanical activity associated with burrowing of earthworms and root proliferation in impacted soil volumes. We study details of the mechanical processes and energetics associated with quantifying the rates and mechanical energy required for soil structural restoration. We first consider plastic cavity expansion to describe earthworm and plant root radial expansion under various conditions. We then use cone penetration models as analogues to wedging induced by root tip growth and worm locomotion. The associated mechanical stresses and strains determine the mechanical energy associated with bioturbation for different hydration conditions and root/earthworm geometries. Results illustrate a reduction in strain energy with increasing water content and trade-offs between pressure and energy investment for various root and earthworm geometries. The study provides the basic building blocks for estimating rates of soil structural alteration, the associated energetic requirements (soil carbon, plant assimilates) needed to sustain structure regeneration by earthworms and roots, and highlights potential mechanical cut-offs for such activities.

Ruiz, Siul; Or, Dani; Schymanski, Stanislaus

2014-05-01

305

Changes in forest floor composition and chemistry along an invasive earthworm gradient in a hardwood forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have demonstrated how invasive European earthworm species have caused large and long lasting perturbations to forest floor dynamics and soil composition in many northern hardwood forests. The type of perturbation is driven primarily by the composition and activity of the invasive species and the original state of the forest system. Over the past 4 years we have investigated an invasive earthworm front moving through the Ojibwa Red Lake Reservation (Minnesota). Significant shifts in litter and organic horizon mass were observed, similar to other gradients identified in the region, but the species of earthworms exhibited differences compared to other reservation lands in the region--possibly driven by the availability of recreation fishing near to the sites. Sharp gradients in earthworm abundance were observed exhibiting shifts from 600- 900 individuals per meter square to no observed worms within only 500 meters. The gradients in earthworm activity also influenced decay rates of litter, as was observed by placement of litter decay bags across the gradient. Our findings demonstrate the tenuous nature of many tribal reservation forests and point to the need for policies to address spread on such species to minimize impacts to soil carbon stocks as well as culturally important plant species.

Jourdain, J. N.; Filley, T. R.; Top, S. M.; Thayer, C.; Johnson, A.; Jenkins, M.; Welle, P.; Zurn-Birkhimer, S.; Kroeger, T.; Gemscholars

2010-12-01

306

Edaphic factors affecting the toxicity and accumulation of arsenate in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris  

SciTech Connect

The toxicity and accumulation of arsenate was determined in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris in soil from different layers of a forest profile. Toxicity increased fourfold between 2 and 10 d. Edaphic factors (pH, soil organic matter, and depth in soil profile) also affected toxicity with a three fold decrease in the concentration that causes 50% mortality with increasing depth in soil. In a 4-d exposure study, there was no evidence of arsenic bioconcentration in earthworm tissue, although bioaccumulation was occurring. There was a considerable difference in tissue residues between living and dead earthworms, with dead worms having higher concentrations. This difference was dependent on both soil arsenate concentration and on soil type. Over a wide range of soil arsenate concentrations, earthworm arsenic residues are homeostatically maintained in living worms, but this homeostasis breaks down during death. Alternatively, equilibration with soil residues may occur via accumulation after death. In long-term accumulation studies in soils dosed with a sublethal arsenate concentration, bioconcentration of arsenate did not occur until day 12, after which earthworm concentrations rose steadily above the soil concentration, with residues in worms three fold higher than soil concentrations by the termination of the study. This bioconcentration only occurred in depurated worms over the time period of the study. Initially, depurated worms had lower arsenic concentrations than undepurated until tissue concentrations were equivalent to the soil concentration. Once tissue concentration was greater than soil concentration, depurated worms had higher arsenic residues than undepurated.

Meharg, A.A.; Shore, R.F.; Broadgate, K. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology, Huntingdon (United Kingdom)

1998-06-01

307

Cellular biomarkers for measuring toxicity of xenobiotics: Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on earthworm Lumbricus terrestris coelomocytes  

SciTech Connect

Acute toxicity in earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) was assayed immediately after 5-d filter paper exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclor 1254, using coelomocyte viability, total extruded cell counts (ECC), differential cell counts (DCC), and formation of erythrocyte (ER) and secretory rosettes (SR) with, and phagocytosis of, antigenic rabbit red blood cells (RRBC). Chronic toxicity was assayed using rates by which earthworms replaced viable immunoactive coelomocytes, removed noninvasively immediately after exposure, over an 18-week depuration period. All cytological parameters, except ECC, were acutely affected immediately after exposure, when tissue concentrations were ([anti X] [plus minus] SE) 91.2 [plus minus] 8.19 [mu]g PCB per gram dry mass. Replacement of viable immunoactive coelomocytes occurred within six weeks in unexposed control earthworms. Exposed earthworms showed significant alteration in viability, ECC, DCC, ER, and SR formation, and phagocytosis at 6 and 12 weeks when PCB tissue concentrations were 41 [plus minus] 0.31 and 30.2 [plus minus] 0.88 [mu]g/g dry mass, respectively. Replacement of extruded coelomocytes with normal DCC of viable immunocompetent cells was not observed until week 18, when PCB had decreased to 15.7 [plus minus] 0.83 [mu]g/g dry mass. Low inherent natural variability in coelomocyte viability, ECC, DCC, rosette formation, and phagocytosis, and their sensitivity to sublethal PCB body burdens, indicated that earthworm coelomocytes have potential as nonmammalian biomarkers for assaying acute and chronic sublethal toxicity of xenobiotics.

Goven, A.J.; Fitzpatrick, L.C. (Univ. of North Texas, Denton (United States)); Eyambe, G.S. (Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock (United States)); Venables, B.J. (TRAC Labs., Denton, TX (United States)); Cooper, E.L. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

1993-05-01

308

A dataset comprising four micro-computed tomography scans of freshly fixed and museum earthworm specimens  

PubMed Central

Background Although molecular tools are increasingly employed to decipher invertebrate systematics, earthworm (Annelida: Clitellata: ‘Oligochaeta’) taxonomy is still largely based on conventional dissection, resulting in data that are mostly unsuitable for dissemination through online databases. In order to evaluate if micro-computed tomography (?CT) in combination with soft tissue staining techniques could be used to expand the existing set of tools available for studying internal and external structures of earthworms, ?CT scans of freshly fixed and museum specimens were gathered. Findings Scout images revealed full penetration of tissues by the staining agent. The attained isotropic voxel resolutions permit identification of internal and external structures conventionally used in earthworm taxonomy. The ?CT projection and reconstruction images have been deposited in the online data repository GigaDB and are publicly available for download. Conclusions The dataset presented here shows that earthworms constitute suitable candidates for ?CT scanning in combination with soft tissue staining. Not only are the data comparable to results derived from traditional dissection techniques, but due to their digital nature the data also permit computer-based interactive exploration of earthworm morphology and anatomy. The approach pursued here can be applied to freshly fixed as well as museum specimens, which is of particular importance when considering the use of rare or valuable material. Finally, a number of aspects related to the deposition of digital morphological data are briefly discussed.

2014-01-01

309

Stimulating effect of earthworm excreta on the mineralization of nitrogen compounds in soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of excreta of earthworm species Aporrectodea caliginosa and Eisenia fetida on the mineralization of nitrogen compounds in soils has been studied. A single application of excreta obtained from three earthworms in one day increased the formation of nitrate nitrogen compounds in the soil by 10 50%. The application of ammonium nitrogen (in the form of NH4Cl) in amounts equivalent to the ammonium nitrogen content in the daily excreta of three earthworms had the same effect on the mineralization of nitrogen compounds. The effect of earthworm excreta, as well as the effect of ammonium nitrogen, on the nitrification process was an order of magnitude higher than their contribution to the formation of nitrates due to the oxidation of the introduced ammonium. Hence, ammonium—an important component of the earthworm excreta—can exert a stimulating effect on nitrification processes in the soil and produce long-term cumulative effects that are much more significant than the direct effect of this nitrogen compound.

Bityutskii, N. P.; Solov'eva, A. N.; Lukina, E. I.; Oleinik, A. S.; Zavgorodnyaya, Yu. A.; Demin, V. V.; Byzov, B. A.

2007-04-01

310

Toxicity testing of trinitrotoluene-contaminated soil composts  

SciTech Connect

The Mutatox{trademark} assay and earthworm acute toxicity test were employed to evaluate the efficacy of composting in reducing the toxicity of TNT-contaminated soils. The Mutatox assay is a proprietary bacterial bioluminescence test that determines the mutagenic potential of sample extracts. The earthworm acute toxicity test was chosen because it exposes the organisms to the unaltered contaminant/solid matrix. Rockeye soil, a TNT-contaminated soil collected from a military installation, was composted using two methods. This yielded five samples, Rockeye, Compost A composting. Soil extracts were prepared for Mutatox using the sonification method. Ten serial dilution samples were tested soils/artificial soil were tested in the earthworm toxicity test. In the Rockeye soil samples, a toxic response was shown in both test methods. Mutatox indicated no toxicity in Composts A and B after composting but did not show a positive mutagenic response in the lower serial dilutions. The LC50s for Compost A and B after composting in the earthworm toxicity test were 35.3% and 100%, respectively. Using Mutatox and the earthworm toxicity test together provides a sensitive means of monitoring the effectiveness of various composting techniques for remediating TNT-contaminated soils.

Honeycutt, M.E. [TNRCC TARA, Austin, TX (United States); McFarland, V.A.; Jarvis, A.S. [USAEWES, Vicksburg, MS (United States)

1997-10-01

311

Assessing ecotoxicity and uptake of metals and metalloids in relation to two different earthworm species (Eiseina hortensis and Lumbricus terrestris).  

PubMed

Due to diffuse atmospheric fallouts of process particles enriched by metals and metalloids, polluted soils concern large areas at the global scale. Useful tools to assess ecotoxicity induced by these polluted soils are therefore needed. Earthworms are currently used as biotest, however the influence of specie and earthworm behaviour, soil characteristics are poorly highlighted. Our aim was therefore to assess the toxicity of various polluted soils with process particles enriches by metals and metalloids (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, As and Sb) collected from a lead recycling facility on two earthworm species belonging to different ecological types and thus likely to have contrasted behavioural responses (Eiseina hortensis and Lumbricus terrestris). The combination of behavioural factors measurements (cast production and biomass) and physico-chemical parameters such as metal absorption, bioaccumulation by earthworms and their localization in invertebrate tissues provided a valuable indication of pollutant bioavailability and ecotoxicity. Soil characteristics influenced ecotoxicity and metal uptake by earthworms, as well as their soil bioturbation. PMID:23688736

Leveque, Thibaut; Capowiez, Yvan; Schreck, Eva; Mazzia, Christophe; Auffan, Mélanie; Foucault, Yann; Austruy, Annabelle; Dumat, Camille

2013-08-01

312

Neutral red retention by lysosomes from earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) coelomocytes: A simple biomarker of exposure to soil copper  

SciTech Connect

A simple subcellular histochemical staining technique employing the lysosomal probe neutral red has been developed for use with the epiendogeic earthworm Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister. Coelomocytes extracted from the coelomic cavity of earthworms into an isotonic earthworm Ringer solution were allowed to adhere to a microscope slide for 30 s before the application of a neutral red dye. This red dye was rapidly accumulated within the lysosomes. Observation of the loss of this dye from these lysosomes into the surrounding cytosol has enabled the quantification of the degree of lysosomal damage caused to earthworms with exposure to an increasing range of soil copper concentrations, in both laboratory and mesocosm studies. This simple in vitro biomarker has potential for the rapid assessment of the toxic effects to earthworms from soils contaminated with heavy metals and metalloids.

Weeks, J.M.; Svendsen, C. [NERC, Huntingdon (United Kingdom). Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology

1996-10-01

313

Remediation of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soil by using a combination of ryegrass, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and earthworms.  

PubMed

In this work, a laboratory experiment was performed to investigate the influences of inoculation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus caledoniun L. and/or epigeic earthworms (Eisenia foetida) on phytoremediation of a PCB-contaminated soil by ryegrass grown for 180d. Planting ryegrass, ryegrass inoculated with earthworms, ryegrass inoculated with AMF, and ryegrass co-inoculated with AMF and earthworms decreased significantly initial soil PCB contents by 58.4%, 62.6%, 74.3%, and 79.5%, respectively. Inoculation with AMF and/or earthworms increased the yield of plants, and the accumulation of PCBs in ryegrass. However, PCB uptake by ryegrass accounted for a negligible portion of soil PCB removal. The number of soil PCB-degrading populations increased when ryegrass was inoculated with AMF and/or earthworms. The data show that fungal inoculation may significantly increase the remedial potential of ryegrass for soil contaminated with PCBs. PMID:24457052

Lu, Yan-Fei; Lu, Mang; Peng, Fang; Wan, Yun; Liao, Min-Hong

2014-07-01

314

Collision avoidance timing analysis of DSRC-based vehicles.  

PubMed

Dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) has been used in prototyped vehicles to test vehicle-to-vehicle communication for collision avoidance. However, there is little study on how collision avoidance software should behave to best mitigate accident collisions. In this paper, we analyse the timing of events and how they influence software-based collision avoidance strategies. We have found that the warning strategies for collision avoidance are constrained by the timing of events such as DSRC communication latency, detection range, road condition, driver reaction and deceleration rate. With these events, we define two collision avoidance timings: critical time to avoid collision and preferred time to avoid collision, and they dictate the design of software-based collision avoidance systems. PMID:19887159

Tang, Antony; Yip, Alice

2010-01-01

315

Hospital at home admission avoidance  

PubMed Central

Background Admission avoidance hospital at home is a service that provides active treatment by health care professionals in the patient’s home for a condition that otherwise would require acute hospital in-patient care, and always for a limited time period. In particular, hospital at home has to offer a specific service to patients in their home requiring health care professionals to take an active part in the patients’ care. If hospital at home were not available then the patient would be admitted to an acute hospital ward. Many countries are adopting this type of care in an attempt to reduce the demand for acute hospital admission. Objectives To determine, in the context of a systematic review and meta analysis, the effectiveness and cost of managing patients with admission avoidance hospital at home compared with in-patient hospital care. Search methods The following databases were searched through to January 2008: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, EconLit and the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC) register. We checked the reference lists of articles identified electronically for evaluations of hospital at home and obtained potentially relevant articles. Unpublished studies were sought by contacting providers and researchers who were known to be involved in this field. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials recruiting patients aged 18 years and over. Studies comparing admission avoidance hospital at home with acute hospital in-patient care. The admission avoidance hospital at home interventions may admit patients directly from the community thereby avoiding physical contact with the hospital, or may admit from the emergency room. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently extracted data and assessed study quality. Our statistical analyses sought to include all randomised patients and were done on an intention to treat basis. We requested individual patient data (IPD) from trialists, and relied on published data when we did not receive trial data sets or the IPD did not include the relevant outcomes. When combining outcome data was not possible because of differences in the reporting of outcomes we have presented the data in narrative summary tables. For the IPD meta-analysis, where at least one event was reported in both study groups in a trial, Cox regression models were used to calculate the log hazard ratio and its standard error for mortality and readmission separately for each data set (where both outcomes were available). We included randomisation group (admission avoidance hospital at home versus control), age (above or below the median), and gender in the models. The calculated log hazard ratios were combined using fixed effects inverse variance meta analysis. If there were no events in one group we used the Peto odds ratio method to calculate a log odds ratio from the sum of the log-rank test ‘O-E’ statistics from a Kaplan Meier survival analysis. Statistical significance throughout was taken at the two-sided 5% level (p<0.05) and data are presented as the estimated effect with 95% confidence intervals. For each comparison using published data for dichotomous outcomes we calculated risk ratios using a fixed effects model to combine data. Main results We included 10 RCTs (n=1333), seven of which were eligible for the IPD. Five out of these seven trials contributed to the IPD meta-analysis (n=850/975; 87%). There was a non significant reduction in mortality at three months for the admission avoidance hospital at home group (adjusted HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.09; p=0.15), which reached significance at six months follow-up (adjusted HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.87; p=0.005). A non significant increase in admissions was observed for patients allocated to hospital at home (adjusted HR 1.49, 95% CI 0.96 to 2.33; p=0.08). Few differences were reported for functional ability, quality of life or cognitive ability. Patients reported increased satisfaction with admission avoidance hospital at home. Two trials conducted a full economic analysis, when t

