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1

THE POTENTIAL OF AN EARTHWORM AVOIDANCE TEST FOR EVALUATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

An earthworm avoidance test has potential advantages for use in evaluation of hazardous wastes sites. Because organisms often exhibit behavioral responses at lower levels of stress than those that acute toxicity tests are able to detect, avoidance tests could provide increased se...

2

Comparative sensitivity of Eisenia andrei and Perionyx excavatus in earthworm avoidance tests using two soil types in the tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial avoidance behavior is proposed as a fast and cost-effective method for assessing effects of pesticides on earthworms. Tropical species however, have rarely been used in avoidance tests. Avoidance tests were performed with Perionyxexcavatus, a tropical species, and Eiseniaandrei as the standard species, using chlorpyrifos and carbofuran in artificial and natural soil. Earthworms were exposed to concentrations of 1–900 (chlorpyrifos)

Cornelis A. M. van Gestel

2009-01-01

3

The potential of an earthworm avoidance test for evaluation of hazardous waste sites  

SciTech Connect

An earthworm avoidance test has potential advantages for use in evaluation of hazardous wastes sites. Because organisms often exhibit behavioral responses at lower levels of stress than those that acute toxicity tests are able to detect, avoidance tests could provide increased sensitivity to hazardous chemicals. Avoidance is an ecologically relevant endpoint that neither acute nor sublethal tests measure. Avoidance can potentially indicate sublethal stress in a short period of time, testing is easily done in a soil matrix, and an avoidance test has the potential for specialized applications for soil testing. Dual-control test data established that, in absence of a toxicant, worms did not congregate, but instead distributed themselves fairly randomly with respect to the two sides of the test chambers, that is, they did not display behavior that might be mistaken for avoidance. In tests with artificial soil spiked with reference toxicants and hazardous site soils, worms avoided soils containing various toxic chemicals. Avoidance behavior proved in most cases be a more sensitive indicator of chemical contamination than acute tests. Determination of avoidance was possible in 1 to 2 d, much less than the current duration of acute and sublethal earthworm tests.

Yeardley, R.B. Jr.; Gast, L.C. [DynCorp, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lazorchak, J.M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1996-09-01

4

Earthworm (Eisenia andrei) Avoidance of Soils Treated with Cypermethrin  

PubMed Central

The pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin is used for agricultural and public health campaigns. Its residues may contaminate soils and the beneficial soil organisms, like the earthworms, that may ingest the contaminated soil particles. Due to its ecological relevance, earthworms Eisenia andrei/fetida have been used in different ecotoxicological tests. The avoidance of soils treated with cypermethrin by compost worms Eisenia andrei was studied here as a bioindicator of the influence of treatment dosage and the pesticide formulation in three different agricultural soils indicated by the Brazilian environmental authorities for ecotoxicological tests. This earthworms’ behavior was studied here as a first attempt to propose the test for regulation purposes. The two-compartment test systems, where the earthworms were placed for a two-day exposure period, contained samples of untreated soil alone or together with soil treated with technical grade or wettable powder formulation of cypermethrin. After 48 h, there was no mortality, but the avoidance was clear because all earthworms were found in the untreated section of each type of soil (p < 0.05). No differences were found by the Fisher’s exact test (p ? 1.000) for each soil and treatment, demonstrating that the different soil characteristics, the cypermethrin concentrations and formulation, as well as the smaller amounts of soil and earthworms did not influence the avoidance behavior of the earthworms to cypermethrin. The number and range of treatments used in this study do not allow a detailed recommendation of the conditions applied here, but to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported attempt to identify the avoidance of pesticide treated tropical soils by earthworms.

de Sousa, Ana Paula A.; de Andrea, Mara M.

2011-01-01

5

Toxicity assessment for chlorpyrifos-contaminated soil with three different earthworm test methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworm toxicity tests are useful tools for terrestrial risk assessment but require a hierarchy of test designs that differ in effect levels (behavior, sublethal, lethal). In this study, the toxicity of chlorpyrifos contaminated soil on earthworms was assessed. In addition to the acute and chronic tests, an avoidance response test was applied. Earthworms were exposed to sublethal and lethal concentration

Shi-ping ZHOU; Chang-qun DUAN; Hui FU; Yu-hui CHEN; Xue-hua WANG; Ze-fen YU

2007-01-01

6

Avoidance behaviour response and esterase inhibition in the earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris, after exposure to chlorpyrifos.  

PubMed

The avoidance response of earthworms to polluted soils has been standardised using a simple and low-cost test, which facilitates soil toxicity screening. In this study, the avoidance response of Lumbricus terrestris was quantified in chlorpyrifos-spiked soils, depending on the pesticide concentration and exposure duration. The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and carboxylesterase (CbE) activities was also determined as indirect measures of pesticide bioavailability. The effects of different chlorpyrifos concentrations were examined in a standardised test (two-chamber system) with 0.6, 3 and 15 mg/kg chlorpyrifos. A modification of the test involved a pre-exposure step (24, 48 or 72 h) in soils spiked with 15 mg/kg. In both protocols, earthworms were unable to avoid the contaminated soils. However, the esterase activities showed that all earthworms were exposed to chlorpyrifos. Acetylcholinesterase activity did not change in earthworms in the standardised behavioural test (0.58 ± 0.20 U/mg protein, mean ± SD; n = 72), whereas the CbE activity was significantly inhibited (62-87 % inhibition) in earthworms exposed to 3 and 15 mg/kg. In the modified test, earthworms had greatly inhibited AChE activity (0.088 ± 0.034 U/mg protein, n = 72), which was supported by reactivation of the inhibited enzyme activity in the presence of pralidoxime (2-PAM). Similarly, the CbE activity was significantly inhibited in earthworms with all treatments. This study suggests that the avoidance behaviour test for organophosphorus-contaminated soils could be supported by specific biomarkers to facilitate a better understanding of pesticide exposure and toxicity during this test. PMID:23435687

Martínez Morcillo, S; Yela, J L; Capowiez, Y; Mazzia, C; Rault, M; Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C

2013-02-24

7

Assessing cypermethrin-contaminated soil with three different earthworm test methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of tests (lethal, sublethal, and behavioral) on earthworms were conducted as an eco-assessment of pesticides. In this study, the toxicity of cypermethrin-contaminating soil on adult and juvenile earthworms was assessed. Beside the acute and chronic tests, an avoidance response test was carried out. It was shown that the all-round toxicity from cypermethrin was weak on adult earthworms. Compared

Shiping ZHOU; Changqun DUAN; Xuehua WANG; Wong Hang Gi Michelle; Zefen YU; Hui FU

2008-01-01

8

Toxicity of copper and zinc assessed with three different earthworm tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, standardised earthworm acute toxicity and reproduction tests are used to assess the toxicity of heavy metal contaminated soils. These tests are, however, time-consuming, laborious and costly, and in addition, some sublethal responses may remain overlooked. Avoidance of metal contaminated soils by earthworms may be a useful parameter when assessing ecological risks with a low test effort. The objective

Tuomas Lukkari; Marjo Aatsinki; Ari Väisänen; Jari Haimi

2005-01-01

9

Earthworm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earthworms like to live underground in the moist soil. Two reasons why they are considered to be annelids are because they have a segmented body and they lack true legs. They have soft bodies and as a result don't have any "armor" to protect them. Earthworms can dry up and die after being out of the soil too long or they can easily be eaten by insects, as in the picture.

N/A N/A (None;)

2004-07-06

10

Assessing 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)-contaminated soil using three different earthworm test methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the scope of a phytoremediation project, the toxicity of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) contaminated soil (and its toxic metabolites) on earthworms was assessed. In addition to the standard acute and reproduction tests (ISO 11268), an avoidance response test was applied. The test methods covered all important ecological relevant endpoints (acute, chronic, behavioral). At a concentration of 1142mg\\/kg, TNT caused significant toxic

M Schaefer

2004-01-01

11

Effects of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on the avoidance response, survival, growth and reproduction of earthworms (Eisenia fetida).  

PubMed

The effects of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on avoidance response, survival, growth, and reproduction of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were investigated under laboratory conditions using natural and artificial soils as substrate. Results showed that no significant avoidance response was observed when earthworms were exposed to 0.1-1000 mg/kg of BDE-209 for 48 h. After 28-days exposure, no significant effects on survival and growth of adult earthworms was induced by 0.1-1000 mg/kg of BDE-209 indicating the Lowest Observed Effect Level (LOEL) of BDE-209 on their survival and body weight was more than 1000 mg/kg. Except for a significant decrease in the number of juveniles per hatched cocoon in artificial soils at 1000 mg/kg of BDE-209, no significant effects on reproductive parameters (e.g. cocoon production per earthworms, weight per cocoon and cocoon hatchability) were observed. These results suggest that adult earthworms have a strong tolerance for BDE-209 exposure in soils, but a potential toxicity does exist for earthworm embryos or juveniles. PMID:23312040

Xie, Xianchuan; Qian, Yan; Wu, Yingxin; Yin, Jun; Zhai, Jianping

2013-01-09

12

Relating results from earthworm toxicity tests to agricultural soil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The artificial soil tests of the European Economic Community and of the Organization for Economic Cooperation produce data relating earthworm mortality to pesticide concentrations in soil under laboratory conditions. To apply these results to agricultural soils it is necessary to relate these concentrations to amounts of pesticide applied per area. This paper reviews the relevant published literature and suggests a simple relation for regulatory use. Hazards to earthworms from pesticides are suggested to be greatest soon after application, when the pesticides may be concentrated in a soil layer a few millimeters thick. For estimating exposure of earthworms, however, a thicker soil layer should be considered, to account for their movement through soil. During favorable weather conditions, earthworms belonging to species appropriate to the artificial soil test have been reported to confine their activity to a layer about 5 cm. If a 5-cm layer is accepted as relevant for regulatory purposes, then an application of 1 kg/ha would be equivalent to 1-67 ppm (dry) in the artificial soil test.

Beyer, W.N.

1992-01-01

13

Behavioural endpoints in earthworm ecotoxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aims and Scope  Endpoints in earthworm ecotoxicology scheduled in guidelines are mortality and reproduction rates. However, not only the direct\\u000a influence of pollutants on population parameters but also changes in behaviour such as substrate avoidance can have an important\\u000a impact on soil ecosystems. In practice two different avoidance response tests are applied in earthworm ecotoxicology: (i)\\u000a a six-chamber test system

Maike Schaefer

2003-01-01

14

Feasibility of vermicomposting dairy biosolids using a modified system to avoid earthworm mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory study was conducted to examine the feasibility of vermicomposting dairy biosolids (dairy sludge), either alone or with either of the bulking agents ? cereal straw or wood shavings, using the epigeic earthworm ? Eisinea andrei. Earthworms added directly to these three substrates died within 48 hours. A system was developed to overcome the toxic effect of unprocessed dairy

R. Nogales; C. Elvira; E. Benítez; R. Thompson; M. Gomez

1999-01-01

15

Terrestrial avoidance behaviour tests as screening tool to assess soil contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess soil quality and risk assessment, bioassays can be useful tools to gauge the potential toxicity of contaminants focusing on their bioavailable fraction. A rapid and sublethal avoidance behaviour test was used as a screening tool with the earthworm Eisenia andrei and the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus, where organisms were exposed during 48h to several chemicals (lindane, dimethoate and copper

Susana Loureiro; Amadeu M. V. M. Soares; António J. A. Nogueira

2005-01-01

16

Differences in toxicity of the insecticide chlorpyrifos to six species of earthworms (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) in standardized soil tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The choice of the earthworm species for use in the laboratory screening of chemicals remains a matter of controversy. The earthworm Eisenia fetida has been specified as a test species in current international standards for testing the acute lethality of chemicals to earthworms (OECD 1984; EEC 1985). E.fetida is a compost-dwelling species convenient for captive breeding. However, its ecological representativeness

Wei-chun Ma; Jos Bodt

1993-01-01

17

Influences of different standardised test methods on biochemical responses in the earthworm Eisenia fetida andrei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were carried out to determine the effects on the metabolic activities of earthworms of experimental conditions used in toxicity assays. Earthworms (Eisenia fetida andrei) were maintained under constant environmental conditions, in the absence of toxic agents, using three standard toxicology assay procedures (the artisol, contact filter paper and artificial soil tests) for two periods of time. Two controls were

C Arnaud; M Saint-Denis; J. F Narbonne; P Soler; D Ribera

2000-01-01

18

Toxicity of the ionophore antibiotic lasalocid to soil-dwelling invertebrates: avoidance tests in comparison to classic sublethal tests.  

PubMed

Lasalocid is a veterinary ionophore antibiotic used for prevention and treatment of coccidiosis in poultry. It enters the environment with the use of contaminated manure on agricultural land. Despite its extensive use, the effects of lasalocid on non-target soil organisms are poorly explored. We used classical subleathal ecotoxicity tests to assess the effects of lasalocid on earthworms (Eisenia andrei) and isopods (Porcellio scaber) and compared the results with tests using avoidance behaviour as the endpoint. The results showed that avoidance is a much more sensitive endpoint. For earthworms, EC50 for avoidance (12.3 mg kg(-1) dry soil) was more than five times lower than EC50 for reproduction (69.6 mg kg(-1) dry soil). In isopods the sensitivity of the behavioural response test was even higher. While the highest lasalocid concentration 202 mg kg(-1) had no significant effects on isopod growth or survival, already the lowest used concentration in the behavioural assay (4.51 mg kg(-1)) caused significant impact on isopod behaviour. Using the avoidance test results for calculating the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) of lasalocid to soil invertebrates, the value is close to the predicted environmental concentration (PEC). This indicates that the use of lasalocid-contaminated manure could potentially impair the habitat function of agricultural soils. PMID:23635534

Žižek, Suzana; Zidar, Primož

2013-04-29

19

Effects of silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate in the earthworm reproduction test.  

PubMed

The widespread use of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), for example, in textiles and cleaning products, means that they are likely to reach the environment via biosolids or the effluent from wastewater treatment plants. The aim of the present study was to determine the ecotoxicity of Ag-NPs in the earthworm reproduction test using Eisenia andrei. In addition to the usual endpoints, the authors also investigated the uptake and accumulation of Ag by adult earthworms and the concentration of free Ag(+) in soil pore water. Silver nanoparticles and Ag nitrate showed similar toxicities in the earthworm reproduction test. The uptake of Ag from Ag-NPs in the earthworm was slightly higher than the uptake of Ag from Ag nitrate. Spiked soils showed a concentration-dependent effect on reproduction, but there was no concentration-dependent increase in the amount of Ag in earthworm tissues. The authors noted a concentration-dependent increase in the levels of free Ag(+) in the soil pore water regardless of the Ag source. The number of juveniles is a more suitable endpoint than biomass or mortality. The uptake of Ag does not appear to inhibit reproduction. Instead, inhibition seems to reflect Ag(+) released into the soil pore water, which affects cocoons and juveniles in the soil. Analysis of transformed Ag-NPs after purification in wastewater treatment plants would provide additional information. PMID:23059754

Schlich, Karsten; Klawonn, Thorsten; Terytze, Konstantin; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin

2012-11-21

20

Comparison of sublethal and lethal criteria for nine different chemicals in standardized toxicity tests using the earthworm Eisenia andrei  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effects of nine different chemicals on the survival, growth, and reproduction of the earthworm species Eisenia andrei were determined using a recently developed method. Earthworms were exposed for 3 weeks to the test chemicals in an artificial soil substrate. Additional data on the acute toxicity of these chemicals were derived from the literature. For some chemicals,

C. A. Van Gestel; E. M. Dirven-Van Breemen; R. Baerselman; H. J. Emans; J. A. Janssen; R. Postuma; P. J. Van Vliet

1992-01-01

21

Limit-test toxicity screening of selected inorganic nanoparticles to the earthworm Eisenia fetida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of a range of inorganic (Ag, Cu, Ni, Al2O3, SiO2, TiO2 and ZrO2) nanoparticles (NP) and their corresponding metal salt or bulk metal oxide were screened for toxicity toward the earthworm\\u000a Eisenia fetida using the limit-test design (1000 mg\\/kg). This study provides the first ecotoxicological life history trait data on earthworms\\u000a for each these NPs, as well as for

Lars-Henrik Heckmann; Mads B. Hovgaard; Duncan S. Sutherland; Herman Autrup; Flemming Besenbacher; Janeck J. Scott-Fordsmand

2011-01-01

22

Evaluation of alternative reference toxicants for use in the earthworm toxicity test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the 14-d earthworm toxicity test to aid in the evaluation of the ecological impact of contaminated soils is becoming increasingly widespread. However, the method is in need of further standardization. As part of this continuing process, the choice of reference toxicants was evaluated. Reference toxicants were rated in relation to the following criteria: (a) reproducibility, (b) low

Roger B. Yeardley; James M. Lazorchak; Michael A. Pence

1995-01-01

23

EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE REFERENCE TOXICANTS FOR USE IN THE EARTHWORM TOXICITY TEST  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of the 14-d earthworm toxicity test to aid in the evaluation of the ecological impact of contaminated soils is becoming increasingly widespread. However,the method is in need of further standardization. As part of this continuing process, the choice of reference toxicants...

24

Assessing soil ecotoxicity of methyl tert-butyl ether using earthworm bioassay; closed soil microcosm test for volatile organic compounds.  

PubMed

An earthworm bioassay was conducted to assess ecotoxicity in methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-amended soils. Ecotoxicity of MTBE to earthworms was evaluated by a paper contact method, natural field soil test, and an OECD artificial soil test. All tests were conducted in closed systems to prevent volatilization of MTBE out of test units. Test earthworm species were Perionyx excavatus and Eisenia andrei. Mortality and abnormal morphology of earthworms exposed to different concentrations of MTBE were examined. MTBE was toxic to both earthworm species and the severity of response increased with increasing MTBE concentrations. Perionyx excavatus was more sensitive to MTBE than Eisenia andrei in filter papers and two different types of soils. MTBE toxicity was more severe in OECD artificial soils than in field soils, possibly due to the burrowing behavior of earthworms into artificial soils. The present study demonstrated that ecotoxicity of volatile organic compounds such as MTBE can be assessed using an earthworm bioassay in closed soil microcosm with short-term exposure duration. PMID:15589644

An, Youn-Joo

2005-03-01

25

Using earthworm avoidance behaviour to assess the toxicity of formulated herbicides and their active ingredients on natural soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  Soil quality has been threatened by intensive agricultural practises, namely those relying on the application of pesticides,\\u000a such as herbicides. Among the non-target terrestrial organisms exposed to such scenarios, earthworms are key ecological receptors\\u000a widely used in ecotoxicological studies. As such, this work aims to assess the effects of two herbicide active ingredients\\u000a (a.i.)—sulcotrione and penoxsulam—and their

Catarina Marques; Ruth Pereira; Fernando Gonçalves

2009-01-01

26

My saga with earthworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms have been studied as a readily available, easily maintainable and cheap test species to develop toxicity test systems as an alternative to in vivo rodent bioassays. The results obtained, mainly with metals, since the programme was initiated about 15 years ago, are summarized in this review. Metals proved more toxic to rodents than earthworms; the relative order of toxicity

A. Furst

2002-01-01

27

Ecotoxicity of aged uranium in soil using plant, earthworm and microarthropod toxicity tests.  

PubMed

Discrepancies about probable no effect concentrations (PNEC) for uranium in soils may be because toxicity tests used freshly contaminated soils. This study used 3 soils amended with a range of uranium concentrations 10 years previously. The toxicity tests with northern wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus); earthworm (Eisenia andrei) were not affected below ~1,000 mg U kg(-1), and the soil arthropod Folsomia candida was not affected below ~350 mg U kg(-1). Survival of Orthonychiurus folsomi was diminished 20% (EC(20)) by ~85-130 mg U kg(-1), supporting a PNEC in the range of 100-250 mg U kg(-1) as derived previously. PMID:22033655

Sheppard, S C; Stephenson, G L

2011-10-28

28

Earthworm bioassays: Adopting techniques from aquatic toxicity testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current theories suggest that the effective concentration of soil contaminants is that fraction that resides in the hydrosphere of soil particles; therefore, parallels may be drawn between toxicity testing in soil, sediment and water. Certain practices and concepts used in aquatic toxicity testing may be adapted into soil toxicity testing procedures and increase the general understanding of the toxicity of

R. P. Lanno; L. S. McCarty

1997-01-01

29

Recycled water sources influence the bioavailability of copper to earthworms.  

PubMed

Re-use of wastewaters can overcome shortfalls in irrigation demand and mitigate environmental pollution. However, in an untreated or partially treated state, these water sources can introduce inorganic contaminants, including heavy metals, to soils that are irrigated. In this study, earthworms (Eisenia fetida) have been used to determine copper (Cu) bioavailability in two contrasting soils irrigated with farm dairy, piggery and winery effluents. Soils spiked with varying levels of Cu (0-1000mg/kg) were subsequently irrigated with recycled waters and Milli-Q (MQ) water and Cu bioavailability to earthworms determined by mortality and avoidance tests. Earthworms clearly avoided high Cu soils and the effect was more pronounced in the absence than presence of recycled water irrigation. At the highest Cu concentration (1000mg/kg), worm mortality was 100% when irrigated with MQ-water; however, when irrigated with recycled waters, mortality decreased by 30%. Accumulation of Cu in earthworms was significantly less in the presence of recycled water and was dependent on CaCl(2)-extractable free Cu(2+) concentration in the soil. Here, it is evident that organic carbon in recycled waters was effective in decreasing the toxic effects of Cu on earthworms, indicating that the metal-organic complexes decreased Cu bioavailability to earthworms. PMID:23122192

Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Bolan, Nanthi S; Naidu, Ravi; Kim, Won-Il

2012-10-13

30

Biochemical and genotoxic effect of triclosan on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) using contact and soil tests.  

PubMed

Triclosan (TCS) is a broad-spectrum bactericide that is used for a variety of antimicrobial functions. TCS is frequently detected in the terrestrial environment due to application of sewage sludge to agricultural land. In the present study, 48-h paper contact and 28-day spiked soil tests were conducted to examine the toxic effects of TCS on the antioxidative and genetic indices of earthworms (Eisenia fetida). The activity of antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT) and the content of the lipid peroxidation product (malondialdehyde, MDA) were determined as biomarkers of oxidative stress in E. fetida. Moreover, single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) was used as a biomarker of genotoxicity. The results showed that triclosan induced a significant increase (P < 0.05) in antioxidative enzyme activities and MDA content. Of all of the biomarkers examined, CAT activity was most sensitive to TCS, and the CAT activity increased significantly (P < 0.05) at bactericidal concentrations of 7.86 ng cm?² in the contact test and 10 mg kg?¹ in the spiked soil test. The comet assay showed that TCS treatments significantly induced (P < 0.05) DNA damage in E. fetida, and that 78.6 ng cm?² caused significant genotoxic effects in the acute test (48 h). Clear dose-dependent DNA damage to E. fetida was observed both in contact and spiked soil tests. These results imply that TCS may have potential biochemical and genetic toxicity toward earthworms (E. fetida). A battery of biomarkers covering multiple molecular targets of acute toxicity can be combined to better understand the impacts of TCS on E. fetida. PMID:22707219

Lin, Dasong; Xie, Xiujie; Zhou, Qixing; Liu, Yao

2010-12-08

31

Progress in Earthworm Ecotoxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms are regarded as one of the most suitable animals for testing the toxicity of chemicals in soils and have been adopted\\u000a as standard organisms for ecotoxicological testing. In several guidelines concerning earthworm toxicity tests, Eisenia fetida\\/andrei (E. fetida\\/andrei) was chosen because it can be easily cultured in the laboratory and an extensive database on the effects of all classes

Byung-Tae Lee; Kyung-Hee Shin; Ju-Yong Kim; Kyoung-Woong Kim

32

Searching for a more sensitive earthworm species to be used in pesticide homologation tests - a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Pesticide risk assessments include experiments designed to measure the effect of pesticides on earthworms using the Eisenia fetida fetida or Eisenia fetida andrei species. There is no clear consensus in the literature on the sensitivity of different earthworm species to pesticides. We performed a meta-analysis on the sensitivity of several earthworm species to pesticides to determine the most sensitive species, and to discuss their suitability for European homologation tests. A dataset including median lethal dose (LC50) values reported in 44 experimental treatments was constructed and then analyzed in order to compare the sensitivity levels of E. fetida with that of other earthworm species. Results showed that LC50 values reported for Lumbricus terrestris and Aporrectodea caliginosa were on average significantly lower than for E. fetida. Considering the relatively high LC50 values reported for E. fetida and the absence of this species from zones where pesticides are usually applied, the relevance of using E. fetida for pesticide homologation tests is questionable and we advise risk assessors to use A. caliginosa as model species. A new protocol based on this species could be proposed for European homologation tests but its implementation will require the definition of a new standard and take time. In the meantime, the results obtained with E. fetida should be interpreted with caution taking into account the low sensitivity of this species. Our study illustrates the value of the meta-analysis approach for comparing the sensitivity of different earthworm species to pesticides. It would be useful to extend the dataset presented in this paper in order to analyze the sensitivity of other aquatic or terrestrial organism groups used for pesticide homologation or ecotoxicology tests. PMID:23084259

Pelosi, C; Joimel, S; Makowski, D

2012-10-22

33

Biomarker responses in earthworm Eisenia andrei exposed to pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin using different toxicity tests.  

PubMed

The effects of two widely used insecticides - organophosphate pirimiphos-methyl and pyrethroid deltamethrin - were investigated under laboratory conditions following OECD guidelines using the epigeic earthworm Eisenia andrei as the test organism. The overall aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of these pesticides on molecular biomarkers of earthworm E. andrei using the in vitro, filter paper contact and artificial soil test. In this study for the first time the equivalent concentrations of investigated pesticide applied in different tests were calculated. Although the response of measured molecular biomarkers in different toxicity tests had certain similarities, some distinct differences were also evident. Both pesticides inhibited AChE and CES activities in all three applied toxicity tests; however only in the filter paper test the hormetic effect was recorded. The artificial soil test showed that duration of the exposure significantly changed the effects of the investigated pesticides on CAT and GST activities. Namely, after the initial increase, the prolongation of exposure caused the reduction of the CAT and GST activities. Both pesticides significantly inhibited the efflux pump activity. In the artificial soil test, the significant changes in measured biomarkers after application of doses lower than doses recommended for use in the agriculture indicate that the investigated pesticides could have a harmful effect on earthworms in the context of the realistic environment. PMID:23063481

Velki, Mirna; Hackenberger, Branimir K

2012-10-11

34

Evaluation of alternative reference toxicants for use in the earthworm toxicity test  

SciTech Connect

The use of the 14-d earthworm toxicity test to aid in the evaluation of the ecological impact of contaminated soils is becoming increasingly widespread. However, the method is in need of further standardization. As part of this continuing process, the choice of reference toxicants was evaluated. Reference toxicants were rated in relation to the following criteria: (a) reproducibility, (b) low human health hazard, (c) feasibility of measurement, and (d) chemical stability. Potassium chloride (KCl) and ammonium chloride (NH{sub 4}Cl) were evaluated as possible alternatives to the one currently in common use, 2-chloroacetamide. Potassium chloride rated the best for the combination of the four criteria, followed by NH{sub 4}Cl and 2-chloroacetamide. Coefficients of variation (C.V.s) from control charts of six definitive tests were use to measure reproducibility. The best reproducibility (lowest C.V.) was shown by KCl, followed by NH{sub 4}Cl and 2-chloroacetamide. Toxicants ranked KCl < NH{sub 4}Cl {much_lt} 2-chloroacetamide in terms of health hazard; and KCl = NH{sub 4}Cl > 2-chloroacetamide in terms of measurement feasibility. Both 2-chloroacetamide and NH{sub 4}Cl changed in concentration during testing. Evidence is also presented that 2-chloroacetamide degrades rapidly during testing, and that, as dead worms decay, ammonification may be adding another toxicant, ammonia, to tests.

Yeardley, R.B. Jr. [DynCorp-TAI, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lazorchak, J.M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Pence, M.A. [Technology Applications, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1995-07-01

35

Uncertainty avoidance and facework: A test of the Hofstede model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested whether Hofstede's Uncertainty Avoidance dimension of culture is an important predictor for understanding national differences. To determine this, an analysis of survey data was carried out in six countries: Chile, Hong Kong, Israel, Japan, Sweden and the United States. This replication study tested Hofstede's conclusions of 1980 and 2001 about the role of uncertainty in facework, the

Rebecca S. Merkin

2006-01-01

36

Earthworms and in vitro physiologically-based extraction tests: complementary tools for a holistic approach towards understanding risk at arsenic-contaminated sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship of the total arsenic content of a soil and its bioaccumulation by earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus and Dendrodrilus rubidus) to the arsenic fraction bioaccessible to humans, measured using an in vitro physiologically-based extraction test (PBET),\\u000a was investigated. Soil and earthworm samples were collected at 24 sites at the former arsenic mine at the Devon Great Consols\\u000a (DGC) in southwest England (UK),

Mark Button; Michael J. Watts; Mark R. Cave; Chris F. Harrington; Gawen T. Jenkin

2009-01-01

37

Testing a collision avoidance display with high-precision navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent years have seen a rise in sophisticated navigational positioning techniques. Starting from classical GPS, differential GPS, ground-based augmentation, and raw data submission have opened possibilities for high precision lateral positioning for beyond what was thinkable before. This yields new perspectives for technologies like ACAS/TCAS, by enabling last-minute lateral avoidance as a supplement to the established vertical avoidance maneuvers. Working together with Ohio University's Avionics Department, DLR has developed and tested a set of displays for situational awareness and lateral last-minute avoidance in a collision situation, implementing some state-of-the art ideas in collision avoidance. The displays include the possibility to foresee the hazard zone of a possible intruder and thus avoid that zone early. The displays were integrated into Ohio University's experimental airplane, and a flight experiment was conducted to make a first evaluation of the applicability. The tests were carried out in fall 2012. We will present the principal architecture of the displays and detail the implementation into the flight carrier. Furthermore, we will give first results of the displays' performance.

Peinecke, Niklas; Uijt de Haag, Maarten; Meysel, Frederik; Duan, Pengfei; Küppers, Rene; Beernink, Bram

2013-06-01

38

Ring-testing and field-validation of a terrestrial model ecosystem (TME)--an instrument for testing potentially harmful substances: effects of carbendazim on earthworms.  

PubMed

The effects of the fungicide carbendazim (applied in the formulation Derosal) on earthworms (Lumbricidae) was determined in Terrestrial Model Ecosystem (TME) tests and field-validation studies. TMEs consisted of intact soil columns (diameter 17.5 cm; length 40 cm) taken from a grassland or, in one case, from an arable site. The TMEs were taken from the same site where the respective field-validation study was performed. The tests were performed in Amsterdam (The Netherlands), Bangor (Wales, UK), Coimbra (Portugal) and Flörsheim (Germany). The sites selected had an earthworm coenosis representative of the different land use types and regions. In addition, the differences between the coenosis found in the TMEs and the respective field sites were in general low. A high variability was found between the replicate samples, which reduces the probability of determining significant differences by the statistical evaluation of the data. Similar effects of the chemical treatment were observed on abundance as well as on biomass. Effects were most pronounced 16 weeks after application of the test chemical. The observed effects on earthworm abundance and biomass did not differ between the TME tests and the respective field-validation studies. Effects on earthworm diversity were difficult to assess since the number of individuals per species was low in general. However, the genus Lumbricus and in particular L. terrestris and L. rubellus seemed to be more affected by the chemical treatment than others. NOEC and EC50-values derived from the TME pre-test, the TME ring-test and the field-validation study indicate that the TMEs of the different partners delivered comparable results although different soils were used. Due to the high variability NOECs could often not be determined. The EC50-values for the effect of carbendazim on earthworm abundance ranged between 2.04 and 48.8 kg a.i./ha (2.71-65.2 mg/kg soil) and on earthworm biomass from 1.02 to 34.6 kg a.i./ha (1.36-46.0 mg/kg soil). These results indicate that the abundance and biomass of earthworms are suitable endpoints in ecotoxicological studies with TMEs. PMID:14992474

Römbke, Jörg; Van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Jones, Susan E; Koolhaas, Josée E; Rodrigues, José M L; Moser, Thomas

39

Development of a standardized reproduction toxicity test with the earthworm species Eisenia fetida andrei using copper, pentachlorophenol and 2,4-dichloroaniline  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a standardized test method for determining the effect of chemical substances on the reproduction of the earthworm Eisenia fetida andrei. It is based on the existing guidelines for acute toxicity testing with earthworms, and for reasons of standardization the same artificial soil substrate and earthworm species were chosen as prescribed by these guidelines. After being preconditioned for one week in untreated soil, earthworms are exposed to the chemical substances for 3 weeks. The number of cocoons produced is determined, and cocoons are incubated in untreated artificial soil for 5 weeks to assess hatchability. Results are presented from toxicity experiments with pentachlorophenol, copper, and 2,4-dichloroaniline. For these compounds no-effect levels (NEL) for cocoon production were 32, 60-120, and 56 mg.kg-1 dry soil, respectively. Hatching of cocoons was influenced by pentachlorophenol (NEL, 10 mg.kg-1), but not by copper and dichloroaniline. Following exposure, earthworms were incubated in clean soil again to study the possibility of recovery of cocoon production. For copper and dichloroaniline earthworms did recover cocoon production to a level as high as the control level or even higher; in case of pentachlorophenol, cocoon production was still reduced after 3 weeks in clean soil.

van Gestel, C.A.; van Dis, W.A.; van Breemen, E.M.; Sparenburg, P.M. (National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, BA Bilthoven (Netherland))

1989-12-01

40

Comparison of sublethal and lethal criteria for nine different chemicals in standardized toxicity tests using the earthworm Eisenia andrei  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the effects of nine different chemicals on the survival, growth, and reproduction of the earthworm species Eisenia andrei were determined using a recently developed method. Earthworms were exposed for 3 weeks to the test chemicals in an artificial soil substrate. Additional data on the acute toxicity of these chemicals were derived from the literature. For some chemicals, cocoon production was the most sensitive parameter (cadmium, chromium, paraquat, fentin, benomyl, phenmedipham), while for others cocoon hatchability was most sensitive (pentachlorophenol, parathion, carbendazim). In the case of parathion, growth of the worms seemed to be even more sensitive than reproduction. As an overall parameter for the effect on earthworm reproduction, the total number of juveniles produced per worm appeared to be a useful parameter. Differences between (acute) LC50 values and the lowest NOEC value for effects on growth and reproduction were different for each chemical. Difference was greatest for cadmium (a factor of greater than 100) and smallest for fentin, benomyl, and pentachlorophenol (a factor of 5-6).

Van Gestel, C.A.; Dirven-Van Breemen, E.M.; Baerselman, R.; Emans, H.J.; Janssen, J.A.; Postuma, R.; Van Vliet, P.J. (National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven, (Netherlands))

1992-04-01

41

Earthworms and in vitro physiologically-based extraction tests: complementary tools for a holistic approach towards understanding risk at arsenic-contaminated sites.  

PubMed

The relationship of the total arsenic content of a soil and its bioaccumulation by earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus and Dendrodrilus rubidus) to the arsenic fraction bioaccessible to humans, measured using an in vitro physiologically-based extraction test (PBET), was investigated. Soil and earthworm samples were collected at 24 sites at the former arsenic mine at the Devon Great Consols (DGC) in southwest England (UK), along with an uncontaminated site in Nottingham, UK, for comparison. Analysis of soil and earthworm total arsenic via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was performed following a mixed acid digestion. Arsenic concentrations in the soil were elevated (204-9,025 mg kg(-1)) at DGC. The arsenic bioaccumulation factor (BAF) for both earthworm species was found to correlate positively with the human bioaccessible fraction (HBF), although the correlation was only significant (P < or = 0.05) for L. rubellus. The potential use of both in vitro PBETs and earthworms as complementary tools is explored as a holistic and multidisciplinary approach towards understanding risk at contaminated sites. Arsenic resistant earthworm species such as the L. rubellus populations at DGC are presented as a valuable tool for understanding risk at highly contaminated sites. PMID:18958400

Button, Mark; Watts, Michael J; Cave, Mark R; Harrington, Chris F; Jenkin, Gawen T

2008-10-29

42

Comparison of biological and chemical measures of metal bioavailability in field soils: test of a novel simulated earthworm gut extraction.  

PubMed

Bioavailability of metals in soil is a major factor influencing estimates of risk associated with exposure of ecological receptors. Metal concentrations in soil are often compared to ecological screening benchmarks, which are based on total concentrations in soil. Often, the total concentration is not correlated with toxicity. No standardised method exists for determining the bioavailability of metals in soil to ecological receptors. Several surrogate measures of bioavailability were compared to the results of a battery of toxicity tests using copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn)-contaminated soils collected from a former industrial area. A calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) extraction, cyclodextrin (HPCD) extraction, simulated earthworm gut (SEG) test, and earthworm bioaccumulation test were performed using the soils. Extractable metals using the CaCl(2) solution were not correlated with any biological responses of earthworms (Eisenia andrei), collembola (Folsomia candida), northern wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus), or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Concentrations of metals in the HPCD extracts were highly variable and were not adequate for revealing adverse effects. E. andrei tissue concentrations were variable but were predictive of adverse effects to invertebrates. The results of the SEG test correlated with most of the biological endpoints. Bioavailable Cu was correlated with adverse effects to invertebrates and plants using the SEG test. Overall, coefficients of determination associated with the relationships between the biological responses and each measure of bioavailability indicated that those for the SEG test were greater than those for the other surrogate measures of bioavailability. Further validation is required before this test is routinely used to estimate metal bioavailability and toxicity. PMID:20678790

Smith, Ben A; Greenberg, Bruce; Stephenson, Gladys L

2010-08-03

43

Using earthworms to test the efficiency of remediation of oil-polluted soil in tropical Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the medium-term effects of soil bioremediation on mortality and reproduction rates of Eisenia fetida (laboratory experiment) and of the tropical earthworm Polypheretima elongata (field experiment). We compared soils restored with the two bioremediation technologies landfarming (LF) and compost-bioremediation (BI) with control soils and with soils contaminated with 1% and 2% of petroleum. Control and restored soils

Violette Geissen; Petrona Gomez-Rivera; Esperanza Huerta Lwanga; Ricardo Bello Mendoza; Antonio Trujillo Narcías; Everardo Barba Marcías

2008-01-01

44

Extrapolation of the laboratory-based OECD earthworm toxicity test to metal-contaminated field sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc on survival, growth, cocoon production and cocoon viability of the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny) were determined in three experiments. In experiment 1, worms were exposed to single metals in standard artificial soil. For experiment 2, worms were maintained in contaminated soils collected from sites at different distances from a smelting works situated

David J. Spurgeon; S. P. Hopkin

1995-01-01

45

COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF TEN ORGANIC CHEMICALS TO FOUR EARTHWORM SPECIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Ten organic chemicals were tested for toxicity to four earthworm species: Allolobophora tuberculata, Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugeniae and Perionyx excavatus, using the European Economic Community's (EEC) earthworm artificial soil and contact testing procedure. The phenols were t...

46

Comparative Toxicity of Ten Organic Chemicals to Four Earthworm Species.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ten organic chemicals were tested for toxicity to four earthworm species: Allolobophora tuberculata, Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugeniae and Perionyx excavatus, using the European Economic Community's (EEC) earthworm artificial soil and contact testing proc...

E. F. Neuhauser P. R. Durkin M. R. Malecki M. Anatra

1986-01-01

47

Low Cost Fish Fed for Aquarium Fish: a Test Case Using Earthworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive trial was undertaken to assess the effect of various types of feed on biomass conversion rate as well as on ovary weight in Kolisa Kholisa, a fish for food and ornamental use. Three groups of Juvenile fishes (3.0±0.015 g; 10.00±0.75 mm) were fed with three different types of feed. The special prepared food (SPF) made with dried earthworm

D. Chakrabarty; S. K. Das

48

The influence of different artificial soil types on the acute toxicity of carbendazim to the earthworm Eisenia fetida in laboratory toxicity tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field populations of earthworms have shown a varied response in mortality to the fungicide carbendazim, the toxic reference substance used in agrochemical field trials. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of soil conditions as a potential cause of this variation. Laboratory acute toxicity tests were conducted using a range of artificial soils with varying soil components

Sian R. Ellis; Mark E. Hodson; Philip Wege

2007-01-01

49

Performance testing of collision-avoidance system for power wheelchairs.  

PubMed

The Drive-Safe System (DSS) is a collision-avoidance system for power wheelchairs designed to support people with mobility impairments who also have visual, upper-limb, or cognitive impairments. The DSS uses a distributed approach to provide an add-on, shared-control, navigation-assistance solution. In this project, the DSS was tested for engineering goals such as sensor coverage, maximum safe speed, maximum detection distance, and power consumption while the wheelchair was stationary or driven by an investigator. Results indicate that the DSS provided uniform, reliable sensor coverage around the wheelchair; detected obstacles as small as 3.2 mm at distances of at least 1.6 m; and attained a maximum safe speed of 4.2 km/h. The DSS can drive reliably as close as 15.2 cm from a wall, traverse doorways as narrow as 81.3 cm without interrupting forward movement, and reduce wheelchair battery life by only 3%. These results have implications for a practical system to support safe, independent mobility for veterans who acquire multiple disabilities during Active Duty or later in life. These tests indicate that a system utilizing relatively low cost ultrasound, infrared, and force sensors can effectively detect obstacles in the vicinity of a wheelchair. PMID:21674403

Lopresti, Edmund F; Sharma, Vinod; Simpson, Richard C; Mostowy, L Casimir

2011-01-01

50

A metabolomics based test of independent action and concentration addition using the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus.  

PubMed

A major challenge in ecotoxicology is to understand the effects of multiple toxicants on organisms. Here we assess the effects on survival, weight change, cocoon production and metabolism caused by exposure to two similarly acting (imidacloprid/thiacloprid) and two dissimilarly acting (chlorpyrifos/Nickel) chemicals on the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. We assessed the standard models of concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA), in conjunction with a metabolomics based approach to elucidate mechanisms of effect. For imidacloprid and thiacloprid the reproductive effects indicated probable additivity. Although this suggests joint effects through a similar mechanism, metabolite changes for each pesticide actually indicated distinct effects. Further, earthworms exposed to a 0.5 toxic unit equitoxic mixture demonstrated metabolic effects intermediate between those for each pesticide, indicating a non-interactive, independent joint effect. For higher effect level mixtures (1 and 1.5 toxic units), metabolite changes associated with thiacloprid exposure began to dominate. The metabolomic effects of the two dissimilarly acting chemicals were distinct, confirming separate modes of action and both proved more toxic than anticipated from previous studies. In the mixtures, phenotypic effects were in accordance with IA estimates, while metabolite changes were dominated by Ni effects, even though chlorpyrifos contributed most to reproductive toxicity. This could be attributed to the greater systematic effect of Ni when compared to the more specifically acting chlorpyrifos. PMID:22476697

Baylay, A J; Spurgeon, D J; Svendsen, C; Griffin, J L; Swain, Suresh C; Sturzenbaum, Stephen R; Jones, O A H

2012-04-04

51

A comparison of nickel toxicity to pre-exposed earthworms ( Eisenia fetida, oligochaeta) in two different test substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms are soil living organisms of high ecological importance. For that reason, earthworms can be considered as feasible biological indicators for many pollutants in soils. Soils are extremely complex and dynamic systems influenced by a number of different abiotic and biological factors determining the effects of potentially toxic substances. To be able to evaluate the toxicity of a single substance

Rudolf A. Maleri; Adriaan J. Reinecke; Sophiè A. Reinecke

2007-01-01

52

Approach\\/Avoidance motives, test emotions, and emotional regulation related to testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research stems from our program of work that focuses on understanding how students regulated their emotions related to testing. The primary goal for this study was to incorporate the approach\\/avoidance motives into a model of emotional regulation related to testing. In addition, a secondary goal was to report on efforts at construct validation of the scores obtained during the

Paul A. Schutz; Jeri Benson; Jessica T. Decuir-Gunby

2008-01-01

53

Earthworm Effects without Earthworms: Inoculation of Raw Organic Matter with Worm-Worked Substrates Alters Microbial Community Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEarthworms are key organisms in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with soil microorganisms. They enhance decomposition rates through the joint action of direct effects (i.e. effects due to direct earthworm activity such as digestion, burrowing, etc) and indirect effects (i.e. effects derived from earthworm activities such as cast ageing). Here we test whether indirect earthworm effects

Manuel Aira; Jorge Domínguez; Justin Wright

2011-01-01

54

Earthworm culture, maintenance and species selection in chronic ecotoxicological studies: A critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical review of earthworm use in chronic ecotoxicological studies is presented. In laboratory studies, species selection has often been based on commercial availability or on field-collected earthworms. The validity of results employing earthworms of either unknown origin or previous exposures must be questioned. Many studies have relied heavily on methodologies adopted from acute testing where earthworm maintenance was not

Christopher N. Lowe; Kevin R. Butt

2007-01-01

55

Responses of earthworm to aluminum toxicity in latosol.  

PubMed

Excess aluminum (Al) in soils due to acid rain leaching is toxic to water resources and harmful to soil organisms and plants. This study investigated adverse impacts of Al levels upon earthworms (Eisenia fetida) from the latosol (acidic red soil). Laboratory experiments were performed to examine the survival and avoidance of earthworms from high Al concentrations and investigate the response of earthworms upon Al toxicity at seven different Al concentrations that ranged from 0 to 300 mg kg(-1) over a 28-day period. Our study showed that the rate of the earthworm survival was 100 % within the first 7 days and decreased as time elapsed, especially for the Al concentrations at 200 and 300 mg kg(-1). A very good linear correlation existed between the earthworm avoidance and the soil Al concentration. There was no Al toxicity to earthworms with the Al concentration ? 50 mg kg(-1), and the toxicity started with the Al concentration ? 100 mg kg(-1). Low Al concentration (i.e., <50 mg kg(-1)) enhanced the growth of the earthworms, while high Al concentration (>100 mg kg(-1)) retarded the growth of the earthworms. The weight of earthworms and the uptake of Al by earthworms increased with the Al concentrations from 0 to 50 mg kg(-1) and decreased with the Al concentrations from 50 to 300 mg kg(-1). The protein content in the earthworms decreased with the Al concentrations from 0 to 100 mg kg(-1) and increased from 100 to 300 mg kg(-1). In contrast, the catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in the earthworms increased with the Al concentrations from 0 to 100 mg kg(-1) and decreased from 100 to 300 mg kg(-1). The highest CAT and SOD activities and lowest protein content were found at the Al concentration of 100 mg kg(-1). Results suggest that a high level of Al content in latosol was harmful to earthworms. PMID:22645004

Zhang, Jia'en; Yu, Jiayu; Ouyang, Ying; Xu, Huaqin

2012-05-30

56

Chronic toxicity of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) in soil determined using the earthworm ( Eisenia andrei) reproduction test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sublethal and chronic effects of the environmental contaminant and explosive octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) in artificial soil were assessed using the earthworm (Eisenia andrei). Based on various reproduction parameters (total and hatched number of cocoons, number of juveniles and their biomass), fecundity was reduced at the different concentrations of HMX tested (from 280.0±12.3 to 2502.9±230.0 mg kg?1 dry soil) in spiked

P. Y. Robidoux; J. Hawari; S. Thiboutot; G. Ampleman; G. I. Sunahara

2001-01-01

57

Test Anxiety and the Hierarchical Model of Approach and Avoidance Achievement Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research was designed to incorporate the test anxiety (TA) construct into the hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. Hypotheses regarding state and trait TA were tested in 2 studies, and the results provided strong support for the predictions. State TA (specifically, worry) was documented as a mediator of the negative relationship between performance-avoidance goals and exam performance.

Andrew J. Elliot; Holly A. McGregor

1999-01-01

58

Teacher's Guide for Earthworms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This teacher's guide on earthworms includes four major sections: (1) introduction, (2) caring for earthworms in the classroom, (3) classroom activities, and (4) the appendix. The introduction includes information concerning grade level, scheduling, materials, obtaining earthworms, field study, classroom clean-up, and records. Caring for…

Bruno, Merle S.; And Others

59

Avoidance tests with Folsomia candida for the assessment of copper contamination in agricultural soils.  

PubMed

The feasibility of assessing copper accumulation in agricultural soils using avoidance tests with a Canadian strain of Folsomia candida was investigated under laboratory conditions. The avoidance response to nominal copper sulfate concentrations of 0, 200, 800, 1600 and 3200 mg kg?¹ in OECD soil was inconsistent between trials with the standard plastic cup or a modified Petri dish method requiring less soil. However, combined results from three Petri dish trials decreased variability and provided a 75% avoidance level, close to the 80% criterion proposed for avoidance tests. A Copper avoidance EC??s of 18 mg kg?¹ was obtained using the Petri dish method whether tests were conducted with or without light. While Petri dish tests have potential as a cheap tool to distinguish metal contaminated soils from uncontaminated soils they would be unsuitable for tracking or quantifying changes in metal concentrations. throughout remediation. Advantages and limitations of the method have been presented. PMID:21247679

Boiteau, G; Lynch, D H; Mackinley, P

2011-01-17

60

COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF CHEMICALS TO EARTHWORMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The concentration-response (mortality) relationships of four species of earthworms, Eisentia fetida, Allolobophora tuberculata, Eudrilus eugeniae, and Perionyx excavatus are summarized for 62 chemicals and two test protocols. eibull function is used to summarize these data for ea...

61

Comparative Toxicity of Chemicals to Earthworms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The concentration-response (mortality) relationships of four species of earthworms, Eisentia fetida, Allolobophora tuberculata, Eudrilus eugeniae, and Perionyx excavatus are summarized for 62 chemicals and two test protocols. A Weibull function is used to...

C. A. Callahan M. A. Shirazi E. F. Neuhauser

1994-01-01

62

Earthworms and Soil Pollutants  

PubMed Central

Although the toxicity of metal contaminated soils has been assessed with various bioassays, more information is needed about the biochemical responses, which may help to elucidate the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity. We previously reported that the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, accumulates cadmium in its seminal vesicles. The bio-accumulative ability of earthworms is well known, and thus the earthworm could be a useful living organism for the bio-monitoring of soil pollution. In this short review, we describe recent studies concerning the relationship between earthworms and soil pollutants, and discuss the possibility of using the earthworm as a bio-monitoring organism for soil pollution.

Hirano, Takeshi; Tamae, Kazuyoshi

2011-01-01

63

The toxic effects of ionic liquids on the activities of acetylcholinesterase and cellulase in earthworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earthworm Eisenia foetida was exposed to different concentrations of imidazolium ionic liquids with varying chain lengths according to the method of OECD [OECD, 1984. (The Current Organization of Economic and Cooperative Development Acute Earthworm Toxicity Test) Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, No. 207. Earthworm Acute Toxicity Tests]. The acute and subchronic toxic effects of [C8mim]Br on the activities

Yan-Rui Luo; San-Hu Wang; Mi-Xia Yun; Xiao-Yu Li; Jian-Ji Wang; Zhen-Jun Sun

2009-01-01

64

Young Men's Aggressive Tactics to Avoid Condom Use: A Test of a Theoretical Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although research has demonstrated that men's aggression against women and inconsistent condom use are related phenomena, little is known about what factors increase risk for aggression to avoid condom use. The present article tests a theory-based model of condom avoidance through use of sexual aggression. Adult male participants (N = 289) were…

Davis, Kelly Cue; Logan-Greene, Patricia

2012-01-01

65

Young Men's Aggressive Tactics to Avoid Condom Use: A Test of a Theoretical Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although research has demonstrated that men's aggression against women and inconsistent condom use are related phenomena, little is known about what factors increase risk for aggression to avoid condom use. The present article tests a theory-based model of condom avoidance through use of sexual aggression. Adult male participants (N = 289) were…

Davis, Kelly Cue; Logan-Greene, Patricia

2012-01-01

66

The influence of time on lead toxicity and bioaccumulation determined by the OECD earthworm toxicity test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internationally agreed standard protocols for assessing chemical toxicity of contaminants in soil to worms assume that the test soil does not need to equilibrate with the chemical to be tested prior to the addition of the test organisms and that the chemical will exert any toxic effect upon the test organism within 28 days. Three experiments were carried out to

Nicola A Davies; Mark E Hodson; Stuart Black

2003-01-01

67

Off to the (Earthworm) Races: A Quick and Flexible Lab Experiment for Introductory Zoology Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a hands-on, investigative lab activity for use in an introductory zoology course. Tests the behavioral hypothesis that substrate texture affects earthworm locomotor ability. Provides background information on earthworm locomotion followed by details of the lab exercise. (NB)

Switzer, Paul V.; Fritz, Ann H.

2001-01-01

68

Off to the (Earthworm) Races: A Quick and Flexible Lab Experiment for Introductory Zoology Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a hands-on, investigative lab activity for use in an introductory zoology course. Tests the behavioral hypothesis that substrate texture affects earthworm locomotor ability. Provides background information on earthworm locomotion followed by details of the lab exercise. (NB)|

Switzer, Paul V.; Fritz, Ann H.

2001-01-01

69

Development of an alternative artificial soil for earthworm toxicity testing in tropical countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard soil invertebrate toxicity tests developed by OECD and ISO use an artificial soil as the test substrate, which contains sphagnum peat as a component. This type of peat is not widely available. Investigation of possible alternative substrates using locally available materials therefore is vital for performing such ecotoxicity tests, particularly in the tropics. We studied the suitability of

Cornelis A. M. van Gestel

2009-01-01

70

Earthworms as Ecotoxicological Assessment Tools.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Increased interest for earthworm research and the need for soil assessment methods has encouraged the use of earthworms as assessment organisms. Earthworms exhibit many advantages for use in assessing the impact of toxic and hazardous materials on soil sy...

C. A. Callahan

1984-01-01

71

Automotive Collision Avoidance System Field Operational Test: Warning Cue Implementation Summary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the human factors work conducted from January to June 2001 to design and evaluate the driver-vehicle-interface (DVI) for the Automotive Collision Avoidance System Field Operational Test (ACAS FOT) program. The objective was to develo...

2002-01-01

72

The use of Collembola avoidance tests to characterize sewage sludges as soil amendments.  

PubMed

The ecotoxicological characterization of sewage sludge takes into account the additive, antagonistic and synergistic effects that occur as a result of multi-chemical interactions. Such an evaluation therefore is essential to complement the chemical analysis that, although required by law, is clearly insufficient. Using a tiered approach in the toxic evaluation of sewage sludge allows for characterization of toxicity in a timely manner. According to the literature, reproduction tests with Folsomia candida are suitable tools for the toxic assessment of organic sludges. Therefore, the inclusion of Collembola avoidance tests at a screening level (low tier), and acting as a trigger for longer-period tests (high tier; e.g. reproduction test), may provide a successful strategy, and may complement the currently proposed test battery. To evaluate the use of both avoidance and reproduction tests with collembolans in such a tiered approach, three sewage sludges (urban, olive and electroplating industries) were mixed in with a field-collected soil at different concentrations. Avoidance and reproduction tests were performed with the soil-sludge mixtures after 0, 4 and 12 weeks of incubation. The tests detected no toxicity in soil-sludge mixtures of urban and olive sludges at any incubation period. Mixtures with sludge from the electroplating industry induced toxicity only in the avoidance tests with freshly prepared and 4-week incubated samples. These results demonstrate the ability of Collembola avoidance tests to assess sewage sludge toxicity over time and its potential for hazardous sludge characterization at low tier levels. PMID:19850318

Natal-da-luz, T; Tidona, S; Van Gestel, C A M; Morais, P V; Sousa, J P

2009-10-21

73

Earthworms lost from pesticides application in potato crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioturbation from earthworm's activity contributes to soil creep and soil carbon dynamics, and provide enough aeration conditions for agricultural practices all over the world. In developing countries where there is a long term misuse of pesticides for agricultural purposes, lost of these benefits from earthworms activity might already yielded negative effects in the current crop production. Little research has been performed on earthworms avoidance to pesticides in developing countries located in the tropics. Furthermore, the complete avoidance reaction (from attraction to 100% avoidance) from earthworms to most of the pesticides used in potato cultivation in developing countries like Colombia is incomplete as yet. Hence the aim of this study is to assess the lost of earthworm on the soils caused by different concentrations of pesticides and associated agricultural impacts caused by a lost in the soil bioturbation. As a first stage, we have studied earthworm's avoidance to pesticide concentration in a potato agricultural area located in Colombia. Local cultivated Eisenia fetida were exposed to four of the most frequent applied active ingredients in potato crops i.e. carbofuran, mancozeb, methamidophos and chlorpyriphos. Adult earthworm toxicity experiments were carried out in two soils, untreated grasslands under standard (ISO guidelines) and undisturbed conditions, and exposed to six different concentrations of the active ingredients. The results of the avoidance reaction on the standard soils were significant for carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos. For each of the three active ingredients, we found i) overuse of pesticide, ii) applied dose of carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos by the farmers potentially caused 20%, 11% and 9% of earthworms avoidance on the cultivated soils, respectively.

Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Forrer, Karin; Binder, Claudia R.

2010-05-01

74

The influence of time on lead toxicity and bioaccumulation determined by the OECD earthworm toxicity test.  

PubMed

Internationally agreed standard protocols for assessing chemical toxicity of contaminants in soil to worms assume that the test soil does not need to equilibrate with the chemical to be tested prior to the addition of the test organisms and that the chemical will exert any toxic effect upon the test organism within 28 days. Three experiments were carried out to investigate these assumptions. The first experiment was a standard toxicity test where lead nitrate was added to a soil in solution to give a range of concentrations. The mortality of the worms and the concentration of lead in the survivors were determined. The LC50s for 14 and 28 days were 5311 and 5395 microgPb g(-1)soil respectively. The second experiment was a timed lead accumulation study with worms cultivated in soil containing either 3000 or 5000 microgPb g(-1)soil. The concentration of lead in the worms was determined at various sampling times. Uptake at both concentrations was linear with time. Worms in the 5000 microg g(-1) soil accumulated lead at a faster rate (3.16 microg Pb g(-1)tissue day(-1)) than those in the 3000 microg g(-1) soil (2.21 microg Pb g(-1)tissue day(-1)). The third experiment was a timed experiment with worms cultivated in soil containing 7000 microgPb g(-1)soil. Soil and lead nitrate solution were mixed and stored at 20 degrees C. Worms were added at various times over a 35-day period. The time to death increased from 23 h, when worms were added directly after the lead was added to the soil, to 67 h when worms were added after the soil had equilibrated with the lead for 35 days. In artificially Pb-amended soils the worms accumulate Pb over the duration of their exposure to the Pb. Thus time limited toxicity tests may be terminated before worm body load has reached a toxic level. This could result in under-estimates of the toxicity of Pb to worms. As the equilibration time of artificially amended Pb-bearing soils increases the bioavailability of Pb decreases. Thus addition of worms shortly after addition of Pb to soils may result in the over-estimate of Pb toxicity to worms. The current OECD acute worm toxicity test fails to take these two phenomena into account thereby reducing the environmental relevance of the contaminant toxicities it is used to calculate. PMID:12475061

Davies, Nicola A; Hodson, Mark E; Black, Stuart

2003-01-01

75

Darwin, Earthworms & Circadian Rhythms: A Fertile Field for Science Fair Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses why the study of earthworms has fascinated many scientists, and why earthworms make ideal experimental animals for students to test in the laboratory. Although earthworms may appear to be primitive, they are governed by both circadian and seasonal rhythms, just as more advanced organisms are. They possess an intelligence…

Burns, John T.; Scurti, Paul J.; Furda, Amy M.

2009-01-01

76

Accident Avoidance Test Report-Nissan and Toyota Experimental Safety Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two Experimental Safety Vehicles (ESVs) manufactured by Nissan and Toyota of Japan were tested to evaluate the accident avoidance performance of each vehicle. The report contains a brief description of each vehicle and of each test performed as well as th...

P. Boulay T. Macaulay

1975-01-01

77

Toxicological study of two novel pesticides on earthworm Eisenia foetida  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, several studies were conducted to evaluate the toxicity of two pesticides, Imidacloprid and RH-5849 on earthworm (Eisenia foetida) in terms of their acute toxicity, biochemical toxicity and effects on sperm morphological deformity. LC50for earthworms indicated that these two pesticides had different effects in different exposure systems. The results of biochemical toxicity tests showed that lower concentrations of

Yu Luo; Yu Zang; Yuan Zhong; Zhiming Kong

1999-01-01

78

Genotoxicity of two novel pesticides for the earthworm, Eisenia fetida  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, several studies were conducted to evaluate the genotoxicity of two pesticides, Imidacloprid and RH-5849, for earthworm (Eisenia fetida). Earthworms were exposed in different exposure systems to evaluate their acute toxicity and the genotoxicity of the two pesticides was evaluated by using the method of sperm deformity assessment, micronucleus test of root tip cells in Vicia faba, a

Y. Zang; Y. Zhong; Y. Luo; Z. M. Kong

2000-01-01

79

Avoidance test with Eisenia fetida as indicator for the habitat function of soils: Results of a laboratory comparison test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intention, Goal, Scope, Background. The habitat function of soils is often assessed using the reproduction test withEisenia fetida. As this test is rather labour-intensive, an alternative is needed which is less cost-intensive in terms of duration and workload,\\u000a but gives reasonable results. The avoidance test withE. fetida is a suitable screening test meeting these criteria. However, before a novel test

Kerstin Hund-Rinke; Rudolf Achazi; Jörg Römbke; Dietmar Warnecke

2003-01-01

80

Young men's use of aggressive tactics to avoid condom use: A test of a theoretical model.  

PubMed

Although research has demonstrated that men's aggression against women and inconsistent condom use are related phenomena, it is little is known as to what factors increase risk for aggression to avoid condom use. The present article tests a theory-based model of condom avoidance through sexual aggression. Adult male participants (N=289) were recruited nationally through online advertisements. Aggressive tactics to avoid condom use was measured using an adapted version of the revised Sexual Experiences Survey (Abbey et al., 2005) and assessed a variety of aggressive behaviors spanning coercion to physical force. 100 participants (35.3%) reported at least one instance of coercion or aggression to avoid using a condom. Structural equation modeling indicated that, attitudes towards women, inconsistent condom use, and number of sexual partners were significant predictors of aggressive tactics to avoid condom use. A better understanding of the attitudinal and behavioral pathways through which men avoid condom use through aggressive and coercive means will ultimately result in improved education and prevention efforts for at-risk men and women. PMID:23139623

Davis, Kelly Cue; Logan-Greene, Patricia

2012-09-20

81

Toxicity of diesel contaminated soils to the subantarctic earthworm Microscolex macquariensis.  

PubMed

Several fuel spills have occurred on subantarctic Macquarie Island (54°30' S 158°57' E) associated with storing fuel and generating power for the island's research station. The Australian Antarctic Division began full-scale, on-site remediation of these sites in 2009. To develop appropriate target concentrations for remediation, acute and chronic tests were developed with the endemic earthworm, Microscolex macquariensis, using avoidance, survival, and reproduction as endpoints. Uncontaminated low (3%), medium (11%), and high (38-48%) carbon content soils from Macquarie Island were used to examine the influence of soil carbon on toxicity. Soils were spiked with Special Antarctic Blend (SAB) diesel and used either immediately to simulate a fresh spill or after four weeks to simulate an aged spill. Earthworms were sensitive to fresh SAB, with significant avoidance at 181?mg/kg; acute 14-d survival median lethal concentration (LC50) of 103?mg/kg for low carbon soil; and juvenile production median effective concentration (EC50) of 317?mg/kg for high carbon soil. Earthworms were less sensitive to aged SAB than to fresh SAB in high carbon soil for juvenile production (EC50 of 1,753 and 317?mg/kg, respectively), but were more sensitive for adult survival (LC50 of 2,322 and 1,364?mg/kg, respectively). Using M. macquariensis as a surrogate for soil quality, approximately 50 to 200?mg SAB/kg soil would be a sufficiently protective remediation target. PMID:23147807

Mooney, Thomas J; King, Catherine K; Wasley, Jane; Andrew, Nigel R

2012-12-07

82

Earthworm Effects without Earthworms: Inoculation of Raw Organic Matter with Worm-Worked Substrates Alters Microbial Community Functioning  

PubMed Central

Background Earthworms are key organisms in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with soil microorganisms. They enhance decomposition rates through the joint action of direct effects (i.e. effects due to direct earthworm activity such as digestion, burrowing, etc) and indirect effects (i.e. effects derived from earthworm activities such as cast ageing). Here we test whether indirect earthworm effects affect microbial community functioning in the substrate, as when earthworms are present (i. e., direct effects). Methodology/Principal Findings To address these questions we inoculated fresh organic matter (pig manure) with worm-worked substrates (vermicompost) produced by three different earthworm species. Two doses of each vermicompost were used (2.5 and 10%). We hypothesized that the presence of worm-worked material in the fresh organic matter will result in an inoculum of different microorganisms and nutrients. This inoculum should interact with microbial communities in fresh organic matter, thus promoting modifications similar to those found when earthworms are present. Inoculation of worm-worked substrates provoked significant increases in microbial biomass and enzyme activities (?-glucosidase, cellulase, phosphatase and protease). These indirect effects were similar to, although lower than, those obtained in pig manure with earthworms (direct and indirect earthworm effects). In general, the effects were not dose-dependent, suggesting the existence of a threshold at which they were triggered. Conclusion/Significance Our data reveal that the relationships between earthworms and microorganisms are far from being understood, and suggest the existence of several positive feedbacks during earthworm activity as a result of the interactions between direct and indirect effects, since their combination produces stronger modifications to microbial biomass and enzyme activity.

Aira, Manuel; Dominguez, Jorge

2011-01-01

83

Nutrition Studies with Earthworms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes experiments which demonstrate how different diets affect the growth rate of earthworms. Procedures for feeding baby worms are outlined, the analysis of results are discussed, and various modifications of the exercise are provided. (CS)|

Tobaga, Leandro

1980-01-01

84

Lethal Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Tissue of Earthworms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This toxicological research report addresses lethal concentrations of heavy metals in tissue of earthworms. We have presented the work in progress in the first interim report to improve 1) ecotoxicological test, 2) field procedures and 3) standardization ...

A. Rida J. Y. Gal M. B. Bouche P. Brun

1987-01-01

85

DRILLING FLUID CHEMICALS AND EARTHWORM TOXICITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms can be used to assess toxicity in terrestrial systems and the survival rate of the worms, or changes in other parameters such as biomass, can be used to calculate an LC50 value (lethal concentration to 50% of the population) for test chemicals spiked into soil. This type of information can be useful in predicting the likely toxicological effect of

Karen McCosh; Jonathan Getliff

86

Controlled intraoperative water testing of left-sided colorectal anastomoses: are ileostomies avoidable?  

PubMed Central

Anastomotic leakage is a major problem in colorectal surgery, and previous studies have suggested that intraoperative identification of leaks allows repair at the time of surgery. This study examined whether testing allowed a defunctioning ileostomy to be safely omitted. A series of 102 consecutive patients underwent left-sided colorectal resection, 52 males and 50 females, mean age 65.7 years (range 16-89 years). After completion of the anastomosis, its integrity was tested by running saline into the rectum, using a manometer, to a maximum distending pressure of 30 cmH2O. Any leaks were repaired and the anastomosis retested. A defunctioning ileostomy was only performed if the anastomosis could not be shown to be leak-proof on testing. Patients underwent a contrast enema on the 8th postoperative day. Twenty-one (20.6%) patients failed the initial leakage test and 3 (3%) patients failed a second test. Two of these 21 patients went on to have a clinical leak, both of which were treated conservatively. Two defunctioning ileostomies were performed at the time of surgery. Sixteen (16.2%) had a leak on radiological testing, and there was clinical evidence of a leak in 5 (4.9%) patients. There were 3 (2.9%) deaths, but none of these had a leak on radiological testing. Incomplete anastomoses were successfully corrected intraoperatively. A defunctioning ileostomy was avoided in 98% of cases. Intraoperative testing to a pressure of 30 cmH2O is helpful in anterior resection, but does not guarantee that an intact anastomosis will remain intact postoperatively.

Wheeler, J. M.; Gilbert, J. M.

1999-01-01

87

Comprehensive Test and Evaluation of the Dalmo Victor TCAS (Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System) II Industry Prototype.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes the test conduct and results of a five-part comprehensive evaluation of two prototype minimum Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) II units. The five parts include: (1) hardware and software verification, (2) cockpit...

A. J. Rehman

1986-01-01

88

Methods for the assessment of the toxicity of environmental chemicals to earthworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the impending publication of standards for earthworm toxicity testing by the Commission of the European Communities, a review has been made of the recent literature on earthworm toxicology. Relevant studies are reviewed from the standpoints of methods used, reproducibility of results, and ability to extrapolate laboratory results to field situations. Eisenia foetida, a commonly used test species,

D DEANROSS

1983-01-01

89

Earthworm metabolomic responses after exposure to aged PCB contaminated soils.  

PubMed

(1)H NMR metabolomics was used to measure earthworm sub-lethal responses to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in historically contaminated (>30 years) soils (91-280 mg/kg Aroclor 1254/1260) after two and 14 days of exposure. Although our previous research detected a distinct earthworm metabolic response to PCBs in freshly spiked soil at lower concentrations (0.5-25 mg/kg Aroclor 1254), the results of this study suggest only weak or non-significant relationships between earthworm metabolic profiles and soil PCB concentrations. This concurs with the expectation that decades of contaminant aging have likely decreased PCB bioavailability and toxicity in the field. Instead of being influenced by soil contaminant concentration, earthworm metabolic profiles were more closely correlated to soil properties such as total soil carbon and soil inorganic carbon. Overall, these results suggested that (1)H NMR metabolomics may be capable of detecting both site specific responses and decreased contaminant bioavailability to earthworms after only two days of exposure, whereas traditional toxicity tests require much more time (e.g. 14 days for acute toxicity and >50 days for reproduction tests). Therefore, there is significant opportunity to develop earthworm metabolomics as a sensitive tool for rapid assessment of the toxicity associated with contaminated field soils. PMID:22623111

Whitfield Åslund, Melissa; Simpson, Myrna J; Simpson, André J; Zeeb, Barbara A; Rutter, Allison

2012-05-24

90

Aluminum Bioaccumulation in the Earthworm and Acute Toxicity to the Earthworm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum is a highly cytotoxic metal to plants, but its toxicity and accumulation to invertebrates in neutral soils is still unknown. This study is to determine the acute toxicity and bioaccumulation of aluminum to the earthworm. The ecotoxicity tests were based on the methods of international standardization of organization (ISO) and OECD guideline with some modification. The contents of aluminum

Zhao Li; Qiu Jiang-ping

2010-01-01

91

Effects of metal pollution on earthworm communities in a contaminated floodplain area: Linking biomarker, community and functional responses.  

PubMed

Effects on earthworms in the contaminated floodplain area the Biesbosch, the Netherlands, were determined at different levels of organization using a combination of field and laboratory tests. The species Lumbricus rubellus, collected from different polluted sites in the Biesbosch, showed reduced values for the biomarker neutral red retention time (NRRT), mainly explained by high metal concentrations in the soil and the resulting high internal copper concentrations in the earthworms. Organic pollutant levels in earthworms were low and did not explain reduced NRRTs. Earthworm abundance and biomass were not correlated with pollutant levels in the soil. Litterbag decomposition and bait-lamina feeding activity, measures of the functional role of earthworms, were not affected by metal pollution and did not show any correlation with metal concentrations in soil or earthworms nor with NRRT. Effects at the biochemical level therefore did not result in a reduced functioning of earthworm communities. PMID:19062144

van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Koolhaas, Josée E; Hamers, Timo; van Hoppe, Maarten; van Roovert, Martijn; Korsman, Cora; Reinecke, Sophie A

2008-12-05

92

Emotional avoidance: an experimental test of individual differences and response suppression using biological challenge.  

PubMed

The present study examined the affective consequences of response inhibition during a state of anxiety-related physical stress. Forty-eight non-clinical participants were selected on the basis of pre-experimental differences in emotional avoidance (high versus low) and subjected to four inhalations of 20% carbon dioxide-enriched air. Half of the participants were instructed to inhibit the challenge-induced aversive emotional state, whereas the other half was instructed to simply observe their emotional response. Participants high in emotional avoidance compared to those low in emotional avoidance responded with greater levels of anxiety and affective distress but not physiological arousal. Individuals high in emotional avoidance also reported greater levels of anxiety relative to the low emotional avoidance group when suppressing compared to observing bodily sensations. These findings are discussed in terms of the significance of emotional avoidance processes during physical stress, with implications for better understanding the nature of panic disorder. PMID:12643964

Feldner, M T; Zvolensky, M J; Eifert, G H; Spira, A P

2003-04-01

93

Invasion of exotic earthworms into ecosystems inhabited by native earthworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most conspicuous biological invasions in terrestrial ecosystems have been by exotic plants, insects and vertebrates. Invasions by exotic earthworms, although not as well studied, may be increasing with global commerce in agriculture, waste management and bioremediation. A number of cases has documented where invasive earthworms have caused significant changes in soil profiles, nutrient and organic matter dynamics, other soil

P. F. Hendrix; G. H. Baker; M. A. Callaham; G. A. Damoff; C. Fragoso; G. González; S. W. James; S. L. Lachnicht; T. Winsome; X. Zou

2006-01-01

94

Avoidant romantic attachment and female orgasm: testing an emotion-regulation hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research indicating that roughly a third of the variation in female orgasmic frequency is heritable leaves a substantial amount of non-heritable variation to be explained. Given that emotion regulation is central to attachment theory and that attachment insecurity in infancy and avoidance in adulthood are not heritable, it was predicted that (higher levels of) avoidance would predict (lower levels

Danielle L. Cohen; Jay Belsky

2008-01-01

95

Fear and Avoidance of Internal Experiences in GAD: Preliminary Tests of a Conceptual Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tendency to fear and avoid internal experiences may be an important characteristic of individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). We review here theory and research suggesting that individuals with GAD may be experientially avoidant, and present preliminary evidence to support this model. Findings from both a non-clinical and clinical sample suggest that worry and generalized anxiety disorder may be

Lizabeth Roemer; Kristalyn Salters; Susan D. Raffa; Susan M. Orsillo

2005-01-01

96

[Optimizing action of synthetic peptide Selank on active avoidance conditioning test in rats].  

PubMed

The action of a synthetic peptide Selank on learning and memory in active avoidance conditioning test was studied in rats with initially low learning ability and normal animals. The peptide was administered repeatedly 15 min prior the training session (4 days). The effect of Selank (300 micrograms/kg) was compared to that of Pyracetam (400 mg/kg). Selank was found to significantly improve learning in rats with low level ability even after a single administration on the first day of training session. The effect progressively increased with repeated Selank treatment: the total numbers of reactions and correct reactions increased, and the number of errors decreased (p < 0.05). In normal rats, the effect was maximal on the third day of treatment and training, i.e., after the completed initial consolidation. Some distinguishing features were revealed in the dynamics of activatory effects of Selank and Pyracetam. These data together with the evidence for ansiolytic effect of Selank show that this drug is promising for optimization of mnestic functions under conditions of high emotional stress. PMID:12449836

Kozlovski?, I I; Danchev, N D

97

Development and Testing of a Vehicle Collision Avoidance System Based on GPS and Wireless Networks for Open-Pit Mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vehicle proximity warning - collision avoidance system is being developed using GPS and wireless local area networks to improve safety of off-highway trucks in open pit mines. After two an a half years of research, software development, and laboratory testing, field tests were carried out at operating limestone quarries and open pit mining operations to evaluate GPS accuracy and

ANTONIO NIETO; KADRI DAGDELEN

98

Soil ciliate bioassay for the pore water habitat a missing link between microflora and earthworm testing in soil toxicity assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Scope and Goal. The chemical, pesticide and biocide legislation of the European Union assembles a variety of bioassays.\\u000a Among the ecotoxicological tests involved, the testing strategy for the aquatic compartment builds up on three tests reflecting\\u000a the main trophic levels (algae,Daphnia, fish). For the soil compartment at least one trophic level for a basic food chain is missing, namely

Aline Berthold; Thomas Jakl

2002-01-01

99

A method for assessing sublethal effects of contaminants in soils to the earthworm, Eisenia foetida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors developed and tested a procedure that allows quantification of the effects of soil contaminants on earthworm (Eisenia foetida) growth and reproduction. The procedure monitors isolated pairs of earthworms and generates a higher ratio of data per organisms than other commonly used procedures. It also incorporates an accurate technique for measuring adult growth, has high sensitivity compared to the

Mitchell H. Gibbs; Linda F. Wicker; Arthur J. Stewart

1996-01-01

100

Development of a Standardized Laboratory Method for Assessing the Toxicity of Chemical Substances to Earthworms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An interlaboratory comparison of three tests developed to assess the toxicity of chemicals, using the earthworm as an indicator, has been carried out. The three methods involve the earthworm in contact with: (1) the chemical in a moist medium, (2) the che...