Shepperd, Sasha; Doll, Helen; Angus, Robert M; Clarke, Mike J; Iliffe, Steve; Kalra, Lalit; Ricauda, Nicoletta Aimonino; Wilson, Andrew D

2014-01-01

316

Testing Honey Bees' Avoidance of Predators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many high school science students do not encounter opportunities for authentic science inquiry in their formal coursework. Ecological field studies can provide such opportunities. The purpose of this project was to teach students about the process of science by designing and conducting experiments on whether and how honey bees (Apis mellifera)…

Robinson, Jesse Wade; Nieh, James C.; Goodale, Eben

2012-01-01

317

Signal Molecules Mediate the Impact of the Earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa on Growth, Development and Defence of the Plant Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Earthworms have generally a positive impact on plant growth, which is often attributed to a trophic mechanism: namely, earthworms increase the release of mineral nutrients from soil litter and organic matter. An alternative hypothesis has been proposed since the discovery of a signal molecule (Indole Acetic Acid) in earthworm faeces. In this study, we used methodologies developed in plant science to gain information on ecological mechanisms involved in plant-earthworm interaction, by looking at plant response to earthworm presence at a molecular level. First, we looked at plant overall response to earthworm faeces in an in vitro device where only signal molecules could have an effect on plant growth; we observed that earthworms were inducing positive or negative effects on different plant species. Then, using an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant with an impaired auxin transport, we demonstrated the potential of earthworms to stimulate root growth and to revert the dwarf mutant phenotype. Finally, we performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana in the presence and absence of earthworms; we found that genes modulated in the presence of earthworms are known to respond to biotic and abiotic stresses, or to the application of exogenous hormones. A comparison of our results with other studies found in databases revealed strong analogies with systemic resistance, induced by signal molecules emitted by Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and/or elicitors emitted by non-virulent pathogens. Signal molecules such as auxin and ethylene, which are considered as major in plant-microorganisms interactions, can also be of prior importance to explain plant-macroinvertebrates interactions. This could imply revisiting ecological theories which generally stress on the role of trophic relationships.

Puga-Freitas, Ruben; Barot, Sebastien; Taconnat, Ludivine; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Blouin, Manuel

2012-01-01

318

Individual differences in incompetence avoidance.  

PubMed

This study compared the fear of failure and perfectionism constructs by analyzing their latent structure as well as their motivational antecedents and consequences. College students (N = 372) enrolled in physical activity classes completed a battery of questionnaires assessing fear of failure, perfectionism, approach and avoidance motivational temperaments, and 2 x 2 achievement goals. Structural equation modeling revealed that responses were best summarized by two correlated factors representing perfectionistic strivings and concerns. Avoidance temperament was positively associated with both forms of incompetence avoidance; however, approach temperament was positively related only to perfectionist strivings. Perfectionistic concerns were positively related to the adoption of mastery-avoidance and performance-avoidance goals and negatively related to the adoption of mastery-approach goals. Perfectionistic strivings were positively associated with both approach goals. These results indicate that strivings to avoid incompetence can be distinguished with respect to their latent structure, temperamental antecedents, and motivational consequences. PMID:18369246

Kaye, Miranda P; Conroy, David E; Fifer, Angela M

2008-02-01

319

Long-term persistence of dieldrin, DDT, and heptachlor epoxide in earthworms  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Earthworms can accumulate persistent soilborne insecticides and are an important source of contamination of terrestrail wildlife. We treated experimental plots once with dieldrin, DDT, or heptachlor, and measured changes in insecticide concentrations in earthworms over a 20-year period. We estimated 'half-times,' defined as the time for a concentration in earthworms to be reduced by half. Deldrin had a half-time of 5.4 years. DDE, the metabolite of DDT most important to wildlife, increased until the third year and then decreased with a half-time of 5.7 years. Heptachlor epoxide, the metabolite of hepatachlor most important to wildlife, increased until the second year and then decreased with a half-time of 4.3 years. The declining parts of the curves of all three compounds fit exponential decay equations reasonably well. The estimates persistence are relevant to insecticides at low or moderate concentrations in relatively undistrubed soils in temperate climates.

Beyer, W.N.; Krynitsky, A.J.

1989-01-01

320

[Organic waste treatment by earthworm vermicomposting and larvae bioconversion: review and perspective].  

PubMed

There is a growing attention on the environmental pollution and loss of potential regeneration of resources due to the poor handling of organic wastes, while earthworm vermicomposting and larvae bioconversion are well-known as two promising biotechnologies for sustainable wastes treatments, where earthworms or housefly larvae are employed to convert the organic wastes into humus like material, together with value-added worm product. Taken earthworm ( Eisenia foetida) and housefly larvae ( Musca domestica) as model species, this work illustrates fundamental definition and principle, operational process, technical mechanism, main factors, and bio-chemical features of organisms of these two technologies. Integrated with the physical and biochemical mechanisms, processes of biomass conversion, intestinal digestion, enzyme degradation and microflora decomposition are comprehensively reviewed on waste treatments with purposes of waste reduction, value-addition, and stabilization. PMID:23914515

Zhang, Zhi-jian; Liu, Meng; Zhu, Jun

2013-05-01

321

Healthcare avoidance: a critical review.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to provide a critical review and synthesis of theoretical and research literature documenting the impact of avoidance on healthcare behaviors, identify the factors that influence healthcare avoidance and delay in the adult population, and propose a direction for future research. The Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior, Theory of Care-Seeking Behavior, the Transtheoretical Model, and the Behavioral Model of Health Services Use/Utilization are utilized to elaborate on the context within which individual intention to engage in healthcare behaviors occurs. Research literature on the concept of healthcare avoidance obtained by using computerized searches of CINAHL, MEDLINE, PSYCH INFO, and HAPI databases, from 1995 to 2007, were reviewed. Studies were organized by professional disciplines. Healthcare avoidance is a common and highly variable experience. Multiple administrative, demographic, personal, and provider factors are related to healthcare avoidance, for example, distrust of providers and/or the science community, health beliefs, insurance status, or socioeconomic/income level. Although the concept is recognized by multiple disciplines, limited research studies address its impact on healthcare decision making. More systematic research is needed to determine correlates of healthcare avoidance. Such studies will help investigators identify patients at risk for avoidant behaviors and provide the basis for health-promoting interventions. Methodological challenges include identification of characteristics of individuals and environments that hinder healthcare behaviors, as well as, the complexity of measuring healthcare avoidance. Studies need to systematically explore the influence of avoidance behaviors on specific healthcare populations at risk. PMID:18758277

Byrne, Sharon K

2008-01-01

322

[Comparative studies on vermicomposting of sewage sludge with two epigeic earthworms].  

PubMed

A comparative study was conducted two epigeic species earthworms (Bimastus parvus and Eisenia foetida) for the evaluation of their efficacy in vermicomposting of sewage sludge. The various changes studied during pot experiments were the physiochemical properties of the sewage sludge, sludge reduction and earthworm biomass. Vermicomposting resulted that both epigeic species earthworms showed same capability among sewage sludge mineralization and decomposition rate and reduction. By the end of experiment, the pH value declined to 6.27 with B. parvus and 7.07 with E. foetida, but both epigeic species earthworms showed same mineralization and decomposition rate. B. parvus produced 31.96%, 5.76% and 17.91% increases in nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium as well as 44.14% and 30.69% decreases in C/N and C/P ratios as compared to initial after 30 days of inoculation. In contrast, E. foetida produced 35.48% and 11.58% increases in nitrogen and potassium as well as 10.12%, 46.73% and 20.50% decreases in phosphorus, C/N and C/P ratios as compared to initial after 30 days of earthworm activity. At the same time, both epigeic species earthworms resulted in significant reduction in heavy metal content. The reduction in heavy metal content for B. parvus and E. foetida was found in the order: Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr and Cu > Zn > Ph > Cr. At the end of experiment, the weight and cocoons of B. parvus and E. foetida showed significant increase, which the growth rate and the reproductive rate were 76%-86% and 156%-131% respectively. PMID:20623864

Chen, Xue-min; Huang, Kui; Fu, Xiao-yong; Ni, Shao-ren

2010-05-01

323

Balkanized Research in Ecological Engineering Revealed by a Bibliometric Analysis of Earthworms and Ecosystem Services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy crisis, climate changes, and biodiversity losses have reinforced the drive for more ecologically-based approaches for environmental management. Such approaches are characterized by the use of organisms rather than energy-consuming technologies. Although earthworms are believed to be potentially useful organisms for managing ecosystem services, there is actually no quantification of such a trend in literature. This bibliometric analysis aimed to measure the evolution of the association of "earthworms" and other terms such as ecosystem services (primary production, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, soil structure, and pollution remediation), "ecological engineering" or "biodiversity," to assess their convergence or divergence through time. In this aim, we calculated the similarity index, an indicator of the paradigmatic proximity defined in applied epistemology, for each year between 1900 and 2009. We documented the scientific fields and the geographical origins of the studies, as well as the land uses, and compare these characteristics with a 25 years old review on earthworm management. The association of earthworm related keywords with ecosystem services related keywords was increasing with time, reflecting the growing interest in earthworm use in biodiversity and ecosystem services management. Conversely, no significant increase in the association between earthworms and disciplines such as ecological engineering or restoration ecology was observed. This demonstrated that general ecologically-based approaches have yet to emerge and that there is little exchange of knowledge, methods or concepts among balkanized application realms. Nevertheless, there is a strong need for crossing the frontiers between fields of application and for developing an umbrella discipline to provide a framework for the use of organisms to manage ecosystem services.

Blouin, Manuel; Sery, Nicolas; Cluzeau, Daniel; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Bédécarrats, Alain

2013-08-01

324

Activity and immunodetection of lysozyme in earthworm Dendrobaena veneta (Annelida).  

PubMed

In the present study, lysozyme-like activity against Micrococcus luteus was detected in the coelomic fluid, the extract from coelomocytes, intestine and in the homogenates from cocoons of Dendrobaena veneta. Four hours after immunization with Escherichia coli, the lysozyme activity in the coelomic fluid increased about three times and in the extract of coelomocytes - four times, in comparison to the control. In three cases: of the coelomic fluid, the homogenates from cocoons and the extract from coelomocytes, the antibody against HEWL (hen egg white lysozyme) recognized only one protein with a molecular mass of about 14.4 kDa. In the coelomic fluid, apart from the protein with molecular mass of 14.4 kDa the antibody directed against human lysozyme recognized an additional protein of 22 kDa. Using the bioautography technique after electrophoretic resolution of native proteins in acidic polyacrylamide gels, two lytic zones of M. luteus were observed in the case of the coelomic fluid and three after the analysis of the extract of coelomocytes and the egg homogenates. The results indicated the existence of several forms of lysozyme with a different electric charge in the analyzed D. veneta samples. The highest lysozyme activity in the intestine of D. veneta was observed in the midgut. The antibody directed against human lysozyme indicated a strong positive signal in epidermal and midgut cells of earthworm. PMID:22019387

Fio?ka, Marta J; Zagaja, Miros?aw P; Hu?as-Stasiak, Monika; Wielbo, Jerzy

2012-01-01

325

Snakes mimic earthworms: propulsion using rectilinear travelling waves.  

PubMed

In rectilinear locomotion, snakes propel themselves using unidirectional travelling waves of muscular contraction, in a style similar to earthworms. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we film rectilinear locomotion of three species of snakes, including red-tailed boa constrictors, Dumeril's boas and Gaboon vipers. The kinematics of a snake's extension-contraction travelling wave are characterized by wave frequency, amplitude and speed. We find wave frequency increases with increasing body size, an opposite trend than that for legged animals. We predict body speed with 73-97% accuracy using a mathematical model of a one-dimensional n-linked crawler that uses friction as the dominant propulsive force. We apply our model to show snakes have optimal wave frequencies: higher values increase Froude number causing the snake to slip; smaller values decrease thrust and so body speed. Other choices of kinematic variables, such as wave amplitude, are suboptimal and appear to be limited by anatomical constraints. Our model also shows that local body lifting increases a snake's speed by 31 per cent, demonstrating that rectilinear locomotion benefits from vertical motion similar to walking. PMID:23635494

Marvi, Hamidreza; Bridges, Jacob; Hu, David L

2013-07-01

326

Snakes mimic earthworms: propulsion using rectilinear travelling waves  

PubMed Central

In rectilinear locomotion, snakes propel themselves using unidirectional travelling waves of muscular contraction, in a style similar to earthworms. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we film rectilinear locomotion of three species of snakes, including red-tailed boa constrictors, Dumeril's boas and Gaboon vipers. The kinematics of a snake's extension–contraction travelling wave are characterized by wave frequency, amplitude and speed. We find wave frequency increases with increasing body size, an opposite trend than that for legged animals. We predict body speed with 73–97% accuracy using a mathematical model of a one-dimensional n-linked crawler that uses friction as the dominant propulsive force. We apply our model to show snakes have optimal wave frequencies: higher values increase Froude number causing the snake to slip; smaller values decrease thrust and so body speed. Other choices of kinematic variables, such as wave amplitude, are suboptimal and appear to be limited by anatomical constraints. Our model also shows that local body lifting increases a snake's speed by 31 per cent, demonstrating that rectilinear locomotion benefits from vertical motion similar to walking.

Marvi, Hamidreza; Bridges, Jacob; Hu, David L.

2013-01-01

327

Neurotropic and neuroprotective activities of the earthworm peptide Lumbricusin.  

PubMed

We recently isolated a polypeptide from the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris that is structurally similar to defensin, a well-known antibacterial peptide. An 11-mer antibacterial peptide (NH2-RNRRWCIDQQA), designated Lumbricusin, was synthesized based on the amino acid sequence of the isolated polypeptide. Since we previously reported that CopA3, a dung beetle peptide, enhanced neuronal cell proliferation, we here examined whether Lumbricusin exerted neurotropic and/or neuroprotective effects. Lumbricusin treatment induced a time-dependent increase (?51%) in the proliferation of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Lumbricusin also significantly inhibited the apoptosis and decreased viability induced by treatment with 6-hydroxy dopamine, a Parkinson's disease-mimicking agent. Immunoblot analyses revealed that Lumbricusin treatment increased ubiquitination of p27(Kip1) protein, a negative regulator of cell-cycle progression, in SH-SY5Y cells, and markedly promoted its degradation. Notably, adenoviral-mediated over-expression of p27(Kip1) significantly blocked the antiapoptotic effect of Lumbricusin in 6-hydroxy dopamine-treated SH-SY5Y cells. These results suggest that promotion of p27(Kip1) degradation may be the main mechanism underlying the neuroprotective and neurotropic effects of Lumbricusin. PMID:24796676

Kim, Dae Hong; Lee, Ik Hwan; Nam, Seung Taek; Hong, Ji; Zhang, Peng; Hwang, Jae Sam; Seok, Heon; Choi, Hyemin; Lee, Dong Gun; Kim, Jae Il; Kim, Ho

2014-06-01

328

Metabolic changes during estivation in the common earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa.  