C. A. Edwards

1983-01-01

101

Methods using earthworms for the evaluation of potentially toxic materials in soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using earthworms to indicate effects of potentially toxic wastes when such wastes are intentionally or accidentally added to soils. Initial work with metals has shown that earthworms exhibit specific growth and reproductive responses. These responses are related to the concentration and solubility of the metal. Of the metals tested,

E. F. Neuhauser; R. C. Loehr; M. R. Malecki

1982-01-01

102

Development of QSAR's in soil ecotoxicology: Earthworm toxicity and soil sorption of chlorophenols, chlorobenzenes and chloroanilines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil adsorption and the toxicity of four chloroanilines for earthworms were investigated in two soil types. The toxicity tests were carried out with two earthworm species, Eisenia andrei and Lumbricus rubellus. LC50 values in mg kg-1 dry soil were recalculated towards molar concentrations in pore water using data from soil adsorption experiments. An attempt has been made to develop Quantitative

CORNELIS A. M. VAN GESTEL; Wei-Chun Ma

1993-01-01

103

Toxicity of selected organic chemicals to the earthworm Eisenia fetida  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of methods recently have been developed to biologically evaluate the impact of man's activities on soil ecosystems. Two test methods, the 2-d contact test and the 14-d artificial soil test, were used to evaluate the impact of six major classes of organic chemicals on the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny). Of the organic chemicals tested, phenols and amines were

E. F. Neuhauser; R. C. Loehr; M. R. Malecki; D. L. Milligan; P. R. Durkin

2009-01-01

104

Acquiring data in real time in Italy from the Antarctic Seismographic Argentinean Italian Network (ASAIN): testing the global capabilities of the EarthWorm and Antelope software suites.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale, OGS) is running the Antarctic Seismographic Argentinean Italian Network (ASAIN), made of 7 seismic stations located in the Scotia Sea region in Antarctica and in Tierra del Fuego - Argentina: data from these stations are transferred in real time to the OGS headquarters in Trieste (Italy) via satellite links provided by the Instituto Antártico Argentino (IAA). Data is collected and archived primarily in Güralp Compress Format (GCF) through the Scream! software at OGS and IAA, and transmitted also in real time to the Observatories and Research Facilities for European Seismology (ORFEUS). The main real time seismic data acquisition and processing system of the ASAIN network is based on the EarthWorm 7.3 (Open Source) software suite installed on a Linux server at the OGS headquarters in Trieste. It runs several software modules for data collection, data archiving, data publication on dedicated web servers: wave_serverV, Winston Wave Server, and data analysis and realtime monitoring through Swarm program. OGS is also running, in close cooperation with the Friuli-Venezia Giulia Civil Defense, the North East (NI) Italy seismic network, making use of the Antelope commercial software suite from BRTT as the main acquisition system. As a test to check the global capabilities of the Antelope software suite, we also set up an instance of Antelope acquiring data in real time from both the regional ASAIN seismic network in Antarctica and a subset of the Global Seismic Network (GSN) funded by the Incorporated Research Institution for Seismology (IRIS). The facilities of the IRIS Data Management System, and specifically the IRIS Data Management Center, were used for real time access to waveform required in this study. The first tests indicated that more than 80% of the earthquakes with magnitude M>5.0 listed in the Preliminary Determination of Epicenters (PDE) catalogue of the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) were also correctly automatically detected by Antelope, with an average location error of 0.05 degrees and average body wave magnitude Mb estimation error below 0.1. The average time difference between event origin time and the actual time of event determination by Antelope was of about 45': the comparison with 20', the IASPEI91 P-wave travel time for 180 degrees distance, and 25', the estimate of our test system data latency, indicate that Antelope is a serious candidate for regional and global early warning systems.

Percy Plasencia Linares, Milton; Russi, Marino; Pesaresi, Damiano; Cravos, Claudio

2010-05-01

105

The role of experiential avoidance in acute pain tolerance: a laboratory test.  

PubMed

The present investigation examined the role of experiential avoidance in terms of acute pain tolerance and subsequent recovery. Seventy nonclinical participants completed the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire and underwent a well-established cold pressor task. Results indicated that individuals reporting higher levels of experiential avoidance had lower pain endurance and tolerance and recovered more slowly from this particular type of aversive event. Consistent with theoretical prediction, these findings suggest that experiential avoidance may play a role in tolerance of acute pain. PMID:15882839

Feldner, Matthew T; Hekmat, Hamid; Zvolensky, Michael J; Vowles, Kevin E; Secrist, Zachary; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W

2006-06-01

106

Physiological and molecular responses of the earthworm (Eisenia fetida) to soil chlortetracycline contamination.  

PubMed

This study aims to evaluate toxic effects of exposure to chlortetracycline (CTC) in soil on reproductive endpoints (juvenile counts and cocoon counts), biochemical responses, and genotoxic potentials of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Results showed that juvenile counts and cocoon counts of the tested earthworms were reduced after exposure to CTC. The effective concentrations (EC(50) values) for juvenile and cocoon counts were 96.1 and 120.3 mg/kg, respectively. Treatment of earthworms with CTC significantly changed the activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). An increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) indicated that CTC could cause cellular lipid peroxidation in the tested earthworms. The percentage of DNA in the tail of single-cell gel electrophoresis of coelomocytes as an indication of DNA damage increased after treatment with different doses of CTC, and a dose-dependent DNA damage of coelomocytes was found. In conclusion, CTC induces physiological responses and genotoxicity on earthworms. PMID:22868346

Lin, Dasong; Zhou, Qixing; Xu, Yingming; Chen, Chun; Li, Ye

2012-08-04

107

Earthworm ecotoxicological assessments of pesticides used to treat seeds under tropical conditions.  

PubMed

Ecotoxicological laboratory tests (lower-tier tests) are fundamental tools for assessing the toxicity of pesticides to soil organisms. In this study, using these tests under tropical conditions, we quantified the impact of the insecticides imidacloprid, fipronil, and thiametoxam, and the fungicides captan and carboxin+thiram, all of which are used in the chemical treatment of crop seeds, on the survival, reproduction, and behavior of Eisenia andrei (Oligochaeta). With the exception of imidacloprid, none of the pesticides tested caused mortality in E. andrei in artificial soils. The LC(50) of imidacloprid was estimated as 25.53 mg active ingredient kg(-1) of dry soil. Earthworm reproduction rates were reduced by imidacloprid (EC(50)=4.07 mgkg(-1)), fipronil (EC(20)=23.16 mgkg(-1)), carboxin+thiram (EC(50)=56.38 mgkg(-1)), captan (EC(50)=334.84 mgkg(-1)), and thiametoxam (EC(50)=791.99 mgkg(-1)). Avoidance behavior was observed in the presence of imidacloprid (AC(50)=0.11 mgkg(-1)), captan (AC(50)=33.54 mgkg(-1)), carboxin+thiram (AC(50)=60.32 mgkg(-1)), and thiametoxam (AC(50)=>20 mgkg(-1)). Earthworms showed a preference for soils with the insecticide fipronil. Imidacloprid was the most toxic of the substances tested for E. andrei. The avoidance test was the most sensitive test for most pesticides studied, but results varied between pesticides. These results offer new insights on the toxicity of pesticides used to treat seeds in tropical regions. However, they should be complemented with higher-tier tests in order to reduce the uncertainties in risk assessment. PMID:23261124

Alves, Paulo Roger L; Cardoso, Elke J B N; Martines, Alexandre M; Sousa, José Paulo; Pasini, Amarildo

2012-12-21

108

An experiential avoidance conceptualization of depressive rumination: three tests of the model.  

PubMed

This study examined an experiential avoidance conceptualization of depressive rumination in 3 ways: 1) associations among questionnaire measures of rumination, experiential avoidance, and fear of emotions; 2) performance on a dichotic listening task that highlights preferences for non-depressive material; and 3) psychophysiological reactivity in an avoidance paradigm modeled after the one used by Borkovec, Lyonfields, Wiser, and Deihl (1993) in their examination of worry. One hundred and thirty-eight undergraduates completed questionnaire measures and participated in a clinical interview to diagnose current and past episodes of depression. Of those, 100 were randomly assigned to a rumination or relaxation induction condition and participated in a dichotic listening task, rumination/relaxation induction, and depression induction. Questionnaire measures confirmed a relationship between rumination status and avoidance; however, no significant effects were found in the dichotic listening task. Psychophysiological measures indicated no difference in physiological response to a depression induction among high ruminators (HR). However, low ruminators (LR) in the relaxation condition exhibited a larger IBI response than LR in the rumination condition. Overall, these results provide partial support for an avoidance conceptualization of depressive rumination. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:20691426

Giorgio, Jeannette M; Sanflippo, Jacqueline; Kleiman, Evan; Reilly, Dan; Bender, Rachel E; Wagner, Clara A; Liu, Richard T; Alloy, Lauren B

2010-07-17

109

An Experiential Avoidance Conceptualization of Depressive Rumination: Three Tests of the Model  

PubMed Central

This study examined an experiential avoidance conceptualization of depressive rumination in 3 ways: 1) associations among questionnaire measures of rumination, experiential avoidance, and fear of emotions; 2) performance on a dichotic listening task that highlights preferences for non-depressive material; and 3) psychophysiological reactivity in an avoidance paradigm modeled after the one used by Borkovec and colleagues (1993) in their examination of worry. One hundred and thirty eight undergraduates completed questionnaire measures and participated in a clinical interview to diagnose current and past episodes of depression. Of those, 100 were randomly assigned to a rumination or relaxation induction condition and participated in a dichotic listening task, rumination/relaxation induction, and depression induction. Questionnaire measures confirmed a relationship between rumination status and avoidance; however, no significant effects were found in the dichotic listening task. Psychophysiological measures indicated no difference in physiological response to a depression induction among high ruminators (HR). However, low ruminators (LR) in the relaxation condition exhibited a larger IBI response than LR in the rumination condition. Overall, these results provide partial support for an avoidance conceptualization of depressive rumination. Implications of these findings are discussed.

Giorgio, Jeannette M.; Sanflippo, Jacqueline; Kleiman, Evan; Reilly, Dan; Bender, Rachel E.; Wagner, Clara A.; Liu, Richard; Alloy, Lauren B.

2011-01-01

110

Dimethoate affects cholinesterases in Folsomia candida and their locomotion--false negative results of an avoidance behaviour test.  

PubMed

The main mode of action of organophosphate insecticides is to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which causes neuromuscular paralysis leading ultimately to death. The collembolan Folsomia candida is an important and standard test species in ecotoxicology, where effects on avoidance behaviour are assessed. Being related to insects they represent potential targets of insecticides such as the organophosphate dimethoate. In the present study we exposed F. candida to dimethoate having 2 main aims: 1) to assess the ability of F. candida to avoid it, and 2) to assess its effect on the cholinergic synapses to explore the link. For the latter, several sub-steps were needed: a) to characterise the existing ChE types and b) assess ChE activity (via exposure in vitro and in vivo). No avoidance was observed within the tested concentration range (0-0.32-1-3.2-10-32 mg/kg), in fact an apparent "attraction" (more animals on the spiked side) was observed. As expected, there was a significant decrease of AChE activities (AChE being the main ChE type) with an increase of dimethoate dose (IC(50)=1.4 mg/kg). Further, post-exposure video records showed that organisms were still alive in the spiked soil but lacked the locomotion ability (immobilised). The AChE inhibition correlated positively with immobilisation. Hence, this observation also showed that the apparent "attraction" behaviour observed in the avoidance test is rather a direct effect of not being able to escape due to paralysis hence a false-negative avoidance. This can constitute a confounding factor in an avoidance behaviour test and consequent interpretation, which is not accounted for at present. PMID:23246662

Pereira, Cecília M S; Novais, Sara C; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Amorim, Mónica J B

2012-12-12

111

Effect of solar UV radiation on earthworm (Metaphire posthuma).  

PubMed

Human health risks like damage to the eyes, immune system, and skin are known to be associated with increasing ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in the environment. In this study, we evaluated the phototoxic effects of UVR in sunlight and its possible mechanism of action by using earthworm as an alternative model because earthworm skin contains several biomolecules (tetraene and triene sterol) similar to human beings. We studied the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), photooxidation of lipids, and histopathological changes in earthworm integument. It was observed that UVR-exposed earthworm skin homogenate produced a significant amount of singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)), superoxide anion (O(2)(*)(-)), hydroxyl radicals ((*)OH), and photooxidation of lipids. The production of ROS and lipid peroxidation product was found dependent on the dose of solar UVR in earthworm integument. Histological anomalies such as thickening, vacuolation, and hypertrophy of epidermal cells were observed when the animals were exposed for 1 to 2h, while a higher exposure period (3h) caused degeneration of circular and longitudinal muscles. Continuous sunlight exposure for more than 3h was found lethal to worms. These observations suggested that the current level of UVR in sunlight may produce significant phototoxic effects in the earthworms probably via the generation of ROS (photodynamic action). Possible increases in UVR in view of ozone depletion may be more detrimental to the biomolecules in the worm's skin. The earthworm thus turned out as a simple, sensitive, and cost-effective test organism for the assessment of the hazardous potential of solar radiation and also for planning safety measures for human beings. PMID:16216633

Misra, R B; Lal, K; Farooq, M; Hans, R K

2005-11-01

112

Protein Hydrolysates Are Avoided by Herbivores but Not by Omnivores in Two-Choice Preference Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The negative sensory properties of casein hydrolysates (HC) often limit their usage in products intended for human consumption, despite HC being nutritious and having many functional benefits. Recent, but taxonomically limited, evidence suggests that other animals also avoid consuming HC when alternatives exist. Methodology\\/Principal Findings: We evaluated ingestive responses of five herbivorous species (guinea pig, mountain beaver, gopher, vole,

Kristin L. Field; Alexander A. Bachmanov; Julie A. Mennella; Gary K. Beauchamp; Bruce A. Kimball

2009-01-01

113

Invasion of exotic earthworms into ecosystems inhabited by native earthworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most conspicuous biological invasions in terrestrial ecosystems have been by exotic plants, insects and vertebrates. Invasions\\u000a by exotic earthworms, although not as well studied, may be increasing with global commerce in agriculture, waste management\\u000a and bioremediation. A number of cases has documented where invasive earthworms have caused significant changes in soil profiles,\\u000a nutrient and organic matter dynamics, other soil

P. F. Hendrix; G. H. Baker; M. A. Callaham; G. A. Damoff; C. Fragoso; G. González; S. W. James; S. L. Lachnicht; T. Winsome; X. Zou

114

[Role of earthworm in degradation of soil phenanthrene by Pseudomonas putida].  

PubMed

A 30-day incubation test was conducted to investigate the effects of treatments earthworm (E), bacteria (Pseudomonas putida) (B) and earthworm-bacteria (BE) on the degradation of soil phenanthrene. The degradation rate of soil phenanthrene at its initial concentration of 50 mg x kg(-1) was in the sequence of BE > B > E > CK, and that at the concentration of 150 mg x kg(-1) was 98.86% in BE, being significantly higher than that in CK and E. With the increase of the initial concentration of soil phenanthrene, the bacterial dioxygenase activity almost did not change in B, but increased significantly in BE. Under the same concentration of soil phenanthrene, the phenanthrene content in earthworm was significant higher in BE than in E, suggesting that earthworm could decrease the concentration of soil phenanthrene via its bioaccumulation, and the interaction between earthworm and P. putida could further promote the biodegradation of soil phenanthrene. PMID:18419099

Hu, Miao; Chen, Huan; Tian, Lei; Hu, Feng; Wei, Zheng-gui; Li, Hui-xin

2008-01-01

115

Methods for the assessment of the toxicity of environmental chemicals to earthworms  

SciTech Connect

In view of the impending publication of standards for earthworm toxicity testing by the Commission of the European Communities, a review has been made of the recent literature on earthworm toxicology. Relevant studies are reviewed from the standpoints of methods used, reproducibility of results, and ability to extrapolate laboratory results to field situations. Eisenia foetida, a commonly used test species, is much less sensitive to agricultural chemicals than other, native earthworms and is of doubtful utility for extrapolating laboratory data to field conditions, but when native soil organisms are used, such extrapolations show good general agreement. Standardization of test conditions and broadening of the data base are encouraged.

Dean-Ross, D.

1983-03-01

116

The influence of invasive earthworms on indigenous fauna in ecosystems previously uninhabited by earthworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies on earthworm invasion of North American soils report dramatic changes in soil structure, nutrient dynamics and plant communities in ecosystems historically free of earthworms. However, the direct and indirect impacts of earthworm invasions on animals have been largely ignored. This paper summarizes the current knowledge on the impact of earthworm invasion on other soil fauna, vertebrates as well

Sonja Migge-Kleian; Mary Ann McLean; John C. Maerz; Liam Heneghan

2006-01-01

117

Earthworm invasion into previously earthworm-free temperate and boreal forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms are keystone detritivores that can influence primary producers by changing seedbed conditions, soil characteristics, flow of water, nutrients and carbon, and plant–herbivore interactions. The invasion of European earthworms into previously earthworm-free temperate and boreal forests of North America dominated by Acer, Quercus, Betula, Pinus and Populus has provided ample opportunity to observe how earthworms engineer ecosystems. Impacts vary with

Lee E. Frelich; Cindy M. Hale; Stefan Scheu; Andrew R. Holdsworth; Liam Heneghan; Patrick J. Bohlen; Peter B. Reich

2006-01-01

118

Influence of ultraviolet radiation on selected physiological responses of earthworms.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the adverse effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on earthworms. Earthworms that crawl out of the soil may die within a few hours after sunrise. This study shows that UV exposure can be lethal. In general, UV-B had a stronger damaging effect than UV-A. Different species of earthworms had different tolerances to UV exposure. In this study, Pontoscolex corethrurus showed the highest tolerance of the three tested species to UV radiation, while Amynthas gracilis was the most sensitive. UV radiation induced both acute and chronic responses. The acute response, which occurred immediately on or after UV exposure, was characterized by the appearance of abnormally strong muscle contractions, including S-shaped movements and jumping behavior, possibly caused by bad coordination between the circular and longitudinal muscles. The chronic response included damage to the skin and muscle cells, which resulted in a high mortality rate. Oxygen consumption by A. gracilis was significantly decreased after exposure to UV-A or UV-B. Since the circulation in earthworms is mediated by muscle contraction and the skin is the main organ of respiration, it is reasonable to expect that abnormal muscle contraction and a damaged epithelium could cause suffocation. Because of their sensitive responses, we propose that some earthworms, such as A. gracilis, could serve as a new model for studying UV-induced photodamage. PMID:17050845

Chuang, Shu-Chun; Lai, Wei-Shan; Chen, Jiun-Hong

2006-11-01

119

Positive affect predicts avoidance goals in social interaction anxiety: testing a hierarchical model of social goals.  

PubMed

Models of self-regulation suggest that social goals may contribute to interpersonal and affective difficulties, yet little research has addressed this issue in the context of social anxiety. The present studies evaluated a hierarchical model of approach and avoidance in the context of social interaction anxiety, with affect as a mediating factor in the relationship between motivational tendencies and social goals. This model was refined in one undergraduate sample (N = 186) and cross-validated in a second sample (N = 195). The findings support hierarchical relationships between motivational tendencies, social interaction anxiety, affect, and social goals, with higher positive affect predicting fewer avoidance goals in both samples. Implications for the treatment of social interaction anxiety are discussed. PMID:22489603

Trew, Jennifer L; Alden, Lynn E

2012-04-11

120

Protein Hydrolysates Are Avoided by Herbivores but Not by Omnivores in Two-Choice Preference Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe negative sensory properties of casein hydrolysates (HC) often limit their usage in products intended for human consumption, despite HC being nutritious and having many functional benefits. Recent, but taxonomically limited, evidence suggests that other animals also avoid consuming HC when alternatives exist.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe evaluated ingestive responses of five herbivorous species (guinea pig, mountain beaver, gopher, vole, and rabbit) and

Kristin L. Field; Alexander A. Bachmanov; Julie A. Mennella; Gary K. Beauchamp; Bruce A. Kimball; Daniel Tomé

2009-01-01

121

Optimizing Earthworm Sampling in Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a To quantify the role of earthworms in ecosystems, a precise and accurate estimation of their diversity, abundance and biomass\\u000a is needed. In this chapter, we contribute to the optimization of earthworm sampling in terms of (1) how to sample, (2) where\\u000a to sample and (3) how many samples to take. First, we assess optimal concentrations of chemical expellants (allyl isothiocyanate

Jan Valckx; Gerard Govers; Martin Hermy; Bart Muys

122

Comparative Toxicity in Earthworms Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris Exposed to Cadmium Nitrate Using Artificial Soil and Filter Paper Protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms are ideal soil organisms for use in terrestrial ecotoxicology. As such, several earthworm protocols have been developed for testing toxic potential of chemicals and contaminated soils. Of these, the 48-h filter paper contact (FP) and the 14-d artificial soil exposure (AS) protocols, using mortality (LC50) as the toxic endpoint and Eisenia fetida as the test species, have received the

L. C. Fitzpatrick; J. F. Muratti-Ortiz; B. J. Venables; A. J. Goven

1996-01-01

123

Use of plant and earthworm bioassays to evaluate remediation of soil from a site contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was treated with a pilot-scale, solvent extraction technology. Bioassays in earthworms and plants were used to examine the efficacy of the remediation process for reducing the toxicity of the soil. The earthworm toxicity bioassays were the 14-d survival test and 21-d reproduction test, using Lumbricus terrestris and Eisenia fetida andrei.

John R. Meier; Lina W. Chang; M. C. Meckes; M. K. Smith; S. Jacobs; J. Torsella

1997-01-01

124

Menadione enhances oxyradical formation in earthworm extracts: vulnerability of earthworms to quinone toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

NAD(P)H-cytochrome c reductase activities have been determined in the earthworms, L. rubellus and A. chlorotica, extracts. Menadione (0.35 mM, maximum concentration tested) was found to stimulate the rates of NADPH- and NADH-dependent cytochrome c reduction by three- and twofold, respectively. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibited completely this menadione-mediated stimulation, suggesting that O2? is involved in the redox cycling of menadione. However,

A. M. Osman; P. J. Den Besten; P. C. M. van Noort

2003-01-01

125

For Better Soil, Let Earthworms Toil.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This activity involves elementary students in investigating how earthworms affect soil fertility. An introduction discusses topsoil loss and the connections between soil and earthworm ecology. Materials needed and step-by-step procedure are provided. (LZ)|

Swinehart, Rebecca, Ed.

1995-01-01

126

Avoiding Bullying  

MedlinePLUS

... At Play > Avoiding Bullying Safety & Prevention Listen Avoiding Bullying Article Body How can we help our child avoid being bullied? Whether on the school playground or in the neighborhood park, children sometimes ...

127

When and why do people avoid unknown probabilities in decisions under uncertainty? Testing some predictions from optimal foraging theory.  

PubMed

When given a choice between two otherwise equivalent options - one in which the probability information is stated and another in which it is missing - most people avoid the option with missing probability information (Camerer & Weber, 1992). This robust, frequently replicated tendency is known as the ambiguity effect. It is unclear, however, why the ambiguity effect occurs. Experiments 1 and 2, which separated effects of the comparison process from those related to missing probability information, demonstrate that the ambiguity effect is elicited by missing probabilities rather than by comparison of options. Experiments 3 and 4 test predictions drawn from the literature on behavioral ecology. It is suggested that choices between two options should reflect three parameters: (1) the need of the organism, (2) the mean expected outcome of each option; and (3) the variance associated with each option's outcome. It is hypothesized that unknown probabilities are avoided because they co-occur with high outcome variability. In Experiment 3 it was found that subjects systematically avoid options with high outcome variability regardless of whether probabilities are explicitly stated or not. In Experiment 4, we reversed the ambiguity effect: when participants' need was greater than the known option's expected mean outcome, subjects preferred the ambiguous (high variance) option. From these experiments we conclude that people do not generally avoid ambiguous options. Instead, they take into account expected outcome, outcome variability, and their need in order to arrive at a decision that is most likely to satisfy this need. PMID:10519925

Rode, C; Cosmides, L; Hell, W; Tooby, J

1999-10-26

128

Organic carbon sequestration in earthworm burrows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms strongly affect soil organic carbon cycling. The aim of this study was to determine whether deep burrowing anecic earthworms enhance carbon storage in soils and decrease C turnover. Earthworm burrow linings were separated into thin cylindrical sections with different distances from the burrow wall to determine gradients from the burrow wall to the surrounding soil. Organic C, total N,

Axel Don; Bert Steinberg; Ingo Schöning; Karin Pritsch; Monika Joschko; Gerd Gleixner; Ernst-Detlef Schulze

2008-01-01

129

Basal forebrain lesioned mice exhibit deterioration in memory acquisition process in step through passive avoidance test.  

PubMed

Effects of the basal forebrain (BF) lesion on memory and learning performances were investigated in mice. Eight-week-old male mice received bilateral BF lesion by delivering a radiofrequency current. From fifteen days after the surgery, the step through type passive avoidance task was performed daily for 10 days. Lesioned animals showed severe impairment in the acquisition process of this task, but not in the retention process. Ambulatory activity of the BF-lesioned mice did not differ from those of the control group, suggesting the observed learning impairment was not due to the alteration of motor activity. These results indicate that a memory impaired model mice can be successfully made by the radiofrequency lesion of bilateral BF neurons. PMID:1813660

Ishihara, A; Saito, H; Ohta, H; Nishiyama, N

1991-11-01

130

Avoidance Response and Mortality of Juvenile Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) in Tests with Copper-Sulfate-Treated Water from West Branch Resevoir, Putnam County, New York.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Copper-avoidance tests and acute-toxicity (mortality) tests on hatchery-reared, young-of-the-year brown trout (salmo trutta) were conducted with water from West Branch Reservoir to assess the avoidance response to copper sulfate treatment, which is used o...

B. P. Baldigo T. P. Baudanza

2000-01-01

131

Interference of Plant Peroxidases with Guaiac based Fecal Occult Blood Tests Is Avoidable  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peroxidase-rich fruits and vegetables are reputed to interfere with guaiac-based fecal occult blood tests. We added horseradish peroxidase to fecal samples and tested them with Hemoccult®, Hemoccult SENSA®, and hydrated Hemoccult. Positivity rates with Hemoccult and Hemoccult SENSA decreased rapidly as the time between smearing (preparation) and development in- creased, whereas they remained high with hydrated Hemoccult. For samples with

Marc A. Sinatra; D. James; Graeme P. Young

132

Approach-Avoidance Motivational Profiles in Early Adolescents to the PACER Fitness Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The use of fitness testing is a practical means for measuring components of health-related fitness, but there is currently substantial debate over the motivating effects of these tests. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the cross-fertilization of achievement and friendship goal profiles for early adolescents involved in the…

Garn, Alex; Sun, Haichun

2009-01-01

133

A series test of the scaling limit of self-avoiding walks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely believed that the scaling limit of self-avoiding walks (SAWs) at the critical temperature is conformally invariant, and consequently describable by Schramm–Loewner evolution with parameter ? = 8/3. We consider SAWs in a rectangle, which originate at its centre and end at the boundary. We assume that the boundary density transforms covariantly in a way that depends precisely on ?, as conjectured by Lawler, Schramm and Werner (2004 Fractal Geometry and Applications: A Jubilee of Benoit Mandelbrot part 2, pp 339–64). It has previously been shown by Guttmann and Kennedy (2013 J. Eng. Math. at press) that, in the limit of an infinitely large rectangle, the ratio of the fraction of SAWs hitting the side of the rectangle to the fraction that hit the end of the rectangle can be calculated. By considering rectangles of fixed aspect ratio 2, and also rectangles of aspect ratio 10, we calculate this ratio exactly for larger and larger rectangles. By extrapolating this data to infinite rectangle size, and invoking the above conjectures, we obtain the estimate ? = 2.666?64 ± 0.000?07 for rectangles of aspect ratio 2 and ? = 2.666?75 ± 0.000?15 for rectangles of aspect ratio 10. We also provide numerical evidence supporting the conjectured distribution of SAWs striking the boundary at various points in the case of rectangles with aspect ratio 2.

Guttmann, Anthony J.; Jacobsen, Jesper L.

2013-11-01

134

Bioaccumulation and elimination of avermectin B1a in the earthworms (Eisenia fetida).  

PubMed

The acute toxicity, bioaccumulation, and elimination of avermectin B1a (AVM B1a) in earthworm (Eisenia fetida) were investigated in different exposure systems. The LC50 of AVM B1a on earthworms were 24.1 mg/kg and 17.1 mg/kg, respectively, for 7 and 14 days in artificial soil. The LC50 tested by the filter paper for 2 days was 4.63 microg/cm2. The earthworms were cultivated in artificial soil containing 0.6 mg/kg and 3.0 mg/kg AVM B1a, respectively for bioaccumulation experiments. The AVM B1a residues in earthworms were determined with HPLC-fluorescence method. The results showed that AVM B1a was taken up from the concentrated artificial soil by the earthworms and the steady-state levels were reached after 9-18 days of exposure. On the 18th day, the final concentrations of AVM B1a in the earthworms treated with two different dosages were 107 ng/g and 165 ng/g, respectively; there were not significantly accumulation. About 80.0% and 94.8% of the accumulated AVM B1a were eliminated respectively in two groups within 1 day after they were exposed to AVM B1a-free soil, but a trace amount of AVM B1a was found for a relative long time in earthworms. PMID:15963808

Sun, Yingjian; Diao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Qidi; Shen, Jianzhong

2005-02-26

135

Holography: Use in Training and Testing Drivers on the Road in Accident Avoidance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Defines holography, identifies visual factors in driving and the techniques used in on-road visual presentations, and presents the design and testing of a holographic system for driver training. (RAO)|

Frey, Allan H.; Frey, Donnalyn

1979-01-01

136

Anxiolytic profiles of alprazolam and ethanol in the elevated plus-maze test and the early acquisition of shuttlebox avoidance.  

PubMed

Rats pretreated either with the anxiolytic triazolobenzodiazepine alprazolam (0.75 and 1.75 mg kg-1 i.p.) or ethanol (1, 2, 3 and 4 g kg-1 p.o.) were tested in both the elevated plus-maze and the early acquisition of shuttlebox avoidance. Both substances induced overall anxiolytic effects in the plus-maze, with the 0.75 mg kg-1 being the most effective alprazolam dose and 1-3 g kg-1 being the most effective ethanol doses. Both drugs were also anxiolytic in the shuttlebox, since 1.75 mg kg-1 alprazolam and 2-3 g kg-1 ethanol improved acquisition of the task. Correlational and factor analysis showed that behaviour in the open arms of the plus-maze and efficiency in shuttlebox avoidance acquisition are positively associated, thus providing further support to the contention that the early acquisition of shuttlebox avoidance is an animal model of anxiety. PMID:7911239

Prunell, M; Escorihuela, R M; Fernández-Teruel, A; Núñez, J F; Tobeña, A

137

Antecedents and consequences of approach and avoidance achievement goals: A test of gender invariance  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveBased on Elliot's revised achievement goal framework [Elliot and McGregor (2001). A 2×2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 501–519], the present study tested the gender invariance of the multiple achievement goal measurement model as well as the hypothesized antecedents and consequences of the multiple achievement goals embedded in a structural model.

Chiao-Lin Nien; Joan L. Duda

2008-01-01

138

Tail-Flick Test: II. The Role of Supraspinal Systems and Avoidance Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is held that the tail-flick test of pain depends on a spinal reflex because a similar response is observed in spinally transected rats. But when subjects were manually held and a cool heat setting was used, supraspinal systems facilitated the response (Experiment 1). This effect did not depend on the rate at which the tail was heated (Experiment 2)

Tamara E. King; Robin L. Joynes; James W. Grau

1997-01-01

139

Avoiding Snakebites  

MedlinePLUS

... Snakebites Avoiding Snakebites How can I avoid snakebites? Snakes are most active in the spring, early summer ... warm and outdoor activities are popular. Although most snakes are not poisonous, there are several kinds of ...

140

INVASION OF EXOTIC EARTHWORMS INTO ECOSYSTEMS INHABITED BY NATIVE EARTHWORMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The most conspicuous biological invasions in terrestrial ecosystems have been by exotic plants, insects and vertebrates. Invasions by exotic earthworms, although not as well studied, may be increasing with global commerce in agriculture, waste management and bioremediation. A number of cases have be...

141

Avoiding the effect of BCG vaccination in detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection with a blood test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination can confound tuberculin skin test (TST) reactions in the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). The TST was compared with a Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-specific enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay during an outbreak of MTB infection at a police academy in Germany. Participants were grouped according to their risk of LTBI in close (n536) or occasional (n5333) contacts

R. Diel; M. Ernst; G. Doscher; L. Visuri-Karbe; U. Greinert; S. Niemann; A. Nienhause; C. Lange

2006-01-01

142

Earthworm activity and soil structure changes due to organic enrichments in vineyard systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of organic enrichment on earthworm activity and soil structure was studied in two French vineyards, by comparing\\u000a control and test plots. In each vineyard the organic matter quantitatively increased the abundance and biomass of the earthworm\\u000a community. These increases were associated with a higher level of species diversity and a higher evenness corresponding to\\u000a the development of endogeic

G. Pérès; D. Cluzeau; P. Curmi; V. Hallaire

1998-01-01

143

Environmental metabolomics: new insights into earthworm ecotoxicity and contaminant bioavailability in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental metabolomics is a growing and emerging sub-discipline of metabolomics. Studies with earthworms have progressed\\u000a from the initial stages of simple contact exposure tests to detailed studies of earthworm responses in soil. Over the past\\u000a decade, a variety of endogenous metabolites have been identified as potential biomarkers of contaminant exposure. Furthermore,\\u000a metabolomic methods have delineated responses from sub-lethal exposure of

Myrna J. Simpson; Jennifer R. McKelvie

2009-01-01

144

Population and behavioural level responses of arable soil earthworms to boardmill sludge application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of earthworms to soil application of boardmill waste sludge was quantified in field and laboratory experiments. The influence of one application of 6×104 tonnes ha?1 of unamended sludge was tested against no application on silty-clay arable soil. After 2 years, results in stubble-cultivated soil showed a 1.7 times lower density of earthworms where sludge was added, whereas there

Kevin R. Butt; Mervi A. Nieminen; Taisto Sirén; Elise Ketoja; Visa Nuutinen

2005-01-01

145

MEMS earthworm: a thermally actuated peristaltic linear micromotor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the design, fabrication and testing of a bio-mimetic MEMS (micro-electro mechanical systems) earthworm motor with external actuators. The motor consists of a passive mobile shuttle with two flexible diamond-shaped segments; each segment is independently squeezed by a pair of stationary chevron-shaped thermal actuators. Applying a specific sequence of squeezes to the earthworm segments, the shuttle can be driven backward or forward. Unlike existing inchworm drives that use clamping and thrusting actuators, the earthworm actuators apply only clamping forces to the shuttle, and lateral thrust is produced by the shuttle's compliant geometry. The earthworm assembly is fabricated using the PolyMUMPs process with planar dimensions of 400 µm width by 800 µm length. The stationary actuators operate within the range of 4-9 V and provide a maximum shuttle range of motion of 350 µm (approximately half its size), a maximum shuttle speed of 17 mm s-1 at 10 kHz, and a maximum dc shuttle force of 80 µN. The shuttle speed was found to vary linearly with both input voltage and input frequency. The shuttle force was found to vary linearly with the actuator voltage.

Arthur, Craig; Ellerington, Neil; Hubbard, Ted; Kujath, Marek

2011-03-01

146

Earthworm invasion into previously earthworm-free temperate and boreal forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms are keystone detritivores that can influence primary producers by changing seedbed conditions, soil characteristics,\\u000a flow of water, nutrients and carbon, and plant-herbivore interactions. The invasion of European earthworms into previously\\u000a earthworm-free temperate and boreal forests of North America dominated by Acer, Quercus, Betula, Pinus and Populus has provided ample opportunity to observe how earthworms engineer ecosystems. Impacts vary with

Lee E. Frelich; Cindy M. Hale; Peter B. Reich; Andrew R. Holdsworth; Stefan Scheu; Liam Heneghan; Patrick J. Bohlen

147

A field test for host fruit odour discrimination and avoidance behaviour for Rhagoletis pomonella flies in the western United States.  

PubMed

Prezygotic isolation due to habitat choice is important to many models of speciation-with-gene-flow. Habitat choice is usually thought to occur through positive preferences of organisms for particular environments. However, avoidance of non-natal environments may also play a role in choice and have repercussions for post-zygotic isolation that preference does not. The recent host shift of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) from downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis, to introduced apple, Malus domestica, in the eastern United States is a model for speciation-with-gene-flow. However, the fly is also present in the western United States where it was likely introduced via infested apples ? 60 years ago. R. pomonella now attacks two additional hawthorns in the west, the native C. douglasii (black hawthorn) and the introduced C. monogyna (English ornamental hawthorn). Flight tunnel tests have shown that western apple-, C. douglasii- and C. monogyna-origin flies all positively orient to fruit volatile blends of their respective natal hosts in flight tunnel assays. Here, we show that these laboratory differences translate to nature through field-trapping studies of flies in the state of Washington. Moreover, western R. pomonella display both positive orientation to their respective natal fruit volatiles and avoidance behaviour (negative orientation) to non-natal volatiles. Our results are consistent with the existence of behaviourally differentiated host races of R. pomonella in the west. In addition, the rapid evolution of avoidance behaviour appears to be a general phenomenon for R. pomonella during host shifts, as the eastern apple and downy hawthorn host races also are antagonized by non-natal fruit volatiles. PMID:22435643

Sim, S B; Mattsson, M; Feder, Jasmine L; Cha, D H; Yee, W L; Goughnour, R B; Linn, C E; Feder, Jeffrey L

2012-03-21

148

Antioxidant defense system responses and DNA damage of earthworms exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS).  

PubMed

The use of earthworms as a sublethal endpoint has significantly contributed to the ecological risk assessment of contaminated soils. Few studies have focused on the potential toxicity of PFOS to earthworms in the soil. In this work, artificial soils were tested, and contact filter paper studies were used. The results showed that earthworm growth was generally inhibited. The antioxidant activities of the enzymes superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were initially activated and then inhibited. Reduced glutathione content was observed, and malondialdehyde content was elevated over the duration of the exposure. These results suggested that PFOS induced oxidative stress in earthworms. In addition, the values of olive tail moment, tail DNA% and tail length using SCGE showed similar frequency distributions and increased with increases in the PFOS concentration. These results suggest that all concentrations of PFOS cause DNA damage. PMID:23257261

Xu, Dongmei; Li, Chandan; Wen, Yuezhong; Liu, Weiping

2012-12-17

149

Development of earthworm burrow systems and the influence of earthworms on soil hydrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inoculation of earthworms can help to restore or ameliorate land qualities. Earthworms create burrows and alter the structure of the soil matrix, which influence the water infiltration, drainage, water retention and the aeration of the soil. The way and rate of the development of earthworm burrow systems are practically unknown, and form the core of this thesis.When studying the relation

T. N. Ligthart

1996-01-01

150

Earthworm invasions of ecosystems devoid of earthworms: effects on soil microbes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies document North American earthworm invasions and their profound effects on the structure of the soil profile, which is the habitat for soil microorganisms (mainly fungi and bacteria). Dramatic alterations made to these layers during earthworm invasion significantly change microbial community structure and therefore microbial activities such as C transformations. Understanding the impacts of earthworm invasion on the microbes

M. A. McLean; S. Migge-Kleian; D. Parkinson

2006-01-01

151

Driving Performance Analysis of the Advanced Collision Avoidance System (ACAS) Field Operational Test (FOT) Data and Recommendations for a Driving Workload Manager.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains analyses of driving performance data from the Advanced Collision Avoidance System (ACAS) Field Operational Test (FOT), with data from nearly 100 drivers and over 100,000 miles of driving. The analyses compared normal and distracted si...

E. Hegedus H. Eoh J. Schweitzer P. A. Green

2006-01-01

152

Acute toxicity of chlorophenols to earthworms using a simple paper contact method and comparison with toxicities to fresh water organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

An acute toxicity test of chlorophenols on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) was performed using a simple paper contact method proposed by OECD testing guideline no. 207, that were applied as an earthworm toxicity test. The median lethal concentration, EC50, had significant correlation with logPow (1-octanol\\/water partition coefficient) of the chemicals. The toxicity of chlorophenols on E. fetida was compared with toxicities

Akane Miyazaki; Tsutomu Amano; Hotaka Saito; Yoshio Nakano

2002-01-01

153

A Longitudinal Test of the Bi-Directional Relations between Avoidance Coping and PTSD Severity during and after PTSD Treatment  

PubMed Central

Avoidance coping and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) covary. However, relatively little research has examined the bi-directional relation between these constructs among individuals in treatment for PTSD. The current longitudinal study examined the reciprocal associations between avoidance coping and PTSD symptom severity during and after residential PTSD treatment among a sample of 1,073 military veterans (88.9% male; Mage = 52.39 years) with chronic, treatment-resistant PTSD. Greater avoidance coping at intake predicted more severe PTSD symptoms at discharge, and severity of PTSD symptoms at discharge predicted increased avoidance at follow-up. Conversely, PTSD symptom severity at intake was not related to avoidance coping at discharge, and in turn avoidance coping at discharge was not related to PTSD symptom severity at follow-up. These findings offer a number of important clinical implications including evidence suggesting avoidance may predict poorer treatment response among individuals seeking treatment for chronic PTSD, and that greater end-of-treatment PTSD symptom severity may predict increased avoidance following treatment.

Badour, Christal L.; Blonigen, Daniel M.; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Feldner, Matthew T.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.

2012-01-01

154

COMPARISON OF THREE EARTHWORM BIOASSAY PROCEDURES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES CONTAINING HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Three different laboratory earthworm protocols for assessing the potential toxicity of environmental samples were evaluated using Eisenia fetida. The 48-h Contact Test (CT) is a short test and may indicate the presence of water-soluble chemicals. The 14-day Soil Test (ST) is best...

155

Influence of Temperature on the Toxicity of Zinc to the Earthworm Eisenia fetida  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of toxicity tests have been proposed to assess the potential hazards of pollutants to earthworms. Of these, the two acute toxicity tests using Eisenia fetida recommended by the OECD and EEC have become routinely used in the risk assessment and regulation of new and existing chemicals. In addition to the acute tests, procedures have also been proposed for

D. J. Spurgeon; M. A. Tomlin; S. P. Hopkin

1997-01-01

156

CHANGES IN HARDWOOD FOREST UNDERSTORY PLANT COMMUNITIES IN RESPONSE TO EUROPEAN EARTHWORM INVASIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

European earthworms are colonizing earthworm-free northern hardwood forests across North America. Leading edges of earthworm invasion provide an opportunity to investigate the response of understory plant communities to earthworm invasion and whether the species composition of the earthworm community influences that response. Four sugar maple-dominated forest sites with active earthworm invasions were identified in the Chippewa National Forest in north

Cindy M. Hale; Lee E. Frelich; Peter B. Reich

2006-01-01

157

Earthworm invasions of ecosystems devoid of earthworms: effects on soil microbes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies document North American earthworm invasions and their profound effects on the structure of the soil profile,\\u000a which is the habitat for soil microorganisms (mainly fungi and bacteria). Dramatic alterations made to these layers during\\u000a earthworm invasion significantly change microbial community structure and therefore microbial activities such as C transformations.\\u000a Understanding the impacts of earthworm invasion on the microbes

M. A. McLean; S. Migge-Kleian; D. Parkinson

158

Epigeic Earthworms Exert a Bottleneck Effect on Microbial Communities through Gut Associated Processes  

PubMed Central

Background Earthworms play a critical role in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with microorganisms. The ingestion, digestion, assimilation of organic material in the gut and then casting is the first step in earthworm-microorganism interactions. The current knowledge of these direct effects is still limited for epigeic earthworm species, mainly those living in man-made environments. Here we tested whether and to what extent the earthworm Eisenia andrei is capable of altering the microbiological properties of fresh organic matter through gut associated processes; and if these direct effects are related to the earthworm diet. Methodology To address these questions we determined the microbial community structure (phospholipid fatty acid profiles) and microbial activity (fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis) in the earthworm casts derived from three types of animal manure (cow, horse and pig manure), which differed in microbial composition. Principal Findings The passage of the organic material through the gut of E. andrei reduced the total microbial biomass irrespective of the type of manure, and resulted in a decrease in bacterial biomass in all the manures; whilst leaving the fungi unaffected in the egested materials. However, unlike the microbial biomass, no such reduction was detected in the total microbial activity of cast samples derived from the pig manure. Moreover, no differences were found between cast samples derived from the different types of manure with regards to microbial community structure, which provides strong evidence for a bottleneck effect of worm digestion on microbial populations of the original material consumed. Conclusions/Significance Our data reveal that earthworm gut is a major shaper of microbial communities, thereby favouring the existence of a reduced but more active microbial population in the egested materials, which is of great importance to understand how biotic interactions within the decomposer food web influence on nutrient cycling.

Gomez-Brandon, Maria; Aira, Manuel; Lores, Marta; Dominguez, Jorge

2011-01-01

159

Influence of Intracerebroventricular Administration of Histaminergic Drugs on Morphine State-Dependent Memory in the Step-Down Passive Avoidance Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of histaminergic drugs on morphine state-dependent memory of a passive avoidance task were examined in mice. Pre-training administration of morphine (5 mg\\/kg) led to state-dependent learning with impaired memory recall on the test day which was reversed by pre-test administration of the same dose of the opioid. The pre-test intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of the H1 blocker (pyrilamine) prevented

Mohammad R. Zarrindast; Azita Khalilzadeh; S. Mehdi Rezayat; Mousa Sahebgharani; Bijan Djahanguiri

2005-01-01

160

1 H NMR and GC\\/MS metabolomics of earthworm responses to sub-lethal DDT and endosulfan exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metabolic response of the earthworm Eisenia fetida to two pesticides, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and endosulfan, was characterized in contact tests using proton\\u000a nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and principal component analysis (PCA). PCA loading plots suggested that maltose, leucine and alanine were important\\u000a metabolites contributing to the differences in dosed and control earthworms for both compounds at doses of 0.5,

Jennifer R. McKelvie; Jimmy Yuk; Yunping Xu; Andre J. Simpson; Myrna J. Simpson

2009-01-01

161

Comparison of earthworm responses to petroleum hydrocarbon exposure in aged field contaminated soil using traditional ecotoxicity endpoints and (1)H NMR-based metabolomics.  

PubMed

(1)H NMR metabolomics and conventional ecotoxicity endpoints were used to examine the response of earthworms exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in soil samples collected from a site that was contaminated with crude oil from a pipeline failure in the mid-1990s. The conventional ecotoxicity tests showed that the soils were not acutely toxic to earthworms (average survival ?90%), but some soil samples impaired reproduction endpoints by >50% compared to the field control soil. Additionally, metabolomics revealed significant relationships between earthworm metabolic profiles (collected after 2 or 14 days of exposure) and soil properties including soil PHC concentration. Further comparisons by partial least squares regression revealed a significant relationship between the earthworm metabolomic data (collected after only 2 or 14 days) and the reproduction endpoints (measured after 63 days). Therefore, metabolomic responses measured after short exposure periods may be predictive of chronic, ecologically relevant toxicity endpoints for earthworms exposed to soil contaminants. PMID:23938450

Whitfield Åslund, Melissa; Stephenson, Gladys L; Simpson, André J; Simpson, Myrna J

2013-08-10

162

Comparative toxicity of chemicals to earthworms  

SciTech Connect

The concentration-response (mortality) relationships of four species of earthworms, Eisenia fetida (Savigny), Allolobophora tuberculata (Eisen), Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg), and Perionyx excavatus (Perrier) are summarized for 62 chemicals and two test protocols. A Weibull function is used to summarize these data for each chemical in terms of sensitivity and toxicity, in addition to the LC50. The estimation of the Weibull parameters a and k summarize the entire concentration-response relationship. This technique should be applicable to a variety of testing protocols with different species whenever the goal is summarizing the shape of the concentration-response curves to fully evaluate chemical impact on organisms. In some cases for these data four orders of magnitude separate LC50s of the soil test and the contact test for the same chemical and species. All four species appear to be similar in range of toxicity and tolerance to these chemicals, suggesting that Eisenia fetida and may be representative of these four species and these chemicals.

Callahan, C.A.; Shirazi, M.A. (Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR (United States)); Neuhauser, E.F. (Niagara Mohawk Power Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States))

1994-02-01

163

Nanomaterials: Earthworms lit with quantum dots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yeast, bacteria and fungi have been used to synthesize a variety of nanocrystals. Now, the metal detoxification process in the gut of an earthworm is exploited to produce biocompatible cadmium telluride quantum dots.

Tilley, Richard D.; Cheong, Soshan

2013-01-01

164

Comparison of Three Earthworm Bioassay Procedures for the Assessment of Environmental Samples Containing Hazardous Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three different laboratory earthworm protocols for assessing the potential toxicity of environmental samples were evaluated using Eisenia fetida. The 48-h Contact Test (CT) is a short test and may indicate the presence of water-soluble chemicals. The 14-d...

C. A. Callahan L. K. Russell S. A. Peterson

1985-01-01

165

Enantioselective bioaccumulation and toxic effects of metalaxyl in earthworm Eisenia foetida.  

PubMed

Knowledge about the enantioselective bioavailability of chiral pesticides in soil invertebrates facilitates more accurate interpretation of their environmental behaviors. In this study, the acute toxicities of R-metalaxyl and rac-metalaxyl to earthworm (Eisenia foetida) were assayed by filter paper contact test. After 48 h of exposure, the calculated LC(50) values for R- and rac-metalaxyl were 0.052 and 0.022 mg cm(-2), respectively, resulting in a two fold difference in toxicity. For uptake experiment, earthworms were exposed in soil at two dose levels (10 and 50 mg kg(dwt)(-1)). The concentrations of two enantiomers in soil and earthworm were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography based on cellulose tri-(3,5-dimethylphenyl-carbamate) chiral stationary phase. The results showed that metalaxyl was taken up by earthworm rapidly, and the bioaccumulation of metalaxyl in earthworm was enantioselective with preferential accumulation of S-enantiomer. In addition, biota to soil accumulation factor (BSAF) used to express the bioaccumulation of metalaxyl enantiomers was investigated, and significant difference was observed between rac-metalaxyl and R-metalaxyl. PMID:21315406

Xu, Peng; Diao, Jinling; Liu, Donghui; Zhou, Zhiqiang

2011-02-18

166

Effect of temephos on cholinesterase activity in the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae).  

PubMed

In this study, adult Eisenia fetida earthworms were exposed to the sub-lethal concentrations of temephos using the contact filter paper test procedure. Since temephos is an organophosphate pesticide, its effects on earthworms were determined by measuring ChE inhibition--a known biomarker of exposure. The ChE activity was measured after a short time of exposure--1 and 2 h. As expected, the lowest ChE activity (72.70% and 38.03% inhibition) was measured at the highest concentration of temephos (120 ng cm(-2)) applied. More interestingly, at the 0.12 ng cm(-2) concentration the ChE activity increased up to 36.28% of activity in the control in all three conducted experiments. Dose-response curves showed an inverted U-shape characteristic for hormesis. This hormetic-like effect could be important for health status of an earthworm. PMID:18206236

Hackenberger, Branimir K; Jari?-Perkusi?, Davorka; Stepi?, Sandra

2008-02-21

167

Methods using earthworms for the evaluation of potentially toxic materials in soils  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using earthworms to indicate effects of potentially toxic wastes when such wastes are intentionally or accidentally added to soils. Initial work with metals has shown that earthworms exhibit specific growth and reproductive responses. These responses are related to the concentration and solubility of the metal. Of the metals tested, cadmium was found to be the most toxic, followed by nickel, copper, zinc, and lead. The metal concentration in earthworm tissue and the background manure-metal mixture was measured, permitting the concentration factor to be computed. The concentration factor is the ratio of the metal in the worm tissue to that in the surrounding manure-metal mixture. These and other studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that the methods described in this paper may be used to predict the effect of land-applied or atmospherically deposited residues on the soil biota.

Neuhauser, E.F.; Loehr, R.C.; Malecki, M.R.

1982-01-01

168

Distribution and impacts of invasive earthworms in Canadian forest ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Canada it is generally accepted that most indigenous earthworms did not survive glaciation, and that the majority of the\\u000a earthworms now inhabiting Canadian soils are relatively recent introductions of European origin. Although these exotic earthworms\\u000a are generally considered to be beneficial in agricultural soils, their effects can be less benign in forested ecosystems.\\u000a Studies have shown that invading earthworms

J. A. Addison

2009-01-01

169

Distribution and impacts of invasive earthworms in Canadian forest ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Canada it is generally accepted that most indigenous earthworms did not survive glaciation, and that the majority of the\\u000a earthworms now inhabiting Canadian soils are relatively recent introductions of European origin. Although these exotic earthworms\\u000a are generally considered to be beneficial in agricultural soils, their effects can be less benign in forested ecosystems.\\u000a Studies have shown that invading earthworms

J. A. Addison

170

Species-Specific Effects of Epigeic Earthworms on Microbial Community Structure during First Stages of Decomposition of Organic Matter  

PubMed Central

Background Epigeic earthworms are key organisms in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with microorganisms. The earthworm species and the quality and/or substrate availability are expected to be major factors influencing the outcome of these interactions. Here we tested whether and to what extent the epigeic earthworms Eisenia andrei, Eisenia fetida and Perionyx excavatus, widely used in vermicomposting, are capable of altering the microbiological properties of fresh organic matter in the short-term. We also questioned if the earthworm-induced modifications to the microbial communities are dependent on the type of substrate ingested. Methodology/Principal Findings To address these questions we determined the microbial community structure (phospholipid fatty acid profiles) and microbial activity (basal respiration and microbial growth rates) of three types of animal manure (cow, horse and rabbit) that differed in microbial composition, after being processed by each species of earthworm for one month. No differences were found between earthworm-worked samples with regards to microbial community structure, irrespective of type of manure, which suggests the existence of a bottleneck effect of worm digestion on microbial populations of the original material consumed. Moreover, in mesocosms containing cow manure the presence of E. andrei resulted not only in a decrease in bacterial and fungal biomass, but also in a reduced bacterial growth rate and total microbial activity, while no such reduction was found with E. fetida and P. excavatus. Conclusions/Significance Our results point to the species of earthworm with its associated gut microbiota as a strong determinant of the process shaping the structure of microbial communities in the short-term. This must nonetheless be weighed against the fact that further knowledge is necessary to evaluate whether the changes in the composition of microbiota in response to the earthworm species is accompanied by a change in the microbial community diversity and/or function.

Gomez-Brandon, Maria; Lores, Marta; Dominguez, Jorge

2012-01-01

171

Exotic Earthworm Invasion and Microbial Biomass in Temperate Forest Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasion of north temperate forest soils by exotic earthworms has the potential to alter microbial biomass and activity over large areas of North America. We measured the distribution and activity of microbial biomass in forest stands invaded by earthworms and in adjacent stands lacking earthworms in sugar maple-dominated forests in two locations in New York State, USA: one with a

Peter M. Groffman; Patrick J. Bohlen; Melany C. Fisk; Timothy J. Fahey

2004-01-01

172

VARYING HYDROLOGY OF AGRO-ECOSYSTEMS DUE TO EARTHWORM COMMUNITIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Earthworms are probably the most significant soil invertebrates influencing soil characteristics and the other soil biota. The experiment was to see if earthworms contributed to significant differences in infiltration due to varying abundances of earthworms. The study site at the USDA Farming Syst...

173

Earthworms, Dirt, and Rotten Leaves: An Exploration in Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article provides a model for inviting children to "an exploration in ecology" by observing earthworms. It gives reasons to explore earthworms and guides the investigator through a detailed examination of the worms to answer 21 observation questions. Explores the ways in which earthworms interact with their environment. (LZ)|

McLaughlin, Molly

1994-01-01

174

Bioaccumulation of Total and Monomethylmercury in Earthworms and the Ecological Risk to Birds and Mammals at the Northeast Test Hut, Graces Quarters, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mercury-contaminated soils were found at the Northeast Test Hut, Graces Quarters, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, which contain concentrations of total mercury (T-Hg) that ranged from approx. 0.1 up to approx. 15 mg/kg dry weight. The current study was...

D. J. Fisher D. T. Burton S. D. Turley

2000-01-01

175

Growth, reproduction and activity of earthworms in degraded and amended tropical open mined soils: laboratory assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of four earthworm species to establish viable populations on soils degraded by the cement industry was tested in laboratory assays. We evaluated growth, reproduction, vertical distribution, and activity of endogeics Pontoscolex corethrurus and Octolasion cyaneum, and epigeics Amynthas corticis and A. gracilis, raised on artificial two layer soil profiles. Bottom layer consisted of mineral subsoil (MS) taken from

José Antonio Garc??a; Carlos Fragoso

2002-01-01

176

Assessing the Impact of Triazine Herbicides on Organophosphate Insecticide Toxicity to the Earthworm Eisenia fetida  

Microsoft Academic Search

A standard Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) filter paper test was used to assess the acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos, atrazine, cyanazine, and simazine to the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos was also determined in combination with the three-triazine herbicides. Surprisingly, atrazine and cyanazine caused mortality at concentrations lower than chlorpyrifos. Atrazine and cyanazine also increased the

M. J. Lydy; S. L. Linck

2003-01-01

177

The role of earthworms ( Eisenia fetida ) in influencing bioavailability of heavy metals in soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of earthworm ( Eisenia fetida) activity on soil pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), microbial populations, fraction distribution and bioavailability of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd, Co, Ni, and Pb) in five Chinese soils were investigated using pot experiments. A three-step extraction procedure recommended by the European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR; now Standards, Measurements and Testing Programme

Bei Wen; Xiao-yu Hu; Ying Liu; Wei-sheng Wang; Mu-hua Feng; Xiao-quan Shan

2004-01-01

178

EVALUATING ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS OF LAND APPLYING COMPOSTED DIAZINON USING EARTHWORM BIOASSAYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental hazards resulting from land application of composted pesticide residue have not been rigorously evaluated. This study was conducted to examine the toxicity of a composted pesticide residue using earthworms (Eisenia foetida Savigny) as a microinvertebrate model in a soil bioassay system. Diazinon, which was used in these experiments as a test pesticide, was removed from simulated rinsate (wastewater) by

Jarrod E. Leland; Donald E. Mullins; Duane F. Berry

2001-01-01

179

Earthworm excreta attract soil springtails: laboratory experiments on Heteromurus nitidus (Collembola : Entomobryidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microarthropods are often found more abundantly in soils with earthworms than in soils without. Earthworms probably create a favourable environment for microarthropods but few studies have aimed to explain this earthworm effect. The soil collembolan (Hexapoda) Heteromurus nitidus, living in soils at pH  5 only and thus rich in earthworms, is particularly attracted by earthworms in humus cores. The effect

Sandrine Salmon; Jean-François Ponge

2001-01-01

180

Minimally perturbing a gene regulatory network to avoid a disease phenotype: the glioma network as a test case  

PubMed Central

Background Mathematical modeling of biological networks is an essential part of Systems Biology. Developing and using such models in order to understand gene regulatory networks is a major challenge. Results We present an algorithm that determines the smallest perturbations required for manipulating the dynamics of a network formulated as a Petri net, in order to cause or avoid a specified phenotype. By modifying McMillan's unfolding algorithm, we handle partial knowledge and reduce computation cost. The methodology is demonstrated on a glioma network. Out of the single gene perturbations, activation of glutathione S-transferase P (GSTP1) gene was by far the most effective in blocking the cancer phenotype. Among pairs of perturbations, NFkB and TGF-? had the largest joint effect, in accordance with their role in the EMT process. Conclusion Our method allows perturbation analysis of regulatory networks and can overcome incomplete information. It can help in identifying drug targets and in prioritizing perturbation experiments.

2010-01-01

181

Biodiversity of earthworm resources of arid environment.  

PubMed

Biodiversity of earthworms was studied in arid zone of Jodhpur district of Rajasthan. A total nine species of earthworms were recorded from different pedoecosystems of desert environment. These species were Pontoscolex corethrurus, Amynthas morrisi, Metaphire posthuma, Lampito mauritii, Perionyx sansibaricus, Ocnerodrilus occidentalis, Dichogaster bolaui, Octochaetona paliensis and Ramiella bishambari. They belonged to the families Glossoscolicidae, Megascolicidae, Ocnerodrilidae and Octochaetidae. The species P. sansibaricus, O. paliensis and P. corethrurus were reported for the first time from Rajasthan. The earthworm fauna of Jodhpur district were either exotic peregrine or native peregrine. Exotic species like A. morrisi and M. posthuma, and native peregrine species like L. mauritii were widely distributed in arid region. They appear to be better adapted to withstand drought conditions, as they have enteronephric meronephridia and excrete their urine into the guts for conservation of water in their bodies. PMID:16114463

Tripathi, G; Bhardwaj, P

2005-01-01

182

Autofluorescence in eleocytes of some earthworm species.  

PubMed

Immunocompetent cells of earthworms, coelomocytes, comprise adherent amoebocytes and granular eleocytes (chloragocytes). Both cell populations can be expelled via dorsal pores of adult earthworms by exposure to an electric current (4.5 V) for 1 min. Analysis by phase contrast/fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry demonstrated that eleocyte population of several species exhibits a strong autofluorescence. A high percentage (11-35%) of autofluorescent eleocytes was recorded in Allolobophora chlorotica, Dendrodrilus rubidus, Eisenia fetida, and Octolasion sp. (O. cyaneum, O. tyrtaeum tyrtaeum and O. tyrtaeum lacteum). In contrast, autofluorescent coelomocytes were exceptionally scarce (less than 1%) in representative Aporrectodea sp. (A. caliginosa and A. longa) and Lumbricus sp. (L. castaneus, L. festivus, L. rubellus, L. terrestris). Thus, this paper for the first time describes profound intrinsic fluorescence of eleocytes in some--but not all--earthworm species. The function (if any) and inter-species differences of the autofluorescent coelomocytes still remain elusive. PMID:16584095

Cholewa, Justyna; Feeney, Graham P; O'Reilly, Michael; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R; Morgan, A John; P?ytycz, Barbara

2006-01-01

183

Revising lysenin expression of earthworm coelomocytes.  

PubMed

Lysenin is a species-specific bioactive molecule of Eisenia andrei earthworms. This protein is a potent antimicrobial factor; however its cellular expression and induction against pathogens are still not fully understood. We developed a novel monoclonal antibody against lysenin and applied this molecular tool to characterize its production and antimicrobial function. We demonstrated by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry that one subgroup of earthworm immune cells (so called coelomocytes), the chloragocytes expressed the highest amount of lysenin. Then, we compared lysenin expression with earlier established coelomocyte (EFCC) markers. In addition, we determined by immunohistology of earthworm tissues that lysenin production is only restricted to free-floating chloragocytes. Moreover, we observed that upon in vitro Staphylococcus aureus but not Escherichia coli challenged coelomocytes over-expressed and then secreted lysenin. These results indicate that among subpopulations of coelomocytes, lysenin is mainly produced by chloragocytes and its expression can be modulated by Gram-positive bacterial exposure. PMID:23201038

Opper, Balázs; Bognár, András; Heidt, Diána; Németh, Péter; Engelmann, Péter

2012-11-28

184

Comparative toxicity in earthworms Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris exposed to cadmium nitrate using artificial soil and filter paper protocols  

SciTech Connect

Earthworms are ideal soil organisms for use in terrestrial ecotoxicology. As such, several earthworm protocols have been developed for testing toxic potential of chemicals and contaminated soils. Of these, the 48-h filter paper contact (FP) and the 14-d artificial soil exposure (AS) protocols, using mortality (LC50) as the toxic endpoint and Eisenia fetida as the test species, have received the most attention, with the latter being adopted by both OECD and EEC in Europe and the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in the United States. Although the FP technique, adopted by EEC, provides for inexpensive reproducible toxicity screening for chemicals (i.e. establishing relative toxicities), it has been criticized for lacking the ecotoxicological relevance of the AS protocol. Choice of earthworm species for laboratory testing also has been controversial. The manure worm, E. fetida, is criticized for not being sufficiently sensitive to chemicals or representative of {open_quotes}typical{close_quotes} earthworms. Lumbricus terrestris and Apporectodea caliginosa have been suggested as more sensitive and ecologically relevant earthworms by Dean-Ross and Martin, respectively. This paper compares the AS and FP protocols in assessing toxicity of cadminum to L. terrestris and E. fetida using LC50s and LC50s. 19 refs., 2 tabs.

Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Goven, A.J. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Muratti-Ortiz, J.F. [City of Denton Water/Wastewater Laboratory, TX (United States); Venables, B.J. [TRAC Laboratories Inc., Denton, TX (United States)

1996-07-01

185

Native and Introduced Earthworms from Selected Chaparral, Woodland, and Riparian Zones in Southern California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Relatively little is known about the earthworm fauna of southern California. Some 20 different species of earthworms were collected and identified in a survey of various southern California wildland habitats. The ecology and biology of earthworms are outl...

H. B. Wood S. W. James

1993-01-01

186

The wave towards a new steady state: effects of earthworm invasion on soil microbial functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms are ecosystem engineers that cause a long cascade of ecological effects when they invade previously earthworm-free\\u000a forests. However, the consequences of earthworm invasion for soil microbial functions are poorly understood. Here, we used\\u000a two well-studied invasion fronts of European earthworms in northern North American hardwood forests previously devoid of earthworms\\u000a in order to investigate three stages of earthworm invasion:

Nico Eisenhauer; Ji?í Schlaghamerský; Peter B. Reich; Lee E. Frelich

187

CO 2 evolution and enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, protease and amylase) of fly ash amended soil in the presence and absence of earthworms ( Drawida willsi Michaelsen) under laboratory conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CO2 evolution and dehydrogenase, protease and amylase activities of fly ash amended soil (Orissa, India) in the presence and absence of earthworms were investigated under laboratory conditions for 2 months at 50% water-holding capacity (WHC) and 25±2 °C temperature. A toxicity test of different age groups (juvenile, immature and adult) of Drawida willsi earthworms, dominant (>80% both in number

Sharada S. Pati; Sanjat K. Sahu

2004-01-01

188

Dissociation of the effects of ethanol on memory, anxiety, and motor behavior in mice tested in the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Several studies have shown the amnestic effects of ethanol (ETOH). However, while memory tasks in rodents can be markedly\\u000a influenced by anxiety-like behavior and motor function, ETOH induces anxiolysis and different effects on locomotion, depending\\u000a on the dose.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  Verify the effects of ETOH in mice tested in the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task (PMDAT) concomitantly evaluating\\u000a memory, anxiety-like behavior, and motor

S. R. Kameda; R. Frussa-Filho; R. C. Carvalho; A. L. Takatsu-Coleman; V. P. Ricardo; C. L. Patti; M. B. Calzavara; G. B. Lopez; N. P. Araujo; V. C. Abílio; R. de A. Ribeiro; V. D’Almeida; R. H. Silva

2007-01-01

189

The influence of earthworms on the mobility of microelements in soil and their availability for plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of earthworms ( Aporrectodea caliginosa, Lumbricus rubellus, L. terrestris, and Eisenia fetida) on the mobility of microelements and their availability for plants was studied. The contents of water-soluble Fe and Mn compounds extracted from the coprolites were 5-10 times higher than that in the soil (enriched in calcium carbonate and dried) consumed by the earthworms. This digestion-induced effect became higher with the age of the coprolites (up to 9 days) and took place under their alkalization. In the excreta (surface + enteric) of earthworms, the Fe concentration exceeded those of Mn and Zn by many times. Iron and manganese were mostly concentrated (>80% and >60%, respectively) in the organic part of the excrements. In the tests with hydroponics, the excreta were found to be a source of iron compounds available for plants that were similar to Fe2(SO4)3 or Fe-citrate by their physiological effect in the case when the Fe concentration in the excretions was above 0.7 ?M. However, the single application of excreta of different earthworm species into the CaCO3 enriched soil did not significantly affect the plant (cucumber) nutrition. The analysis of the transport of microelements with xylem sap showed that this fact appeared to be due to the absence of an Fe deficit in the cucumber plants because of their high capability for the absorption of weakly soluble iron compounds.

Bityutskii, N. P.; Kaidun, P. I.

2008-12-01

190

Easy Extraction of Roundworms from Earthworm Hosts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the inexpensive and safe method of using roundworms in the classroom or laboratories. Because parasitic infections are so common, students should learn about worms. Provides statistics on just how many people have a worm infection in the world. Explains how to study living nematodes, and obtain and use earthworms. (Contains 13…

Eyster, Linda S.; Fried, Bernard

2000-01-01

191

Central ghrelin increases anxiety in the Open Field test and impairs retention memory in a passive avoidance task in neonatal chicks.  

PubMed

Ghrelin (Grh) is an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Although Ghr stimulates feeding in rats, it inhibits feeding in neonatal chicks. However, little is known about other central behavioral effects of Ghr. Therefore, we investigated the Ghr effects, injected intracerebroventricularly, on anxiety and memory retention of neonatal chicks in an Open Field test and in a one-trial passive avoidance task, respectively. In the Open Field test, the administration of Ghr in a dose-dependent manner increased the latency to ambulate but decreased ambulation activity, indicating an anxiogenic effect. Furthermore, chicks trained on a passive avoidance task and injected with a dose of 30pmol of Ghr immediately after training showed an impairment of memory retention. However, there were no significant effects on the number of pecks during the pretraining, training, retention and discrimination. In addition, different doses of Ghr produced an inhibition in food intake at different times after injection. Our results indicate that Ghr induces anxiogenesis in chicks. Moreover, we have shown for the first time that Ghr can decrease memory retention in a non-mammalian species, suggesting that Ghr may play an important role in the processes of memory retention in birds. PMID:19146965

Carvajal, Pedro; Carlini, Valeria P; Schiöth, Helgi B; de Barioglio, Susana R; Salvatierra, Nancy A

2009-01-31

192

The Relative Effectiveness of Salmon Eggs and Earthworms as Bait for Trout in the Sturgeon River, Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative effectiveness of salmon eggs and large earthworms as bait for trout, and the efficiency of chumming with either lure, were tested by experimental fishing in the Sturgeon River (Cheboygan County), Michigan, on 35 different days during 1957 and 1958. Four anglers fished in pairs in any series of test days, using standardized terminal tackle under a systematic pattern

David S. Shetter

1960-01-01

193

Corporate Tax Avoidance and Firm Value  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do corporate tax avoidance activities advance shareholder interests? This paper tests alternative theories of corporate tax avoidance using unexplained differences between income reported to capital markets and to tax authorities. OLS estimates indicate that the effect of tax avoidance on firm value is a function of firm governance, as predicted by an agency perspective on corporate tax avoidance. Instrumental variables

Mihir A Desai; Dhammika Dharmapala

2009-01-01

194

Sperm count in earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) as a biomarker for environmental toxicology: effects of cadmium and chlordane.  

PubMed

Earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris, exposed in artificial soil to sublethal concentrations of technical chlordane (6.25, 12.5, and 25 ppm) and cadmium nitrate (100, 200, and 300 ppm) exhibited significant reduction in spermatozoa from testes and seminal vesicles. The onset time of reduction varied with exposure concentration, but absolute depression in sperm count was independent of exposure concentration or exposure duration after reduction was first manifested, demonstrating a threshold effect. Earthworm sperm counts show potential as a rapid-measurement endpoint biomarker for measuring sublethal effects of chemical pollutants on reproduction. PMID:15091820

Cikutovic, M A; Fitzpatrick, L C; Venables, B J; Goven, A J

1993-01-01

195

Reconfirmation of antimicrobial activity in the coelomic fluid of the earthworm Eisenia fetida andrei by colorimetric assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel tetrazolium salt, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulphophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS)\\u000a was used in the assessment of antimicrobial activity in earthworm in the presence of phenazine methosulphate (PMS) as an electron\\u000a coupling reagent. This activity was purified from the coelomic fluid of the earthworm (ECF),Eisenia fetida andrei (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae, annelids) using a series of column chromatography techniques and was tested against three Gram-negative\\u000a strains ofEscherichia

Weidong Pan; Xianghui Liu; Feng Ge; Tao Zheng

2003-01-01

196

Assessing the impact of organic and inorganic amendments on the toxicity and bioavailability of a metal-contaminated soil to the earthworm Eisenia andrei.  

PubMed

Metal-contaminated soil, from the El Arteal mining district (SE Spain), was remediated with organic (6 % compost) and inorganic amendments (8 % marble sludge) to reduce the mobility of metals and to modify its potential environmental impact. Different measures of metal bioavailability (chemical analysis; survival, growth, reproduction and bioaccumulation in the earthworm Eisenia andrei), were tested in order to evaluate the efficacy of organic and inorganic amendments as immobilizing agents in reducing metal (bio)availability in the contaminated soil. The inorganic amendment reduced water and CaCl2-extractable concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn, while the organic amendment increased these concentrations compared to the untreated soil. The inorganic treatment did not significantly reduce toxicity for the earthworm E. andrei after 28 days exposure. The organic amendment however, made the metal-contaminated soil more toxic to the earthworms, with all earthworms dying in undiluted soil and completely inhibiting reproduction at concentrations higher than 25 %. This may be due to increased available metal concentrations and higher electrical conductivity in the compost-amended soil. No effects of organic and inorganic treatments on metal bioaccumulation in the earthworms were found and metal concentrations in the earthworms increased with increasing total soil concentrations. PMID:23677751

González, Verónica; Díez-Ortiz, María; Simón, Mariano; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

2013-05-16

197

The earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa stimulates abundance and activity of phenoxyalkanoic acid herbicide degraders  

Microsoft Academic Search

2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) is a widely used phenoxyalkanoic acid (PAA) herbicide. Earthworms represent the dominant macrofauna and enhance microbial activities in many soils. Thus, the effect of the model earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) on microbial MCPA degradation was assessed in soil columns with agricultural soil. MCPA degradation was quicker in soil with earthworms than without earthworms. Quantitative PCR was

Ya-Jun Liu; Adrienne Zaprasis; Shuang-Jiang Liu; Harold L Drake; Marcus A Horn

2011-01-01

198

The hormone-like effect of earthworm casts on plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fertilizing effect of earthworm casts depends on microbial metabolites, mainly growth regulators. The hormone-like effect of earthworm casts is discussed with reference to the literature and ad hoc experiments. When used in plant propagation, earthworm casts promote root initiation and root biomass and increase root percentage. When applied as a casing layer, earthworm casts stimulate carpophore formation in Agaricus

U. Tomati; A. Grappelli; E. Galli

1988-01-01

199

Cadmium Disposition in the Earthworm Eisenia fetida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disposition of cadmium was examined in the earthworm Eisenia fetida using two exposure media, filter paper, and artificial soil. Uptake and elimination rates were estimated to be 0.03039 and 0.00895 hr?1, respectively, for 1.25 ?g Cd\\/cm2 filter paper exposure and 0.00512 and 0.00029 hr?1, respectively, for 10 ?g Cd\\/g artificial soil exposure. The distribution of cadmium was examined using

M. E. Honeycutt; B. L. Roberts; D. S. Roane

1995-01-01

200

Avoidant Personality Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Home > Health & Education Avoidant Personality Disorder Avoidant personality disorder is characterized by extreme social inhibition (shyness), feelings of inadequacy, and acute sensitivity to actual or perceived ...

201

A method for assessing sublethal effects of contaminants in soils to the earthworm, Eisenia foetida  

SciTech Connect

The authors developed and tested a procedure that allows quantification of the effects of soil contaminants on earthworm (Eisenia foetida) growth and reproduction. The procedure monitors isolated pairs of earthworms and generates a higher ratio of data per organisms than other commonly used procedures. It also incorporates an accurate technique for measuring adult growth, has high sensitivity compared to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 14-d acute toxicity test, and is cost effective. The authors applied the method to a variety of soil-testing problems. A food-and-substrate trial using artificial soil demonstrated the sensitivity of the method and the need for food supplementation to stimulate earthworm reproduction. Application of the procedure to assess efficacy of a soil bioremediation technology revealed the advantage of measuring both growth and reproduction and highlighted the usefulness of a single integrated measure of these two responses. The method also was used as a fast-screening analysis for field soils in a large-scale ecological risk assessment. Finally, a reference toxicant, used in dilution series, demonstrated that responses of E. foetida using the authors` method were similar to their responses in the OECD artificial-soil test method. The results of this study indicate that this procedure can be used both for regulatory and compliance needs within the framework of ecological risk assessment.

Gibbs, M.H. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology; Wicker, L.F.; Stewart, A.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

1996-03-01

202

Biochemical diversity of betaines in earthworms.  

PubMed

The ability to accumulate osmoprotectant compounds, such as betaines, is an important evolutionary feature in many organisms. This is particularly the case for organisms that live in variable environments, which may have fluctuations in moisture and salinity levels. There is, surprisingly, very little known about betaines in soil invertebrates in general, and there is almost no information about earthworms - a group that are important 'ecosystem engineers' and key indicators of soil health. Here, we describe a fast and reliable (1)H-(13)C heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) 2D NMR approach for the metabolic profiling of a series of betaines and related metabolites in tissue extracts, and list (1)H and (13)C chemical shifts for the trimethylammonium signal for 23 such compounds. The analysis of ten different species from three different families (Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae and Glossoscolecidae) showed an unexpected diversity of betaines present in earthworms. In total ten betaines were identified, including hydroxyproline-betaine, proline-betaine, taurine-betaine, GABA-betaine and histidine-betaine, and a further eleven as-yet unassigned putative betaine metabolites detected. The findings clearly indicate a hitherto-unappreciated important role for betaine metabolism in earthworms. PMID:23261439

Liebeke, Manuel; Bundy, Jacob G

2012-12-19

203

Toxicity of coelomic fluid of the earthworm Eisenia foetida to vertebrates but not invertebrates: probable role of sphingomyelin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coelomic fluid (CF) of the earthworm Eisenia foetida exhibits a wide variety of biological activities. We found that the CF was not toxic to 42 species, belonging to seven invertebrate phyla, almost all in aquatic adults and larvae exposed to CF. Eleven teleostean species tested died in 0.2–1% CF mostly between 10 and 120 min and the effects were

Hideshi Kobayashi; Michiko Ohtomi; Yoshiyuki Sekizawa; Naoshi Ohta

2001-01-01

204

Effects of metal pollution on earthworm communities in a contaminated floodplain area: Linking biomarker, community and functional responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects on earthworms in the contaminated floodplain area the Biesbosch, the Netherlands, were determined at different levels of organization using a combination of field and laboratory tests. The species Lumbricus rubellus, collected from different polluted sites in the Biesbosch, showed reduced values for the biomarker neutral red retention time (NRRT), mainly explained by high metal concentrations in the soil and

Cornelis A. M. van Gestel; Josée E. Koolhaas; Timo Hamers; Maarten van Hoppe; Martijn van Roovert; Cora Korsman; Sophie A. Reinecke

2009-01-01

205

Production of free amino acids by some earthworm-borne microorganisms.  