PubMed

The common earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa survives drought by forming estivation chambers in the topsoil under even very slight reductions in soil water activity. We induced estivation in a soil of a consistency that allowed the removal of intact soil estivation chambers containing a single worm. These estivation chambers were exposed to 97% relative humidity for 30 d to simulate the effect of a severe summer drought. Gas exchange, body fluid osmolality, water balance, urea, and alanine were quantified, and whole-body homogenates were screened for changes in small organic molecules via (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Formation of estivation chambers was associated with a dramatic increase in body fluid osmolality, from 175 to 562 mOsm kg(-1), accompanied by a 20% increase in water content. Dehydration for 1 mo caused a further increase to 684 mOsm kg(-1), while the worms lost 50% of their water content. Gas exchange was depressed by 50% after worms entered estivation and by 80% after a further 30 d of dehydration. Urea concentrations increased from 0.3 to 1 micromol g(-1) dry mass during this time. Although (1)H-NMR did not provide the identity of the osmolytes responsible for the initial increase in osmolality after estivation, it showed that alanine increased to more than 80 mmol L(-1) in the long-term-estivation group. We propose that alanine functions as a nitrogen depot during dehydration and is not an anaerobe product in this case. PMID:20367318

Bayley, Mark; Overgaard, Johannes; Høj, Andrea Sødergaard; Malmendal, Anders; Nielsen, Niels C; Holmstrup, Martin; Wang, Tobias

2010-01-01

329

Hydroxyl radical generation and oxidative stress in earthworms ( Eisenia fetida ) exposed to decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant responses induced by decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) in the earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were studied after 7 days of exposure. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra indicated that hydroxyl radicals (•OH)\\u000a in earthworms were significantly induced by 0.01–10 mg\\/kg of BDE-209. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PCO) were\\u000a stimulated at 0.5–10 mg\\/kg and 1–10 mg\\/kg, respectively. The reduced glutathione (GSH) was inhibited at 1–10 mg\\/kg while oxidized

Xianchuan Xie; Yingxin Wu; Mengying Zhu; You-kuan Zhang; Xiaorong Wang

2011-01-01

330

Obstacle avoidance with ultrasonic sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mobile robot system, capable of performing various tasks for the physically disabled, has been developed. To avoid collision with unexpected obstacles, the mobile robot uses ultrasonic range finders for detection and mapping. The obstacle avoidance strategy used for this robot is described. Since this strategy depends heavily on the performance of the ultrasonic range finders, these sensors and the

JOHANN BORENSTEIN; YORAM KOREN

1988-01-01

331

Formation control with collision avoidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a formation flight control strategy featuring a collision avoidance scheme. The control algorithm is based on a Sliding Mode controller. The controller sliding surfaces account for aircraft maneuvering limitations, restricting the required velocities to a feasible set. Further, the relative position between vehicles affects the sliding surfaces shape, enabling collision avoidance. The control method derivation is based on

Ricardo Bencatel; Mariam Faied; Joao Sousa; Anouck R. Girard

2011-01-01

332

Avoiding digester upset.  

PubMed

The acetate uptake bioassay (AUB) is a predictive measure for determining the stability of anaerobic digesters, but its use is rare due to the limited availability of gas chromatography equipment at wastewater treatment facilities. A water displacement system was compared and evaluated as an alternative to gas chromatography analysis for conducting the AUB. Results indicated that methane generation rates measured by the two methods were statistically the same. Precision of the method varied by less than 5%. Accuracy was quantified by measuring near stoichiometric volumes of carbon dioxide gas production from abiotic tests using sodium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. The method detection limit (MDL) was 0.6 mL. The effective use of a water displacement system as a surrogate for gas chromatography analysis could make the adoption of the AUB for predicting digester stability a practical option for treatment facilities. PMID:23697236

Thompson, Phillip L; Jiencke, Frederick W; Reinhart, Shawn W; Reha, Meghan E; Byrne, Samuel S

2013-04-01

333

Avoidance of Phycomyces in a controlled environment.  

PubMed Central

The sporangiophore of the fungus Phycomyces bends away from nearby objects without ever touching them. It has been thought that these objects act as aerodynamic obstacles that damp random winds, thereby generating asymmetric distributions of a growth-promoting gas emitted by the growth zone. In the interest of testing this hypothesis, we studied avoidance in an environmental chamber in which convection was suppressed by a shallow thermal gradient. We also controlled pressure, temperature, and relative humidity of the air, electrostatic charge, and ambient light. A protocol was established that yielded avoidance rates constant from sporangiophore to sporangiophore to within +/- 10%. We found that avoidance occurred at normal rates in the complete absence of random winds. The rates were smaller at 100% than at lower values of relative humidity, but not by much. Remarkably, at a distance as great as 0.5 mm, avoidance from a 30-micron diam glass fiber (aligned parallel to the sporangiophore) was about the same as that from a planar glass sheet. However, the rate for the fiber fell more rapidly with distance. The rate for the sheet remained nearly constant out to approximately 4 mm. We conclude that avoidance depends either on adsorption by the barrier of a growth-inhibiting substance or emission by the barrier of a growth-promoting substance; it cannot occur by passive reflection. Models that can explain these effects are analyzed in the Appendix.

Meyer, P W; Matus, I J; Berg, H C

1987-01-01

334

Effect of earthworm Eisenia fetida and wetland plants on nitrification and denitrification potentials in vertical flow constructed wetland.  

PubMed

The response of nitrification potentials, denitrification potentials, and N removal efficiency to the introduction of earthworms and wetland plants in a vertical flow constructed wetland system was investigated. Addition of earthworms increased nitrification and denitrification potentials of substrate in non-vegetated constructed wetland by 236% and 8%, respectively; it increased nitrification and denitrification potentials in rhizosphere in vegetated constructed wetland (Phragmites austrail, Typha augustifolia and Canna indica), 105% and 5%, 187% and 12%, and 268% and 15% respectively. Denitrification potentials in rhizosphere of three wetland plants were not significantly different, but nitrification potentials in rhizosphere followed the order of C. indica>T. augustifolia>P. australis when addition of earthworms into constructed wetland. Addition of earthworms to the vegetated constructed significantly increased the total number of bacteria and fungi of substrates (P<0.05). The total number of bacteria was significantly correlated with nitrification potentials (r=913, P<0.01) and denitrification potentials (r=840, P<0.01), respectively. The N concentration of stems and leaves of C. indica were significantly higher in the constructed wetland with earthworms (P<0.05). Earthworms had greater impact on nitrification potentials than denitrification potentials. The removal efficiency of N was improved via stimulated nitrification potentials by earthworms and higher N uptake by wetland plants. PMID:23591133

Xu, Defu; Li, Yingxue; Howard, Alan; Guan, Yidong

2013-06-01

335

How Do Earthworms, Soil Texture and Plant Composition Affect Infiltration along an Experimental Plant Diversity Gradient in Grassland?  

PubMed Central

Background Infiltration is a key process in determining the water balance, but so far effects of earthworms, soil texture, plant species diversity and their interaction on infiltration capacity have not been studied. Methodology/Principal Findings We measured infiltration capacity in subplots with ambient and reduced earthworm density nested in plots of different plant species (1, 4, and 16 species) and plant functional group richness and composition (1 to 4 groups; legumes, grasses, small herbs, tall herbs). In summer, earthworm presence significantly increased infiltration, whereas in fall effects of grasses and legumes on infiltration were due to plant-mediated changes in earthworm biomass. Effects of grasses and legumes on infiltration even reversed effects of texture. We propose two pathways: (i) direct, probably by modifying the pore spectrum and (ii) indirect, by enhancing or suppressing earthworm biomass, which in turn influenced infiltration capacity due to change in burrowing activity of earthworms. Conclusions/Significance Overall, the results suggest that spatial and temporal variations in soil hydraulic properties can be explained by biotic processes, especially the presence of certain plant functional groups affecting earthworm biomass, while soil texture had no significant effect. Therefore biotic parameters should be taken into account in hydrological applications.

Fischer, Christine; Roscher, Christiane; Jensen, Britta; Eisenhauer, Nico; Baade, Jussi; Attinger, Sabine; Scheu, Stefan; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Schumacher, Jens; Hildebrandt, Anke

2014-01-01

336

Toxicity assessment of 45 pesticides to the epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to investigate comparative toxicity of 45 pesticides, including insecticides, acaricides, fungicides, and herbicides, toward the epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida. Results from a 48-h filter paper contact test indicated that clothianidin, fenpyroximate, and pyridaben were supertoxic to E. fetida with LC(50) values ranging from 0.28 (0.24-0.35) to 0.72 (0.60-0.94) ?g cm(-2), followed by carbaryl, pyridaphenthion, azoxystrobin, cyproconazole, and picoxystrobin with LC(50) values ranging from 2.72 (2.22-0.3.19) to 8.48 (7.38-10.21) ?g cm(-2), while the other pesticides ranged from being relatively nontoxic to very toxic to the worms. When tested in artificial soil for 14 d, clothianidin and picoxystrobin showed the highest intrinsic toxicity against E. fetida, and their LC(50) values were 6.06 (5.60-6.77) and 7.22 (5.29-8.68) mg kg(-1), respectively, followed by fenpyroximate with an LC(50) of 75.52 (68.21-86.57) mgkg(-1). However, the herbicides fluoroglycofen, paraquat, and pyraflufen-ethyl exhibited the lowest toxicities with LC(50) values>1000 mg kg(-1). In contrast, the other pesticides exhibited relatively low toxicities with LC(50) values ranging from 133.5 (124.5-150.5) to 895.2 (754.2-1198.0) mg kg(-1). The data presented in this paper provided useful information for evaluating the potential risk of these chemicals to soil invertebrates. PMID:22459421

Wang, Yanhua; Wu, Shenggan; Chen, Liping; Wu, Changxing; Yu, Ruixian; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Xueping

2012-07-01

337

Passive samplers provide a better prediction of PAH bioaccumulation in earthworms and plant roots than exhaustive, mild solvent, and cyclodextrin extractions.  

PubMed

A number of extraction methods have been developed to assess polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bioavailability in soils. As these methods are rarely tested in a comparative manner, against different test organisms, and using field-contaminated soils, it is unclear which method gives the most accurate measure of the actual soil ecosystem exposure. In this study, PAH bioavailability was assessed in ten field-contaminated soils by using exhaustive acetone/hexane extractions, mild solvent (butanol) extractions, cyclodextrin extractions, and two passive sampling methods; solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and polyoxymethylene solid phase extraction (POM-SPE). Results were compared to actual PAH bioaccumulation in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and rye grass (Lolium multiflorum) roots. Exhaustive, mild solvent and cyclodextrin extractions consistently overpredicted biotic concentrations by a factor of 10-10?000 and therefore seem inappropriate for predicting PAH bioaccumulation in field contaminated soils. In contrast, passive samplers generally predicted PAH concentrations in earthworms within a factor of 10, although correlations between predicted and measured concentrations were considerably scattered. The same applied to the plant data, where passive samplers also tended to underpredict root concentrations. These results indicate the potential of passive samplers to predict PAH bioaccumulation, yet call for comparative studies between passive samplers and further research on plant bioavailability. PMID:22191550

Gomez-Eyles, Jose L; Jonker, Michiel T O; Hodson, Mark E; Collins, Chris D

2012-01-17

338

Alternating, pattern-avoiding permutations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the problem of counting alternating permutations avoiding\\u000acollections of permutation patterns including 132. We construct a bijection\\u000abetween the set S_n(132) of 132-avoiding permutations and the set A_{2n +\\u000a1}(132) of alternating, 132-avoiding permutations. For every set p_1, ..., p_k\\u000aof patterns and certain related patterns q_1, ..., q_k, our bijection restricts\\u000ato a bijection between S_n(132, p_1,

Joel Brewster Lewis

2008-01-01

339

Some Guides to Discovery About Elm Trees, Owls, Cockroaches, Earthworms, Cement and Concrete.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The introduction emphasizes the need for environmental and conservation education, and advocates an inquiry approach. Outdoor resources available to every school are listed. Detailed suggestions are made for investigating cement and concrete, cockroaches, earthworms, elm trees, and owls. In each case general background information and a list of…

Busch, Phyllis S.

340

Bioremediation of polluted soil through the combined application of plants, earthworms and organic matter.  

PubMed

Two plant species (Paulownia tomentosa and Cytisus scoparius), earthworms (Eisenia fetida), and organic matter (horse manure) were used as an ecological approach to bioremediate a soil historically contaminated by heavy metals and hydrocarbons. The experiment was carried out for six months at a mesoscale level using pots containing 90 kg of polluted soil. Three different treatments were performed for each plant: (i) untreated planted soil as a control (C); (ii) planted soil + horse manure (20:1 w/w) (M); (iii) planted soil + horse manure + 15 earthworms (ME). Both the plant species were able to grow in the polluted soil and to improve the soil's bio-chemical conditions, especially when organic matter and earthworms were applied. By comparing the two plant species, few significant differences were observed in the soil characteristics; Cytisus scoparius improved soil nutrient content more than Paulownia tomentosa, which instead stimulated more soil microbial metabolism. Regarding the pollutants, Paulownia tomentosa was more efficient in reducing the heavy metal (Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni) content, while earthworms were particularly able to stimulate the processes involved in the decontamination of organic pollutants (hydrocarbons). This ecological approach, validated at a mesoscale level, has recently been transferred to a real scale situation to carry out the bioremediation of polluted soil in San Giuliano Terme Municipality (Pisa, Italy). PMID:22911348

Macci, Cristina; Doni, Serena; Peruzzi, Eleonora; Ceccanti, Brunello; Masciandaro, Grazia

2012-10-26

341

Interactions between selected earthworm species: A preliminary, laboratory-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlled experiments were conducted to assess the effects of earthworm interactions in paired species groupings in comparison to monocultures. Species examined included Allolobophora chlorotica, Aporrectodea longa, Dendrobaena veneta, Lumbricus rubellus, Lumbricus terrestris and Octolasion cyaneum. One experiment examined growth rates using hatchling worms in 600ml pots of loamy soil and a feed of separated cattle solids (SCS). The culture medium

Kevin R Butt

1998-01-01

342

Intrapopulation variation in carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in the earthworm Aporrectodea longa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural abundance variations in carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in a population of the earthworm Aporrectodea longa, a species known to feed on both soil and plant litter, is reported in this paper. Worms were collected from a small land area of an old white clover field and body tissue and mucus were analyzed separately. The range of

Olaf Schmidt

1999-01-01

343

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in earthworms and isopods from contaminated forest soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals of the isopod species Porcellio scaber, Oniscus asellus and Philoscia muscorum and the earthworm species Lumbricus rubellus were collected at i0 sites with increasing distance from a blast furnace plant. PAH concentrations in the species decreased with increasing distance from the blast furnace plant. Each of the species contained a specific profile of PAHs. Animal concentrations correlated better with

T. C. Van Brummelen; R. A. Verweij; S. A. Wedzinga; C. A. M. Van Gestel

1996-01-01

344

The Living Soil: Exploring Soil Science and Sustainable Agriculture with Your Guide, The Earthworm. Unit I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional packet introduces students to soil biology, ecology, and specific farming practices that promote sustainable agriculture. It helps students to discover the role of earthworms in improving the environment of all other soil-inhabiting organisms and in making the soil more fertile. The activities (classroom as well as outdoor)…

Weber, Eldon C.; And Others

345

Spatial distribution of earthworm species assemblages in a chalky slope of the Seine Valley (Normandy, France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to characterize the spatial distribution of earthworm species assemblages on a chalky slope of the Seine Valley (Upper Normandy, France), with contrasting vegetation cover representing the different stages of a typical post-pastoral secondary succession. Samples were hand sorted in a spatially explicit design consisting of a regular grid. A Principal Component Analysis was performed

Pierre Margerie; Thibaud Decaëns; Fabrice Bureau; Didier Alard

2001-01-01

346

Teratogenic Effects of the Fungicide Benomyl on Posterior Segmental Regeneration in the Earthworm, 'Eisenia fetida'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Earthworms, Eisenia fetida, were treated by surface exposure to the fungicide benomyl at various stages of posterior segmental regeneration. Teratogenic effects of benomyl were observed when worms were treated 7-11 days after amputation (i.e. during the n...

M. J. Zoran T. J. Heppner C. D. Drewes

1986-01-01

347

Earthworms as useful bioindicators of agroecosystem sustainability in orchards and vineyards with different inputs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworm communities were studied in 72 different agroecosystems including vineyards and three types of orchards: apple, peach and kiwi. Orchards had different agricultural inputs, in particular copper (namely, copper sulphate applied as fungicide), and soil cultivation. Heavy metals were analyzed together with other soil parameters (nutrients, bacteria and fungi). No differences were detected regarding microorganisms in orchards subjected to different

M. G Paoletti; D Sommaggio; M. R Favretto; G Petruzzelli; B Pezzarossa; M Barbafieri

1998-01-01

348

Comparative Assessment of the Aerobic and Anaerobic Microfloras of Earthworm Guts and Forest Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerobic and anaerobic microbial potentials of guts from earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister and Octolasium lacteum(Oerl.)) collected from a beech forest were evaluated. On the basis of enumeration studies, microbes capable of growth under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions were more numerous in the earth- worm intestine than in the beech forest soil from which the worms were obtained. The intestine

GUDRUN R. KARSTEN; ANDHAROLD L. DRAKE

1995-01-01

349

A critical review of current methods in earthworm ecology: From individuals to populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms play an important role in the functioning of many terrestrial ecosystems, and while their importance is frequently acknowledged significant challenges still remain in determining their operant roles within the soil. This lack of knowledge becomes increasingly important as the spatial scale of analysis increases from individuals to populations within the landscape. To effectively develop understanding, research techniques must be

Mark D. Bartlett; Maria J. I. Briones; Roy Neilson; Olaf Schmidt; David Spurgeon; Rachel E. Creamer

2010-01-01

350

Movement of faecal indicator organisms in earthworm channels under a loamy arable and grassland soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a critical issue for the application of animal slurry in water protection areas whether macropores such as earthworm burrows can contribute to the contamination of groundwater with faecal organisms. The aim of the current field experiment was to investigate the effects of the factors: slurry addition, land use (grassland\\/arable land), sampling date, depth (15, 45 and 75 cm),

R. G Joergensen; H Küntzel; S Scheu; D Seitz

1998-01-01

351

Changes in forest floor composition and chemistry along an invasive earthworm gradient in a hardwood forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have demonstrated how invasive European earthworm species have caused large and long lasting perturbations to forest floor dynamics and soil composition in many northern hardwood forests. The type of perturbation is driven primarily by the composition and activity of the invasive species and the original state of the forest system. Over the past 4 years we have investigated

J. N. Jourdain; T. R. Filley; S. M. Top; C. Thayer; A. Johnson; M. Jenkins; P. Welle; S. Zurn-Birkhimer; T. Kroeger; Gemscholars

2010-01-01

352

Earthworms facilitate carbon sequestration through unequal amplification of carbon stabilization compared with mineralization  

EPA Science Inventory

A recent review concluded that earthworm presence increases CO2 emissions by 33% but does not affect soil organic carbon stocks. However, the findings are controversial and raise new questions. Here we hypothesize that neither an increase in CO2 emission nor in stabilized carbon...

353

Toxicity and bioaccumulation of chlorophenols in earthworms, in relation to bioavailability in soil  

SciTech Connect

The acute toxicity of five chlorophenols for two earthworm species was determined in two sandy soils differing in organic matter content and the results were compared with adsorption data. Adsorption increased with increasing organic matter content of the soils, but for tetra- and pentachlorophenol was also influenced by soil pH. Earthworm toxicity was significantly higher in the soil with a low level of organic matter. This difference disappeared when LC50 values were recalculated to concentrations in soil solution using adsorption data. Eisenia fetida andrei showed LC50 values lower than those of Lumbricus rubellus although bioaccumulation was generally higher in the latter species. Toxicity and bioaccumulation based on soil solution concentrations increased with increasing lipophilicity of the chlorophenols. The present results indicate that the toxicity and bioaccumulation and therefore the bioavailability of chlorophenols in soil to earthworms are dependent on the concentration in soil solution and can be predicted on the basis of adsorption data. Both the toxicity of and bioaccumulation data on chlorophenols in earthworms demonstrated surprisingly good agreement with those on chlorophenols in fish.

van Gestel, C.A.; Ma, W.C.

1988-06-01

354

Charles Darwin, earthworms and the natural sciences: various lessons from past to future  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1881, Darwin (1809–1882) published his last scientific book entitled “The formation of vegetable mould through the action of worms with observations on their habits”, the result of several decades of detailed observations and measurements on earthworms and the natural sciences. The work was considered a “best-seller” at the time, with 3500 copies sold immediately and 8500 in less than

Christian Feller; George G Brown; Eric Blanchart; Pierre Deleporte; Sergey S Chernyanskii

2003-01-01

355

APPLICATION OF PLANT AND EARTHWORM BIOASSAYS TO EVALUATE REMEDIATION OF A LEAD-CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Earthworm acute toxicity, plant seed germination/root elongation (SG/RE) and plant genotoxicity bioassays were employed to evaluate the remediation of a lead-contaminated soil. The remediation involved removal of heavy metals by a soil washing/soil leaching treatment process. A p...

356

TERATOGENIC EFFECTS OF THE FUNGICIDE BENOMYL ON POSTERIOR SEGMENTAL REGENERATION IN THE EARTHWORM, 'EISENIA FETIDA'  

EPA Science Inventory

Earthworms, Eisenia fetida, were treated by surface exposure to the fungicide benomyl at various stages of posterior segmental regeneration. Teratogenic effects of benomyl were observed when worms were treated 7-11 days after amputation (i.e. during the normal period of segmental...

357

SUBLETHAL NEUROTOXIC EFFECTS OF THE FUNGICIDE BENOMYL ON EARTHWORMS ('EISENIA FETIDA')  

EPA Science Inventory

Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were treated by surface contact exposure for four days with the fungicide benomyl. Non-invasive electrophysiological recordings after treatment with sublethal concentrations of 0.2-25 mg benomyl/litre of water indicated concentration-dependent decrease...

358

Direct Vermicomposting of Fresh Sewage Sludge by Using Two Epigeic Earthworm Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct vermicomposting of fresh sewage sludge by two epigeic earthworm species (Eisenia foetida and Bimastus parvus) was conducted in a lab-scale experimental setup, and the performance was evaluated. The results showed that it was feasible to use both E. fetida and B. parvus to convert fresh sewage sludge without any pretreatment and blending into good quality fertilizer. Direct vermicomposting resulted

Xuemin Chen; Xiaoyong Fu

2010-01-01

359

Effect on enzymes and histopathology in earthworm (Eisenia foetida) induced by triazole fungicides.  

PubMed

Earthworms are an ideal biological model in toxicity assays and environment monitoring studies, especially for the toxicity of pesticides on soil ecosystem. However, There are very little data on the toxicity of triazoles on earthworms despite the fact that such data are critical in assessing their fate and potential toxic effects in soil organisms. To address this issue, earthworms were exposed to triazoles (triadimefon, triadimenol, difenoconazole and propiconazole) to study biochemical and histopathological examination. The results showed protein content significantly increased in treatment of difenoconazole compared to control. There were no significant differences between controls and triadimefon treated groups, while the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity is significantly lower than control. Other triazoles also had an inhibitory effect on GSH-Px activity at higher concentration. The histopathological examination showed the epidermis and the epidermis cell of earthworm was ruined at lower triazoles concentration. The arrangement of smooth muscle layer disordered, and some cell disintegrated with concentration increasing of pesticides. Cell pyknosis, cytoplasm deep stained, nucleus concentrations were observed in the treated group with propiconazole. PMID:23474400

Gao, Minling; Song, Wenhua; Zhang, Jinyang; Guo, Jing

2013-05-01

360

The influence of earthworm-processed pig manure on the growth and productivity of marigolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of additions of earthworm-processed pig manure (vermicompost) on the growth and productivity of French marigold (Tagetes patula) plants were evaluated under glasshouse conditions. Marigolds were germinated and grown in a standard commercial greenhouse container medium (Metro-Mix 360), substituted with 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, and 100% (by volume) pig manure vermicompost. The control consisted

R. M. Atiyeh; N. Q. Arancon; C. A. Edwards; J. D. Metzger

2002-01-01

361

Treated-cassava peel vermicomposts enhanced earthworm activities and cowpea growth in field plots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peels of bitter cassava (Manihot utilissima) root, a major source of food carbohydrate in the tropics, though rich in nutrients, form toxic wastes lethal to soil invertebrates and can inhibit root growth. Recent investigations highlighted the ability of the earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae (Eug) to partially detoxify the toxic wastes, and transform the cassava peels into valuable vermicompost. Vermicomposting and

1996-01-01

362

Vermicomposting of domestic waste by using two epigeic earthworms (Perionyx excavatus and Perionyx sansibaricus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composting potential of two epigeic earthworms (P. excavatus and P. sansibaricus) was studied in 2002 to breakdown the domestic waste under laboratory conditions. The experimental container with P. sansibaricus showed maximum mineralization and decomposition rate than that of P. excavatus. Except for exchangeable K (it was higher (P = 0.004) in a container with P. excavatus), the domestic waste

S. Suthar; S. Singh

2008-01-01

363

Feasibility of utilization of horse dung spiked filter cake in vermicomposters using exotic earthworm Eisenia foetida  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution reports the potential of vermicomposting technology in the management of horse dung (HD) spiked sugar mill filter cake (SMFC) using an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida under laboratory conditions. A total of six vermicomposters filled with different ratios of HD and SMFC were maintained for this study. The growth and fecundity of E. foetida was monitored for 12 weeks.

Pritam Sangwan; C. P. Kaushik; V. K. Garg

2008-01-01

364

Effects of treatment with sodium fluoride and subsequent starvation on fluoride content of earthworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two experiments described here originated during a long-term investigation into the occurrence and movement of pollutant fluoride in a terrestrial ecosystem. Moles (Talpa europaea) whose diet consist largely of various species of earthworm Lumbricidae, are one of the species under investigation. Bone fluoride in moles was found to be higher, on average, than in foxes or small rodents. Moles

K. C. Walton

1987-01-01

365

NOVEL MODEL DESCRIBING TRACE METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN THE EARTHWORM, EISENIA ANDREI: JOURNAL ARTICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-CIN-1707 Sake, J.K., Impellitteri**, C.A., Peijnenburg, W., and Allen, H.E. Novel Model Describing Trace Metal Concentrations in the Earthworm, Eisenia andrei. Environmental Science & Technology (American Chemical Society) 35 (22):4522-4529 (2001). EPA/600/J-01/364. 12/12/2...

366

Detrimental Influence of Invasive Earthworms on North American Cold-Temperate Forest Soils  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The topic of invasive earthworms is a timely concern that goes against many preconceived notions regarding the positive benefits of all worms. In the cold-temperate forests of North America invasive worms are threatening forest ecosystems, due to the changes they create in the soil, including decreases in C:N ratios and leaf litter, disruption of…

Enerson, Isabel

2012-01-01

367

Earthworm Activity and the Potential for Enhanced Leaching of Inorganic Elements in Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential influence of earthworms on the mobility of soil inorganic constituents was experimentally investigated. Six 20 cm long and 15 cm i.d. columns were packed with soil (loamy material, Paris basin, France). Three earthworm specimens - Lombricus terrestris - were introduced into 3 of the 6 columns (earthworm treatment or ET), the remaing 3 being used to study changes in water composition and solute fluxes without earthworms (control treatment or CT). The 6 columns were operated for 8 weeks and were subjected to 100 ml addition of distilled water at 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, 36, 43 and 50 days. Effluents were collected weekly, filtered and analysed for their Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) as well as Si, Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, Al, Sr, Ba, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd, REE and U concentrations. Replicates yielded extremely consistent results, with standard deviations generally lower than 10%. Effluent volumes were greatest during ET simulations (28% difference on a cumulative basis), which can be attributed to the construction by Lombricus terrestris of permanent vertical burrows into the soil columns. Different temporal chemical trends were observed depending on whether earthworms were present or not. During ET simulations, a washout phenomenon occurred for DOC, Ca, Mg, Fe, Ba, Sr, Cu and U during the startup outflow period (week 2). This washout was followed by a period of apparent equilibrium with concentrations in ET effluents remaining roughly constant for all solutes except REE, Zn and to a lesser extent Mn. No such washout nor equilibrium period was observed during CT simulations. Instead, concentrations in Ca, Mg, Fe, Ba, Sr, Cr and Cu decreased from week 2 to week 8, while those in other solutes increased from week 2 to week 5, then declining untill week 8. For many elements (not all), final (equilibrium?) concentrations (8 weeks simulation) were highest in ET effluents (e.g. 17% higher for Ca and Na; 30% higher for Zn), despite the enhanced infiltration rate (and thus the likely shorter soil-water interaction time). Although preliminary, these results suggest that earthworm activities can potentialy increase the leaching of a wide variety of inorganic elements in soils. This increase could occur through the ability of earthworms to change the biogeochemical conditions in the soil along their burrows (so-called drilosphere).

Gruau, G.; Ablain, F.; Cluzeau, D.

2002-12-01

368

Traveler's Health: Avoid Bug Bites  

MedlinePLUS

... Home CDC 24/7: Saving Lives. Protecting People.™ Travelers' Health All CDC Topics Search The CDC Note: Javascript ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Travelers' Health: Travel Safe, Travel Smart Share Compartir Avoid bug ...

369

Vision-based obstacle avoidance  

DOEpatents

A method for allowing a robot to avoid objects along a programmed path: first, a field of view for an electronic imager of the robot is established along a path where the electronic imager obtains the object location information within the field of view; second, a population coded control signal is then derived from the object location information and is transmitted to the robot; finally, the robot then responds to the control signal and avoids the detected object.

Galbraith, John (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM

2006-07-18

370

Anaerobic biotransformation of dinitrotoluene isomers by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain 27 isolated from earthworm intestine.  