PubMed

Production of free amino acids by some earthworm-borne microorganisms was investigated in three different synthetic media. Among the fungi tried Gliocladium roseum and Heterocephallum aurantiacum; among bacteria screened Bacillus macerans and B. mycoides; and among actinomycetes tested Streptomyces rimosus, S. violans, S. antibiticus, S. corchorusii and S. atroolivaceus produced significant amount of free amino acids. No correlations could be observed between vegetative growth and free amino acid production. PMID:8972137

Joy, E K; Reddy, S M

206

RELATIVE SENSITIVITY OF LIFE-CYCLE AND BIOMARKER RESPONSES IN FOUR EARTHWORM SPECIES EXPOSED TO ZINC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life-cycle (survival, weight change, and cocoon production rate) and biomarker (neutral-red retention by coelomocytes lysosomes) responses to zinc in four earthworm species were measured in laboratory tests. In all species, dose-dependent effects on survival, cocoon production, and neutral-red retention times were found (one-way ANOVA p , 0.05). However, for weight change, only Aporrectodea caliginosa showed a clear response. Comparisons of

David J. Spurgeon; Claus Svendsen; Viv R. Rimmer; Stephen P. Hopkin

2000-01-01

207

Trade-offs between nitrous oxide emission and C-sequestration in the soil: the role of earthworms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapidly rising concentrations of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere has spurred the interest in soils as a potential carbon (C) sink. However, there are many reports indicating that C- sequestration is often negated by elevated emissions of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). It is not yet clear what the driving factors behind this trade-off are, nor how it can be avoided. We suggest that earthworm activity may be partly responsible for the trade-off. Earthworm activity is increasingly recognized as being beneficial to C-sequestration through stabilization of SOM. We report experimental results suggesting that they can also lead to strongly elevated N2O-emissions. In a first experiment, dried grass residue (Lolium perenne) was applied at the top of a loamy soil or mixed through the soil, and N2O-emission was followed for three months. Treatments included presence of the epigeic earthworm Lumbricus rubellus and the anecic earthworm Aporrectodea longa. Cumulative N2O-emissions increased significantly for both species. The strongest effect was measured for L. rubellus, where N2O-emissions significantly increased from 55.7 to 789.1 micro g N2O-N kg- 1 soil. This effect was only observed when residue was applied on top of the soil. In a second experiment we determined the effect of epigeic (L. rubellus) and endogeic (Aporrectodea caliginosa) earthworms on N2O-emissions for two different soil types (loam and sand) in the presence of 15N-labeled radish residue (Raphanus sativus subsp. oleiferus). Both species showed significant increases in N2O-emissions, which differed with residue application method and soil type. N2O- emissions were generally larger in loamy soils and the strongest effect was measured for A. caliginosa when residue was mixed into the soil, increasing emissions from 1350.1 to 2223.2 micro g N2O-N kg- 1 soil. L. rubellus only resulted in elevated N2O-emissions when residue was applied on top. These studies make it clear that elevated N2O-emissions due to earthworm activity is a widespread phenomenon, and that the nature of earthworm-induced effect is largely controlled by its feeding habit and interactions with other species. Our results contribute to understanding the important but intricate relations between (functional) biodiversity and the soil greenhouse gas balance.

van Groenigen, J.; Lubbers, I. M.; Giannopoulos, G.

2008-12-01

208

Association of Earthworm-Denitrifier Interactions with Increased Emission of Nitrous Oxide from Soil Mesocosms Amended with Crop Residue? †  

PubMed Central

Earthworm activity is known to increase emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) from arable soils. Earthworm gut, casts, and burrows have exhibited higher denitrification activities than the bulk soil, implicating priming of denitrifying organisms as a possible mechanism for this effect. Furthermore, the earthworm feeding strategy may drive N2O emissions, as it determines access to fresh organic matter for denitrification. Here, we determined whether interactions between earthworm feeding strategy and the soil denitrifier community can predict N2O emissions from the soil. We set up a 90-day mesocosm experiment in which 15N-labeled maize (Zea mays L.) was either mixed in or applied on top of the soil in the presence or absence of the epigeic earthworm Lumbricus rubellus and/or the endogeic earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa. We measured N2O fluxes and tested the bulk soil for denitrification enzyme activity and the abundance of 16S rRNA and denitrifier genes nirS and nosZ through real-time quantitative PCR. Compared to the control, L. rubellus increased denitrification enzyme activity and N2O emissions on days 21 and 90 (day 21, P = 0.034 and P = 0.002, respectively; day 90, P = 0.001 and P = 0.007, respectively), as well as cumulative N2O emissions (76%; P = 0.014). A. caliginosa activity led to a transient increase of N2O emissions on days 8 to 18 of the experiment. Abundance of nosZ was significantly increased (100%) on day 90 in the treatment mixture containing L. rubellus alone. We conclude that L. rubellus increased cumulative N2O emissions by affecting denitrifier community activity via incorporation of fresh residue into the soil and supplying a steady, labile carbon source.

Nebert, Lucas D.; Bloem, Jaap; Lubbers, Ingrid M.; van Groenigen, Jan Willem

2011-01-01

209

Comparison of elemental contents in earthworm cast and soil from a mercury-contaminated site (Idrija area, Slovenia).  

PubMed

The aim of this paper was to test the new sampling media-earthworm casts in a highly contaminated area. The investigation was carried out at the ancient Hg ore roasting site Pšenk in the surroundings of Idrija, where extremely high Hg contents in soils and SOM were determined in previous investigations. 32 earthworm cast samples were collected in the research grid 30 × 30 m in order to compare the Hg contents and spatial distribution in earthworm casts to the values and distributions in SOM and soil (0-15 cm). Extremely elevated Hg concentrations were determined in earthworm casts from the studied area ranging from 5.4 to 4330 mg/kg with the median of 31 mg/kg. The Hg values in casts are somewhat lower than in soil (6.3-8600 mg/kg) and slightly higher compared to soil organic matter (SOM) (1.5-4200 mg/kg). Strong correlation (r²=0.75) between Hg contents in casts and soil was found, while correlation between casts and SOM was positive but weaker (r²=0.35). Spatial distribution of Hg in earthworm casts show the highest concentrations in the central part of investigated area, similar to the distribution in soil. Hg contents rapidly decrease from the center toward the margins of the studied area, where they reach values of less than 50mg/kg. It was shown that Hg contents and dispersion in casts are comparable to those in soil, which indicates that at investigated area soil contamination is strongly reflected in contamination of earthworm casts. PMID:22613464

Terši?, Tamara; Gosar, Mateja

2012-05-19

210

Association of earthworm-denitrifier interactions with increased emission of nitrous oxide from soil mesocosms amended with crop residue.  

PubMed

Earthworm activity is known to increase emissions of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) from arable soils. Earthworm gut, casts, and burrows have exhibited higher denitrification activities than the bulk soil, implicating priming of denitrifying organisms as a possible mechanism for this effect. Furthermore, the earthworm feeding strategy may drive N(2)O emissions, as it determines access to fresh organic matter for denitrification. Here, we determined whether interactions between earthworm feeding strategy and the soil denitrifier community can predict N(2)O emissions from the soil. We set up a 90-day mesocosm experiment in which (15)N-labeled maize (Zea mays L.) was either mixed in or applied on top of the soil in the presence or absence of the epigeic earthworm Lumbricus rubellus and/or the endogeic earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa. We measured N(2)O fluxes and tested the bulk soil for denitrification enzyme activity and the abundance of 16S rRNA and denitrifier genes nirS and nosZ through real-time quantitative PCR. Compared to the control, L. rubellus increased denitrification enzyme activity and N(2)O emissions on days 21 and 90 (day 21, P = 0.034 and P = 0.002, respectively; day 90, P = 0.001 and P = 0.007, respectively), as well as cumulative N(2)O emissions (76%; P = 0.014). A. caliginosa activity led to a transient increase of N(2)O emissions on days 8 to 18 of the experiment. Abundance of nosZ was significantly increased (100%) on day 90 in the treatment mixture containing L. rubellus alone. We conclude that L. rubellus increased cumulative N(2)O emissions by affecting denitrifier community activity via incorporation of fresh residue into the soil and supplying a steady, labile carbon source. PMID:21515716

Nebert, Lucas D; Bloem, Jaap; Lubbers, Ingrid M; van Groenigen, Jan Willem

2011-04-22

211

Ecosystem Consequences of Exotic Earthworm Invasion of North Temperate Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invasion of north temperate forests by exotic species of earthworms is an important issue that has been overlooked in the study and management of these forests. We initiated research to address the hypothesis that earthworm invasion will have large consequences for nutrient retention and uptake in these ecosystems. In this special feature of Ecosystems, we present five papers describing

Patrick J. Bohlen; Peter M. Groffman; Timothy J. Fahey; Melany C. Fisk; Esteban Suarez; Derek M. Pelletier; Robert T. Fahey

2004-01-01

212

Selective recruitment of bacteria during embryogenesis of an earthworm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms of the family Lumbricidae harbor specific and stable populations of Acidovorax-like bacteria within their excretory organs, the nephridia. The symbionts of Eisenia foetida are deposited into the egg capsules during mating and the nephridia of the juveniles are colonized before they hatch. The timing and mechanisms governing bacterial recruitment and colonization are unknown for the earthworm-Acidovorax association. This study

Seana K Davidson; David A Stahl

2008-01-01

213

Cadmium, nickel, lead, and zinc in earthworms from roadside soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn in soils and earthworms along two Maryland highways decreased with increasing distance (10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 ft) from the roadway. Metals were quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Metal residues were higher at the location along each highway where traffic volume was greater. Correlations between residues in earthworms and soil decreased with decreasing atomic

Charles D. Gish; Robert E. Christensen

1973-01-01

214

Earthworms lost from pesticides application in potato crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioturbation from earthworm's activity contributes to soil creep and soil carbon dynamics, and provide enough aeration conditions for agricultural practices all over the world. In developing countries where there is a long term misuse of pesticides for agricultural purposes, lost of these benefits from earthworms activity might already yielded negative effects in the current crop production. Little research has been

Glenda Garcia-Santos; Karin Forrer; Claudia R. Binder

2010-01-01

215

Earthworm populations under different tillage systems in organic farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand how earthworms could improve soil porosity in no-tillage organic farming systems, the aim of our study was to compare the effect of different tillage systems on earthworm populations, from conventional (traditional mouldboard ploughing, MP and shallow mouldboard ploughing, SMP) to conservation tillage (reduced tillage, RT, direct drilling or very superficial tillage, NT) in three organic arable systems in

J. Peigné; M. Cannavaciuolo; Y. Gautronneau; A. Aveline; J. L. Giteau; D. Cluzeau

2009-01-01

216

Invasive earthworm species and nitrogen cycling in remnant forest patches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive non-native earthworms in forested areas of the northeastern United States are of concern since they have the potential to greatly change the nutrient dynamics of these ecosystems. Urban landscapes are particularly susceptible to non-native species invasions. In this study, we assessed earthworm communities and nitrogen transformations rates in urban and rural forest patches of the Greater Baltimore Metropolitan area,

Katalin Szlavecz; Sarah A. Placella; Richard V. Pouyat; Peter M. Groffman; Csaba Csuzdi; Ian Yesilonis

2006-01-01

217

Effects of European Earthworm Invasion on Soil Characteristics in Northern Hardwood Forests of Minnesota, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

European earthworms are colonizing worm-free hardwood forests across North America. Leading edges of earthworm invasion in\\u000a forests of northern Minnesota provide a rare opportunity to document changes in soil characteristics as earthworm invasions\\u000a are occurring. Across leading edges of earthworm invasion in four northern hardwood stands, increasing total earthworm biomass\\u000a was associated with rapid disappearance of the O horizon. Concurrently,

Cindy M. Hale; Lee E. Frelich; Peter B. Reich; John Pastor

2005-01-01

218

How to reduce false positive results when undertaking in vitro genotoxicity testing and thus avoid unnecessary follow-up animal tests: Report of an ECVAM Workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Workshop participants agreed that genotoxicity tests in mammalian cells in vitro produce a remarkably high and unacceptable occurrence of irrelevant positive results (e.g. when compared with rodent carcinogenicity). As reported in several recent reviews, the rate of irrelevant positives (i.e. low specificity) for some studies using in vitro methods (when compared to this “gold standard”) means that an increased number

David Kirkland; Stefan Pfuhler; David Tweats; Marilyn Aardema; Raffaella Corvi; Firouz Darroudi; Azeddine Elhajouji; Hansruedi Glatt; Paul Hastwell; Makoto Hayashi; Peter Kasper; Stephan Kirchner; Anthony Lynch; Daniel Marzin; Daniela Maurici; Jean-Roc Meunier; Lutz Müller; Gerhard Nohynek; James Parry; Elizabeth Parry; Veronique Thybaud; Ray Tice; Jan van Benthem; Philippe Vanparys; Paul White

2007-01-01

219

Biomarker response and biomass change of earthworms exposed to chlorpyrifos in microcosms.  

PubMed

Background levels of chlorpyrifos and earthworm abundance were determined in an orchard and adjacent areas on a farm in the Western Cape, South Africa before these areas were again sprayed with this organophosphate. The background concentrations ranged from 0.2 microg/kg dm in the spray drift area adjacent to the orchard to 10.18 microg/kg dm on the slope in the run off area. In the target area the chlorpyrifos concentrations varied from a mean of 15.25 +/- 10.0 microg/kg directly after spraying to a mean of 7.0 +/- 0.9 microg/kg 6 months later and in the nontarget area they varied from a mean of 55.0 +/- 35 microg/kg to 12.0 +/- 5 microg/kg after 6 months. Chlorpyrifos was therefore still present in the field soils, but at lower concentrations, up to 6 months after the last spraying event. Earthworm abundance and population densities were very low. Only Aporrectodea caliginosa was found and the densities were much lower in the orchards (22 per m(2)) than in the nontarget areas (98.3 per m(2)). Microcosm studies were undertaken to relate biomarker responses to chlorpyrifos with biomass changes. Microcosms were filled with soil from the same areas and earthworms of the species A. caliginosa were introduced. The microcosms were treated with a series of concentrations of chlorpyrifos in the laboratory under controlled conditions. These concentrations were chosen to fall within the background ranges found in the soils. The biomass of the worms was determined regularly for a period of 5 weeks and worms in a state of estivation were noted. Earthworms were removed from the microcosms for biomarker tests: for cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition assays every week and for a neutral red retention determination 2 weeks after the exposures started. The most prominent biomass loss was noted in earthworms exposed to the highest pesticide concentration of 8.0 microg/kg. Estivation was higher among earthworms exposed to higher exposure concentrations. Inhibition of ChE increased with higher exposure concentrations and with time but there was no clear dose-related response. A clear dose-related response with exposure concentration was established for the neutral red retention assay. A correlation between ChE inhibition and biomass change existed directly after the second application of chlorpyrifos. PMID:16324744

Reinecke, S A; Reinecke, A J

2005-12-01

220

The determination of earthworm species sensitivity differences to cadmium genotoxicity using the comet assay.  

PubMed

The concept of species sensitivity differences is important in ecotoxicology and environmental risk assessment, but testing usually focuses on lethality of toxicants. The effects on the suborganismal level are mostly ignored; therefore, the present study assessed a biomarker of genotoxicity (the alkaline comet assay) to compare species sensitivities. Five earthworm species (Amynthas diffringens, Aporrectodea caliginosa, Dendrodrilus rubidus, Eisenia fetida and Microchaetus benhami) were exposed for 48 h to sublethal concentrations of cadmium sulphate in reconstituted soil water and DNA integrity was evaluated with the parameter Tail DNA %. Significant amounts of DNA damage were detected in three (A. caliginosa, D. rubidus and E. fetida) species. E. fetida exhibited the highest level of DNA damage, although D. rubidus showed the highest increase (3-fold) in DNA damage from the control. All exposed earthworms accumulated Cd, although body loads did not correspond with DNA damage levels; most of the Cd was probably sequestrated and rendered harmless. PMID:17173970

Fourie, F; Reinecke, S A; Reinecke, A J

2006-12-14

221

DNA damage and biochemical toxicity of antibiotics in soil on the earthworm Eisenia fetida.  

PubMed

DNA damage and changes in enzyme activities were used as biomarkers to evaluate the genotoxicity and oxidative stress of tetracycline and chlortetracycline on the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The results showed that both antibiotics induced significant genotoxicity on earthworms in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.01) with chlortetracycline having a stronger effect than tetracycline in the short term. The tests on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes further indicated biochemical stresses induced by the antibiotics. An N-shaped activity pattern was noted with the enzyme activities being stimulated first, then inhibited, and stimulated again with increasing concentration. The induced activity of SOD or CAT could scavenge oxygen free radicals and protect the organisms against oxidative stress by alleviating the corresponding DNA damage. Compared to enzyme activities, DNA damage as a biomarker was more sensitive and is thus more suitable for detecting low concentration exposure and diagnosing the genotoxicity of contaminants in terrestrial environment. PMID:22647195

Dong, Luxi; Gao, Jie; Xie, Xiujie; Zhou, Qixing

2012-05-28

222

Unique phenotypes in the sperm of the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae for assessing radiation hazards.  

PubMed

The earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae is a segmented worm. It has two pairs of testes whose cells are highly proliferative. It was found that the earthworm, which is irradiated with X-ray, shows the following phenotypic changes in its sperm: fragmented acrosome in the head, break in the tail, and the appearance of zigzag sperm tail. Sperm morphology can be used as a tool to study radiation hazards in local areas. These three phenotypes were not observed in the sperm of worms exposed to different concentration of toxic chemicals such as sodium arsenate, lead acetate, and mercuric chloride. In contrast, exposure of worms to ethidium bromide caused fragmented acrosome in the head of their sperm cells. PMID:23093367

Yesudhason, Beryl Vedha; Jegathambigai, Jothipandi; Thangasamy, Pon Amutha; Lakshmanan, Durga Devi; Selvan Christyraj, Johnson Retnaraj Samuel; Sathya Balasingh Thangapandi, Emmanuel Joshua Jebasingh; Krishnan, Muthukalingan; Sivasubramaniam, Sudhakar

2012-10-16

223

[Effects of imidazolium chloride ionic liquids on the acute toxicity and weight of earthworm].  

PubMed

Standard contact filter paper test of OECD and artificial soil test were used to study the acute lethal effect of three imidazolium chloride ionic liquids, 1-butyl- 3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim] Cl), 1-hexyl- 3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Hmim] Cl), and 1-octyl- 3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Omim] Cl) on earthworm (Eisenia fetida), and the weight of the earthworms was measured after subtle exposure. The 24 h-LC50 values of [Bmim] Cl, [Hmim] Cl and [Omim] Cl using the contact filter paper method were 109.60, 50.38 and 7.94 microg x cm(-2), respectively. The 48 h-LC50 values were 98.52, 39.14 and 3.61 microg x cm(-2), respectively. Using the artificial soil method, the 7 d-LC50 values of [Bmim] Cl, [Hmim] Cl and [Omim] Cl were 447.78, 245.56 and 180.51 mg x kg(-1), respectively, and the 14 d-LC50 values were 288.42, 179.75, 150.35 mg x kg(-1), respectively. There were differences in poisoning symptoms of the three ionic liquids on earthworms. The growth of Eisenia fetida was inhibited and declined with increasing ionic liquid concentration. The toxicity of ionic liquids on Eisenia fetida increased with the length of carbon chain. PMID:23798118

Huang, Ruo-Nan; Fan, Jun-Jie; Tu, Hong-Zhi; Tang, Ling-Yan; Liu, Hui-Jun; Xu, Dong-Mei

2013-04-01

224

Toxic effects of PCDD/Fs mixtures on Eisenia andrei earthworms.  

PubMed

The earthworms Eisenia andrei were used to study the toxicity of PCDD/Fs mixtures to earthworms during 28 day of exposure. The experiments were performed on artificial soils contaminated with dioxins at levels of C1 (0.1 ng 2, 3, 7, 8-TCDD/g soil), C2 (1 ng 2, 3, 7, 8-TCDD/g soil) and C3 (1.5 ng 2, 3, 7, 8-TCDD/g soil). Effects of PCDD/Fs on survival, growth rate and immune responses; phagocytosis and NK-like cell activity, were determined. No mortality was observed at the lowest concentration (C1), while mortalities of 10 and 100% were noted at the highest concentrations tested C2 and C3, respectively. A significant reduction in growth rate was obtained at C2 and no effects at C1. Additionally, an inhibition of phagocytic activity and efficiency was observed at higher concentrations. In contrast, an enhancement of NK-like cell activity was shown at lower concentrations. Based on our results, we hypothesize that the PCDD/Fs mixtures tested at levels equal or higher to C2 (1 ng 2378-TCDD/g soil), lead to adverse effects on biotic potential and immune functions in E. andrei earthworms. PMID:22401954

Belmeskine, Hayet; Haddad, Sami; Vandelac, Louise; Sauvé, Sébastien; Fournier, Michel

2012-03-06

225

Screening of actinomycetes from earthworm castings for their antimicrobial activity and industrial enzymes  

PubMed Central

Actinomycetes from earthworm castings were isolated and screened for their antimicrobial activity and industrial enzymes. A total of 48 isolates were obtained from 12 samples of earthworm castings. Highest numbers of isolates were recovered from forest site (58.33 %) as compared to grassland (25%) and agricultural land (16.66%). The growth patterns, mycelial coloration of abundance actinomycetes were documented. The dominant genera Identified by cultural, morphological and physiological characteristics were Streptomyces (60.41%) followed by Streptosporangium (10.41%),Saccharopolyspora (6.25%) and Nocardia (6.25%). Besides these, other genera like Micromonospora, Actinomadura, Microbispora, Planobispora and Nocardiopsis were also recovered but in low frequency. Among the 48 isolates, 52.08% were found active against one or more test organisms. Out of 25 active isolates 16% showed activity against bacterial, human fungal as well as phytopathogens. Among 48 isolates 38, 32, 21, 20, 16 and 14 produced enzyme amylase, caseinase, cellulase, gelatinase, xylanase and lipase respectively while 10 isolates produced all the enzymes. More interestingly 2, 3, and 1 isolates produced amylase, xylanase and lipase at 45°C respectively. In the view of its antimicrobial activity as well as enzyme production capability the genus Streptomyces was dominant. The isolate EWC 7(2) was most promising on the basis of its interesting antimicrobial activity and was identified as Streptomyces rochei. The results of these findings have increased the scope of finding industrially important actinomycetes from earthworm castings and these organisms could be promising sources for industrially important molecules or enzymes.

Kumar, Vijay; Bharti, Alpana; Negi, Yogesh Kumar; Gusain, Omprakash; Pandey, Piyush; Bisht, Gajraj Singh

2012-01-01

226

A filter circuit board for the Earthworm Seismic Data Acquisition System  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Earthworm system is a seismic network data acquisition and processing system used by the Northern California Seismic Network as well as many other seismic networks. The input to the system is comprised of many realtime electronic waveforms fed to a multi-channel digitizer on a PC platform. The digitizer consists of one or more National Instruments Corp. AMUX?64T multiplexer boards attached to an A/D converter board located in the computer. Originally, passive filters were installed on the multiplexers to eliminate electronic noise picked up in cabling. It was later discovered that a small amount of crosstalk occurred between successive channels in the digitizing sequence. Though small, this crosstalk will cause what appear to be small earthquake arrivals at the wrong time on some channels. This can result in erroneous calculation of earthquake arrival times, particularly by automated algorithms. To deal with this problem, an Earthworm filter board was developed to provide the needed filtering while eliminating crosstalk. This report describes the tests performed to find a suitable solution, and the design of the circuit board. Also included are all the details needed to build and install this board in an Earthworm system or any other system using the AMUX?64T board. Available below is the report in PDF format as well as an archive file containing the circuit board manufacturing information.

Jensen, Edward Gray

2000-01-01

227

Carbon-Mineral Interactions along an Earthworm Invasion Gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We broadly agree that the interactions of organic matter and minerals contribute to soils’ capacity to store carbon. Such interactions may be controlled by the processes that determine the availability of organic matter and minerals and their physical contacts. One of these processes is bioturbation, and earthworms are the best known organisms that physically mix soils. We are studying carbon mineral interactions along an approximately 200 meter long earthworm invasion transect in a hardwood forest in northern Minnesota. This transect extends from the soils where earthworms are absent to the soils that have been invaded by earthworms for ~30-40 years. Pre-invasion soils have approximately 5 cm thick litter layer, thin (~5 cm) A horizon, silt rich E horizon, and clay-rich Bt horizons. The A and E horizons formed from aeolian deposits, while the clay-rich Bt horizons developed from glacial till. With the advent of earthworm invasion, the litter layer disappears, and the A horizon thickens at the expense of the E horizons. Carbon and nitrogen concentrations in the A and E horizons significantly increased with the advent of earthworm invasion. Simultaneously, minerals’ capacities to complex the organic matter appear to be greater in the soils with active earthworm populations. Based on the data from the two end member soils along the transect, minerals’ specific surface area in the A and E horizons are larger in the earthworm invaded soil than in the pre-invasion soil. Additionally, earthworm invasion rapidly (within < 5 yrs) turned A horizons materials from single grain to strong medium granular structure. Second, significantly greater amounts of Fe oxides and organically-complexed Fe are present in the earthworm invaded soil. While the amounts of organic matter and the minerals’ capacity to complex carbon increase with earthworm invasion, they are also more vigorously mixed. The depth profiles of 210Pb activities from the two end member soils show significantly enhanced rate and deeper reach of soil mixing at the invaded site. We are currently extending the measurements of carbon, specific surface area, and 210Pb activities to the seven soil pits along the entire length of the transect. This growing data set, when ultimately combined with ongoing monitoring of (1) the population dynamics of earthworms along the transect and (2) dissolved organic carbon, will allow us to answer how and how much soils’ capacity to store carbon are affected by burrowing organisms who are often the key stone species of given ecosystems.

Lyttle, A.; Yoo, K.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Hale, C.; Sebestyen, S. D.

2010-12-01

228

Inhibition of avoidance behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditions for establishing stimuli which inhibit conditioned fear reactions are demonstrated in 3 experiments. Dogs, trained in a shuttle box to avoid shock on a Sidman avoidance schedule, received Pavlovian fear conditioning involving the presentation of tones and shock in various temporal relations. Subsequently, these tones were presented while S performed the avoidance response. Stimuli preceding shock in conditioning increased

Robert A. Rescorla; Vincent M. Lolordo

1965-01-01

229

Behavioral avoidance and self-reported fainting symptoms in blood\\/injury fearful individuals: An experimental test of disgust domain specificity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the specificity of disgust in predicting avoidance in blood\\/injury (BI) phobia. Participants high (n=38) and low (n=46) in BI fear completed measures of disgust across multiple domains and severity of BI-related fear. They then completed three randomly presented behavioral avoidance tasks (BATs) that consisted of exposure to a 15? severed deer leg (BI task), a live spider

Bunmi O. Olatunji; Kevin M. Connolly; Bieke David

2008-01-01

230

Different sensitivities of biomarker responses in two epigeic earthworm species after exposure to pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides.  

PubMed

In many studies that investigate the toxic effects of pollutants on earthworms, experiments are performed using only one species of earthworms, most commonly the Eisenia species. However, the differences in sensitivities of different earthworm species could potentially lead to an underestimation of environmental aspects of pollutants. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity of biomarker responses of Eisenia andrei, an epigeic compost species commonly used in laboratory experiments, with those of Lumbricus rubellus, an epigeic species widely distributed in temperate regions. The earthworms were exposed to the three commonly used insecticides: organophosphates dimethoate (0.03, 0.3, and 3 mg kg(-1)) and pirimiphos-methyl (0.02, 0.2, and 2 mg kg(-1)), as well as pyrethroid deltamethrin (0.01, 0.1, and 0.5 mg kg(-1)), for 1 and 15 days using an artificial soil test. The effects of the pesticides were assessed by measuring the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase (CES), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) as well as the concentration of glutathione (GSH). The pesticides caused a significant inhibition of AChE and CES activities and significant changes in activities of CAT, GST, and GSH concentration in both earthworm species. A comparison of biomarker responses between E. andrei and L. rubellus showed significant differences; E. andrei proved to be less susceptible to pesticide exposure than L. rubellus. In addition, the results from the filter-paper contact test mortality experiments showed that lethal concentrations were lower for L. rubellus compared with the E. andrei, further showing a greater sensitivity of L. rubellus. The difference in sensitivities of these epigeic species should be taken into account when conducting toxicity studies. PMID:23811990

Velki, Mirna; Hackenberger, Branimir K

2013-06-28

231

Glutathione S-transferases in earthworms (Lumbricidae).  

PubMed Central

Glutathione S-transferase activity (EC 2.5.1.18) was demonstrated in six species of earthworms of the family Lumbricidae: Eisenia foetida, Lumbricus terrestris, Lumbricus rebellus, Allolobophora longa, Allolobophora caliginosa and Allolobophora chlorotica. Considerable activity was obtained with 1-chlorl-2,4-dinitrobenzene and low activity with 3,4-dichloro-1-nitrobenzene, but no enzymic reaction was detectable with sulphobromophthalein 1,2-epoxy-3-(p-nitrophenoxy)propane of trans-4-phenylbut-3-en-2-one as substrates. Enzyme prepartations from L. rubellus and A. longa were the most active, whereas A. chlorotica gave the lowest activity. The ratio of the activities obtained with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and 3,4-cichloro-1-nitrobenzene was very different in the various species, but no phylogenetic pattern was evident. Isoelectric focusing gave rise to various activity peaks as measured with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as a substrate, and the activity profiles of the species examined appeared to follow a taxonomic pattern. The activity of Allolobophora had the highest peak in the alkaline region, whereas that of Lumbricus had the highest peak in the acid region. Eisenia showed a very complex activity profile, with the highest peak ne pH 7. As determined by an enzymic assay, all the species contained glutathione, on an average about 0.5 mumol/g wet wt. Conjugation with glutathione catalysed by glutathione S-transferases may consequently be an important detoxification mechanism in earthworms.

Stenersen, J; Guthenberg, C; Mannervik, B

1979-01-01

232

Ecotoxicological effects on earthworms of fresh and aged nano-sized zero-valent iron (nZVI) in soil.  

PubMed

Although nano-sized zero-valent iron (nZVI) has been used for several years for remediation of contaminated soils and aquifers, only a limited number of studies have investigated secondary environmental effects and ecotoxicity of nZVI to soil organisms. In this study we therefore measured the ecotoxicological effects of nZVI coated with carboxymethyl cellulose on two species of earthworms, Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus rubellus, using standard OECD methods with sandy loam and artificial OECD soil. Earthworms were exposed to nZVI concentrations ranging from 0 to 2000 mg nZVI kg soil(-1) added freshly to soil or aged in non-saturated soil for 30 d prior to exposure. Regarding avoidance, weight changes and mortality, both earthworm species were significantly affected by nZVI concentrations ?500 mg kg(-1)soil. Reproduction was affected also at 100 mg nZVI kg(-1). Toxicity effects of nZVI were reduced after aging with larger differences between soils compared to non-aged soils. We conclude that doses ?500 mg nZVI kg(-1) are likely to give acute adverse effects on soil organisms, and that effects on reproduction may occur at significantly lower concentrations. PMID:22595530

El-Temsah, Yehia S; Joner, Erik J

2012-05-15

233

Different behavioral patterns of the earthworms Octolasion tyrtaeum ...  

Treesearch

Science.gov - We Participate ... Description: This study addressed differences between Diplocardia spp. ... earthworm) and Octolasion tyrtaeum (an introduced European species), with respect to behavior, influence on soil microbial biomass,  ...

234

Toxicity of Metals to the Earthworm 'Eisenia fetida'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Development of methods to measure the effect of man's residuals on soil ecosystems is desirable. Earthworms, as one of the largest and most easily obtained components of the soil biota, are suitable for evaluating perturbations to soil ecosystems. The imp...

E. F. Neuhauser R. C. Loehr D. L. Milligan M. R. Malecki

1985-01-01

235

Toxicity of metals to the earthworm Eisenia fetida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of methods to measure the effect of man's residuals on soil ecosystems is desirable. Earthworms, as one of the largest and most easily obtained components of the soil biota, are suitable for evaluating perturbations to soil ecosystems.

E. F. Neuhauser; R. C. Loehr; D. L. Milligan; M. R. Malecki

1985-01-01

236

Report of the Second Stage in Development of a Standardized Laboratory Method for Assessing the Toxicity of Chemical Substances to Earthworms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The inter-laboratory intercalibration ring test assessing the validity and reproducibility of proposed contact filter paper, artificial soil and an 'artisol' toxicity test for the earthworm E. foetida in 1981/2 involved the assessment of the toxicity of p...

C. A. Edwards

1984-01-01

237

1H NMR Metabolomics: A New Molecular Level Tool for Assessment of Organic Contaminant Bioavailability to Earthworms in Soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At contaminated field sites, the complete removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is rarely achieved since a portion of these compounds remain tightly bound to the soil matrix. The concentration of PAHs in soil typically decreases until a plateau is reached, at which point the remaining contaminant is considered non- bioavailable. Numerous soil extraction techniques, including cyclodextrin extraction, have been developed to estimate contaminant bioavailability. However, these are indirect methods that do not directly measure the response of organisms to chemical exposure in soil. Earthworm metabolomics offers a promising new way to directly evaluate the bioavailability and toxicity of contaminants in soil. Metabolomics involves the measurement of changes in small-molecule metabolites, including sugars and amino acids, in living organisms due to an external stress, such as contaminant exposure. The objective of this study was to compare cyclodextrin extraction of soil (a bioavailability proxy) and 1H NMR metabolomic analysis of aqueous earthworm tissue extracts as indicators of contaminant bioavailability. A 30 day laboratory experiment was conducted using phenanthrene-spiked sphagnum peat soil and the OECD recommended earthworm species for toxicity testing, Eisenia fetida. The initial phenanthrene concentration in the soil was 320 mg/kg. Rapid biodegradation of phenanthrene occurred and concentrations decreased to 16 mg/kg within 15 days. After 15 days, phenanthrene biodegradation slowed and cyclodextrin extraction of the soil suggested that phenanthrene was no longer bioavailable. Multivariate statistical analysis of the 1H NMR spectra for E. fetida tissue extracts indicated that the metabolic profile of phenanthrene exposed earthworms differed from control earthworms throughout the 30 day experiment. This suggests that the residual phenanthrene remaining in the soil after 15 days continued to elicit a metabolic response, even though it was not extractable using cyclodextrin. Hence, while cyclodextrin extraction may serve as a good proxy for microbial bioavailability, our results suggest that it may not serve as a good proxy for earthworm bioavailability. 1H NMR metabolomics therefore offers considerable promise as a novel, molecular-level method to directly monitor earthworm bioavailability of potentially toxic and persistent compounds in the environment.

McKelvie, J. R.; Wolfe, D. M.; Celejewski, M. A.; Simpson, A. J.; Simpson, M. J.

2009-05-01

238

Human Dimensions of Earthworm Invasion in the Adirondack State Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invasion of exotic earthworms in the Northern Forest of the United States alters carbon and nitrogen cycles and reduces\\u000a forest litter and native plant cover. Humans are the principal agents of dispersal, spreading earthworms both inadvertently\\u000a via horticulture, land disturbance, and in the tires and underbodies of vehicles, and voluntarily through composting and the\\u000a improper disposal of fish bait.

Dara E. Seidl; Peter Klepeis

239

Transmission of Nephridial Bacteria of the Earthworm Eisenia fetida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lumbricid earthworms (annelid family Lumbricidae) harbor gram-negative bacteria in their excretory organs, the nephridia. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing of bacteria associated with the nephridia of several earthworm species has shown that each species of worm harbors a distinct bacterial species and that the bacteria from different species form a monophyletic cluster within the genus Acidovorax, suggesting that there

Seana K. Davidson; David A. Stahl

2006-01-01

240

Population Dynamics of Earthworms in Organic Farming Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Earthworm population dynamics and diversity were evaluated in long-term farming systems experiments at the West Virginia University\\u000a Organic Research Farm from 2000 to 2007. Farming systems included vegetable and field crop rotations, with versus without\\u000a annual compost amendments. Field crop rotations with livestock included 3 years of clover grassland. Earthworms were monitored\\u000a by hand-sorting soil samples. Aporrectodea caliginosa and Lumbricus

James B. Kotcon

241

Gene Expression Analysis of CL-20-induced Reversible Neurotoxicity Reveals GABAA Receptors as Potential Target in the Earthworm Eisenia fetida  

PubMed Central

The earthworm Eisenia fetida is one of the most used species in standardized soil ecotoxicity tests. Endpoints such as survival, growth and reproduction are eco-toxicologically relevant but provide little mechanistic insight into toxicity pathways, especially at the molecular level. Here we applied a toxicogenomic approach to investigate the mode of action underlying the reversible neurotoxicity of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20), a cyclic nitroamine explosives compound. We developed an E. fetida-specific shotgun microarray targeting 15119 unique E. fetida transcripts. Using this array we profiled gene expression in E. fetida in response to exposure to CL-20. Eighteen earthworms were exposed for 6 days to 0.2 ?g/cm2 of CL-20 on filter paper, half of which were allowed to recover in a clean environment for 7 days. Nine vehicle control earthworms were sacrificed at day 6 and 13, separately. Electrophysiological measurements indicated that the conduction velocity of earthworm medial giant nerve fiber decreased significantly after 6-day exposure to CL-20, but was restored after 7 days of recovery. Total RNA was isolated from the four treatment groups including 6-day control, 6-day exposed, 13-day control and 13-day exposed (i.e. 6-day exposure followed by 7-day recovery), and was hybridized to the 15K shot-gun oligo array. Statistical and bioinformatic analyses suggest that CL-20 initiated neurotoxicity by non-competitively blocking the ligand-gated GABAA receptor ion channel, leading to altered expression of genes involved in GABAergic, cholinergic, and Agrin-MuSK pathways. In the recovery phase, expression of affected genes returned to normality, possibly as a result of autophagy and CL-20 dissociation/metabolism. This study provides significant insights into potential mechanisms of CL-20-induced neurotoxicity and the recovery of earthworms from transient neurotoxicity stress.

Gong, Ping; Guan, Xin; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Liang, Chun; Perkins, Edward J.

2012-01-01

242

Organochlorine insecticide residues in soil and earthworms in the Delhi area, India, August-October 1974  

SciTech Connect

DDT residues in soil and earthworms from 50 sites in Delhi were monitored. DDT was detected in all but two samples each of soil and earthworms. Among DDT residues, p,p'-DDE was most common and was found in 48 samples each of soil and earthworms; p,p'-DDT was detected in only 43 soil samples and 46 earthworm samples. p,p'-TDE and o,p'-DDT were also present in smaller concentrations in 29 and 15 soil samples and in 43 and 25 earthworm samples, respectively. Maximum total DDT concentration of 2.6 ppm was detected in the soil from Durga Nagar in the vicinity of a DDT factory. The highest concentration of 37.7 ppm total DDT in earthworms was also obtained from the same site. The maximum concentration factor found in the earthworms was 551. The total DDT concentration in the earthworms and soil showed significant correlation.

Yadav, D.V.; Mittal, P.K.; Agarwal, H.C.; Pillai, M.K.

1981-09-01

243

Reliability of an avoidance distance test for the assessment of animals’ responsiveness to humans and a preliminary investigation of its association with farmers’ attitudes on bull fattening farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many farm animal species, the relationship to humans affects their welfare considerably. But until now, on-farm studies on fattening bulls have been limited. A feasible, reliable methodology for assessing responses of bulls to humans would be helpful for large scale surveys on this topic. Measuring avoidance distance at the feeding place (ADF) to assess animals’ relationship to humans was

Ines Windschnurer; Xavier Boivin; Susanne Waiblinger

2009-01-01

244

Avoiding Cross-Contact  

MedlinePLUS

Avoiding Cross-Contact Understanding the difference between Cross-Contamination vs. Cross-Contact When dining at a restaurant, you will need to ... explain the difference to them. Examples of Cross-Contact and How to Avoid It A knife that ...