PubMed

Dinitrotoluenes are widely used as solvents and are intermediates in the synthesis of dyes, explosives, and pesticides. Environmental concerns regarding DNTs have increased due to their widespread use and their discharge into the environment. In this study, the anaerobic biodegradation of four dinitrotoluene isomers, 2,3-, 2,4-, 2,6- and 3,4-DNT, was investigated using Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain 27, which was isolated from the intestines of earthworms. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy showed that L. lactis strain 27 non-specifically reduced the nitro groups on the tested dinitrotoluenes to their corresponding aminonitrotoluenes. L. lactis strain 27, however, did not reduce either sequentially or simultaneously two nitro groups of the dinitrotoluenes, resulting in the formation of the corresponding diaminotoluenes. In vitro formation of dinitroazoxytoluenes suggested the presence of oxygen-sensitive hydroxylaminonitrotoluenes. L. lactis strain 27 was capable of reducing 2,4-, 2,6-, 2,3-, and 3,4-dinitrotoluenes up to 173.6, 66.6, 287.1, and 355 microM, respectively in 12 h incubation. A relatively rapid reduction was observed in the case of the 2,3-, and 3,4-dinitrotoluenes, which have vicinal nitro groups on their arene structure. Non-specific anaerobic reduction of dinitrotoluenes by the intestinal bacterium L. lactis strain 27 differentiated the extent of reduction of DNTs according to the substitutional position of the nitro groups and produced in vitro more toxic dinitroazoxytoluenes, suggesting that anaerobic biotransformation of dinitrotoluenes could increase environmental risk. PMID:16157167

Shin, Kwang-Hee; Lim, Yoongho; Ahn, Joong-Hoon; Khil, Jinmo; Cha, Chang-Joon; Hur, Hor-Gil

2005-09-01

371

Coelomocyte biomarkers in the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT).  

PubMed

Contamination by 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a global environmental problem at sites of former explosive production, handling, or storage, and could have deleterious consequences for human and ecological health. We investigated its sublethal effects to Eisenia fetida, using two nonspecific biomarkers. In coelomocytes of earthworms exposed 24, 48, or 72 h, we evaluated DNA damage (comet assay) and neutral red retention time (NRRT), using the filter paper contact test. Both percentage of damage (D%) and calculated damage index showed significant DNA damage at almost all concentrations, at all time points assayed. Along exposure time, two different patterns were observed. At the lower TNT concentrations (0.25-0.5 ?g/cm2) an increased DNA migration at 48 h, with a decrease close to initial levels after 72 h exposure, was observed. This decrease could be attributed to activation of the DNA repair system. At higher concentrations (1.0-2.0 ?g/cm2), the high DNA damage observed remained constant during the 72 h exposure, suggesting that the rate of DNA repair was not enough to compensate such damage. Analysis of NRRT results showed a significant interaction between time and treatment. After 48 h, a significant decrease was observed at 4.0 ?g/cm2. After 72 h, NRRT presented a concentration-dependent decrease, significantly different with respect to control at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 ?g/cm2. The two assayed methods, performed on the same sample, showed clear responses to sublethal TNT exposure in E. fetida, providing sensitive unspecific biomarkers of cell injury and DNA damage. PMID:20512622

Fuchs, Julio; Piola, Lucas; González, Elio Prieto; Oneto, María Luisa; Basack, Silvana; Kesten, Eva; Casabé, Norma

2011-04-01

372

AVOIDANCE BEHAVIOR OF MALLARDS AND NORTHERN BOBWHITE EXPOSED TO CARBOFURAN-CONTAMINATED FOOD AND WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Food avoidance experiments could contribute to assessments of animals' behavioral responses to environmental toxicants. ood avoidance tests with mallards (Anas platyrhynchos L.) and northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus L.) as the test species were patterned after avian 5-d diet...

373

Oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in the earthworm Eisenia fetida induced by low doses of fomesafen.  

PubMed

Formesafen is a diphenyl ether herbicide that has adverse effects on non-target animals. However, knowledge about the effect of fomesafen on the antioxidant defense system in earthworms is vague. Thus, it is essential to investigate the effects of fomesafen on the antioxidant defense system in earthworms as a precautionary method. In the present study, earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were exposed to artificial soil treated with a range of concentrations of fomesafen (0, 10, 100, and 500 ?g kg(-1)) and were collected on the 3rd, 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th days of exposure. Subsequently, the antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD); catalase (CAT); and guaiacol peroxidase (POD)), reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content due to fomesafen treatment were examined in earthworms. Compared with the control, the SOD activity increased on the third and seventh days but decreased on the 14th day due to treatment with 100 and 500 ?g kg(-1) of fomesafen. The activities of CAT and POD increased significantly on the third, seventh, and 14th days of exposure. In addition, the ROS level was significantly enhanced throughout the entire experimental period and showed a statistically dose-dependent relationship on the seventh and 14th days. The MDA content markedly increased on the seventh day of exposure; however, obvious changes were not detected at other exposure period. Low doses of fomesafen (? 500 ?g kg(-1)) may result in oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation in E. fetida by inducing the generation of ROS at short exposure periods (14 days). However, the adverse effects of fomesafen gradually disappear as the cooperation of antioxidant enzymes and exposure time are prolonged. This result may be helpful for further studies on the toxicological mechanisms of fomesafen to earthworms. PMID:22585392

Zhang, Qingming; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jun; Xie, Hui; Wang, Jinhua; Han, Yingnan; Yang, Jinhui

2013-01-01

374

Effect of volatile hydrocarbon fractions on mobility and earthworm uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soils and soil/lampblack mixtures.  

PubMed

Studies were conducted to examine the mobility and bioavailability to earthworms (Eisenia fetida) of priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in a suite of 11 soils and soil/lampblack mixtures obtained from former manufactured-gas plant sites. Contaminant mobility was assessed using XAD4 resins encapsulated in dialysis tubing, which were exposed to slurried soils for 15 d. These experiments showed that mobility of PAH in the different soils strongly correlated to the levels of volatile hydrocarbons (namely, gasoline- and diesel-range organics [GRO and DRO]) that existed in the soils as co-contaminants. Actual PAH bioavailability (as measured by earthworm PAH concentrations) also appeared to depend on GRO + DRO levels, although this was most evident at high levels of these contaminants. These findings are discussed in view of the effects of dieselrange organics on oil viscosity, assuming that the hydrocarbon contaminants in these soils exist in the form of distinct adsorbed oil phases. This study, therefore, extends correlations between carrier-oil viscosity and dissolved solute bioavailability, previously observed in a number of other in vitro and whole-organism tests (and in bacterial mutagenicity studies in soil), to multicellular organisms inhabiting contaminated-soil systems. PMID:15683182

Bogan, Bill W; Beardsley, Kate E; Sullivan, Wendy R; Hayes, Thomas D; Soni, Bhupendra K

2005-01-01

375

IN VIVO NEUROTOXIC EFFECTS OF DIELDRIN ON GIANT NERVE FIBERS AND ESCAPE REFLEX FUNCTION IN THE EARTHWORM, 'EISENIA FOETIDA'  

EPA Science Inventory

Neurotoxicological effects of dieldrin were assessed in adult earthworms, Eisenia foetida, using noninvasive electrophysiological recordings of escape reflex activity. After 48 hr body surface exposure to aqueous suspensions of dieldrin, dose-dependent reductions in medial and la...

376

Sampling of resident earthworms using mustard expellant to evaluate ecological risk at a mixed hazardous and radioactive waste site.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As residents of contaminated soils and as prey for many species of wildlife, earthworms can serve as integrative biomonitors of soil contamination, which is biologically available to the terrestrial food chain. The assessment of contaminants within earthw...

D. M. Stair L. J. Keller T. W. Hensel

1994-01-01

377

Determination of multi-walled carbon nanotube bioaccumulation in earthworms measured by a microwave-based detection technique  

EPA Science Inventory

Reliable quantification techniques for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are limited. In this study, a new procedure was developed for quantifying multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) based on freeze drying and microwave-induced heating. Specifically, earthw...

378

Bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals and other anthropogenic waste indicators in earthworms from agricultural soil amended with biosolid or swine manure  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analysis of earthworms offers potential for assessing the transfer of organic anthropogenic waste indicators (AWIs) derived from land-applied biosolid or manure to biota. Earthworms and soil samples were collected from three Midwest agricultural fields to measure the presence and potential for transfer of 77 AWIs from land-applied biosolids and livestock manure to earthworms. The sites consisted of a soybean field with no amendments of human or livestock waste (Site 1), a soybean field amended with biosolids from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (Site 2), and a cornfield amended with swine manure (Site 3). The biosolid applied to Site 2 contained a diverse composition of 28 AWIs, reflecting the presence of human-use compounds. The swine manure contained 12 AWIs, and was dominated by biogenic sterols. Soil and earthworm samples were collected in the spring (about 30 days after soil amendment) and fall (140-155 days after soil amendment) at all field sites. Soils from Site 1 contained 21 AWIs and soil from Sites 2 and 3 contained 19 AWIs. The AWI profiles at Sites 2 and 3 generally reflected the relative composition of AWIs present in waste material applied. There were 20 AWIs detected in earthworms from Site 1 (three compounds exceeding concentrations of 1000 ??g/kg), 25 AWIs in earthworms from Site 2 (seven compounds exceeding concentrations of 1000 ??g/kg), and 21 AWIs in earthworms from Site 3 (five compounds exceeding concentrations of 1000 ??g/kg). A number of compounds thatwere present in the earthworm tissue were at concentrations less than reporting levels in the corresponding soil samples. The AWIs detected in earthworm tissue from the three field sites included pharmaceuticals, synthetic fragrances, detergent metabolites, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), biogenic sterols, disinfectants, and pesticides, reflecting a wide range of physicochemical properties. For those contaminants detected in earthworm tissue and soil, bioaccumulation factors (BAF) ranged from 0.05 (galaxolide) to 27 (triclosan). This study documents that when AWIs are present in source materials that are land applied, such as biosolids and swine manure, AWIs can be transferred to earthworms. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

Kinney, C. A.; Furlong, E. T.; Kolpin, D. W.; Burkhardt, M. R.; Zaugg, S. D.; Werner, S. L.; Bossio, J. P.; Benotti, M. J.

2008-01-01

379

Automatic avoidance tendencies in patients with Psychogenic Non Epileptic Seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionPsychogenic Non Epileptic Seizures (PNES) have been theorized to reflect a learned pattern of avoidant behavior to deal with stressors. Although such observation may be relevant for our understanding of the etiology of PNES, evidence for this theory is largely build on self-report investigations and no studies have systematically tested actual avoidance behavior in patients with PNES. In this study,

Patricia Bakvis; Philip Spinhoven; F. G. Zitman; Karin Roelofs

2011-01-01

380

Avoidance behavior of young black ducks treated with chromium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pairs of adult black ducks (Anas rubripes) were fed a diet containing 0, 20, or 200 ppm chromium in the form of chromium potassium sulfate. Ducklings from these pairs were fed the same diets as adults and were tested for their avoidance responses to a fright stimulus. Neither level of chromium had a significant effect on avoidance behavior.

Heinz, G.H.; Haseltine, S.D.

1981-01-01

381

Combined toxicity of butachlor, atrazine and ?-cyhalothrin on the earthworm Eisenia fetida by combination index (CI)-isobologram method.  

PubMed

Pesticides in the environment do not appear singly and usually occur as complex mixtures and their combined effect may exhibit toxicity to organisms. The individual and combined toxicities of two herbicides, atrazine and butachlor and an insecticide ?-cyhalothrin have been examined to the earthworm Eisenia fetida, as a non-target terrestrial organism, in artificial soil and filter paper tests. The order of toxicity for the individual pesticides was ranked as atrazine>?-cyhalothrin>butachlor in both tests. We applied the combination index (CI)-isobologram method which is widely used to study chemical interactions to determine the nature of toxicological interactions of the pesticides and it allows computerized quantitation of synergism, additive effect and antagonism. For most cases in artificial soil test, synergism was observed in majority of the mixtures except for the combination of butachlor plus ?-cyhalothrin. This particular combination displayed opposite interaction in filter paper test. The CI method was compared with the classical models of Concentration Addition (CA) and Independent Action (IA) and we found that CI method could accurately predict the combined toxicity and can serve as a useful tool in ecotoxicological risk assessment. PMID:25048932

Chen, Chen; Wang, Yanhua; Zhao, Xueping; Qian, Yongzhong; Wang, Qiang

2014-10-01

382

Effect of earthworms on plant Lantana camara Pb-uptake and on bacterial communities in root-adhering soil.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to assess the potential abilities of Lantana camara, an invasive plant species for phytoremediation in the presence of earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus. Effects of earthworm on growth and lead (Pb) uptake by L. camara plant were studied in soil artificially contaminated at 500 or 1000mg of Pb kg(-1) soil. This species has a promising value for phytoremediation because it can uptake as much as 10% of 1000mgkg(-1) of Pb per year. Moreover, the presence of earthworms enhanced plant biomass by about 1.5-2 times and increased the uptake of lead by about 2-3 times. In the presence of earthworm, L. camara was thus able to uptake up 20% of Pb presence in the soil, corresponding to remediation time of 5 years if all organs are removed. As soil microorganisms are known to mediate many interactions between earthworms and plants, we documented the effect of earthworms on the bacterial community of root-adhering soil of L. camara. Cultivable bacterial biomass of root-adhering soil increased in the presence of earthworms. Similar trend was observed on bacterial metabolic activities. The increase of lead concentrations from 500 to 1000mgkg(-1) did not have any significant effect either on plant growth or on bacterial biomass and global activities but affected the structure and functional diversity of the bacterial community. These results showed that we should broaden the ecological context of phytoremediation by considering plant/microbial community/earthworm interactions that influence the absorption of heavy metals. PMID:22221873

Jusselme, My Dung; Poly, Franck; Miambi, Edouard; Mora, Philippe; Blouin, Manuel; Pando, Anne; Rouland-Lefèvre, Corinne

2012-02-01

383

Avoiding versus seeking: the relationship of information seeking to avoidance, blunting, coping, dissonance, and related concepts*  

PubMed Central

Question: How have theorists and empirical researchers treated the human tendency to avoid discomforting information? Data Sources: A historical review (1890–2004) of theory literature in communication and information studies, coupled with searches of recent studies on uptake of genetic testing and on coping strategies of cancer patients, was performed. Study Selection: The authors' review of the recent literature included searches of the MEDLINE, PsychInfo, and CINAHL databases between 1992 and summer of 2004 and selective, manual searches of earlier literature. Search strategies included the following subject headings and key words: MeSH headings: Genetic Screening/psychology, Decision Making, Neoplasms/diagnosis/genetics/psychology; CINAHL headings: Genetic Screening, Genetic Counseling, Anxiety, Decision Making, Decision Making/Patient; additional key words: avoidance, worry, monitoring, blunting, cancer. The “Related Articles” function in MEDLINE was used to perform additional “citation pearl” searching. Main Results: The assumption that individuals actively seek information underlies much of psychological theory and communication practice, as well as most models of the information-seeking process. However, much research has also noted that sometimes people avoid information, if paying attention to it will cause mental discomfort or dissonance. Cancer information in general and genetic screening for cancer in particular are discussed as examples to illustrate this pattern. Conclusion: That some patients avoid knowledge of imminent disease makes avoidance behavior an important area for social and psychological research, particularly with regard to genetic testing.

Case, Donald O.; Andrews, James E.; Johnson, J. David; Allard, Suzanne L.

2005-01-01

384

The influence of soil compaction and the removal of organic matter on two native earthworms and soil properties in an oak-hickory forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms may alter the physical, chemical, and biological properties of a forest soil ecosystem. Any physical manipulation\\u000a of the soil ecosystem may, in turn, affect the activities and ecology of earthworms. The effects of removing organic matter\\u000a (logs and forest litter) and severely compacting the soil on native earthworm species were measured in a central USA hardwood\\u000a region (oak-hickory) forest

D. Jordan; V. C. Hubbard; F. Ponder Jr; E. C. Berry

2000-01-01

385

Avoided cost standard under PURPA  

SciTech Connect

The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) (P.L. 95-617) was passed to encourage electricity conservation through a variety of regulatory and rate reforms. Information is provided on the controversy surrounding the avoided cost standard established under PURPA. Promulgated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Committee (FERC) in February 1980, the avoided cost standard sets a minimum rate for utilities purchasing power from a qualified facility (QF) at the utilities full avoided cost. Recent court cases have challenged this standard and FERC is currently appealing to the Supreme Court. The impact of these court cases may have little effect on the actual rates set by state Public Utility Commissions (PUCs), which can require rates higher than the minimums established by FERC, since many PUCs appear in favor of requiring full avoided costs. The arguments for and against requiring utilities to pay full avoided costs come down to balancing between incentives for QFs on the one hand and fairness to utilities and their non-QF customers on the other.

Cole, R.J.; Holmlund, I.; Smith, S.A.; Williams, T.A.

1983-04-01

386

Approach/avoidance in dreams.  

PubMed

The influential threat simulation theory (TST) asserts that dreaming yields adaptive advantage by providing a virtual environment in which threat-avoidance may be safely rehearsed. We have previously found the incidence of biologically threatening dreams to be around 20%, with successful threat avoidance occurring in approximately one-fifth of such dreams. TST asserts that threat avoidance is over-represented relative to other possible dream contents. To begin assessing this issue, we contrasted the incidence of 'avoidance' dreams with that of their opposite: 'approach' dreams. Because TST states that the threat-avoidance function is only fully activated in ecologically valid (biologically threatening) contexts, we also performed this contrast for populations living in both high- and low-threat environments. We find that 'approach' dreams are significantly more prevalent across both contexts. We suggest these results are more consistent with the view that dreaming is generated by reward-seeking systems than by fear-conditioning systems, although reward-seeking is clearly not the only factor determining the content of dreams. PMID:22196966

Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Koopowitz, Sheri; Pantelis, Eleni; Solms, Mark

2012-03-01

387

A problem of collision avoidance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Collision avoidance between two vehicles of constant speed with limited turning radii, moving in a horizontal plane is investigated. Collision avoidance is viewed as a game by assuming that the operator of one vehicle has perfect knowledge of the state of the other, whereas the operator of the second vehicle is unaware of any impending danger. The situation envisioned is that of an encounter between a commercial aircraft and a small light aircraft. This worse case situation is examined to determine the conditions under which the commercial aircraft should execute a collision avoidance maneuver. Three different zones of vulnerability are defined and the boundaries, or barriers, between these zones are determined for a typical aircraft encounter. A discussion of the methods used to obtain the results as well as some of the salient features associated with the resultant barriers is included.

Vincent, T. L.; Cliff, E. M.; Grantham, W. J.; Peng, W. Y.

1972-01-01

388

Evaluation for Hsp70 as a biomarker of effect of pollutants on the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris  

PubMed Central

Induction of heat shock proteins (Hsps) is often associated with a cellular response to a harmful stress or to adverse life conditions. The main aims of the present study were (1) to assess if stress-induced Hsp70 could be used to monitor exposure of the earthworm species Lumbricus terrestris to various soil pollutants, (2) to assess the specificity of pollutants in their tissue targeting and in Hsp70 induction, and (3) to evaluate if dose-response relationships could be established and if the stress-response observed was specific. The midgut/intestinal tissues of L. terrestris are shown to express an inducible member of the Hsp70 family after heat shock treatment in vitro and exposures to different soil toxicants in vivo (re: artificial soil). Short-term (24–72 hours) and long-term (14–16 days) exposures to the chemical standards chloroacetamide and pentachlorophenol and to heavy metals (Pb++, Cd++, Cu++, and Hg++) also affected the earthworms, and Hsp70 was induced in their midgut/intestinal tissues. After a 3-day exposure to heavy metals, the level of Hsp70 induction in the midgut/intestinal tissues appears to correlate well with the reported in vivo and in vitro toxicity data. Comparatively, in proximal and midbody wall muscle tissues of animals exposed to the heavy metals, a decrease in expression of Hsp70 was sometimes detected. Thus Hsp analysis by Western blot in L. terrestris tissues and particularly in the midgut/intestine proved to be a suitable and sensitive assay for adverse effects in earthworms and showed a good level of reproducibility despite some individual variations. The use of pristine/nonexposed animals transposed into contaminated environments as in the present study should therefore be of high ecological relevance. Induction of Hsp70 in earthworms should represent not only a good wide-spectrum biomarker of exposure but also a biomarker of effect since known toxicants altered gene expression in tissues of these animals, as contrasted with a simple accumulation of Hsp. Hence, the detection of Hsp70 in earthworms can constitute an early-warning marker for the presence of potentially deleterious agents in soils, with L. terrestris in particular and earthworms in general acting as potential sentinel animal species.

Nadeau, Denis; Corneau, Sophie; Plante, Isabelle; Morrow, Genevieve; Tanguay, Robert M.

2001-01-01

389

Integrated biomarker analysis of chlorpyrifos metabolism and toxicity in the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa.  

PubMed

To increase our understanding about the mode of toxic action of organophosphorus pesticides in earthworms, a microcosm experiment was performed with Aporrectodea caliginosa exposed to chlorpyrifos-spiked soils (0.51 and 10mgkg(-1) dry soil) for 3 and 21d. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase (CbE), cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase (CYP450), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were measured in the body wall of earthworms. With short-term exposure, chlorpyrifos inhibited CbE activity (51-89%) compared with controls in both treated groups, whereas AChE activity was depressed in the 10-mgkg(-1) group (87% inhibition). With long-term exposure, chlorpyrifos strongly inhibited all esterase activities (84-97%). Native electrophoresis revealed three AChE isozymes, two of which showed a decreased staining corresponding to the level of pesticide exposure. The impact of chlorpyrifos on CbE activity was also corroborated by zymography. CYP450 activity was low in unexposed earthworms, but it increased (1.5- to 2.4-fold compared to controls) in the earthworms exposed to both chlorpyrifos concentrations for 3d. Bioactivation of chlorpyrifos was determined by incubating the muscle homogenate in the presence of chlorpyrifos and NAD(H)2. The mean (±SD, n=40) bioactivation rate in the unexposed earthworms was 0.74±0.27nmolNAD(H)2oxidizedmin(-1)mg(-1) protein, and a significant induction was detected in the low/short-term exposure group. GST activity significantly increased (33-35% of controls) in earthworms short-term exposed to both chlorpyrifos concentrations. Current data showed that CYP450 and GST activities had a prominent role in the initial exposure to the organophosphorus. With short-term exposure, CbE activity was also a key enzyme in the non-catalytic detoxification of chlorpyrifos-oxon, thereby reducing its impact on AChE activity, before it became saturated at t=21d. Results indicate that A. caliginosa detoxify efficiently chlorpyrifos, which would explain its tolerance to relatively high exposure levels to chlorpyrifos. PMID:24867707

Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C; Narvaez, C; Sabat, P; Martínez Mocillo, S

2014-08-15

390

Avoiding unfavourable outcomes in liposuction.  

PubMed

The origin of liposuction can be traced to an adverse event by Dujarrier in 1921 when he used a uterine curette to remove fat from the knees of a ballerina ending in an amputation secondary to damage of the femoral artery. The history of liposuction since then has been one of avoiding complications and optimising outcome. After this adverse event, liposuction was abandoned until the 1960's when Schrudde revived the practice using small stab incisions and sharp curettage with the secondary suction to aspirate the freed tissue. This technique was associated with a high incidence of complications especially seroma and skin necrosis. Illouz then replaced the curette with a blunt cannula connected to vacuum pump thus avoiding the complications of a sharp curette. Despite the presence of various techniques for liposuction, suction assisted liposuction (SAL) is still the standard technique of liposuction. This article aims to discuss literature regarding the various aspects of liposuction (SAL) and to highlight the salient points in the literature and in the senior author's experience in order to avoid unfavourable outcomes in liposuction. A literature review on avoiding complication is in liposuction including some of the seminal papers on liposuction. Liposuction is generally a safe procedure with reproducible outcome. Just like any surgical procedure it should be treated with the utmost care. Illouz published 10 commandments for liposuction in 1989 and we review these commandments to demonstrate how liposuction has evolved. PMID:24501475

Khanna, Atul; Filobbos, George

2013-05-01

391

Avoiding unfavourable outcomes in liposuction  

PubMed Central

The origin of liposuction can be traced to an adverse event by Dujarrier in 1921 when he used a uterine curette to remove fat from the knees of a ballerina ending in an amputation secondary to damage of the femoral artery. The history of liposuction since then has been one of avoiding complications and optimising outcome. After this adverse event, liposuction was abandoned until the 1960's when Schrudde revived the practice using small stab incisions and sharp curettage with the secondary suction to aspirate the freed tissue. This technique was associated with a high incidence of complications especially seroma and skin necrosis. Illouz then replaced the curette with a blunt cannula connected to vacuum pump thus avoiding the complications of a sharp curette. Despite the presence of various techniques for liposuction, suction assisted liposuction (SAL) is still the standard technique of liposuction. This article aims to discuss literature regarding the various aspects of liposuction (SAL) and to highlight the salient points in the literature and in the senior author's experience in order to avoid unfavourable outcomes in liposuction. A literature review on avoiding complication is in liposuction including some of the seminal papers on liposuction. Liposuction is generally a safe procedure with reproducible outcome. Just like any surgical procedure it should be treated with the utmost care. Illouz published 10 commandments for liposuction in 1989 and we review these commandments to demonstrate how liposuction has evolved.

Khanna, Atul; Filobbos, George

2013-01-01

392

Back Injury Avoidance for Firefighters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Back injuries account for 30 percent of the injuries to firefighters. Firefighters are in the high-risk job series for back injuries--the number one type of civilian personnel injury. This aid contains three items. The first is 'Back Injury Avoidance Idea...

1985-01-01

393

Earthworm effects on the incorporation of litter C and N into soil organic matter in a sugar maple forest.  

PubMed

To examine the mechanisms of earthworm effects on forest soil C and N, we double-labeled leaf litter with 13C and 15N, applied it to sugar maple forest plots with and without earthworms, and traced isotopes into soil pools. The experimental design included forest plots with different earthworm community composition (dominated by Lumbricus terrestris or L. rubellus). Soil carbon pools were 37% lower in earthworm-invaded plots largely because of the elimination of the forest floor horizons, and mineral soil C:N was lower in earthworm plots despite the mixing of high C:N organic matter into soil by earthworms. Litter disappearance over the first winter-spring was highest in the L. terrestris (T) plots, but during the warm season, rapid loss of litter was observed in both L. rubellus (R) and T plots. After two years, 22.0% +/- 5.4% of 13C released from litter was recovered in soil with no significant differences among plots. Total recovery of added 13C (decaying litter plus soil) was much higher in no-worm (NW) plots (61-68%) than in R and T plots (20-29%) as much of the litter remained in the former whereas it had disappeared in the latter. Much higher percentage recovery of 15N than 13C was observed, with significantly lower values for T than R and NW plots. Higher overwinter earthworm activity in T plots contributed to lower soil N recovery. In earthworm-invaded plots isotope enrichment was highest in macroaggregates and microaggregates whereas in NW plots silt plus clay fractions were most enriched. The net effect of litter mixing and priming of recalcitrant soil organic matter (SOM), stabilization of SOM in soil aggregates, and alteration of the soil microbial community by earthworm activity results in loss of SOM and lowering of the C:N ratio. We suggest that earthworm stoichiometry plays a fundamental role in regulating C and N dynamics of forest SOM. PMID:23967585

Fahey, Timothy J; Yavitt, Joseph B; Sherman, Ruth E; Maerz, John C; Groffman, Peter M; Fisk, Melany C; Bohlen, Patrick J

2013-07-01

394

Grunting for worms: seismic vibrations cause Diplocardia earthworms to emerge from the soil  

PubMed Central

Harvesting earthworms by a practice called ‘worm grunting’ is a widespread and profitable business in the southeastern USA. Although a variety of techniques are used, most involve rhythmically scraping a wooden stake driven into the ground, with a flat metal object. A common assumption is that vibrations cause the worms to surface, but this phenomenon has not been studied experimentally. We demonstrate that Diplocardia earthworms emerge from the soil within minutes following the onset of grunting. Broadband low frequency (below 500?Hz) pulsed vibrations were present in the soil throughout the area where worms were harvested, and the number of worms emerging decreased as the seismic signal decayed over distance. The findings are discussed in relation to two hypotheses: that worms are escaping vibrations caused by digging foragers and that worms are surfacing in response to vibrations caused by falling rain.

Mitra, O.; Callaham, M.A.; Smith, M.L.; Yack, J.E.

2008-01-01

395

New earthworm species of the genus Amynthas Kinberg, 1867 from Thailand (Clitellata, Oligochaeta, Megascolecidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Four new species of terrestrial earthworms from the zebrus-group in the genus Amynthas Kinberg, 1867, are described from Nan province, north Thailand: Amynthas phatubensis sp. n., from Tham Pha Tub Arboretum, Amynthas tontong sp. n., from Tontong Waterfall, Amynthas borealis sp. n., from Chaloemprakiat district, and Amynthas srinan sp. n., from Srinan National Park.After comparing with the two closely related Laos species Amynthas chandyi Hong, 2008 and Amynthas namphouinensis Hong, 2008, the four new species show clear morphological differences, and also it is confirmed that there are no previous records of the species described here. Amynthas phatubensis sp. n. is the largest (longest) sized of these earthworms and is the only species that lives in limestone habitats. The genital characters are different among them and also from the two Laotian species. Molecular systematics would be a good method for further analysis of the diversity and species boundaries in SE Asian Amynthas.

Bantaowong, Ueangfa; Chanabun, Ratmanee; Tongkerd, Piyoros; Sutcharit, Chirasak; James, Samuel W.; Panha, Somsak

2011-01-01

396

Nutrient content of earthworms consumed by Ye'Kuana Amerindians of the Alto Orinoco of Venezuela.  

PubMed Central

For the Makiritare (Ye'Kuana) native people of the Alto Orinoco (Venezuela), earthworms (Anellida: Glossoscolecidae) are an important component of the diet. Two species in particular are widely consumed: 'kuru' (Andiorrhinus kuru n. sp.) and 'motto' (Andiorrhinus motto). We analysed eviscerated kuru body proper, and whole and smoked preparations of motto for their content of protein and amino acids, fatty acids and 20 minerals and trace elements. The samples contained large amounts of protein (64.5-72.9% of dry weight), essential amino acids, calcium and iron together with notable quantities of other important elements, indicating that these earthworms contain potentially useful quantities of many nutrients that are critical to the health of the humans who consume them.