245

Influence of temperature on the toxicity of zinc to the earthworm Eisenia fetida  

SciTech Connect

A range of toxicity tests have been proposed to assess the potential hazards of pollutants to earthworms. Of these, the two acute toxicity tests using Eisenia fetida recommended by the OECD and EEC have become routinely used in the risk assessment and regulation of new and existing chemicals. In addition to the acute tests, procedures have also been proposed for measuring the sub-lethal effects of chemicals on parameter such as reproduction and weight change. In both the lethal and sub-lethal toxicity tests developed with worms, attempts have been made to standardise test conditions to allow results from different laboratories to be directly compared. However, variability in exposure conditions and responses are fundamental to determine the effects of pollutants under natural conditions. In the field, conditions such as light, moisture availability, pH, temperature and humidity all fluctuate over time. Such variations affect both the sensitivity and exposure of individuals to toxic chemicals. Hence when evaluating the potential effects of pollutants, it may be important to known how changes in test conditions influence toxicity. This study assessed the effects of different temperatures on the lethal and sub-lethal toxicity of zinc for the earthworm Eisenia fetida. 23 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Spurgeon, D.J.; Tomlin, M.A.; Hopkin, S.P. [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom)

1997-02-01

246

Investigation of the toxicokinetics of petroleum hydrocarbon distillates with the earthworm Eisenia andrei.  

PubMed

The Canada-wide standards for petroleum hydrocarbons in soils regulate petroleum hydrocarbons based on four distillate ranges: F1 (C6-C10), F2 (>C10-C16), F3 (>C16-C34), and F4 (>C34). Previous toxicity tests with earthworms and F2, as well as two subfractions of F3, F3a (>C16-C23) and F3a (>C23-C34), indicate that test durations might not be sufficiently long to reach threshold effect concentrations, likely because of the differing toxicokinetics for each distillate. A study was conducted to determine the toxicokinetics of both aliphatic and aromatic fractions of F2, F3a, and F3b with the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Peak accumulation curves were observed for F2 aliphatics and aromatics and F3a aromatics, likely as a result of changes in exposure concentration over the test duration via loss or a decrease in the bioavailable fraction. Biota-soil accumulation factors were >1 for total F2 aliphatics and aromatics and F3a aromatics as well as for several individual polyaromatic hydrocarbons for each distillate. Aromatics were disproportionately accumulated over aliphatics and were the main contributors to toxicity; therefore, aromatics and aliphatics should be regulated separately. The toxicokinetics were used to interpret previous toxicity data. Higher molecular weight distillates need longer-than-standard test durations to determine toxicity, so toxicity test results from fixed, standard-duration tests are not strictly comparable for these petroleum distillates. PMID:23364619

Cermak, Janet; Stephenson, Gladys; Birkholz, Detlef; Dixon, D George

2013-04-01

247

Effects of Biodynamic, Organic and Conventional Production Systems on Earthworm Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a long-term trial, the earthworm populations of two biological farming systems, two conventional systems and one control treatment were compared in a seven year crop rotation on a Luvisol from loess. The earthworms were investigated by handsorting at four dates during 1990–92. Nicodrilus longus (Ude), N. nocturnus (Evans), N. caliginosus (Savigny) and Allolobophora rosea (Savigny) were the dominant earthworm

L. Pfiffner; P. Mäder

1997-01-01

248

Inefficiency of mustard extraction technique for assessing size and structure of earthworm communities in UK pasture  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assessment of the efficiency of the mustard extraction method to quantify the total earthworm community structure on UK earthworms was carried out on a permanent pasture in Bedfordshire, UK. Earthworms were collected using mustard extraction and control treatments. Numbers and community structure of worms expelled from soils after surface applications of expellants were determined, and underlying soil from each

Mark David Bartlett; Jim A. Harris; Iain T. James; Karl Ritz

2006-01-01

249

CONSTRUCTION OF AN ELECTRICAL DEVICE FOR SAMPLING EARTHWORM POPULATIONS IN THE FIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for the estimation of earthworm population densities range from laborious handsorting, through chemical applications, to electrical extraction. Of these methods, only the electrical extraction allows for sampling of earthworms without detrimental soil disturbance or contamination. However, a device to extract earthworms under controlled electronic conditions is not readily available to researchers. An improved design on the long-established electrical \\

S. L. Weyers; H. H. Schomberg; P. F. Hendrix; K. A. Spokas; D. M. Endale

250

Intensified Weathering Control of Carbon Cycle along an Earthworm Invasion Chronosequence: Preliminary Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though earthworms may appear ubiquitous and native where they are found, this is not true in the Glaciated areas of North America. After the glacial retreat, earthworms were not able to catch up with the northward expansion of forests. Subsequently, these forests in the glaciated areas have developed without native earthworm species over the past six to ten thousand years.

C. Fernandez; K. Yoo; A. K. Aufdenkampe; C. Hale

2009-01-01

251

Effects of white-tailed deer on the native earthworm, Eisenoides carolinensis, in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on earthworms in North America has focused on the effects of invasive earthworms, with few studies examining the ecology of native earthworm species. Deer have been shown to influence belowground processes through grazing, trampling, and fecal pellet deposition. We proposed that native earthworms in an oak-dominated forest in Virginia might benefit from increased organic matter provided by deer fecal

Daniel Rearick; Laura Kintz; Katherine L. Burke; Tami S. Ransom

252

Earthworm species influence on carbon-mineral association in a sugar maple forest in northern Minnesota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-native European earthworms are invading previously earthworm-free hardwood forests in the northern Great Lakes Region. Whereas earthworms' impacts on soil morphology and geochemical properties have been well documented in agricultural settings, the role of earthworms in biogeochemical cycles of undisturbed forests remains poorly understood. The forest soils that were recently invaded by exotic earthworms, therefore, provide a unique opportunity to understand how and how much earthworms contribute to biogeochemistry of non-agricultural environments. Increased degree and extent of soil mixing is one of the better known consequences of the earthworm invasion. Our hypothesis is that invasive earthworms positively affect carbon (C) stabilization by enhancing contacts between organic matter and minerals. We are studying C-mineral complexation along a well-established earthworm chronosequence in a sugar maple forest in northern Minnesota. We have observed changes in total earthworm biomass, A horizon C storage, and total specific surface area (SSA) of minerals as the invasion progresses. Because each earthworm species has different feeding and dwelling habits, biogeochemical imprints of the invasion reflect not only earthworms' biomass but also their species composition. All earthworm species show an increase in their biomass with greater time length since the invasion, though epigeic earthworms tend to be the pioneer species. As the total earthworm biomass increases, we find greater incorporation of organic C into the A horizon; the O horizon thickness decreases from 8 to 0 cm as the A horizon thickens from ~5 cm to ~12 cm. While leaf litter biomass is negatively correlated with total earthworm biomass, dramatic decreases in litter biomass are coupled with considerable increases in the biomass of epi-endogeic species. Despite the general decrease in C storage in the A horizon with greater degree of invasion, the storages fluctuate along the transect because earthworms affect not only C concentration but also soil bulk density and A horizon thickness. Mineral's SSA in the A and E is significantly larger and greater portions of the mineral SSA are coated with C in soils with greater earthworm biomass. These results show that both mineral's capacity to complex C and the actual complexation are enhanced by earthworm invasion presumably because earthworms' ability to vertically mix soils. This growing data set will ultimately elucidate how soils' capacity to stabilize C is influenced by exotic earthworm species.

Lyttle, A.; Yoo, K.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Hale, C. M.; Sebestyen, S. D.

2011-12-01

253

Use of plant and earthworm bioassays to evaluate remediation of soil from a site contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls  

SciTech Connect

Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was treated with a pilot-scale, solvent extraction technology. Bioassays in earthworms and plants were used to examine the efficacy of the remediation process for reducing the toxicity of the soil. The earthworm toxicity bioassays were the 14-d survival test and 21-d reproduction test, using Lumbricus terrestris and Eisenia fetida andrei. The plant bioassays included phytotoxicity tests for seed germination and root elongation in lettuce and oats, and a genotoxicity test (anaphase aberrations) in Allium cepa (common onion). Although the PCB content of the soil was reduced by 99% (below the remediation goal), toxicity to earthworm reproduction remained essentially unchanged following remediation. Furthermore, phytotoxicity and genotoxicity were higher for the remediated soil compared to the untreated soil. The toxicity remaining after treatment appeared to be due to residual solvent introduced during the remediation process, and/or to heavy metals or other inorganic contaminants not removed by the treatment. Mixture studies involving isopropanol and known toxicants indicated possible synergistic effects of the extraction solvent and soil contaminants. The toxicity in plants was essentially eliminated by a postremediation, water-rinsing step. These results demonstrate a need for including toxicity measurements in the evaluation of technologies used in hazardous waste site remediations, and illustrate the potential value of such measurements for making modifications to remediation processes.

Meier, J.R.; Chang, L.W.; Meckes, M.C.; Smith, M.K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Jacobs, S. [DynCorp, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Torsella, J. [Oak Ridge Inst. of Science and Education, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1997-05-01

254

The influence of soil characteristics on the toxicity of four chemicals to the earthworm Eisenia fetida andrei (Oligochaeta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute toxicity of Cd (chloride), chloroacetamide, 3,4-dichloroaniline and pentachlorophenol to the earthworm Eisenia fetida andrei was determined using the OECD (1984) artificial soil and contact testing procedures. To investigate the influence of two soil characteristics (pH and organic-matter content), the toxicity of the chemicals was also determined in two natural sandy soils. It is concluded that the filter-paper contact

C. A. M. van Gestel; W. A. Dis

1988-01-01

255

Biochemical responses of the earthworm Eisenia fetida andrei exposed to contaminated artificial soil: effects of benzo(a)pyrene  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), at different concentrations and exposure times on the biochemical responses of the earthworm Eisenia fetida andrei to (1) elucidate the mechanisms of action of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and (2) explore the potential for using these responses as biomarkers for monitoring PAH-contaminated soils or for use in sublethal assays for chemical testing in

M Saint-Denis; J. F Narbonne; C Arnaud; E Thybaud; D Ribera

1999-01-01

256

Toxicity and bioaccumulation of reduced TNT metabolites in the earthworm Eisenia andrei exposed to amended forest soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and TNT primary reduction products have been found to be toxic to certain soil invertebrates, such as earthworms. The mechanism of toxicity of TNT and of its by-products is still not known. To ascertain if one of the TNT reduction products underlies TNT toxicity, we tested the toxicity and bioaccumulation of TNT reduction products. 2-Amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene

Bernard Lachance; Agnès Y. Renoux; Manon Sarrazin; Jalal Hawari; Geoffrey I. Sunahara

2004-01-01

257

Collision Avoidance Operational Concept.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An operational concept is presented for collision avoidance services which will be in place upon implementation of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) National Airspace System (NAS) Plan. This operational concept only discusses the ground-base porti...

M. Sharma

1989-01-01

258

Avoiding Drug Interactions  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Most Popular Searches Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics ... Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Avoiding ...

259

Avoiding Medication Mistakes  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Most Popular Searches Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics ... Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Avoiding ...

260

Bioaccumulation and single and joint toxicities of penta-BDE and cadmium to earthworms ( Eisenia fetida ) exposed to spiked soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioaccumulation of penta-BDE (DE-71) in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and the induced toxicities on the growth and reproduction of earthworms were investigated. All the major congeners in DE-71\\u000a could be bioaccumulated in earthworms and the concentration found in earthworms correlated to the spiked concentration in\\u000a soil. DE-71 might inhibit the growth and reproduction of cocoons and juveniles of earthworms. The toxicities

ShuZhen Zhu; Man Liu; ShengYan Tian; LingYan Zhu

2010-01-01

261

Methylation of mercury in earthworms and the effect of mercury on the associated bacterial communities.  

PubMed

Methylmercury compounds are very toxic for most organisms. Here, we investigated the potential of earthworms to methylate inorganic-Hg. We hypothesized that the anaerobic and nutrient-rich conditions in the digestive tracts of earthworm's promote the methylation of Hg through the action of their gut bacteria. Earthworms were either grown in sterile soils treated with an inorganic (HgCl2) or organic (CH3HgCl) Hg source, or were left untreated. After 30 days of incubation, the total-Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations in the soils, earthworms, and their casts were analyzed. The impact of Hg on the bacterial community compositions in earthworms was also studied. Tissue concentrations of methyl-Hg in earthworms grown in soils treated with inorganic-Hg were about six times higher than in earthworms grown in soils without Hg. Concentrations of methyl-Hg in the soils and earthworm casts remained at significantly lower levels suggesting that Hg was mainly methylated in the earthworms. Bacterial communities in earthworms were mostly affected by methyl-Hg treatment. Terminal-restriction fragments (T-RFs) affiliated to Firmicutes were sensitive to inorganic and methyl-Hg, whereas T-RFs related to Betaproteobacteria were tolerant to the Hg treatments. Sulphate-reducing bacteria were detected in earthworms but not in soils. PMID:23577209

Rieder, Stephan Raphael; Brunner, Ivano; Daniel, Otto; Liu, Bian; Frey, Beat

2013-04-05

262

Earthworms facilitate carbon sequestration through unequal amplification of carbon stabilization compared with mineralization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent review concluded that earthworm presence increases CO2 emissions by 33% but does not affect soil organic carbon stocks. However, the findings are controversial and raise new questions. Here we hypothesize that neither an increase in CO2 emission nor in stabilized carbon would entirely reflect the earthworms’ contribution to net carbon sequestration. We show how two widespread earthworm invaders affect net carbon sequestration through impacts on the balance of carbon mineralization and carbon stabilization. Earthworms accelerate carbon activation and induce unequal amplification of carbon stabilization compared with carbon mineralization, which generates an earthworm-mediated ‘carbon trap’. We introduce the new concept of sequestration quotient to quantify the unequal processes. The patterns of CO2 emission and net carbon sequestration are predictable by comparing sequestration quotient values between treatments with and without earthworms. This study clarifies an ecological mechanism by which earthworms may regulate the terrestrial carbon sink.

Zhang, Weixin; Hendrix, Paul F.; Dame, Lauren E.; Burke, Roger A.; Wu, Jianping; Neher, Deborah A.; Li, Jianxiong; Shao, Yuanhu; Fu, Shenglei

2013-10-01

263

A Cu tolerant population of the earthworm Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1862) at Coniston Copper Mines, Cumbria, UK.  

PubMed

Dendrodrilus rubidus were sampled from a mine spoil soil at Coniston Copper Mine, an abandoned Cu mine in Cumbria, UK and a Cu-free control site. Earthworms were maintained for 14d in both Kettering loam and a Moorland soil amended with Cu nitrate. Mortality, condition index, weight change and tissue concentration were determined. In both soils D. rubidus native to the mine site were able to tolerate significantly higher soil Cu concentrations (MWRT, ptest, ptest, pearthworms. For a given soil Cu concentration tissue Cu concentrations were greater in the mine site earthworms. Low cocoon production and viability from the mine site population prevented the determination of toxicity parameters on the F1 generation and may be an indicator of the cost of tolerance to the population. PMID:17707108

Arnold, R E; Hodson, M E; Langdon, C J

2007-08-16

264

Reduction of total coliform numbers during vermicomposting is caused by short-term direct effects of earthworms on microorganisms and depends on the dose of application of pig slurry.  

PubMed

During vermicomposting of organic waste, the interactions between epigeic earthworms and the detrital microbial community lead to decreases in the abundance of some potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Despite its importance, little is known about the mechanisms involved and the factors that affect the intensity of this effect. In the present study, we carried out three experiments to test the effect of the earthworm Eisenia fetida on total coliform numbers in pig slurry. We firstly applied low and high doses (1.5 and 3 kg, respectively) of pig slurry to small scale vermireactors with and without earthworms. We found that E. fetida significantly reduced total coliform numbers after 2 weeks, but only in the low dose vermireactors. In a subsequent feeding experiment in mesocosms, we observed that the coliform population was reduced by 98% after passage through the earthworms' guts, which suggests that digestive processes in the gut of E. fetida are the main factors involved in the decrease in total coliforms observed in the low dose vermireactors. Decreases in total coliform numbers were not related to decreases in bacterial biomass, which indicates a specific negative effect of earthworms on the coliforms. In the third experiment, we tested the indirect effect of earthworms on total coliforms by inoculating pig slurry with either 2 or 10% vermicompost. The addition of vermicompost did not affect the number of coliforms either after 15, 30 or 60 days, which supports the idea that this bacterial group is more affected by the passage through the gut of E. fetida than by interactions with the earthworm-shaped microbial community. PMID:19640567

Monroy, Fernando; Aira, Manuel; Domínguez, Jorge

2009-07-28

265

Acute toxicity, biochemical and gene expression responses of the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to polycyclic musks.  

PubMed

AHTN (Tonalide) and HHCB (galaxolide) are recognized as ubiquitous contaminants in soil and have potential adverse impacts on soil organisms. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of AHTN and HHCB on the earthworm (Eisenia fetida) as an important soil animal with attention to the acute toxicity, biochemical and transcriptional changes of representative antioxidant enzymatic (SOD, CAT) and stress-response gene (Hsp70). The 48 h-LC(50) value was 20.76 ?g cm(-2) for AHTN and 11.87 ?g cm(-2) for HHCB respectively in the acute lethal studies. The time-dependent elevation in the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced cellular oxidative injury of E. fetida might be one of the main toxic effects of AHTN and HHCB. SOD and CAT were both up-regulated at low exposure dose (0.6 ?g cm(-2) AHTN and 0.3 ?g cm(-2) HHCB) during 48 h testing period, which protected earthworms from oxidative stresses. However, the down-regulation of SOD and CAT after 48 h exposure to high dose contaminants might be caused by the extreme oxidative stress levels (maximum up-regulation 1.70-fold and 1.40-fold for MDA levels at 6.0 ?g cm(-2) AHTN and 3.0 ?g cm(-2) HHCB compared to the controls, respectively). The Hsp70 gene expression did not show variation during 48 h, except that it had a significant down-regulation (P<0.05) after 48 h of exposure to high doses of contaminants. These results showed that the dermal contact of AHTN and HHCB could result in pronounced biochemical and physiological responses to earthworms, and the transcriptional level changes in antioxidant genes could be potential molecular biomarkers for the stress of the pollutants. PMID:21281957

Chen, Chun; Zhou, Qixing; Liu, Shuo; Xiu, Zongming

2011-02-01

266

Oxidative stress and DNA damage in the earthworm Eisenia fetida induced by toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene.  

PubMed

Superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and the comet assay (SCGE) were used as biomarkers to evaluate the oxidative stress and genotoxicity of toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene in earthworms (Eisenia fetida). The results indicated that the exposure of the three pollutants caused a stress response of the three enzymes, an approximate bell-shaped change (a tendency of inducement firstly and then inhibition with increasing concentrations of the pollutants) was mostly found. The three enzymes tested differed in their sensitivity to different pollutants. While the activity of POD was not significantly changed within the concentration range, the concentration thresholds for significant (P < 0.05) responses to toluene based on SOD and CAT were 5 mg kg(-1), respectively. Similarly, the concentration thresholds for significant (P < 0.05) responses to ethylbenzene based on CAT and POD were 10 and 5 mg kg(-1), respectively, while the activity of SOD was not significantly changed within the concentration range. Significant responses to xylene based on CAT and POD were 5 mg kg(-1), respectively, while the activity of SOD was significantly (P < 0.05) induced at 10 mg kg(-1). The SCGE assay results showed that these three pollutants could significantly (P < 0.01) induce DNA damage in earthworms and the clear dose-dependent relationships were displayed, indicating potential genotoxic effects of toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene on E. fetida. The inducement of DNA damage may be attributed to the oxidative attack of toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene. Toluene seemed to be more genotoxic as it could induce the higher extent of DNA damage than ethylbenzene and xylene. The results suggest that the SCGE assay of earthworms is simple and efficient for diagnosing the genotoxicity of pollutants in terrestrial environment. PMID:20838886

Liu, Yao; Zhou, Qixing; Xie, Xiujie; Lin, Dasong; Dong, Luxi

2010-09-14

267

Diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) for the prediction of bioavailability of heavy metals in contaminated soils to earthworm (Eisenia foetida) and oral bioavailable concentrations.  

PubMed

The applicability of diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) as a biomimic surrogate was investigated to determine the bioavailable heavy metal concentrations to earthworm (Eisenia foetida). The relationships between the amount of DGT and earthworm uptake; DGT uptake and the bioavailable concentrations of heavy metals in soils were evaluated. The one-compartment model for the dynamic uptake of heavy metals in the soil fitted well to both the earthworm (R(2)=0.641-0.990) and DGT (R(2)=0.473-0.998) uptake data. DGT uptake was linearly correlated with the total heavy metal concentrations in the soil (aqua regia), the bioavailable heavy metal concentrations estimated by fractions I+II of the standard measurements and testing (SM&T) and physiologically based extraction test (PBET, stomach+intestine). The coefficients of determination (R(2)) of DGT uptake vs. aqua regia were 0.433, 0.929 and 0.723; vs. SM&T fractions (I+II) were 0.901, 0.882 and 0.713 and vs. PBET (stomach+intestine) were 0.913, 0.850 and 0.649 for Pb, Zn and Cu, respectively. These results imply that DGT can be used as a biomimic surrogate for the earthworm uptake of heavy metals in contaminated soils as well as predict bioavailable concentrations of heavy metals estimated by SM&T (I+II) and PBET as a human oral bioavailable concentrations of heavy metals. PMID:22134028

Bade, Rabindra; Oh, Sanghwa; Shin, Won Sik

2011-11-30

268

Psychological Treatments to Avoid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Certain psychological treatments should be avoided, and a list of such treatments would provide valuable guidance for counselors, as well as potential clients. It is well established that some therapies are potentially dangerous, and some fringe therapies are highly unlikely to help clients beyond a placebo effect. This article provides an…

Thomason, Timothy C.

2010-01-01

269

Overfitting Avoidance as Bias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategies for increasing predictive accuracy through selective pruning have been widely adopted by researchers in decision tree induction. It is easy to get the impression from research reports that there are statistical reasons for believing that theseoverfitting avoidance strategies do increase accuracy and that, as a research community, we are making progress toward developing powerful, general methods for guarding against

Cullen Schaffer; Bruce Porter

1993-01-01

270

Avoiding medical emergencies.  

PubMed

Medical emergencies can occur at any time in any location. This article and associated presentation at the forthcoming British Dental Conference Exhibition provide key advice on avoiding medical emergencies in dental practice; including advice on risk assessing all patients, understanding the importance of a checklist, and using a National Early Warning Score (NEWS). PMID:23470404

Omar, Y

2013-03-01

271

{sup 32}P-postlabeling determination of DNA adducts in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris exposed to PAH-contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

The importance of the search for reliable biomarkers of DNA damage in environmental health assessment is well recognized by the scientific community and regulatory agencies. Among the major biomarkers of DNA damage is the measurement of DNA adducts in target cells or tissues. Up to now, DNA adduct determinations have been directed mostly toward human exposure to toxic substances from the workplace and environment. Moreover, techniques for measuring DNA adducts, and in particular the {sup 32}P-postlabelling technique, presented also the possibility of determining DNA adduct levels in endogenous animal populations exposed to polluted environments as early warning monitors of ecotoxicity. Soil contamination is becoming a major environmental issue. Therefore, numerous contaminated sites must now be remediated to protect human health and to permit new uses of these sites as agricultural, residential, or industrial areas. Fulfillment of this task requires standardized and sensitive bioassays to carry out site evaluations and to establish scientifically defensible soil quality criteria. To that effect, the earthworm appears to be one of the best organisms for use in soil toxicity evaluation. Earthworms are probably the most relevant soil species, representing 60 to 80% of the total animal biomass in soil. Present soil bioassays focus mostly on plant species with end points like seed germination, root elongation, seedling growth and seedling emergence, and on acute toxicity evaluation (re: LC 50) on the earthworm Eisenia fetida. As yet, a standardized soil invertebrate test for teratogenic or mutagenic end points has not been developed. In this paper, we report the feasibility of DNA adduct determination by {sup 32}P-postlabelling in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris as a way to detect the presence of genotoxic substances in soils. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Walsh, P. [Laval Univ. Research Center, Quebec (Canada)]|[Ministere de l`Environnement et de la Faune du Quebec (Canada); El Adlouni, C.; Mukhopadhyay, M.J.; Nadeau, D.; Poirier, G.G. [Laval Univ. Research Center, Quebec (Canada); Viel, G. [CreaLab., Quebec (Canada)

1995-05-01

272

Effects of dioxin exposure in Eisenia andrei: integration of biomarker data by an Expert System to rank the development of pollutant-induced stress syndrome in earthworms.  

PubMed

A battery of biomarkers has recently been developed in the earthworm Eisenia andrei. In this study, different biomarkers (i.e. Ca²?-ATPase activity, lysosomal membrane stability-LMS, lysosomal lipofuscin and neutral lipid content) were utilized to evaluate the alterations in the physiological status of animals, induced by exposure for 3d to different sublethal concentrations of TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) (1.5 × 10?³, 1.5 × 10?², 1.5×10?¹ ng mL?¹) utilizing the paper contact toxicity test. Lysosome/cytoplasm volume ratio and DNA damage were also evaluated as a biomarker at the tissue level and as a biomarker of genotoxicity, respectively. Moreover, the NR retention time assay conditions were optimized for the determination of in vivo LMS in earthworm coelomocytes. The results demonstrate that LMS and Ca²?-ATPase activity were early warning biomarkers able to detect the effects of minimal amounts of TCDD and that biomarkers evaluated at the tissue level are important for following the evolution of the stress syndrome in earthworms. To evaluate the health status of the animals, an Earthworm Expert System (EES) for biomarker data integration and interpretation was developed. The EES proved to be a suitable tool able to rank, objectively, the different levels of the stress syndrome in E. andrei induced by the different concentrations of TCDD. PMID:21777938

Sforzini, Susanna; Dagnino, Alessandro; Oliveri, Laura; Canesi, Laura; Viarengo, Aldo

2011-07-20

273

Earthworms as drivers of the competition between grasses and legumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grasses and legumes are grown together worldwide to improve total herbage yield and the quality of forage, however, the causes of population oscillations of grasses and legumes are poorly understood. Especially in grasslands, earthworms are among the most important detritivore animals functioning as ecosystem engineers, playing a key role in nutrient cycling and affecting plant nutrition and growth. The objectives

Nico Eisenhauer; Stefan Scheu

2008-01-01

274

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) depress allogeneic natural cytotoxicity by earthworm coelomocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coelomocytes of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris caused significant spontaneous allogeneic cytotoxicity in a 24-h trypan blue assay, but not in an assay using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Allogeneic cytotoxicity assays using cells from worms exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) suggest that PCBs can suppress a natural killing (NK-like) reaction. The implications of this work are twofold: understanding the evolution of

Michael M. Suzuki; Edwin L. Cooper; George S. Eyambe; Arthur J. Goven; Lloyd C. Fitzpatrick; Barney J. Venables

1995-01-01

275

Earthworm Biomass Measurement: A Science Activity for Middle School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an activity on biomass measurement which, in this case, is the weight of a group of living things in a given area. The earthworm activity gives students a greater understanding of ecology, practical math applications, and the scientific method. (ASK)|

Haskett, Jonathan; Levine, Elissa; Carey, Pauline B.; Niepold III, Frank

2000-01-01

276

Land use change affects earthworm communities in Eastern Maryland, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed earthworm species composition and abundance during secondary succession at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Maryland, USA. Land use history is well known at this site. Adjacent forest stands of different ages and other vegetation patches were sampled in 1998–99 and in 2006. Out of the 12 species three (Eisenoides loennbergi, Bimastos palustris, Diplocardia caroliniana) were native, the rest

Katalin Szlávecz; Csaba Csuzdi

2007-01-01

277

Structural parameters and functional patterns of simulated earthworm burrow systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworm burrow systems have been simulated by modelling, from field observations, five main characteristics of burrow units: density (number of burrows per unit volume), mean length, angular orientation, middle coordinates and diameter. The functional properties of the burrow systems have been analysed using structural parameters, i. e. number of full perforations, mean available burrow surface and minimal burrow spacing, and

André Kretzschmar

1988-01-01

278

Microbial activity and nutrient dynamics in earthworm casts (Lumbricidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial respiration, microbial biomass and nutrient requirements of the microflora (C, N, P) were studied in the food substrate (soil taken from the upper 3 cm of the mineral soil of a beech wood on limestone), the burrow walls and the casts of the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny). The passage of the soil through the gut caused an increase in

S. Scheu

1987-01-01

279

TOXICITY OF METALS TO THE EARTHWORM 'EISENIA FETIDA'  

EPA Science Inventory

Development of methods to measure the effect of man's residuals on soil ecosystems is desirable. Earthworms, as one of the largest and most easily obtained components of the soil biota, are suitable for evaluating perturbations to soil ecosystems. The impact of five metals (Cd, C...

280

EARTHWORMS OF THE WESTERN UNITED STATES. PART 1. LUMBRICIDAE  

EPA Science Inventory

The earthworm fauna of the western United States is an amalgam of native and introduced elements. While the native species are mostly members of the family Megascolecidae, and closely related to those of Australia and Southeast Asia, the introduced species are, at least in the No...

281

Capacitor Test, Evaluation. and Modeling Within NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program. "Why Ceramic Capacitors Fracture During Manual Soldering and How to Avoid Failures".  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presentation discusses: (1) Why Multi-Layer Ceramic Capacitors(MLCCs) crack during manual soldering. Workmanship and parts issues. (2) Do existing qualification requirements assure crack-free soldering. MIL-spec Thermal Shock (TS) testing. MIL-spec Resist...

A. Teverovsky

2011-01-01

282

Ruminative coping as avoidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper argues for a reconceptualization of ruminative coping with the death of a loved one as an avoidant rather than a\\u000a confrontational strategy. Ruminative coping has been characterized within the bereavement field as persistent, repetitive\\u000a and passive focus on negative emotions and symptoms. It has been theoretically described and empirically shown to be a maladaptive\\u000a process, being conceptually related

Margaret Stroebe; Paul A. Boelen; Marcel van den Hout; Wolfgang Stroebe; Elske Salemink; Jan van den Bout

2007-01-01

283

Denitrifying Bacteria in the Earthworm Gastrointestinal Tract and In Vivo Emission of Nitrous Oxide (N2O) by Earthworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus and Octolasium lacteum) and gut homogenates did not produce CH4, and methanogens were not readily culturable from gut material. In contrast, the numbers of culturable denitrifiers averaged 7 3 107 and 9 3 106 per g (dry weight) of gut material for L. rubellus and O. lacteum, respectively; these values were 256- and 35-fold larger than the

GUDRUN R. KARSTEN; HAROLD L. DRAKE

1997-01-01

284

Earthworm effects on gaseous emissions during vermifiltration of pig fresh slurry.  

PubMed

Treatment of liquid manure can result in the production of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane. Earthworms mix and transform nitrogen and carbon without consuming additional energy. The objective of this paper is to analyse whether earthworms modify the emissions of NH(3), N(2)O, CH(4) and CO(2) during vermifiltration of pig slurry. The experiment used mesocosms of around 50 L, made from a vermifilter treating the diluted manure of a swine house. Three levels of slurry were added to the mesocosms, with or without earthworms, during one month, in triplicate. Earthworm abundance and gas emissions were measured three and five times, respectively. There was a decrease in emissions of ammonia and nitrous oxide and a sink of methane in treatments with earthworms. We suggest that earthworm abundance can be used as a bioindicator of low energy input, and low greenhouse gas and ammonia output in systems using fresh slurry with water recycling. PMID:21185175

Luth; Robin, Paul; Germain, Philippe; Lecomte, Marcel; Landrain, Brigitte; Li, Yinsheng; Cluzeau, Daniel

2010-11-12

285

Development of a New Distillation Process for Re-Refining Waste Oil in Order to Avoid Environmental Burdens. Phase 1: Preliminary Tests in Bern.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The tests in Bern have shown that the sodium process can also be used in practice; it is, however, necessary to further improve the knowledge gained so far in a larger pilot plant during a long-term trial, as well as to prove a series of details which cou...

S. Draebert E. Rohner F. R. Ruhkopf P. Schmitz

1981-01-01

286

The Perceived-Threat Behavioral Approach Test (PT-BAT): Measuring Avoidance in High-, Mid-, and Low-Spider-Fearful Participants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One hundred twenty female participants, with varying levels of spider fear were asked to complete an automated 8-step perceived-threat behavioral approach test (PT-BAT). The steps involved asking the participants if they were willing to put their hand into a number of opaque jars with an incrementally increasing risk of contact with a spider…

Cochrane, Andy; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne

2008-01-01

287

The Perceived-Threat Behavioral Approach Test (PT-BAT): Measuring Avoidance in High-, Mid-, and Low-Spider-Fearful Participants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One hundred twenty female participants, with varying levels of spider fear were asked to complete an automated 8-step perceived-threat behavioral approach test (PT-BAT). The steps involved asking the participants if they were willing to put their hand into a number of opaque jars with an incrementally increasing risk of contact with a spider (none…

Cochrane, Andy; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne

2008-01-01

288

Earthworm transport of heavy metals from sewage sludge: a micro-PIXE application in soil science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-PIXE was used to analyze earthworm fecal material and the linings of earthworm channels in the soil below a land area on which sewage sludge had been applied. Metals present in the sludge were identified both in fecal pellets and in the linings of the channels, at concentration markedly higher than in the soil matrix. PIXE elemental data in raster format were spatially analyzed during image analysis demonstrating in a quantitative manner the spatial correlations among elements transported by the earthworms.

Protz, R.; Teesdale, W. J.; Maxwell, J. A.; Campbell, J. L.; Duke, C.

1993-05-01

289

The Meek Shall Inherit the Burrow: Feedback in Earthworm Soil Modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a From its beginnings, the hallmark of earthworm biology has been a strong emphasis on the study of organism–environment interaction.\\u000a Thereby the radical effects that the earthworms can have in soils have become amply documented. It seems that much less is\\u000a known about how earthworm individuals and populations themselves are affected by their own soil engineering, although various\\u000a feedbacks are conceivable.

Visa Nuutinen

290

Application of Molecular Genetics to Earthworm Ecology: Current Research and Promising Future Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In earthworm ecology, the use of molecular tools has been restricted to certain fields such as ecotoxicology. In this chapter,\\u000a we highlight two key issues of earthworm ecology that would greatly benefit from molecular information: dispersal behaviour\\u000a and reproductive strategies. Elucidating patterns of dispersal is fundamental in guiding our understanding of earthworms’\\u000a distribution in both time and space. Field methods

F. Lazrek; T. P. Velavan; J. Mathieu; L. Dupont

291

Ecosystem effects of non-native earthworms in Mid-Atlantic deciduous forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many mid-Atlantic forests where both native and non-native earthworms exist, it is the non-native species that are the\\u000a dominant component of the soil macrofauna. Few earthworm ecology studies, however, focus attention on these forest systems\\u000a in order to determine the relative ecological roles and potential interactions of the native and non-native earthworms. In\\u000a a series of field samplings and

Katalin Szlavecz; Melissa McCormick; Lijun Xia; Jaclyn Saunders; Taylan Morcol; Dennis Whigham; Timothy Filley; Csaba Csuzdi

2011-01-01

292

Method for determining toxicologically relevant cadmium residues in the earthworm Eisenia fetida  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated a method to isolate toxicologically relevant Cd in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed in a 14-d Cd bioaccumulation study. A procedure involving acid insoluble ash (AIA) content was combined with homogenization and centrifugation techniques to divide total earthworm Cd burdens into supernatant (metallothionein-bound), pellet (toxicologically active), and soil-associated Cd fractions. Whereas the supernatant fraction of the earthworm digests increased

Jason M. Conder; Lisa D. Seals; Roman P. Lanno

2002-01-01

293

Earthworm and belowground competition effects on plant productivity in a plant diversity gradient.  

PubMed

Diversity is one major factor driving plant productivity in temperate grasslands. Although decomposers like earthworms are known to affect plant productivity, interacting effects of plant diversity and earthworms on plant productivity have been neglected in field studies. We investigated in the field the effects of earthworms on plant productivity, their interaction with plant species and functional group richness, and their effects on belowground plant competition. In the framework of the Jena Experiment we determined plant community productivity (in 2004 and 2007) and performance of two phytometer plant species [Centaurea jacea (herb) and Lolium perenne (grass); in 2007 and 2008] in a plant species (from one to 16) and functional group richness gradient (from one to four). We sampled earthworm subplots and subplots with decreased earthworm density and reduced aboveground competition of phytometer plants by removing the shoot biomass of the resident plant community. Earthworms increased total plant community productivity (+11%), legume shoot biomass (+35%) and shoot biomass of the phytometer C. jacea (+21%). Further, phytometer performance decreased, i.e. belowground competition increased, with increasing plant species and functional group richness. Although single plant functional groups benefited from higher earthworm numbers, the effects did not vary with plant species and functional group richness. The present study indicates that earthworms indeed affect the productivity of semi-natural grasslands irrespective of the diversity of the plant community. Belowground competition increased with increasing plant species diversity. However, belowground competition was modified by earthworms as reflected by increased productivity of the phytometer C. jacea. Moreover, particularly legumes benefited from earthworm presence. Considering also previous studies, we suggest that earthworms and legumes form a loose mutualistic relationship affecting essential ecosystem functions in temperate grasslands, in particular decomposition and plant productivity. Further, earthworms likely alter competitive interactions among plants and the structure of plant communities by beneficially affecting certain plant functional groups. PMID:19526252

Eisenhauer, Nico; Milcu, Alexandru; Nitschke, Norma; Sabais, Alexander C W; Scherber, Christoph; Scheu, Stefan

2009-06-13

294

Influence of earthworms on soil properties and grass production in reclaimed cutover peat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of earthworms on grass growth and soil structure in reclaimed peat were studied in a glasshouse bucket experiment.\\u000a Cumulative grass yields from 13 cuts taken over a period of 20 months were 89% higher in organically fertilized and 19% higher\\u000a in inorganically fertilized buckets with earthworms than in similarly fertilized buckets without earthworms. When fertilizers\\u000a were withheld from

K. E. Boyle; J. P. Curry; E. P. Farrell

1997-01-01

295

Effect of Earthworm Feeding Guilds on Ingested Dissimilatory Nitrate Reducers and Denitrifiers in the Alimentary Canal of the Earthworm ? †  

PubMed Central

The earthworm gut is an anoxic nitrous oxide (N2O)-emitting microzone in aerated soils. In situ conditions of the gut might stimulate ingested nitrate-reducing soil bacteria linked to this emission. The objective of this study was to determine if dissimilatory nitrate reducers and denitrifiers in the alimentary canal were affected by feeding guilds (epigeic [Lumbricus rubellus], anecic [Lumbricus terrestris], and endogeic [Aporrectodea caliginosa]). Genes and gene transcripts of narG (encodes a subunit of nitrate reductase and targets both dissimilatory nitrate reducers and denitrifiers) and nosZ (encodes a subunit of N2O reductase and targets denitrifiers) were detected in guts and soils. Gut-derived sequences were similar to those of cultured and uncultured soil bacteria and to soil-derived sequences obtained in this study. Gut-derived narG sequences and narG terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) were affiliated mainly with Gram-positive organisms (Actinobacteria). The majority of gut- and uppermost-soil-derived narG transcripts were affiliated with Mycobacterium (Actinobacteria). In contrast, narG sequences indicative of Gram-negative organisms (Proteobacteria) were dominant in mineral soil. Most nosZ sequences and nosZ TRFs were affiliated with Bradyrhizobium (Alphaproteobacteria) and uncultured soil bacteria. TRF profiles indicated that nosZ transcripts were more affected by earthworm feeding guilds than were nosZ genes, whereas narG transcripts were less affected by earthworm feeding guilds than were narG genes. narG and nosZ transcripts were different and less diverse in the earthworm gut than in mineral soil. The collective results indicate that dissimilatory nitrate reducers and denitrifiers in the earthworm gut are soil derived and that ingested narG- and nosZ-containing taxa were not uniformly stimulated in the guts of worms from different feeding guilds.