Paoletti, M G; Buscardo, E; VanderJagt, D J; Pastuszyn, A; Pizzoferrato, L; Huang, Y-S; Chuang, L-T; Millson, M; Cerda, H; Torres, F; Glew, R H

2003-01-01

397

Transcriptomic analysis of RDX and TNT interactive sublethal effects in the earthworm Eisenia fetida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explosive compounds such as TNT and RDX are recalcitrant contaminants often found co-existing in the environment. In order to understand the joint effects of TNT and RDX on earthworms, an important ecological and bioindicator species at the molecular level, we sampled worms (Eisenia fetida) exposed singly or jointly to TNT (50 mg\\/kg soil) and RDX (30 mg\\/kg soil) for 28

Ping Gong; Xin Guan; Laura S Inouye; Youping Deng; Mehdi Pirooznia; Edward J Perkins

2008-01-01

398

Identification of uncultured bacteria tightly associated with the intestine of the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus (Lumbricidae; Oligochaeta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacteria associated with the intestine and casts of the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843, were examined by direct counts, culturability studies, 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). A significant fraction, 24–47%, of the total numbers of prokaryotes remaining in the intestine after casting were tightly associated with the intestinal wall. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene

David R. Singleton; Paul F. Hendrix; David C. Coleman; William B. Whitman

2003-01-01

399

Multilevel ecotoxicity assessment of polycyclic musk in the earthworm Eisenia fetida using traditional and molecular endpoints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecotoxicity assessment of galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN) was investigated in the earthworm Eisenia fetida using traditional and novel molecular endpoints. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for 7-day and 14-day exposures was 573.2 and 436.3 ?g g?1 for AHTN, and 489.0 and 392.4 ?g g?1 for HHCB, respectively. There was no observed significant effect on the growth rate of E. fetida after a

Chun Chen; Shengguo Xue; Qixing Zhou; Xiujie Xie

400

Potential biochemical and genetic toxicity of triclosan as an emerging pollutant on earthworms ( Eisenia fetida)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triclosan as an important antimicrobial agent is increasingly detected in the terrestrial environment as sewage sludge and reclaimed water are applied on land, but little is known about its effect on non-target soil organisms. In this study, biochemical responses including changes in the activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and malondialdehyde (MDA) of the earthworm Eisenia fetida

Dasong Lin; Qixing Zhou; Xiujie Xie; Yao Liu

401

Oxidative stress and DNA damage in the earthworm Eisenia fetida induced by toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and the comet assay (SCGE) were used as biomarkers\\u000a to evaluate the oxidative stress and genotoxicity of toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene in earthworms (Eisenia fetida). The results indicated that the exposure of the three pollutants caused a stress response of the three enzymes, an approximate\\u000a bell-shaped change (a tendency of inducement firstly

Yao Liu; Qixing Zhou; Xiujie Xie; Dasong Lin; Luxi Dong

2010-01-01

402

Hypothetical mode of action of earthworm extract with hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hepatoprotective potential of earthworm extract (EE) (Lampito mauritii, Kinberg) was evaluated against paracetamol-induced liver injury in Wistar albino rat, in comparison with silymarin, the\\u000a standard hepatoprotective drug. We observed a reduction in liver antioxidants, such as glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase\\u000a (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) and in serum total protein, and an increase in serum alkaline phosphatase

Mariappan Balamurugan; Kasi Parthasarathi; Lalpet Souri Ranganathan; Edwin L. Cooper

2008-01-01

403

Stability of the spatio-temporal distribution and niche overlap in neotropical earthworm assemblages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial distribution of soil invertebrates is aggregated with high-density patches alternating with low-density zones. A high degree of spatio-temporal organization generally exists with identified patches of specific species assemblages, in which species coexist according to assembly rules related to competitive mechanisms for spatial and trophic resources occur. However, these issues have seldom been addressed. The spatio-temporal structure of a native earthworm community in a natural savanna and a grass-legume pasture in the Colombian "Llanos" was studied during a 2-year-period. A spatially explicit sampling design (regular grid) was used to discern the distribution pattern of species assemblages in both systems. Earthworms were collected from small soil pits at three different sampling dates. Data collected from 1 m 2 soil monoliths were also used in the present study. Data were analyzed with the partial triadic analysis (PTA) and correlograms, while niche overlap was computed with the Pianka index. The PTA and correlogram analysis revealed that earthworm communities displayed a similar stable spatial structure in both systems during the 2-year study period. An alternation of population patches where different species' assemblages dominated was common to all sampling dates. The medium-sized Andiodrilus sp. and Glossodrilus sp. exhibited a clear spatial opposition in natural savanna and the grass-legume pasture for the duration of the study. The Pianka index showed a high degree of niche overlapping in several dimensions (vertical distribution, seasonality of population density) between both species. The inclusion of space-time data analysis tools as the PTA and the use of classical ecological indices (Pianka) in soil ecology studies may improve our knowledge of earthworm assemblages' dynamics.

Jiménez, Juan-José; Decaëns, Thibaud; Rossi, Jean-Pierre

2006-11-01

404

Spatial variation in soil compaction, and the burrowing activity of the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of soil compaction on earthworm ( Aporrectodea caliginosa nocturna) activity were studied using pot experiments. Two compaction pressures were used when packing the pots; loose soil was packed by applying a pressure of 96 kPa, and compact soil was packed using a compaction pressure of 386 kPa. “Split pots” which contained both loose and compact soil were also used. In

Robert J. Stovold; W. Richard Whalley; Peter J. Harris; Rodger P. White

2004-01-01

405

THE EFFECT OF SOIL TYPE AND SOIL MOISTURE ON EARTHWORM COMMUNITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty four study areas of three most widespread soil types (pebble rendzinas, typical brown soils and pseudopodzolic soils) all over Estonia were selected. In each group of soil type, eight fields were selected for studies in 2003-2004. The mean abundance of earthworm communities was the highest in pseudopodzolic soils (107.11±22.4 individuals per m2) and lower in pebble rendzinas (47.94±11.25 individuals

M. Ivask; A. Kuu; M. Truu; J. Truu

406

Coelomocyte biomarkers in the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination by 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a global environmental problem at sites of former explosive production, handling,\\u000a or storage, and could have deleterious consequences for human and ecological health. We investigated its sublethal effects\\u000a to Eisenia fetida, using two nonspecific biomarkers. In coelomocytes of earthworms exposed 24, 48, or 72 h, we evaluated DNA damage (comet\\u000a assay) and neutral red retention time

Julio Fuchs; Lucas Piola; Elio Prieto González; María Luisa Oneto; Silvana Basack; Eva Kesten; Norma Casabé

2011-01-01

407

Nutrient changes and biodynamics of epigeic earthworm Perionyx excavatus (Perrier) during recycling of some agriculture wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential of an oriental composting earthworm: Perionyx excavatus (Perrier) to decompose waste resources generated from agricultural practices (crop residues, farm yard manure, and cattle dung) was studied for 150days under laboratory conditions. At the end of experiment, all vermibeds showed significant decrease in their organic C content (?21–29%), while increase in total N (?91–144%), available P (?63–105%), and exchangeable K

Surendra Suthar

2007-01-01

408

Influence of earthworm-processed pig manure on the growth and yield of greenhouse tomatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of earthworm-processed pig manure (vermicompost) on germination, growth, and yields of tomato (Lycopersiconesculentum Mill.) plants were evaluated under glasshouse conditions. Tomatoes were germinated and grown in a standard commercial greenhouse container medium (Metro-Mix 360), substituted with 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, and 100% (by volume) pig manure vermicompost. The control consisted of Metro-Mix 360

R. M Atiyeh; N Arancon; C. A Edwards; J. D Metzger

2000-01-01

409

Livestock excreta management through vermicomposting using an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida  

Microsoft Academic Search

In India, millions of tones of livestock excreta are produced. Our study explores the potential of an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida to compost different livestock excreta (cow, buffalo, horse, donkey, sheep, goat and camel) into value added product (vermicompost)\\u000a at the laboratory scale. Vermicomposting resulted in lowering of pH, electrical conductivity, potassium and C:N ratio and\\u000a increase in nitrogen and

V. K. Garg; Y. K. Yadav; Aleenjeet Sheoran; Subhash Chand; Priya Kaushik

2006-01-01

410

Municipal solid waste management through vermicomposting employing exotic and local species of earthworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study was conducted between exotic and local (epigeic-Eisenia fetida and anaecic-Lempito mauritii, respectively) species of earthworms for the evaluation of their efficacy in vermicomposting of municipal solid waste (MSW). Vermicomposting of MSW for 42 days resulted in significant difference between the two species in their performance measured as loss in total organic carbon, carbon–nitrogen ratio (C:N) and increase

S Kaviraj; Satyawati Sharma

2003-01-01

411

Diversity and abundance of earthworms across an agricultural land-use intensity gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding how communities of important soil invertebrates vary with land use may lead to the development of more sustainable land-use strategies. We assessed the abundance and species composition of earthworm communities across six replicated long-term experimental ecosystems that span a gradient in agricultural land-use intensity. The experimental systems include a conventional row-crop agricultural system, two lower-intensity row-crop systems (no-till and

Richard G. Smith; Claire P. McSwiney; A. Stuart Grandy; Pongthep Suwanwaree; Renate M. Snider; G. Philip Robertson

2008-01-01

412

[Effects of earthworm (Eisennia foetida ) on As, P uptake by maize and As, P fractional transformation in the rhizosphere].  

PubMed

A pot experiment was conducted to examine the roles of earthworm in As uptake from original As-polluted soil by maize (Zea mays L.), and their effects on As, P fractions in the rhizosphere. The As-polluted soils with three As levels were collected from the arable soil near As mine. The plants were harvested after 10 weeks of growth. Dry weight (DW) and P, As concentrations of plants, as well as As and P fractions of the rhizospheric soil, were determined. The results showed that inoculated earthworm or appended rice straw increased maximal 149%, 222% DW of root and shoot, respectively. At the medium and high soil As levels, root As concentration in the soil treated by earthworm and rice straw was highest among all treatments, and earthworm increased more As concentration of shoot than rice straw did. In different soil As levels, root P concentration in the soil treated by earthworm was highest, and shoot P by rice straw. Ca-P affected maize absorbing As at the low soil As level(r = 0.981), and maize absorbing Al-P was restrained by As involved in well-crystallized hydrous oxides of Fe and Al at the medium (r = 0.953)and high (r = 0.997)soil As levels. The concentration of non-specially absorbed As and As combined with Fe or Al and of O-P increased at the soil inoculated earthworm or/and appended rice straw at the same time. These results indicated that earthworm was more valuable for plant developing than rice straw was. PMID:17891976

Bai, Jian-feng; Lin, Xian-gui; Yin, Rui; Zhang, Hua-yong; Wang, Jun-hua; Chen, Xue-min; Li, Jiang-yuan

2007-07-01

413

Community-specific impacts of exotic earthworm invasions on soil carbon dynamics in a sandy temperate forest.  

PubMed

Exotic earthworm introductions can alter above- and belowground properties of temperate forests, but the net impacts on forest soil carbon (C) dynamics are poorly understood. We used a mesocosm experiment to examine the impacts of earthworm species belonging to three different ecological groups (Lumbricus terrestris [anecic], Aporrectodea trapezoides [endogeic], and Eisenia fetida [epigeic]) on C distributions and storage in reconstructed soil profiles from a sandy temperate forest soil by measuring CO2 and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) losses, litter C incorporation into soil, and soil C storage with monospecific and species combinations as treatments. Soil CO2 loss was 30% greater from the Endogeic x Epigeic treatment than from controls (no earthworms) over the first 45 days; CO2 losses from monospecific treatments did not differ from controls. DOC losses were three orders of magnitude lower than CO2 losses, and were similar across earthworm community treatments. Communities with the anecic species accelerated litter C mass loss by 31-39% with differential mass loss of litter types (Acer rubrum > Populus grandidentata > Fagus grandifolia > Quercus rubra > or = Pinus strobus) indicative of leaf litter preference. Burrow system volume, continuity, and size distribution differed across earthworm treatments but did not affect cumulative CO2 or DOC losses. However, burrow system structure controlled vertical C redistribution by mediating the contributions of leaf litter to A-horizon C and N pools, as indicated by strong correlations between (1) subsurface vertical burrows made by anecic species, and accelerated leaf litter mass losses (with the exception of P. strobus); and (2) dense burrow networks in the A-horizon and the C and N properties of these pools. Final soil C storage was slightly lower in earthworm treatments, indicating that increased leaf litter C inputs into soil were more than offset by losses as CO2 and DOC across earthworm community treatments. PMID:24597228

Crumsey, Jasmine M; Le Moine, James M; Capowiez, Yvan; Goodsitt, Mitchell M; Larson, Sandra C; Kling, George W; Nadelhoffer, Knute J

2013-12-01

414

Traffic jam driving with NMV avoidance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the development of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) - mainly based on lidar and cameras - has considerably improved the safety of driving in urban environments. These systems provide warning signals for the driver in the case that any unexpected traffic circumstance is detected. The next step is to develop systems capable not only of warning the driver but also of taking over control of the car to avoid a potential collision. In the present communication, a system capable of autonomously avoiding collisions in traffic jam situations is presented. First, a perception system was developed for urban situations—in which not only vehicles have to be considered, but also pedestrians and other non-motor-vehicles (NMV). It comprises a differential global positioning system (DGPS) and wireless communication for vehicle detection, and an ultrasound sensor for NMV detection. Then, the vehicle's actuators - brake and throttle pedals - were modified to permit autonomous control. Finally, a fuzzy logic controller was implemented capable of analyzing the information provided by the perception system and of sending control commands to the vehicle's actuators so as to avoid accidents. The feasibility of the integrated system was tested by mounting it in a commercial vehicle, with the results being encouraging.

Milanés, Vicente; Alonso, Luciano; Villagrá, Jorge; Godoy, Jorge; de Pedro, Teresa; Oria, Juan P.

2012-08-01

415

Persistence and changes in bioavailability of dieldrin, DDE and heptachlor epoxide in earthworms over 45 years  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The finding of dieldrin (88 ng/g), DDE (52 ng/g), and heptachlor epoxide (19 ng/g) in earthworms from experimental plots after a single moderate application (9 kg/ha) 45 years earlier attests to the remarkable persistence of these compounds in soil and their continued uptake by soil organisms. Half-lives (with 95 % confidence intervals) in earthworms, estimated from exponential decay equations, were as follows: dieldrin 4.9 (4.3-5.7) years, DDE 5.3 (4.7-6.1) years, and heptachlor epoxide 4.3 (3.8-4.9) years. These half-lives were not significantly different from those estimated after 20 years. Concentration factors (dry weight earthworm tissue/dry weight soil) were initially high and decreased mainly during the first 11 years after application. By the end of the study, average concentration factors were 1.5 (dieldrin), 4.0 (DDE), and 1.8 (heptachlor epoxide), respectively.

Beyer, W. Nelson; Gale, Robert W.

2013-01-01

416

Vermicomposting of paper mill solid waste using epigeic earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae.  