Depkat-Jakob, Peter S.; Hilgarth, Maik; Horn, Marcus A.; Drake, Harold L.

2010-01-01

296

Gene expression analysis of CL-20-induced reversible neurotoxicity reveals GABA(A) receptors as potential targets in the earthworm Eisenia fetida.  

PubMed

The earthworm Eisenia fetida is one of the most used species in standardized soil ecotoxicity tests. End points such as survival, growth, and reproduction are eco-toxicologically relevant but provide little mechanistic insight into toxicity pathways, especially at the molecular level. Here we apply a toxicogenomic approach to investigate the mode of action underlying the reversible neurotoxicity of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20), a cyclic nitroamine explosives compound. We developed an E. fetida-specific shotgun microarray targeting 15119 unique E. fetida transcripts. Using this array we profiled gene expression in E. fetida in response to exposure to CL-20. Eighteen earthworms were exposed for 6 days to 0.2 ?g/cm(2) of CL-20 on filter paper, half of which were allowed to recover in a clean environment for 7 days. Nine vehicle control earthworms were sacrificed at days 6 and 13, separately. Electrophysiological measurements indicated that the conduction velocity of earthworm medial giant nerve fiber decreased significantly after 6-day exposure to CL-20, but was restored after 7 days of recovery. Total RNA was isolated from the four treatment groups including 6-day control, 6-day exposed, 13-day control, and 13-day exposed (i.e., 6-day exposure followed by 7-day recovery), and was hybridized to the 15K shotgun oligo array. Statistical and bioinformatic analyses suggest that CL-20 initiated neurotoxicity by noncompetitively blocking the ligand-gated GABA(A) receptor ion channel, leading to altered expression of genes involved in GABAergic, cholinergic, and Agrin-MuSK pathways. In the recovery phase, expression of affected genes returned to normality, possibly as a result of autophagy and CL-20 dissociation/metabolism. This study provides significant insights into potential mechanisms of CL-20-induced neurotoxicity and the recovery of earthworms from transient neurotoxicity stress. PMID:22191394

Gong, Ping; Guan, Xin; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Liang, Chun; Perkins, Edward J

2012-01-06

297

Involvement of the cholinergic system of CA1 on harmane-induced amnesia in the step-down passive avoidance test.  

PubMed

?-carboline alkaloids such as harmane (HA) are naturally present in the human food chain. They are derived from the plant Peganum harmala and have many cognitive effects. In the present study, effects of the nicotinic system of the dorsal hippocampus (CA1) on HA-induced amnesia and exploratory behaviors were examined. One-trial step-down and hole-board paradigms were used to assess memory retention and exploratory behaviors in adult male mice. Pre-training (15?mg/kg) but not pre-testing intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of HA decreased memory formation but did not alter exploratory behaviors. Moreover, pre-testing administration of nicotine (0.5?µg/mouse, intra-CA1) decreased memory retrieval, but induced anxiogenic-like behaviors. On the other hand, pre-test intra-CA1 injection of ineffective doses of nicotine (0.1 and 0.25?µg/mouse) fully reversed HA-induced impairment of memory after pre-training injection of HA (15?mg/kg, i.p.) which did not alter exploratory behaviors. Furthermore, pre-testing administration of mecamylamine (0.5, 1 and 2?µg/mouse, intra-CA1) did not alter memory retrieval but fully reversed HA-induced impairment of memory after pre-training injection of HA (15?mg/kg, i.p.) which had no effect on exploratory behaviors. In conclusion, the present findings suggest the involvement of the nicotinic cholinergic system in the HA-induced impairment of memory formation. PMID:21965190

Nasehi, Mohammad; Sharifi, Shahrbano; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza

2011-09-29

298

Pattern avoiding doubly alternating permutations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study pattern avoiding doubly alternating (DA) permutations, i.e., alternating (or zigzag) permutations whose inverse is also alternating. We exhibit a bijection between the 1234-avoiding permuta- tions and the 1234-avoiding DA permutations of twice the size using the Robinson-Schensted correspondence. Further, we present a bijection between the 1234- and 2134-avoiding DA permutations and we prove that the 2413-avoiding DA permutations

Erik Ouchterlony

299

Tracking and predation on earthworms by the invasive terrestrial planarian Bipalium adventitium (Tricladida, Platyhelminthes).  

PubMed

The potential ecological impact of exotic terrestrial planarians will be determined in part by their sensory abilities and predatory behavior. It has been suggested that these flatworms may only encounter their earthworm prey by chance, hence restricting the breadth of species they will feed upon and the number of microhabitats in which predator-prey interactions occur. We hypothesized that those flatworms that have already successfully invaded North America (genus Bipalium) actually detect and follow chemical trails of earthworms and possess the behavioral repertoire needed to feed on the prey in a range of microhabitats. We examined: (1) the tendency of Bipalium adventitium to follow chemical trails left by injured and un-injured earthworms; (2) the behavioral repertoire and predatory success of B. adventitium feeding on three earthworm species in subterranean tunnels; and (3) the response of flatworms to the reportedly defensive secretions of the earthworm Eisenia fetida in tunnels. B. adventitium detected and followed trails of earthworm mucus and secretions left by injured and un-injured earthworms. Flatworms followed trails on a range of substrates and pursued and captured three species of earthworms in subterranean tunnels, including individuals many times their mass. Although most behavior exhibited during underground attacks was similar to that reported for surface encounters, the flatworms also behaved in ways that blocked earthworm escape from tunnels. The flatworms were less successful at preying on E. fetida than on Lumbricus rubellus and Lumbricus terrestris in underground tunnels and showed some aversion to the secretions from E. fetida. PMID:15518983

Fiore, Cara; Tull, Jamie L; Zehner, Sean; Ducey, Peter K

2004-11-30

300

Toxicity testing of trinitrotoluene-contaminated soil composts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mutatox{trademark} assay and earthworm acute toxicity test were employed to evaluate the efficacy of composting in reducing the toxicity of TNT-contaminated soils. The Mutatox assay is a proprietary bacterial bioluminescence test that determines the mutagenic potential of sample extracts. The earthworm acute toxicity test was chosen because it exposes the organisms to the unaltered contaminant\\/solid matrix. Rockeye soil, a

M. E. Honeycutt; V. A. McFarland; A. S. Jarvis

1997-01-01

301

Avoidable waste management costs  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

1995-01-01

302

In situ localization and substrate specificity of earthworm protease-II and protease-III-1 from Eisenia fetida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the function in fibrinolysis of earthworm proteases has been studied. In our experiments, earthworm protease-II (EfP-II) and earthworm protease-III-1 (EfP-III-1) were isolated and purified from Eisenia fetida. As shown by the assay of sections of the earthworm on fibrin plates, the enzymic activity was mainly detected around the clitellum. In the presence of anti-EfP-II or anti-EfP-III-1 serum, the immunological

Jing Zhao; Rong Xiao; Jian He; Rong Pan; Rong Fan; Cheng Wu; Xiang Liu; Ying Liu; Rong-Qiao He

2007-01-01

303

Genotoxicity assessment in Eisenia andrei coelomocytes: a study of the induction of DNA damage and micronuclei in earthworms exposed to B[a]P- and TCDD-spiked soils.  

PubMed

Earthworms are useful indicators of soil quality and are widely used as model organisms in terrestrial ecotoxicology. The assessment of genotoxic effects caused by environmental pollutants is of great concern because of their relevance in carcinogenesis. In this work, the earthworm Eisenia andrei was exposed for 10 and 28 days to artificial standard soil contaminated with environmentally relevant concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) (0.1, 10, 50ppm) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD) (1×10(-5), 1×10(-4), 2×10(-3)ppm). Micronucleus (MNi) induction was evaluated in earthworm coelomocytes after DNA staining with the fluorescent dye DAPI. In the same cells, the DNA damage was assessed by means of the alkaline comet assay. Induction of MNi in coelomocytes, identified according to standard criteria, was demonstrated. B[a]P exposure for 10 and 28 days induced a significant increase in MNi frequency. In TCDD-treated earthworms, a significant effect on chromosomal damage was observed at all the concentrations used; surprisingly, greater effects were induced in animals exposed to the lowest concentration (1×10(-5)ppm). The data of the comet assay revealed a significant increase in the level of DNA damage in coelomocytes of earthworms exposed for 10 and 28 days to the different concentrations of B[a]P and TCDD. The results show that the comet and MN assays were able to reveal genotoxic effects in earthworms exposed even to the lowest concentrations of both chemicals tested here. The combined application in E. andrei of the comet assay and the micronucleus test, which reflect different biological mechanisms, may be suggested to identify genotoxic effects induced in these invertebrates by environmental contaminants in terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:22459015

Sforzini, Susanna; Boeri, Marta; Dagnino, Alessandro; Oliveri, Laura; Bolognesi, Claudia; Viarengo, Aldo

2012-03-20

304

Patterns of litter disappearance in a northern hardwood forest invaded by exotic earthworms.  

PubMed

A field study was conducted to evaluate the effects of exotic earthworm invasions on the rates of leaf litter disappearance in a northern hardwood forest in southcentral New York, USA. Specifically, we assessed whether differences in litter quality and the species composition of exotic earthworm communities affected leaf litter disappearance rates. Two forest sites with contrasting communities of exotic earthworms were selected, and disappearance rates of sugar maple and red oak litter were estimated in litter boxes in adjacent earthworm-free, transition, and earthworm-invaded plots within each site. After 540 days in the field, 1.7-3 times more litter remained in the reference plots than in the earthworm-invaded plots. In the earthworm-invaded plots, rates of disappearance of sugar maple litter were higher than for oak litter during the first year, but by the end of the experiment, the amount of sugar maple and oak litter remaining in the earthworm-invaded plots was identical within each site. The composition of the earthworm communities significantly affected the patterns of litter disappearance. In the site dominated by the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris and the endogeic Aporrectodea tuberculata, the percentage of litter remaining after 540 days (approximately 17%) was significantly less than at the site dominated by L. rubellus and Octolasion tyrtaeum (approximately 27%). This difference may be attributed to the differences in feeding behavior of the two litter-feeding species: L. terrestris buries entire leaves in vertical burrows, whereas L. rubellus usually feeds on litter at the soil surface, leaving behind leaf petioles and veins. Our results showed that earthworms not only accelerate litter disappearance rates, but also may reduce the differences in decomposition rates that result from different litter qualities at later stages of decay. Similarly, our results indicate that earthworm effects on decomposition vary with earthworm community composition. Furthermore, because earthworm invasion can involve a predictable shift in community structure along invasion fronts or through time, the community dynamics of invasion are important in predicting the spatial and temporal effects of earthworm invasion on litter decomposition, especially at later stages of decay. PMID:16705969

Suárez, Esteban R; Fahey, Timothy J; Yavitt, Joseph B; Groffman, Peter M; Bohlen, Patrick J

2006-02-01

305

Reactive Collision Avoidance for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Doppler Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Research into reactive collision avoidance for unmanned aerial vehicles has been conducted on unmanned terrestrial and mini aerial vehicles utilising active Doppler radar obstacle detection sensors. Flight tests conducted by flying a mini UAV at an obstacle have confirmed that a simple reactive collision avoidance al- gorithm enables aerial vehicles to autonomously avoid obstacles. This builds upon simulation work

Andrew Viquerat; Lachlan Blackhall; Alistair Reid; Salah Sukkarieh; Graham Brooker

2007-01-01

306

Avoiding dangerous climate change  

SciTech Connect

In 2005 the UK Government hosted the Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change conference to take an in-depth look at the scientific issues associated with climate change. This volume presents the most recent findings from the leading international scientists that attended the conference. The topics addressed include critical thresholds and key vulnerabilities of the climate system, impacts on human and natural systems, socioeconomic costs and benefits of emissions pathways, and technological options for meeting different stabilisation levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Contents are: Foreword from Prime Minister Tony Blair; Introduction from Rajendra Pachauri, Chairman of the IPCC; followed by 41 papers arranged in seven sections entitled: Key Vulnerabilities of the Climate System and Critical Thresholds; General Perspectives on Dangerous Impacts; Key Vulnerabilities for Ecosystems and Biodiversity; Socio-Economic Effects; Regional Perspectives; Emission Pathways; and Technological Options. Four papers have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

Hans Joachim Schellnhuber; Wolfgang Cramer; Nebojsa Nakicenovic; Tom Wigley; Gary Yohe (eds.)

2006-02-15

307

Riboflavin content in autofluorescent earthworm coelomocytes is species-specific.  

PubMed

We have recently shown that a large proproportion of earthworm coelomocytes exhibit strong autofluorescence in some species (Dendrobaena veneta, Allolobophora chlorotica, Dendrodrilus rubidus, Eisenia fetida, and Octolasion spp.), while autofluorescent coelomocytes are very scarce in representatives of Lumbricus spp. and Aporrectodea spp. Riboflavin (vitamin B2) was identified as a major fluorophore in Eisenia jetida coelomocytes. The main aim of the present experiments was to quantify riboflavin content in autofluorescent coelomocytes (eleocytes) from several earthworm species through a combination of flow cytometric and spectrofluorometric measurements. Spectrofluorometry of coelomocyte lysates showed that riboflavin was non-detectable in the coelomocytes of Aporrectodea spp. and Lumbricus spp., but was a prominent constituent of lysates from species with autofluorescent eleocytes. In the latter case, riboflavin content was the highest in E. fetida, followed by Octolasion spp. > A. chlorotica > D. rubidus. The riboflavin content of coelomocytes correlates positively with eleocyte autofluorescence intensity measured by flow cytometry and visible with fluorescence microscopy. PMID:17219722

P?ytycz, Barbara; Homa, Joanna; Kozio?, Beata; Rózanowska, Ma?gorzata; Morgan, A John

2006-01-01

308

Using Flow Cytometry to Measure Phagocytic Uptake in Earthworms  

PubMed Central

This laboratory module familiarizes students with flow cytometry while acquiring quantitative reasoning skills during data analysis. Leukocytes, also known as coelomocytes (including hyaline and granular amoebocytes, and chloragocytes), from Eisenia hortensis (earthworms) are isolated from the coelomic cavity and used for phagocytosis of fluorescent Escherichia coli. Students learn how to set up in vitro cellular assays and become familiar with theoretical principles of flow cytometry. Histograms based on fluorescence and scatter properties combined with gating options permit students to restrict their analyses to particular subsets of coelomocytes when measuring phagocytosis, a fundamentally important innate immune mechanism used in earthworms. Statistical analysis of data is included in laboratory reports which serve as the primary assessment instrument.

Fuller-Espie, Sheryl L.

2010-01-01

309

Reaction of microorganisms to the digestive fluid of earthworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction of soil bacteria and fungi to the digestive fluid of the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa was studied. The fluid was obtained by centrifugation of the native enzymes of the digestive tract. The inhibition of growth\\u000a of certain bacteria, spores, and fungal hyphae under the effect of extracts from the anterior and middle sections of the digestive\\u000a tract of A.

N. V. Khomyakov; S. A. Kharin; T. Yu. Nechitailo; P. N. Golyshin; A. V. Kurakov; B. A. Byzov; D. G. Zvyagintsev

2007-01-01

310

Accumulation of heavy metals in the earthworm Eisenia foetida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conversion of waste-activated sludge into egesta by the earthworm Eisenia foetida resulted in neither an increase nor decrease of 0.1 N HCl-extractable cadmium, copper, nickel, lead, or zinc. The addition of 2500 ppM copper as copper sulfate to activated sludge caused 100% mortality whthin 1 week, though feeding upon nonamended activated sludges with up to 1500 ppM copper over several

R. Hartenstein; E. F. Neuhauser; J. Collier

1980-01-01

311

Earthworms and Their Use in Eco(toxico)logical Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A healthy terrestrial food web is essential for the sustainable use of soils. Earthworms are key species within terrestrial\\u000a food webs and perform a number of essential functionalities like decomposition of organic litter, tillage and aeration of\\u000a the soil, and enhancement of microbial activity. Chemicals may impact the functions of the soil by directly affecting one\\u000a or more of these

Willie J. G. M. Peijnenburg; Martina G. Vijver

312

Removal of invasive shrubs reduces exotic earthworm populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive species are a leading threat to native ecosystems, and research regarding their effective control is at the forefront\\u000a of applied ecology. Exotic facilitation has been credited with advancing the success of several aggressive invasive species.\\u000a Here, we suggest using the knowledge of exotic facilitations to control invasive earthworm populations. In northern hardwood\\u000a forests, the invasive shrubs Rhamnus cathartica (buckthorn) and

Michael D. Madritch; Richard L. Lindroth

2009-01-01

313

AUV Experiments in Obstacle Avoidance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reactive Obstacle Avoidance 'OA' is an important step in attaining greater autonomy in Autonomous Underwater Vehicles 'AUV'. For AUVs that conduct underwater surveys, avoidance of uncharted obstacles can improve vehicle survivability. This paper discusses...

A. J. Healey D. P. Horner S. P. Kragelund

2005-01-01

314

Short-term stabilization of grape marc through earthworms.  

PubMed

The winery industry generates vast amounts of organic waste during the various stages of wine production. Among the possible methodological alternatives available for its treatment, vermicomposting is one of the best-known processes for the biological stabilization of solid organic wastes by transforming them into safer and more stabilized materials suitable for application to soil. In this study we carried out a mesocosm experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of the active phase of vermicomposting for the stabilization of grape marc, an enriched lignocellulosic by-product obtained after the grape crushing and pressing stages in wine production. For this we analysed the chemical, biochemical and microbiological properties of the product resulting from this phase, in comparison with those in a control treatment. Earthworm activity reduced the abundance of both bacterial and fungal PLFA biomarkers. Decreases in microbial activity and in protease and cellulase activities were also attributed to the presence of earthworms. The differences in microbial communities were accompanied by a reduction in the labile C pool and the cellulose content. These results indicate that earthworms played a key role in the stabilization of the grape marc in the short-term, via its effects on organic matter decomposition and microbial biomass and activity. PMID:21277083

Gómez-Brandón, María; Lazcano, Cristina; Lores, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge

2011-01-12

315

AUV experiments in obstacle avoidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive obstacle avoidance (OA) is an important step in attaining greater autonomy in autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV). For AUVs that conduct underwater surveys, avoidance of uncharted obstacles can improve vehicle survivability. This paper discusses initial experiments at the Center for AUV Research in obstacle detection and avoidance using the Naval Postgraduate School ARIES AUV with the Blueview Blazed Array forward

D. P. Horner; A. J. Healey; S. P. Kragelund

2005-01-01

316

Obstacle avoidance and path planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outlines the state-of-the-art in obstacle avoidance and path planning for industrial robots that is practical on the current generation of computer hardware. Describes practical vehicle planners and planning for manipulators. Summarizes that obstacle avoidance and path planning are techniques with differing goals. Sonar is the standard method of obstacle avoidance systems which is largely limited by the reliability of the

Stephen Cameron

1994-01-01

317

Tax avoidance - a natural experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to empirically study if and to what extent people legally reduce their tax payments. There are few empirical studies of tax avoidance although avoidance may seriously affect the possibilities to raise tax revenue. I use a sample of Swedish siblings receiving inheritances in 2004. These children of deceased had the opportunity to avoid inheritance

Henry Ohlsson

2007-01-01

318

Reduction of total coliform numbers during vermicomposting is caused by short-term direct effects of earthworms on microorganisms and depends on the dose of application of pig slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

During vermicomposting of organic waste, the interactions between epigeic earthworms and the detrital microbial community lead to decreases in the abundance of some potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Despite its importance, little is known about the mechanisms involved and the factors that affect the intensity of this effect. In the present study, we carried out three experiments to test the effect of

Fernando Monroy; Manuel Aira; Jorge Domínguez

2009-01-01

319

Patterns Of Litter Disappearance In A Northern Hardwood Forest Invaded By Exotic Earthworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Archbold Biological Station, Lake Placid, Florida 33852 USA Abstract. A field study was conducted to evaluate the effects of exotic earthworm invasions on the rates of leaf litter disappearance in a northern hardwood forest in south- central New York, USA. Specifically, we assessed whether differences in litter quality and the species composition of exotic earthworm communities affected leaf litter

Esteban R. Suárez; Timothy J. Fahey; Joseph B. Yavitt; Peter M. Groffman; Patrick J. Bohlen

2006-01-01

320

Effect of earthworm casts on protein synthesis in radish ( Raphanus sativum ) and lettuce ( Lactuga sativa ) seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protein-synthesizing capacity of 3-day-old seedlings of radish and lettuce grown in the presence of earthworm casts was investigated using L-14-C-leucine incorporation. The results showed that earthworm casts increased protein synthesis by 24% for lettuce and 32% for radish, althought no significant differences in protein content were evident.

U. Tomati; E. Galli; A. Grappelli; G. Di Lena

1990-01-01

321

Diversity and Distribution of Earthworms in a Subtropical Forest Ecosystem in Uttarakhand, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diversity and distribution of earthworms along with the various factors influencing their distribution viz. moisture content, soil temperature, pH, oxidizable organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and calcium were determined in a subtropical forest ecosystem in the foothills of the Shivalik Himalayas in India. Six species of earthworms representing the two families Octochaetidae and Megascolecidae, were recorded during our study period

NAMITA JOSHI; SWATI AGA

322

Potential of two epigeic and two anecic earthworm species in vermicomposting of water hyacinth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of two epigeic species (Eudrilus eugeniae Kinberg, and Perionyx excavatus Perrier) and two anecic species (Lampito mauritii Kinberg and Drawida willsi Michaelson) of earthworms was assessed in terms of efficiency and sustainability of vermicomposting water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, Mart. Solm.). In different vermireactors, each run in duplicate with one of the four species of earthworms, and 75 g

S Gajalakshmi; E. V Ramasamy; S. A Abbasi

2001-01-01

323

Earthworms in New Zealand sheep and dairy-grazed pastures with focus on anecic Aporrectodea longa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms play an important role as primary decomposers in the incorporation and initial mixing of plant litter. This study explored the response of earthworms to increasing fertiliser inputs, pasture production and livestock numbers (and their influence on food availability and soil physical condition) on six different managements in sheep-grazed and fifteen different managements in dairy-grazed pastures in a variety of

Nicole L. Schon; Alec D. Mackay; Ross A. Gray; Maria A. Minor

324

Responses of Earthworms to Organic Matter at Different Stages of Decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to examine the responses of earthworms to soil organic matter and litter at different decomposition stages and their contributions in litter decomposition processes in southern subtropical areas of China. Two plantations were selected as the study sites: Site I was dominated by the exotic endogeic earthworm species Ocnerodrilus occidentalis; Site II was dominated by epigeic species

Jian-Xiong LI; Wei-Xin ZHANG; Chong-Hui LIAO; Yue-Ping YANG; Sheng-Lei FU

2009-01-01

325

Earthworm species composition affects the soil bacterial community and net nitrogen mineralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the effects of species diversity within taxonomic groups on nutrient cycling is important for understanding the role of soil biota in sustainable agriculture. We hypothesized that earthworm species specifically affect nitrogen mineralization, characteristically for their ecological group classifications, and that earthworm species interactions would affect mineralization through competition and facilitation effects. A mesocosm experiment was conducted to investigate

Maria B. Postma-Blaauw; Jaap Bloem; Jack H. Faber; Jan Willem van Groenigen; Ron G. M. de Goede; Lijbert Brussaard

2006-01-01

326

Root development and earthworm movement in relation to soil strength and structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors which influence the ability of plant roots and earthworms to penetrate soil are reviewed. Plant factors include the hydraulic conductivity, yield stress and extensibility of the cell walls and the osmotic potential of the cell contents. Earthworm factors include the tensions than can be generated by the longitudinal and circular muscles. Soil factors include the penetration resistance and water

W. R. Whalley; A. R. Dexter

1994-01-01

327

The impact of earthworms on the abundance of Collembola: improvement of food resources or of habitat?  

Microsoft Academic Search

I assessed the direct influence of earthworm excretions, and the impact of earthworms through their action on the soil structure (increased macroporosity), on the population dynamics of the collembolan species Heteromurus nitidus. The intestinal content of Collembola arising from cultures on different soil types was observed, and two experimental cultures of H. nitidus were run: (1) a culture performed on

Sandrine Salmon

2004-01-01

328

EXOTIC EUROPEAN EARTHWORM INVASION DYNAMICS IN NORTHERN HARDWOOD FORESTS OF MINNESOTA, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

European earthworms are invading previously worm-free hardwood forests across Minnesota and the Great Lakes region. In many of these forests, earthworm invasions have been associated with the loss of a previously thick forest floor. The ability of earth- worms to alter and control ecosystem processes has been demonstrated in agricultural systems, but the dynamics and impact of these invasions in

Cindy M. Hale; Lee E. Frelich; Peter B. Reich

2005-01-01

329

A new ultrasound protocol for extrusion of coelomocyte cells from the earthworm Eisenia fetida  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is mounting evidence that earthworms could be used as a sentinel species for soil ecotoxicity evaluation. In this aspect, phagocytosis by coelomocytes was shown to be a sensitive biomarker of exposure to xenobiotics. In this paper, we introduce a simple method for ultrasound extrusion of earthworm coelomocytes that generates a high cell yield, does not interfere with phagocytic competence,

M Hendawi; S Sauvé; M Ashour; P Brousseau; Michel Fournier

2004-01-01

330

Age-specific immunocompetence of the earthworm Eisenia andrei: exposure to methylmercury chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little information with regard to the sensitivity of the immune system of earthworms to toxicants is currently available. To that effect, we evaluated the yield of coelomocyte immune cells and their phagocytosis potential for four different stages of development of the earthworm Eisenia andrei both for in vitro and in vivo exposure. Cell viability was similar among size classes; extruded

Sébastien Sauvé; Michel Fournier

2005-01-01

331

Resistance to arsenic-toxicity in a population of the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specimens of the earthworms Lumbricus terrestris L. and L. rubellus Hoffmeister from an uncontaminated site rapidly deteriorated in condition when kept in spoil rich in metal contaminants and arsenic. The site from which the spoil was collected supports several earthworm species, L. rubellus being dominant. Native L. rubellus survived for 12 weeks in spoil in the laboratory. L.rubellus collected from

Caroline J Langdon; Trevor G Piearce; Stuart Black; Kirk T Semple

1999-01-01

332

Toxicity and bioaccumulation of chlorophenols in earthworms, in relation to bioavailability in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute toxicity of five chlorophenols for two earthworm species was determined in two sandy soils differing in organic matter content and the results were compared with adsorption data. Adsorption increased with increasing organic matter content of the soils, but for tetra- and pentachlorophenol was also influenced by soil pH. Earthworm toxicity was significantly higher in the soil with a

C. A. van Gestel; W. C. Ma

1988-01-01

333

Comparison of earthworm and fish-derived chemicals eliciting prey attack by garter snakes ( Thamnophis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Materials eliciting increased tongue flicking and prey attack in garter snakes were isolated from both earthworm and fish prey. New extraction methods based on chloroform-methanol mixtures are valuable adjuncts to the more typical aqueous preparations. Both high- and low-molecular weight components from earthworms and fish were active. The similarity between the active chemicals in these two classes of prey was

Gordon M. Burghardt; Scot E. Goss; Fred M. Schell

1988-01-01

334

Epigeic earthworms increase soil arthropod populations during first steps of decomposition of organic matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms and soil arthropods are major groups involved in soil decomposition processes. Although the interaction between these organisms can influence decomposition rates, little is known about their population dynamics during the decomposition of organic matter. In this study, we used the pig manure decomposition process to evaluate the effects of the presence of the epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida on seven

Fernando Monroy; Manuel Aira; Jorge Domínguez

2011-01-01

335

The Comet Assay as Biomarker of Heavy Metal Genotoxicity in Earthworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ubiquitous occurring earthworm species, Eisenia fetida, were exposed to nickel chloride to determine whether the heavy metal Ni caused DNA damage, as measured by the comet (single cell gel electrophoresis) assay. Primary cell cultures of earthworm coelomocytes were exposed in vitro and whole animals either in spiked artificial soil water or in spiked cattle manure substrates. Comets formed were

S. A. Reinecke; A. J. Reinecke

2004-01-01

336

Contrasted effect of biochar and earthworms on rice growth and resource allocation in different soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adding biochar to soils and maintaining high earthworm biomasses are potential ways to increase the fertility of tropical soils and the sustainability of crop production in the spirit of agroecology and ecological engineering. However, a thorough functional assessment of biochar effect on plant growth and resource allocations is so far missing. Moreover, earthworms and biochar increase mineral nutrient availability through

Diana Noguera; Marco Rondón; Kam-Rigne Laossi; Valerio Hoyos; Patrick Lavelle; Maria Helena Cruz de Carvalho; Sébastien Barot

2010-01-01

337

Influence of soil ingestion by earthworms on the availability of potassium in soil: An incubation experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An incubation experiment was conducted to study the changes that occur in the K status of soil due to earthworm activity. Samples of Tokomaru silt loam soil were inoculated with the common pasture earthworm species Aporrectodea caliginosa and incubated for 21 days. Aliquots of moist soil were analyzed for exchangeable K by leaching with neutral molar ammonium acetate at 1:50

A. Basker; A. N. Macgregor; J. H. Kirkman

1992-01-01

338

In vitro nanoparticle toxicity to rat alveolar cells and coelomocytes from the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus.  

PubMed

Abstract Sensitivity of immune cells (coelomocytes) of Lumbricus rubellus earthworms was investigated for exposure to selected nanoparticles, in order to obtain further insight in mechanisms of effects observed after in vivo C(60) exposure. In the in vivo study, tissue damage appeared to occur without accompanying increased immune responses. Coelomocytes exposed in vitro to C(60) showed no decrease of their cellular viability, but demonstrated a decrease in gene expression of the cytokine-like protein CCF-1, indicating immunosuppression. Experiments with NR8383 rat macrophage cells and tri-block copolymer nanoparticles were used to compare sensitivity and to demonstrate the usefulness of coelomocytes as a test system for nano-immunotoxicity, respectively. Overall, the results imply that sensitivity towards nanoparticles differs between cell types and nanoparticles. Moreover, this study indicates that injuries in absence of an immune response, observed after in vivo C(60) exposure in our earlier work, are caused by immunosuppression rather than coelomocyte mortality. PMID:23102209

van der Ploeg, Merel Jc; van den Berg, Johannes Hj; Bhattacharjee, Sourav; de Haan, Laura Hj; Ershov, Dmitry S; Fokkink, Remco G; Zuilhof, Han; Rietjens, Ivonne McM; van den Brink, Nico W

2012-11-27

339

[Polycyclic musks exposure affects gene expression of specific proteins in earthworm Eisenia fetida].  

PubMed

To investigate the changes in gene expression of earthworm specific proteins following long-term exposure to low-dose polycyclic musks in soil, the mRNA expression levels of the four representative protein-coding genes (HSP70, CRT, cyPA, TCTP) were examined in earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to polycyclic musks using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The purpose of this study was to investigate mRNA expression profiles of test protein genes in response to sublethal galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN) for 28 d exposure. The analysis results of both sequence alignment and melting curves of RT-qPCR reactions showed that the selected primers were appropriately qualified for quantitative mRNA analysis. mRNA expressions of HSP70 gene were not significantly changed in Eisenia fetida exposed to low concentrations of AHTN (less than 30 microg x g(-1)) and HHCB (less than 50 microg x g(-1)). But HSP70 gene expressions were significantly down-regulated at concentrations of AHTN or HHCB equal to or greater than 30 or 50 microg x g(-1). However, up-regulation of CRT gene expressions was induced in response to all test concentrations of AHTN and HHCB. Both cyPA and TCTP gene expressions were not varied compared to control groups after 28 days of exposure. Overall, the results indicated that HSP70 and CRT genes expression patterns might be potential early molecular biomarkers for predicting the harmful exposure level and ecotoxicological effects of polycyclic musks contaminated soil. PMID:23914539

Chen, Chun; Liu, Xiao-wei; Zheng, Shun-an; Zhou, Qi-xing; Li, Song

2013-05-01

340

Arsenic resistance and cycling in earthworms residing at a former gold mine in Canada.  

PubMed

Earthworms (Lumbricus castaneous and Dendrodrilus rubidus), their host soils and leaf litter were collected from a former gold mine with widespread arsenic (As) contamination in Nova Scotia, Canada and determined for total and speciated As. Resistance to As toxicity was investigated by measurement of DNA damage in exposed earthworm populations using the comet assay. Arsenobetaine (AB) was observed at low concentration in the earthworms but not in the host soil or leaf litter. Several different organoarsenic species were observed in the leaf litter and only inorganic As was found in the host soils. The results suggest that 1) adaptation to As toxicity in earthworms is widespread and not particular to a single species, 2) AB originates in the earthworm and not the consumed soil or leaf litter and 3) as previously hypothesised (Button et al., 2010), biotransformation of inorganic As to AB is not likely involved in the adaptation. PMID:22683483

Button, Mark; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J

2012-06-08

341

Abandoned coal mining sites: using ecotoxicological tests to support an industrial organic sludge amendment.  

PubMed

The different stages involved in coal mining-related activities result in a degraded landscape and sites associated with large amounts of dumped waste material. Remediation of these contaminated soils can be carried out by application of industrial organic sludge if the concerns regarding the potential negative environmental impacts of this experimental practice are properly addressed. In this context, the objective of this study was to use ecotoxicological tests to determine the quantity of organic industrial sludge that is required as a soil amendment to restore soil production while avoiding environmental impact. Chemical analysis of the solids (industrial sludge and soil) and their leachates was carried out as well as a battery of ecotoxicity tests on enzymes (hydrolytic activity), bacteria, algae, daphnids, earthworms, and higher plants, according to standardized methodologies. Solid and leachate samples of coal-contaminated soil were more toxic than those of industrial sludge towards enzyme activity, bacteria, algae, daphnids, and earthworms. In the case of the higher plants (lettuce, corn, wild cabbage, and Surinam cherry) the industrial sludge was more toxic than the coal-contaminated soil, and a soil/sludge mixture (66:34 % dry weight basis) had a stimulatory effect on the Surinam cherry biomass. The ecotoxicological assessment of the coal-contaminated soil remediation using sludge as an amendment is very important to determine application rates that could promote a stimulatory effect on agronomic species without negatively affecting the environment. PMID:23114837

Chiochetta, Claudete G; Radetski, Marilice R; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Tischer, Vinícius; Tiepo, Erasmo N; Radetski, Claudemir M

2012-11-01

342

Testing Honey Bees' Avoidance of Predators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many high school science students do not encounter opportunities for authentic science inquiry in their formal coursework. Ecological field studies can provide such opportunities. The purpose of this project was to teach students about the process of science by designing and conducting experiments on whether and how honey bees (Apis mellifera)…

Robinson, Jesse Wade; Nieh, James C.; Goodale, Eben

2012-01-01

343

Impact of age of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantation on earthworm communities of West Tripura (India).  

PubMed

A comparative analysis of earthworm communities was carried out in the rubber plantations (Hevea brasiliensis) of different age groups in West Tripura to understand the impact of such exotic and monoculture plantation in biodiversity conservation. Earthworm communities were studied on monthly basis over a period of one year (2006-2007) in the 3, 10, 14, 20 and 25 year-old plantations. Among twelve earthworm species collected from the studied sites, six species belonged to Octochaetidae [Eutyphoeus assomensis Stephenson, Eutyphoeus comillahnus Michaelsen, Lennogaster chittagongensis (Stephensen), Octochaetona beatrix Gates, Dichogaster offinis Michaelsen, Lennogaster yeicus (Stephensen)], two species each to Megascolecidae [Metaphire houlleti (Perrier), Konchurio sp. 1] and Moniligastridae [Drowida nepalensis Michaelsen, Drawida papillifer papillifer Stephenson], one species each to Glossoscolecidae [Pontoscolex corethrurus (Muller)] and Ocnerodrilidae [Gordiodrilus elegans Beddard]. Exotic species P corethrurus, M. houlleti and native peregrine species like D. nepolensis and D. papillifer papillifer were distributed in all the age groups of plantation, while other species showed restricted distribution. P. corethrurus contributed more than 60% biomass and 70% density of earthworm communities in rubber plantation. With aging of rubber plantations both the densities and biomasses of earthworms increased. High contents of polyphenol, flavonoid and lignin in the litters of 3 and 10 year-old-rubber plantations through their effects on food intake, probably resulted to low biomass values of earthworms in those age groups of plantation. With further increase in the age of plantations beyond 10 years, polyphenol, flavonoid and lignin contents decreased. Accordingly the biomass of earthworms increased with increase in the age of plantation. Soil moisture increased with increase in the age of plantation and there was a good positive correlation between soil moisture and earthworm biomass (p < 0.01). Density, biomass and dominance of earthworms increased while species diversity, species richness and species evenness of earthworm community were decreased with increase in the age of rubber plantation. PMID:24006808

Chaudhuri, P S; Bhattacharjee, Subhalaxmi; Dey, Animesh; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila; Bhattacharya, Dipto

2013-01-01

344

Earthworms as colonisers: primary colonisation of contaminated land, and sediment and soil waste deposits.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the role of earthworms in the early colonisation of contaminated soils as well as sediment and waste deposits, which are worm-free because of anthropogenic activities such as open-cast mining, soil sterilisation, consistent pollution or remediation of contaminated soil. Earthworms live in close interaction with their soil environment and are able to change it considerably by their burrowing and litter comminuting behaviour. While earthworms have been studied extensively, several questions still remain unanswered such as: What are the characteristics of successful early colonisers? Do they function well in dispersal, individual establishment or population growth? Do the negative environmental conditions in these kinds of anthropogenic soils hamper colonization or are these colonizers relatively resistant to it? To what extent does colonization change the characteristics of the colonized substrate? In short, do earthworms impact the soil? In this paper, the characteristics that make earthworms successful colonisers are briefly described as well as which species are the most successful and under what circumstances, and what do earthworms contribute to the total process of succession. We propose that it is not so much eco-type or r-K strategy that govern success and succession of earthworm colonisation but rather environmental flexibility not only towards pH, desiccation, and temperature but also towards contaminants such as heavy metals. Moreover, the formation of an organic litter layer, in close connection with re-vegetation of the area, is essential for establishing earthworm populations, which, at first, are mainly superficially and shallow active species. The burrowing and organic matter digesting activity of these earthworms changes the upper soil to a well mixed humus layer suitable for deep burrowing earthworm species. PMID:20138645

Eijsackers, H

2010-02-06

345

MEST- avoid next extinction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asteroid 2011 AG5 will impact on Earth in 2040. (See Donald K. Yoemans, ``Asteroid 2011 AG5 - A Reality Check,'' NASA-JPL, 2012) In 2011, The author say: the dark hole will take the dark comet to impact our solar system in 20 years, and give a systemic model between the sun and its companion-dark hole to explain why were there periodicity mass extinction on earth. (see Dayong Cao, BAPS.2011.CAL.C1.7, BAPS.2011.DFD.LA.24, BAPS.2012.APR.K1.78 and BAPS.2011.APR.K1.17) The dark Asteroid 2011 AG5 (as a dark comet) is made of the dark matter which has a space-time (as frequence-amplitude square) center- a different systemic model from solar systemic model. It can asborb the space-time and wave. So it is ``dark.'' When many dark matters hit on our earth, they can break our atom structure and our genetic code to trigger the Mass Extinction. In our experiments, consciousness can change the systematic model and code by a life-informational technology. So it can change the output signals of the solar cell. (see Dayong Cao, BAPS.2011.MAR.C1.286 and BAPS.2012.MAR.P33.14) So we will develop the genetic code of lives to evolution and sublimation, will use the dark matter to change the systemic model between dark hole and sun and will avoid next extinction.