PubMed

A 90 day study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of an exotic earthworm species (Eudrilus eugeniae) for decomposition of different types of organic substrates (mixed liquor suspended solids, cow dung and leaf litter) into valuable vermicompost. Mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) and leaf litter (LL) were mixed with cow dung (CD) in eight different ratios with three replicates for each treatment. All vermibeds expressed a significant decrease in pH, organic carbon, C:N ratio and an increase in total nitrogen, phosphorus and potash. Overall, earthworms could maximize decomposition and mineralization efficiency in bedding with lower proportions of MLSS. Maximum value for earth worm zoo mass and higher concentration of nutrient content was observed in CD + MLSS + LL in 1:1:2 ratios. Earthworm mortality tended to increase with increasing proportion of MLSS and maximum mortality in E. eugeniae was recorded for MLSS treatment alone. Results indicate that vermicomposting might be useful for managing the energy and nutrient of MLSS on a low-input basis. Products of this process can be used for sustainable land restoration practices. PMID:25004743

Ponmani, S; Udayasoorian, C; Jayabalakrishnan, R M; Kumar, K Vinoth

2014-07-01

417

Effect of biochar amendment on the bioavailability of pesticide chlorantraniliprole in soil to earthworm.  

PubMed

To evaluate the effect of biochar amendment on the bioavailability of chlorantraniliprole (CAP) in soils with different physico-chemical properties, the uptake of CAP from various soils by earthworms was studied. It was observed that the biochar amendment of the soils affected the sorption of CAP, but the magnitude of the sorption enhancement by biochar amendment among the soils was varied, presumably due to the attenuation of the sorptivity of the biochar when amended in the soil. The amendment with biochars leads to a decrease in the bioavailability of CAP in the soils to earthworms, and more prominent for biochar BC850 amendment. In the soil with a CAP concentration of 10 mg kg(-1), the residue of CAP in the earthworm tissues was found to be 9.65 mg kg(-1), in comparison with that the CAP residue was 4.05 mg kg(-1) in BC450 amended soil and 0.59 mg kg(-1) in BC850, respectively. The degree of bioavailability reduction by same level of biochar amendment was different among soils with different properties. The results demonstrate that the properties of soils are important to performance of biochar in soil. PMID:22776710

Wang, Ting-Ting; Cheng, Jie; Liu, Xian-Jin; Jiang, Wayne; Zhang, Chao-Lan; Yu, Xiang-Yang

2012-09-01

418

Oxidative and genotoxic effects of 900 MHz electromagnetic fields in the earthworm Eisenia fetida.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence suggests that exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) can have various biological effects. In this study the oxidative and genotoxic effects were investigated in earthworms Eisenia fetida exposed in vivo to RF-EMF at the mobile phone frequency (900 MHz). Earthworms were exposed to the homogeneous RF-EMF at field levels of 10, 23, 41 and 120 V m(-1) for a period of 2h using a Gigahertz Transversal Electromagnetic (GTEM) cell. At the field level of 23 V m(-1) the effect of longer exposure (4h) and field modulation (80% AM 1 kHz sinusoidal) was investigated as well. All exposure treatments induced significant genotoxic effect in earthworms coelomocytes detected by the Comet assay, demonstrating DNA damaging capacity of 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation. Field modulation additionally increased the genotoxic effect. Moreover, our results indicated the induction of antioxidant stress response in terms of enhanced catalase and glutathione reductase activity as a result of the RF-EMF exposure, and demonstrated the generation of lipid and protein oxidative damage. Antioxidant responses and the potential of RF-EMF to induce damage to lipids, proteins and DNA differed depending on the field level applied, modulation of the field and duration of E. fetida exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation. Nature of detected DNA lesions and oxidative stress as the mechanism of action for the induction of DNA damage are discussed. PMID:23352129

Tkalec, Mirta; Stambuk, Anamaria; Srut, Maja; Malari?, Krešimir; Klobu?ar, Göran I V

2013-04-01

419

Biochemical responses of earthworm (Eisenia foetida) to the pesticides chlorpyrifos and fenvalerate.  

PubMed

The effects of chlorpyrifos and fenvalerate on the activity of the cellulase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) of the earthworm (Eisenia foetida) were studied. Earthworms were exposed to chlorpyrifos and fenvalerate at a final concentration of 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg dry soil, respectively. Tissues from each treatment were collected on days 1, 3, 5, and 7. Compared to the controls, the cellulase activity of E. foetida was inhibited by treatments with chlorpyrifos and fenvalerate. The SOD activity of earthworms exposed to chlorpyrifos was significantly inhibited compared to the control after 1 day of incubation, whereas SOD activity increased on day 3. As exposure to the pesticide progressed, the SOD activity recovered from the stimulative effect and reached the level of the control. The SOD activity of E. foetida in the presence of fenvalerate stress was significantly inhibited at the initial stage of exposure and increased after day 3, whereas the SOD activity continued to decrease in response to increasing exposure to fenvalerate. The CAT activity of E. foetida during pesticide stress first increased and then decreased, after day 5, compared to the controls. Alterations of the enzyme activity under environmental stresses are suggested as indicators of biotic and abiotic stress. PMID:22188010

Wang, Jin-hua; Zhu, Lu-sheng; Liu, Wei; Wang, Jun; Xie, Hui

2012-04-01

420

The earthworm--Verminephrobacter symbiosis: an emerging experimental system to study extracellular symbiosis  

PubMed Central

Almost all Lumbricid earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) harbor extracellular species-specific bacterial symbionts of the genus Verminephrobacter (Betaproteobacteria) in their nephridia. The symbionts have a beneficial effect on host reproduction and likely live on their host's waste products. They are vertically transmitted and presumably associated with earthworms already at the origin of Lumbricidae 62–136 million years ago. The Verminephrobacter genomes carry signs of bottleneck-induced genetic drift, such as accelerated evolutionary rates, low codon usage bias, and extensive genome shuffling, which are characteristic of vertically transmitted intracellular symbionts. However, the Verminephrobacter genomes lack AT bias, size reduction, and pseudogenization, which are also common genomic hallmarks of vertically transmitted, intracellular symbionts. We propose that the opportunity for genetic mixing during part of the host—symbiont life cycle is the key to evade drift-induced genome erosion. Furthermore, we suggest the earthworm-Verminephrobacter association as a new experimental system for investigating host-microbe interactions, and especially for understanding genome evolution of vertically transmitted symbionts in the presence of genetic mixing.

Lund, Marie B.; Kjeldsen, Kasper U.; Schramm, Andreas

2014-01-01

421

Obstacle avoidance sonar for submarines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Mine Detection Sonar (AMDS) system was designed to operate in poor environments with high biological and\\/or shallow-water boundary conditions. It provides increased capability for active detection of volume, close-tethered, and bottom mines, as well as submarine and surface target active\\/passive detection for ASW and collision avoidance. It also provides bottom topography mapping capability for precise submarine navigation in

Albert C. Dugas; Kenneth M. Webman

2002-01-01

422

Rapid jamming avoidance in biosonar.  

PubMed

The sonar systems of bats and dolphins are in many ways superior to man-made sonar and radar systems, and considerable effort has been devoted to understanding the signal-processing strategies underlying these capabilities. A major feature determining the efficiency of sonar systems is the sensitivity to noise and jamming signals. Previous studies indicated that echolocating bats may adjust their signal structure to avoid jamming ('jamming avoidance response'; JAR). However, these studies relied on behavioural correlations and not controlled experiments. Here, we provide the first experimental evidence for JAR in bats. We presented bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) with 'playback stimuli' consisting of recorded echolocation calls at one of six frequencies. The bats exhibited a JAR by shifting their call frequency away from the presented playback frequency. When the approaching bats were challenged by an abrupt change in the playback stimulus, they responded by shifting their call frequencies upwards, away from the playback. Interestingly, even bats initially calling below the playback's frequency shifted their frequencies upwards, 'jumping' over the playback frequency. These spectral shifts in the bats' calls occurred often within less than 200 ms, in the first echolocation call emitted after the stimulus switch-suggesting that rapid jamming avoidance is important for the bat. PMID:17254989

Gillam, Erin H; Ulanovsky, Nachum; McCracken, Gary F

2007-03-01

423

Avoiding congestion in recommender systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recommender systems use the historical activities and personal profiles of users to uncover their preferences and recommend objects. Most of the previous methods are based on objects’ (and/or users’) similarity rather than on their difference. Such approaches are subject to a high risk of increasingly exposing users to a narrowing band of popular objects. As a result, a few objects may be recommended to an enormous number of users, resulting in the problem of recommendation congestion, which is to be avoided, especially when the recommended objects are limited resources. In order to quantitatively measure a recommendation algorithm?s ability to avoid congestion, we proposed a new metric inspired by the Gini index, which is used to measure the inequality of the individual wealth distribution in an economy. Besides this, a new recommendation method called directed weighted conduction (DWC) was developed by considering the heat conduction process on a user–object bipartite network with different thermal conductivities. Experimental results obtained for three benchmark data sets showed that the DWC algorithm can effectively avoid system congestion, and greatly improve the novelty and diversity, while retaining relatively high accuracy, in comparison with the state-of-the-art methods.

Ren, Xiaolong; Lü, Linyuan; Liu, Runran; Zhang, Jianlin

2014-06-01

424

Tropical Cyclone Ship Avoidance Program (TCSAP) for the Western North Pacific Ocean.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Tropical Cyclone Ship Avoidance Program (TCSAP), which is designed to replace the Pacific Fleet's tropical cyclone danger area avoidance instruction, is described. The Pacific Fleet danger area was tested on 1982 tropical cyclone forecasts, and summar...

J. D. Jarrell

1986-01-01

425

Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic Simulation Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic (CAAT) concept for the airport Terminal Maneuvering Area (TMA) was evaluated in a simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. CAAT is being designed to enhance surface situation awareness and provide cockpit alerts of potential conflicts during runway, taxi, and low altitude air-to-air operations. The purpose of the study was to evaluate pilot reaction to conflict events in the TMA near the airport, different alert timings for various scenarios, alerting display concepts, and directive alerting concepts. This paper gives an overview of the conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) concept, simulation study, and test results

Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Otero, Sharon D.; Barker, Glover D.

2010-01-01

426

Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic Concept Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An initial Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic (CAAT) concept for the Terminal Maneuvering Area (TMA) was evaluated in a simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. CAAT is being designed to enhance surface situation awareness and provide cockpit alerts of potential conflicts during runway, taxi, and low altitude air-to-air operations. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the initial concept for an aircraft-based method of conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) in the TMA focusing on conflict detection algorithms and alerting display concepts. This paper gives an overview of the CD&R concept, simulation study, and test results.

Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Otero, Sharon D.; Barker, Glover D.

2009-01-01

427

Radar sensors for intersection collision avoidance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On-vehicle sensors for collision avoidance and intelligent cruise control are receiving considerably attention as part of Intelligent Transportation Systems. Most of these sensors are radars and `look' in the direction of the vehicle's headway, that is, in the direction ahead of the vehicle. Calspan SRL Corporation is investigating the use of on- vehicle radar for Intersection Collision Avoidance (ICA). Four crash scenarios are considered and the goal is to design, develop and install a collision warning system in a test vehicle, and conduct both test track and in-traffic experiments. Current efforts include simulations to examine ICA geometry-dependent design parameters and the design of an on-vehicle radar and tracker for threat detection. This paper discusses some of the simulation and radar design efforts. In addition, an available headway radar was modified to scan the wide angles (+/- 90 degree(s)) associated with ICA scenarios. Preliminary proof-of-principal tests are underway as a risk reduction effort. Some initial target detection results are presented.

Jocoy, Edward H.; Phoel, Wayne G.

1997-02-01

428

Diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) for the prediction of bioavailability of heavy metals in contaminated soils to earthworm ( Eisenia foetida) and oral bioavailable concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applicability of diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) as a biomimic surrogate was investigated to determine the bioavailable heavy metal concentrations to earthworm (Eisenia foetida). The relationships between the amount of DGT and earthworm uptake; DGT uptake and the bioavailable concentrations of heavy metals in soils were evaluated. The one-compartment model for the dynamic uptake of heavy metals in the

Rabindra Bade; Sanghwa Oh; Won Sik Shin

429

C and N turnover of fermented residues from biogas plants in soil in the presence of three different earthworm species ( Lumbricus terrestris, Aporrectodea longa, Aporrectodea caliginosa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A soil microcosm experiment was performed to assess (1) the C- and N- turnover of residues from biogas plants in soils in the presence of three earthworm species (Lumbricus terrestris, Aporrectodea longa and Aporrectodea caliginosa) and (2) the resulting changes in soil chemical and microbiological properties when using these residues as fertilizer in comparison to conventional slurry. Earthworms were exposed

Gregor Ernst; Anne Müller; Harald Göhler; Christoph Emmerling

2008-01-01

430

Effects of bioenergy crop cultivation on earthworm communities—A comparative study of perennial ( Miscanthus) and annual crops with consideration of graded land-use intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy crops are of growing importance in agriculture worldwide. This field study aimed to investigate earthworm communities of different intensively cultivated soils during a 2-year period, with special emphasis on annual and perennial energy crops like rapeseed, maize, and Miscanthus. These were compared with cereals, grassland, and fallow sites. Distribution patterns of earthworm abundance, species, and ecological categories were analysed

Daniel Felten; Christoph Emmerling

2011-01-01

431

Sensor image augmentation to avoid saturation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method to enhance the legibility of FLIR (Forward-Looking Infra Red) images was invented and evaluated by flight test. The method intends to avoid image saturation when a pilot is looking for low temperature objects of interest in an image dominated by high temperature areas, such as searching for objects on a cooler land area in an image mostly filled with a warmer sea area. The method utilizes a 2D mask generated from 3D object of interest data, and overlays the raw image. The effectiveness of the method was evaluated by flight tests in which the processed image was presented on a HMD (Helmet Mounted Display). The flight tests confirmed the enhanced image legibility brought by the method.

Funabiki, Kohei; Tsuda, Hiroka; Tawada, Kazuho; Yoshida, Takashi

2011-05-01

432

Tires, Worms and Weathering: Investigating the Role of Earthworm Processes in Urban Soils Receiving Roadway Derived Contaminants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increased development around urban centers has altered the biogeochemistry of near surface systems. One major impact of development has been an increase in the availability of potentially toxic trace metals in soils and surface waters. A primary source of trace metals to near surface environments in urban systems is roadway runoff and dust. The potential hazard that roadway runoff and dust pose to biota is not well understood and is an area of extensive investigation in the multi-disciplinary field of environmental biogeochemistry. Because earthworms ingest, transport, process and excrete large amounts of soil on a daily basis, earthworms can have a profound impact on soil chemistry and the bioavailability of potentially toxic trace metals. Therefore, it is important to investigate how earthworms are affecting the distribution and bioavailability of potentially toxic metals in the soils that they re-work. Results from a set of mesocosm experiments using the native endogeic earthworm species Eisenoides loennbergi and soils from the Red Run watershed in Baltimore County, MD, exhibit evidence of the physical and chemical earthworm weathering processes over time periods as short as 3 week. The target element for this experiment was Zn which is highly enriched in roadway dust. In this study, 200 g of soil was amended with roadway dust. The total mass of Zn introduced was 20 mg making the target concentration 159 ppm. Six replicates were prepared with leaf litter added as a food source. Ten earthworms were then introduced into the soils. Two duplicate batches were then held at constant moisture (70%) and temperature (16 degrees C) for three weeks. An additional four were let run for six weeks. Control samples for both time periods show no change in either total Zn or extractable (1 M MgCl2) Zn concentration. The amended samples however, display evidence of extensive mixing and an increase in the extractable Zn that can be attrib