Cao, Dayong

2012-11-01

346

Calcium-lead interactions involving earthworms. Part 1: The effect of exogenous calcium on lead accumulation by earthworms under field and laboratory conditions.  

PubMed

Earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus and Dendrodrilus rubidus) were collected from several acidic and calcareous abandoned ferrous metalliferous mine sites. Tissue lead concentrations were substantially lower than the total soil lead concentrations, except at one site (Cwmystwyth) where the tissue lead concentrations of both species were approximately 5 to 10 times higher than that of the soil. Soil lead was the major factor in determining the tissue lead concentration, although it was demonstrated that both soil pH and soil calcium concentration could markedly increase the % variance in tissue lead concentration. These findings help explain the apparent anomaly in tissue lead concentrations of earthworms from Cwmystwyth, where the soil is acidic and has exceptionally low calcium concentrations. Soil-liming experiments provided supportive evidence that soil pH, coupled with soil calcium, influences lead accumulation by earthworms, but a filter paper feeding experiment provided unequivocal evidence that soil calcium concentration alone can influence lead accumulation by earthworms. It is concluded that, although lead accumulation by earthworms is influenced by both physico-chemical and biochemical mechanisms, the latter over-rides the former, i.e. soil calcium is more important factor in determining the accumulation of lead earthworms than is soil pH. PMID:15092534

Morgan, J E; Morgan, A J

1988-01-01

347

Corporate Tax Avoidance and High Powered Incentives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the links between corporate tax avoidance, the growth of high-powered incentives for managers, and the structure of corporate governance. We develop and test a simple model that highlights the role of complementarities between tax sheltering and managerial diversion in determining how high-powered incentives influence tax sheltering decisions. The model generates the testable hypothesis that firm governance characteristics

Mihir A. Desai; Dhammika Dharmapala

2004-01-01

348

Healthcare avoidance: a critical review.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to provide a critical review and synthesis of theoretical and research literature documenting the impact of avoidance on healthcare behaviors, identify the factors that influence healthcare avoidance and delay in the adult population, and propose a direction for future research. The Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior, Theory of Care-Seeking Behavior, the Transtheoretical Model, and the Behavioral Model of Health Services Use/Utilization are utilized to elaborate on the context within which individual intention to engage in healthcare behaviors occurs. Research literature on the concept of healthcare avoidance obtained by using computerized searches of CINAHL, MEDLINE, PSYCH INFO, and HAPI databases, from 1995 to 2007, were reviewed. Studies were organized by professional disciplines. Healthcare avoidance is a common and highly variable experience. Multiple administrative, demographic, personal, and provider factors are related to healthcare avoidance, for example, distrust of providers and/or the science community, health beliefs, insurance status, or socioeconomic/income level. Although the concept is recognized by multiple disciplines, limited research studies address its impact on healthcare decision making. More systematic research is needed to determine correlates of healthcare avoidance. Such studies will help investigators identify patients at risk for avoidant behaviors and provide the basis for health-promoting interventions. Methodological challenges include identification of characteristics of individuals and environments that hinder healthcare behaviors, as well as, the complexity of measuring healthcare avoidance. Studies need to systematically explore the influence of avoidance behaviors on specific healthcare populations at risk. PMID:18758277

Byrne, Sharon K

349

Earthworm populations as related to woodcock habitat usage in Central Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lumbricid earthworms were sampled 'on two central Maine study areas between late April and early September, 1974, to relate earthworm abundance to use of feeding covers by American woodcock(Philoheli minor). On sampling days, occurring at 2 to 3 week intervals, a formalin solution was applied to thirty O.25m areas in heavjly, commonly, and rarely used woodcock covers (5 samples/type of feedjngcover/study area). The extent of cover usage was based on use of vegetation by 51 radio-equipped woodcock, 1970-73 (605 woodcockdays). A total of 2,546 earthworms of nine species was collected; species and age compositions of collected lumbricids were similar on both study areas. Similarly. number and biomass (dry weight) of earthworms extracted did not differ significantly between study areas. However. the number and biomass of sampled earthworms were directly and significantly related to the intensity to which woodcock used covers. Those diurnal covers most heavily used by woodcock sustained the highest lumbricid populations, ostensibly because these covers provided earthworms with preferred foods (i.e., leaf litters) and optimum soil moisture-temperature conditions. In terms of earthworms and woodcock supported per unit area, management of second-growth hardwoods appears more efficient than attempting to alter coniferous or mixed forests.

Reynolds, J.W.; Krohn, W.B.; Hordan, G.A.

1977-01-01

350

Clostridiaceae and Enterobacteriaceae as active fermenters in earthworm gut content  

PubMed Central

The earthworm gut provides ideal in situ conditions for ingested heterotrophic soil bacteria capable of anaerobiosis. High amounts of mucus- and plant-derived saccharides such as glucose are abundant in the earthworm alimentary canal, and high concentrations of molecular hydrogen (H2) and organic acids in the alimentary canal are indicative of ongoing fermentations. Thus, the central objective of this study was to resolve potential links between fermentations and active fermenters in gut content of the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-based stable isotope probing, with [13C]glucose as a model substrate. Glucose consumption in anoxic gut content microcosms was rapid and yielded soluble organic compounds (acetate, butyrate, formate, lactate, propionate, succinate and ethanol) and gases (carbon dioxide and H2), products indicative of diverse fermentations in the alimentary canal. Clostridiaceae and Enterobacteriaceae were users of glucose-derived carbon. On the basis of the detection of 16S rRNA, active phyla in gut contents included Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, Tenericutes and Verrucomicrobia, taxa common to soils. On the basis of a 16S rRNA gene similarity cutoff of 87.5%, 82 families were detected, 17 of which were novel family-level groups. These findings (a) show the large diversity of soil taxa that might be active during gut passage, (b) show that Clostridiaceae and Enterobacteriaceae (fermentative subsets of these taxa) are selectively stimulated by glucose and might therefore be capable of consuming mucus- and plant-derived saccharides during gut passage and (c) indicate that ingested obligate anaerobes and facultative aerobes from soil can concomitantly metabolize the same source of carbon.

Wust, Pia K; Horn, Marcus A; Drake, Harold L

2011-01-01

351

Potential negative effects of earthworm prey on damage to turfgrass by omnivorous mole crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae).  

PubMed

The severity of damage to host plants by omnivorous pests can vary according to the availability of plant and animal prey. Two omnivorous mole crickets, Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder and S. borellii Giglio-Tos, were used to determine if the availability of prey influences damage to hybrid bermudagrass by adult mole crickets. Experiments were conducted in arenas with either grass alone (control), grass plus one mole cricket, grass plus earthworms (Eisenia fetida Savigny), or grass with earthworms and a mole cricket. Root growth variables (e.g., volume, dry weight) after 4 wk and weekly measurements of top growth were compared among the treatments. Surprisingly, bermudagrass infested with either mole cricket species caused no significant reduction in root growth and a minimal reduction on top growth with S. vicinus compared with controls. Survival of earthworms with S. borellii was significantly lower than survival in the earthworm-only treatment suggesting predation. Survival of earthworms with S. vicinus, however, was not different from the earthworm-only treatment. The addition of earthworm prey with mole crickets did not significantly impact bermudagrass root or shoot growth relative to grass with only mole crickets. Despite no negative impacts from earthworms or mole crickets separately, earthworms plus mole crickets negatively impact several root parameters (e.g., length) suggesting an interaction between these two soil-dwelling invertebrates. Increased use of more target-selective insecticides in turfgrass may increase available prey. This work suggests that alternative prey, when present, may result in a negative impact on turfgrass roots from foraging omnivorous mole crickets. PMID:23068170

Xu, Yao; Held, David W; Hu, Xing Ping

2012-10-01

352

Importance of earthworm-seed interactions for the composition and structure of plant communities: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil seed bank composition and dynamics are crucial elements for the understanding of plant population and community ecology. Earthworms are increasingly recognized as important dispersers and predators of seeds. Through direct and indirect effects they influence either positively or negatively the establishment and survival of seeds and seedlings. Seedling establishment is affected by a variety of earthworm-mediated mechanisms, such as selective seed ingestion and digestion, acceleration or deceleration of germination, and seed transport. Earthworm casts deposited on the soil surface and the entrance of earthworm burrows often contain viable seeds and constitute important regeneration niches for plant seedlings and therefore likely favour specific seed traits. However, the role of earthworms as seed dispersers, mediators of seed bank dynamics and seed predators has not been considered in concert. The overall effect of earthworms on plant communities remains little understood. Most knowledge is based on laboratory studies on temperate species and future work has to explore the biological significance of earthworm-seed interactions under more natural conditions. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on earthworm-seed interactions and discuss factors determining these interactions. We highlight that this interaction may be an underappreciated, yet major driving force for the dynamics of soil seed banks and plant communities which most likely have experienced co-evolutionary processes. Despite the experimental bias, we hypothesize that the knowledge gathered in the present review is of crucial relevance for restoration and conservation ecology. For instance, as earthworms emerge as successful and ubiquitous invaders in various ecosystems, the summarized information might serve as a basis for realistic estimations and modelling of consequences on native plant communities. We depict promising directions of future research and point to the need to consider above- and belowground interactions in order to mechanistically understand the driving forces of plant community assembly.

Forey, Estelle; Barot, Sébastien; Decaëns, Thibaud; Langlois, Estelle; Laossi, Kam-Rigne; Margerie, Pierre; Scheu, Stefan; Eisenhauer, Nico

2011-11-01

353

The Self-Avoiding Walk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple random walk is well understood. However, if we condition a random walk not to intersect itself, so that it is a self-avoiding walk, then it is much more di-- cult to analyse and many of the important mathematical problems remain unsolved. This paper provides an overview of some of what is known about the self-avoiding walk, includ- ing some

Gordon Slade

354

Cigarette tax avoidance and evasion.  

PubMed

Variation in state cigarette taxes provides incentives for tax avoidance through smuggling, legal border crossing to low tax jurisdictions, or Internet purchasing. When taxes rise, tax paid sales of cigarettes will decline both because consumption will decrease and because tax avoidance will increase. The key innovation of this paper is to compare cigarette sales data to cigarette consumption data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). I show that after subtracting percent changes in consumption, residual percent changes in sales are associated with state cigarette tax changes implying the existence of tax avoidance. I estimate that the tax avoidance response to tax changes is at least twice the consumption response and that tax avoidance accounted for up to 9.6% of sales between 1985 and 2001. Because of the increase in tax avoidance, tax paid sales data understate the level of smoking and overstate the drop in smoking. I also find that the level of legal border crossing was very low relative to other forms of tax avoidance. If states have strong preferences for smoking control, they must pair high cigarette taxes with effective policies to curb smuggling and other forms of tax avoidance or employ alternative policies such as counter-advertising and smoking restrictions. PMID:15721046

Stehr, Mark

2004-12-19

355

Cigarette tax avoidance and evasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in state cigarette taxes provides incentives for tax avoidance through smuggling, legal border crossing to low tax jurisdictions, or Internet purchasing. When taxes rise, tax paid sales of cigarettes will decline both because consumption will decrease and because tax avoidance will increase. The key innovation of this paper is to compare cigarette sales data to cigarette consumption data from

Mark Stehr

2005-01-01

356

Obstacle avoidance with ultrasonic sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mobile robot system, capable of performing various tasks for the physically disabled, has been developed. To avoid collision with unexpected obstacles, the mobile robot uses ultrasonic range finders for detection and mapping. The obstacle avoidance strategy used for this robot is described. Since this strategy depends heavily on the performance of the ultrasonic range finders, these sensors and the

JOHANN BORENSTEIN; YORAM KOREN

1988-01-01

357

VICARIOUS EXTINCTION OF AVOIDANCE BEHAVIOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

INVESTIGATED THE EXTINCTION OF AVOIDANCE RESPONSES THROUGH OBSERVATION OF MODELED APPROACH BEHAVIOR DIRECTED TOWARD A FEARED STIMULUS WITHOUT ANY ADVERSE CONSEQUENCES ACCRUING TO THE MODEL. CHILDREN WHO DISPLAYED FEARFUL AND AVOIDANT BEHAVIOR TOWARD DOGS WERE ASSIGNED TO A CONDITION IN WHICH THEY (1) PARTICIPATED IN A SERIES OF BRIEF MODELING SESSIONS IN WHICH THEY OBSERVED, WITHIN A HIGHLY POSITIVE CONTEXT,

ALBERT BANDURA; JOAN E. GRUSEC; FRANCES L. MENLOVE

1967-01-01

358

Avoidance of Phycomyces in a controlled environment.  

PubMed Central

The sporangiophore of the fungus Phycomyces bends away from nearby objects without ever touching them. It has been thought that these objects act as aerodynamic obstacles that damp random winds, thereby generating asymmetric distributions of a growth-promoting gas emitted by the growth zone. In the interest of testing this hypothesis, we studied avoidance in an environmental chamber in which convection was suppressed by a shallow thermal gradient. We also controlled pressure, temperature, and relative humidity of the air, electrostatic charge, and ambient light. A protocol was established that yielded avoidance rates constant from sporangiophore to sporangiophore to within +/- 10%. We found that avoidance occurred at normal rates in the complete absence of random winds. The rates were smaller at 100% than at lower values of relative humidity, but not by much. Remarkably, at a distance as great as 0.5 mm, avoidance from a 30-micron diam glass fiber (aligned parallel to the sporangiophore) was about the same as that from a planar glass sheet. However, the rate for the fiber fell more rapidly with distance. The rate for the sheet remained nearly constant out to approximately 4 mm. We conclude that avoidance depends either on adsorption by the barrier of a growth-inhibiting substance or emission by the barrier of a growth-promoting substance; it cannot occur by passive reflection. Models that can explain these effects are analyzed in the Appendix.

Meyer, P W; Matus, I J; Berg, H C

1987-01-01

359

Avoiding digester upset.  

PubMed

The acetate uptake bioassay (AUB) is a predictive measure for determining the stability of anaerobic digesters, but its use is rare due to the limited availability of gas chromatography equipment at wastewater treatment facilities. A water displacement system was compared and evaluated as an alternative to gas chromatography analysis for conducting the AUB. Results indicated that methane generation rates measured by the two methods were statistically the same. Precision of the method varied by less than 5%. Accuracy was quantified by measuring near stoichiometric volumes of carbon dioxide gas production from abiotic tests using sodium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. The method detection limit (MDL) was 0.6 mL. The effective use of a water displacement system as a surrogate for gas chromatography analysis could make the adoption of the AUB for predicting digester stability a practical option for treatment facilities. PMID:23697236

Thompson, Phillip L; Jiencke, Frederick W; Reinhart, Shawn W; Reha, Meghan E; Byrne, Samuel S

2013-04-01

360

Soil Chemical Weathering and Nutrient Budgets along an Earthworm Invasion Chronosequence in a Northern Minnesota Forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are investigating the impact of exotic earthworms on the rate of nutrient and ion release from soil chemical weathering along an ~200 m invasion chronosequence in a northern Minnesota sugar maple forest. The earthworms belong to three ecological groups that represent different feeding and burrowing behaviors, all of which were introduced from Europe to the previously earthworm-free Great Lakes Region through fishing and agricultural activities. As earthworms digest and mix the soil, we hypothesize that they significantly alter chemical weathering processes by incorporating mineral surfaces to new geochemical environments in their intestines and at different soil depths. The effect of mixing on soil morphology is dramatic, but biogeochemical changes remain largely unknown and therefore are poorly coupled to the current and potential changes in forest ecosystems under the threat of exotic earthworms. We analyze the activities of short-lived isotopes 137-Cs and 210-Pb along with the inorganic chemistry of soil, water, and leaf litter across an invasion transect and link these measurements to the biomass and species composition of exotic earthworms. Earthworms vertically relocate minerals and organic matter largely within the top ~10 cm, which is reflected in the depth profiles of the short-lived isotopes. Among the inorganic nutrients analyzed, Ca is of particular interest due to sugar maple's aptitude for recycling Ca. Fractional mass loss values (tau) of Ca, relative to the soil's parent material, show an enrichment factor of 14 in the least invaded A horizon soils. However, such a high enrichment factor declines dramatically in the heavily invaded soils, suggesting that earthworm activities contribute to leaching Ca. In contrast, the enrichment factor of Fe increases with greater degrees of earthworm invasion, which is consistent with the extraction chemistry data showing greater quantities of pedogenic crystalline iron oxides and greater mineral specific surface area (presumably due to the crystalline iron oxides) in the heavily invaded soils. Water chemistry of lysimeter samples show a similar trend: the heavily invaded soils show a lower solute concentration of Ca but higher concentrations of Fe. These data indicate that exotic earthworms, while significantly affecting chemical weathering processes in the soils, are seriously altering (1) the budgets of inorganic nutrient in these hardwood forests and (2) the minerals' potential capacity to complex carbon on their surface area. Our ongoing work includes the use of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating which may complement the 137-Cs and 210-Pb data in constraining soil mixing. Additionally, we will incorporate leaf litter chemistry and continue water and earthworm sampling to understand the degree that exotic earthworms contribute to chemical weathering in the Great Lakes hardwood ecosystems.

Resner, K. E.; Yoo, K.; Sebestyen, S. D.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Lyttle, A.; Weinman, B. A.; Blum, A.; Hale, C. M.

2011-12-01

361

Affordable MMW aircraft collision avoidance system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collision avoidance is of concern to all aircraft, requiring the detection and identification of hazardous terrain or obstacles in sufficient time for clearance maneuvers. The collision avoidance requirement is even more demanding for helicopters, as their unique capabilities result in extensive operations at low-altitude, near to terrain and other hazardous obstacles. TO augment the pilot's visual collision avoidance abilities, some aircraft are equipped with 'enhanced-vision' systems or terrain collision warning systems. Enhanced-vision systems are typically very large and costly systems that are not very covert and are also difficult to install in a helicopter. The display is typically raw images from infrared or radar sensors, and can require a high degree of pilot interpretation and attention. Terrain collision warning system that rely on stored terrain maps are often of low resolution and accuracy and do not represent hazards to the aircraft placed after map sampling. Such hazards could include aircraft parked on runway, man- made towers or buildings and hills. In this paper, a low cost dual-function scanning pencil-beam, millimeter-wave radar forward sensor is used to determine whether an aircraft's flight path is clear of obstructions. Due to the limited space and weight budget in helicopters, the system is a dual function system that is substituted in place of the existing radar altimeter. The system combines a 35 GHz forward looking obstacle avoidance radar and a 4.3 GHz radar altimeter. The forward looking 35 GHz 3D radar's returns are used to construct a terrain and obstruction database surrounding an aircraft, which is presented to the pilot as a synthetic perspective display. The 35 GHz forward looking radar and the associated display was evaluated in a joint NASA Honeywell flight test program in 1996. The tests were conducted on a NASA/Army test helicopter. The test program clearly demonstrated the systems potential usefulness for collision avoidance.

Almsted, Larry D.; Becker, Robert C.; Zelenka, Richard E.

1997-06-01

362

Collison avoidance for automated inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In certain automated inspection systems, computer controlled sensors are required to move arbitrarily close to the objects under inspection, whose geometries and positions may be unknown. There exists a potential for collisions which can cause damage to the sensor and the objects. A method based upon two representations is presented which ensures collision-free motions of the sensor and positioning apparatus. The sensed environment is modelled as a discrete volumetric grid called a voxel map, which is incrementally maintained as range data is acquired. The sensor and all moving attachments are modelled as sets of spheres. The method provides a conservative underestimate of the minimum distance between the surfaces of the sensor system and all workspace obstacles within a known error bound. The conditions are derived for which a continuous collision-free trajectory exists between two configurations. These are two operational modes where collision avoidance is useful. In direct teleoperation mode, the operator has joystick control over the position of the sensor, and potential collisions are detected and averted in real-time. In autonomous mode, the sensor path is planned automatically, and collision-free motions are generated by invoking the collision detection method within an enumerative search routine. The method has been implemented and tested using a scanning laser range camera as the sensor and a Puma 560 manipulator as the positioning apparatus.

Greenspan, Michael

1997-01-01

363

Approach versus avoidance: different types of commitment in intimate relationships.  

PubMed

The major objective of the present study was to examine whether approach versus avoidance commitment to one's intimate relationship was differentially predictive of relationship quality parameters in the long run. In the 1st testing period, 134 participants (67 romantic couples) answered questions about approach- versus avoidance-related measures. Commitment and relationship quality parameters such as satisfaction and emotions depending on the partner's presence were assessed in all 3 testing periods. The proposed distinction between an approach and an avoidance type of commitment was validated through correlations with other approach- versus avoidance-related measures. Longitudinal analyses revealed that approach commitment predicted relationship quality parameters positively, whereas avoidance commitment predicted them negatively. The results are discussed in terms of the benefit of an approach-avoidance-based conceptualization of commitment. PMID:11831411

Frank, Elisabeth; Brandstätter, Veronika

2002-02-01

364

Growth and reproduction of earthworms in ultramafic soils.  

PubMed

Ultramafic soils are characterized by high concentrations of heavy metals of natural origin-such as chromium, cobalt, manganese, and nickel-as well as a shortage of primary nutrients. This can result in extremely disadvantageous living conditions for all soil-dwelling organisms. Responses to these conditions were addressed by studying growth, cocoon production, and fecundity of earthworms as endpoints of sublethal effects and how this influences the reproductive system and, consequently, population development. Mature specimens of two ecophysiologically different species of earthworms, Eisenia fetida (Savigny) and Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny), were exposed for 56 days to an uncontaminated soil and ultramafic soils collected from six ultramafic sites in the Barberton greenstone belt. In all ultramafic soil samples, the specimens of both species grew slower than those in the control soil. In A. caliginosa, an autotomization of the tail section was observed at higher concentrations of heavy metals. At high levels of heavy metals such as manganese, chromium, nickel, and cobalt, a significantly lower cocoon production was recorded for E. fetida, and at medium levels, a time delay in cocoon production was found. A. caliginosa showed an increase in production at medium levels and a decrease at high levels of heavy metals. In both species, no correlation between growth and cocoon viability was found, indicating different target levels for toxicants present in ultramafic soils. To determine effects of these soils on population dynamics, hatching success may be a more useful endpoint of reproduction. PMID:17354041

Maleri, R; Reinecke, S A; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J; Reinecke, A J

2007-03-09

365

Biosynthesis of luminescent quantum dots in an earthworm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synthesis of designer solid-state materials by living organisms is an emerging field in bio-nanotechnology. Key examples include the use of engineered viruses as templates for cobalt oxide (Co3O4) particles, superparamagnetic cobalt-platinum alloy nanowires and gold-cobalt oxide nanowires for photovoltaic and battery-related applications. Here, we show that the earthworm's metal detoxification pathway can be exploited to produce luminescent, water-soluble semiconductor cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots that emit in the green region of the visible spectrum when excited in the ultraviolet region. Standard wild-type Lumbricus rubellus earthworms were exposed to soil spiked with CdCl2 and Na2TeO3 salts for 11 days. Luminescent quantum dots were isolated from chloragogenous tissues surrounding the gut of the worm, and were successfully used in live-cell imaging. The addition of polyethylene glycol on the surface of the quantum dots allowed for non-targeted, fluid-phase uptake by macrophage cells.

Stürzenbaum, S. R.; Höckner, M.; Panneerselvam, A.; Levitt, J.; Bouillard, J.-S.; Taniguchi, S.; Dailey, L.-A.; Khanbeigi, R. Ahmad; Rosca, E. V.; Thanou, M.; Suhling, K.; Zayats, A. V.; Green, M.

2013-01-01

366

Biosynthesis of luminescent quantum dots in an earthworm.  

PubMed

The synthesis of designer solid-state materials by living organisms is an emerging field in bio-nanotechnology. Key examples include the use of engineered viruses as templates for cobalt oxide (Co(3)O(4)) particles, superparamagnetic cobalt-platinum alloy nanowires and gold-cobalt oxide nanowires for photovoltaic and battery-related applications. Here, we show that the earthworm's metal detoxification pathway can be exploited to produce luminescent, water-soluble semiconductor cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots that emit in the green region of the visible spectrum when excited in the ultraviolet region. Standard wild-type Lumbricus rubellus earthworms were exposed to soil spiked with CdCl(2) and Na(2)TeO(3) salts for 11 days. Luminescent quantum dots were isolated from chloragogenous tissues surrounding the gut of the worm, and were successfully used in live-cell imaging. The addition of polyethylene glycol on the surface of the quantum dots allowed for non-targeted, fluid-phase uptake by macrophage cells. PMID:23263722

Stürzenbaum, S R; Höckner, M; Panneerselvam, A; Levitt, J; Bouillard, J-S; Taniguchi, S; Dailey, L-A; Ahmad Khanbeigi, R; Rosca, E V; Thanou, M; Suhling, K; Zayats, A V; Green, M

2012-12-23

367

Effects of polyethyleneimine-mediated functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on earthworm bioaccumulation and sorption by soils.  

PubMed

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are often modified for different intended potential applications to enhance their aqueous stability or change properties such as surface charge. Such changes may also profoundly impact their environmental behaviors. Herein, we report the effects of modifying (14)C-labeled multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with polyetheyleneimine (PEI) surface coatings to render them more stable in solution and to give them positive, negative, or neutral surface charges. These carbon nanotubes were used to test their sorption by soils and uptake and elimination behaviors by earthworms. Sorption results indicate nearly linear sorption isotherms for regular MWCNTs and nonlinear isotherms for modified MWCNTs, indicating that the PEI coatings influenced MWCNT interactions with soils. Nevertheless, there were minimal differences in the sorption results among the different soils for each type of nanotube despite differences in the soil organic carbon and cation exchange capacities. Differences in uptake behaviors by earthworms were not apparent among different types of PEI-MWCNTs and MWCNTs with limited absorption into organism tissues consistently observed. Elimination patterns were well fit with an exponential decay model suggesting that the worms can readily eliminate any accumulated MWCNTs. PMID:21434629

Petersen, Elijah J; Pinto, Roger A; Zhang, Liwen; Huang, Qingguo; Landrum, Peter F; Weber, Walter J

2011-03-24

368

A Hierarchical Model of Approach and Avoidance Achievement Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation was proposed and tested in a college classroom. Mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals were assessed and their antecedents and consequences examined. Results indicated that mastery goals were grounded in achievement motivation and high competence expectancies; performance-avoidance goals, in fear of failure and low competence expectancies; and performance-approach goals, in achievement motivation,

Andrew J. Elliot; Marcy A. Church

1997-01-01

369

Determination of multi-walled carbon nanotube bioaccumulation in earthworms measured by a microwave-based detection technique.  

PubMed

Reliable quantification techniques for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are limited. In this study, a new procedure was developed for quantifying multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) based on freeze drying and microwave-induced heating. Specifically, earthworms were first processed into a powder by freeze drying. Then, samples were measured by utilizing 10 s exposure to 30 W microwave power. This method showed the potential to quantitatively measure MWNTs in earthworms at low concentrations (~0.1 ?g in 20 mg of earthworm). Also, a simple MWNT bioaccumulation study in earthworms indicated a low bioaccumulation factor of 0.015±0.004. With an appropriate sample processing method and instrumental parameters (power and exposure time), this technique has the potential to quantify MWNTs in a variety of sample types (plants, earthworms, human blood, etc.). PMID:23298789

Li, Shibin; Irin, Fahmida; Atore, Francis O; Green, Micah J; Cañas-Carrell, Jaclyn E

2013-01-05

370

Earthworm Abundance and Species Composition in Abandoned Tropical Croplands: Comparisons of Tree Plantations and Secondary Forests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We compared patterns of earthworm abundance and species composition in tree plantations and secondary forests of Puerto Rico. Tree plantations included pine (Pinus carbibaea Morelet) and mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) established in the 1930s; 1960...

G. Gonzalez X. Zou S. Borges

1996-01-01

371

Mercury, cadmium and lead concentrations in different ecophysiological groups of earthworms in forest soils.  

PubMed

Bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd and Pb by eight ecophysiologically distinct earthworm species was studied in 27 polluted and uncontaminated forest soils. Lowest tissue concentrations of Hg and Cd occurred in epigeic Lumbricus rubellus and highest in endogeic Octolasion cyaneum. Soils dominated by Dendrodrilus rubidus possess a high potential of risk of Pb biomagnification for secondary predators. Bioconcentration factors (soil-earthworm) followed the sequence ranked Cd>Hg>Pb. Ordination plots of redundancy analysis were used to compare HM concentrations in earthworm tissues with soil, leaf litter and root concentrations and with soil pH and CEC. Different ecological categories of earthworms are exposed to Hg, Cd and Pb in the topsoil by atmospheric deposition and accumulate them in their bodies. Species differences in HM concentrations largely reflect differences in food selectivity and niche separation. PMID:18400348

Ernst, Gregor; Zimmermann, Stefan; Christie, Peter; Frey, Beat

2008-04-09

372

Sublethal Neurotoxic Effects of the Fungicide Benomyl on Earthworms ('Eisenia fetida').  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were treated by surface contact exposure for four days with the fungicide benomyl. Non-invasive electrophysiological recordings after treatment with sublethal concentrations of 0.2-25 mg benomyl/litre of water indicated concent...

C. A. Callahan C. D. Drewes M. J. Zoran

1987-01-01

373

Toxicological responses of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) exposed to metal-contaminated soils.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicological responses of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) induced by field-contaminated, metal-polluted soils. Biochemical responses and DNA damage of earthworm exposed to two multi-metal-contaminated soils in a steel industry park and a natural reference soil in Zijin Mountain for 2, 7, 14, and 28 days were studied. Results showed that three enzyme activities, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and cellulase, in earthworm in metal-contaminated soils were significantly different from those of the reference soil. Cellulase and AChE were more sensitive than SOD to soil contamination. The Olive tail moment of the comet assay after 2-day exposure increased 56.5 and 552.0 % in two contaminated soils, respectively, compared to the reference soil. Our findings show that cellulase and DNA damage levels can be used as potential biomarkers for exposure of earthworm to metal-polluted soils. PMID:23589267

Zheng, Kai; Liu, Zhengtao; Li, Yajie; Cui, Yibin; Li, Mei

2013-04-16

374

Verminephrobacter eiseniae type IV pili and flagella are required to colonize earthworm nephridia.  

PubMed

The bacterial symbiont Verminephrobacter eiseniae colonizes nephridia, the excretory organs, of the lumbricid earthworm Eisenia fetida. E. fetida transfers V. eisenia into the egg capsule albumin during capsule formation and V. eiseniae cells migrate into the earthworm nephridia during embryogenesis, where they bind and persist. In order to characterize the mechanistic basis of selective tissue colonization, methods for site-directed mutagenesis and colonization competence were developed and used to evaluate the consequences of individual gene disruptions. Using these newly developed tools, two distinct modes of bacterial motility were shown to be required for V. eiseniae colonization of nascent earthworm nephridia. Flagella and type IV pili mutants lacked motility in culture and were not able to colonize embryonic earthworms, indicating that both twitching and flagellar motility are required for entrance into the nephridia. PMID:22170422

Dulla, Glenn F J; Go, Ruth A; Stahl, David A; Davidson, Seana K

2011-12-15

375

Verminephrobacter eiseniae type IV pili and flagella are required to colonize earthworm nephridia  

PubMed Central

The bacterial symbiont Verminephrobacter eiseniae colonizes nephridia, the excretory organs, of the lumbricid earthworm Eisenia fetida. E. fetida transfers V. eisenia into the egg capsule albumin during capsule formation and V. eiseniae cells migrate into the earthworm nephridia during embryogenesis, where they bind and persist. In order to characterize the mechanistic basis of selective tissue colonization, methods for site-directed mutagenesis and colonization competence were developed and used to evaluate the consequences of individual gene disruptions. Using these newly developed tools, two distinct modes of bacterial motility were shown to be required for V. eiseniae colonization of nascent earthworm nephridia. Flagella and type IV pili mutants lacked motility in culture and were not able to colonize embryonic earthworms, indicating that both twitching and flagellar motility are required for entrance into the nephridia.

Dulla, Glenn F J; Go, Ruth A; Stahl, David A; Davidson, Seana K

2012-01-01

376

Toxicity testing of trinitrotoluene-contaminated soil composts  

SciTech Connect

The Mutatox{trademark} assay and earthworm acute toxicity test were employed to evaluate the efficacy of composting in reducing the toxicity of TNT-contaminated soils. The Mutatox assay is a proprietary bacterial bioluminescence test that determines the mutagenic potential of sample extracts. The earthworm acute toxicity test was chosen because it exposes the organisms to the unaltered contaminant/solid matrix. Rockeye soil, a TNT-contaminated soil collected from a military installation, was composted using two methods. This yielded five samples, Rockeye, Compost A composting. Soil extracts were prepared for Mutatox using the sonification method. Ten serial dilution samples were tested soils/artificial soil were tested in the earthworm toxicity test. In the Rockeye soil samples, a toxic response was shown in both test methods. Mutatox indicated no toxicity in Composts A and B after composting but did not show a positive mutagenic response in the lower serial dilutions. The LC50s for Compost A and B after composting in the earthworm toxicity test were 35.3% and 100%, respectively. Using Mutatox and the earthworm toxicity test together provides a sensitive means of monitoring the effectiveness of various composting techniques for remediating TNT-contaminated soils.

Honeycutt, M.E. [TNRCC TARA, Austin, TX (United States); McFarland, V.A.; Jarvis, A.S. [USAEWES, Vicksburg, MS (United States)

1997-10-01

377

Encouragement Exchange: Avoiding Therapist Burnout.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|States that therapists need to take care of their own mental health in order to avoid burnout. Discusses the encouragement exchange, a group setting where therapists help each other deal with stress. Provides a case example. (MKA)|

Evans, Timothy D.; Villavisanis, Robert

1997-01-01

378

Endless self-avoiding walks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a self-avoiding walk model for which end-effects are completely eliminated. We enumerate the number of these walks for various lattices in dimensions two and three, and use these enumerations to study the properties of this model. We find that endless self-avoiding walks have the same connective constant as self-avoiding walks, and the same Flory exponent ?. However, there is no power law correction to the exponential number growth for this new model, i.e. the critical exponent ? = 1 exactly in any dimension. In addition, the number growth has no analytic corrections to scaling, and we have convincing numerical evidence to support the conjecture that the amplitude for the number growth is a universal quantity. The technique by which end-effects are eliminated may be generalized to other models of polymers such as interacting self-avoiding walks.

Clisby, Nathan

2013-06-01

379

Population Avoidance in Aimpoint Selection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In most past studies of the effectiveness of tactical nuclear weapons vs the amount of collateral damage produced (civilian casualties), civilians have been congregated into idealized shaped towns and cities, and criteria for city avoidance were usually f...

C. G. Andre

1978-01-01

380

The Evolution of Tax Avoidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Once a legal, acceptable practice, tax avoidance evolved into being illegal and unacceptable. This article discusses the alterations to legislation and the changing attitudes of taxpayers, their advisers and the judiciary that facilitated this evolution.

Jo Cleary

1995-01-01

381

AVOIDANCE BEHAVIOR OF MALLARDS AND NORTHERN BOBWHITE EXPOSED TO CARBOFURAN-CONTAMINATED FOOD AND WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Food avoidance experiments could contribute to assessments of animals' behavioral responses to environmental toxicants. ood avoidance tests with mallards (Anas platyrhynchos L.) and northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus L.) as the test species were patterned after avian 5-d diet...

382

Tree leaf litter composition and nonnative earthworms influence plant invasion in experimental forest floor mesocosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dominant tree species influence community and ecosystem components through the quantity and quality of their litter. Effects\\u000a of litter may be modified by activity of ecosystem engineers such as earthworms. We examined the interacting effects of forest\\u000a litter type and earthworm presence on invasibility of plants into forest floor environments using a greenhouse mesocosm experiment.\\u000a We crossed five litter treatments

R. Travis Belote; Robert H. Jones

2009-01-01

383

NMR-based metabolomics using earthworms as potential indicators for soil health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil health is key for sustainable productivity and adaptation to climate change. Agricultural practice can significantly\\u000a impact on soil health. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of two land management regimes on organisms (earthworms)\\u000a that may be used as indicators for soil health via NMR metabolomics. Earthworms are important in the soil decomposition process\\u000a and viewed

Simone J. Rochfort; Vilnis Ezernieks; Alan L. Yen

2009-01-01

384

Uptake, bioavailability and elimination of hydrophobic compounds in earthworms (Eisenia andrei) in field-contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uptake, accumulation, and elimination of hydrophobic organic chemicals in earthworms (Eisenia andrei) exposed to field-contaminated Volgermeerpolder soil was studied. Earthworms were able to take up chlorobenzenes and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), but body burdens did not exceed concentrations measured in the soil. For the chlorobenzenes, steady-state concentrations in the worms and biota-to-soil accumulation factor (BSAF) values were much smaller than expected based

Angelique Belfroid; Martin van den Berg; Willem Seinen; Joop Hermens; Kees van Gestel

1995-01-01

385

Ecology of Earthworms under the ‘Haughley Experiment’ of Organic and Conventional Management Regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant differences in earthworm populations and soil properties were found in three sections of a farm at Haughley in Suffolk that, since 1939, had either an organic, a mixed conventional, or a stockless intensive arable regime. Compared with the mean earthworm population of a 1,000 year old permanent pasture of 424.0 m; an organic field had 178.6 m; a mixed

R. J. Blakemore

2000-01-01

386

Distribution of earthworms in the north-west of the Iberian Peninsula  

Microsoft Academic Search

A province of Galicia, Lugo, was sampled by collecting the earthworm fauna with the aim of completing the distribution maps of the north-west of the Iberian Peninsula. Qualitative samples of earthworms were made in U.T.M. grids of 10 × 10 km using the “formalin-hand sorting method”. The data obtained allow us to know the distribution of the species in all the

Fernando Monroy; Manuel Aira; Jorge Domínguez; Fuencisla Mariño

2003-01-01

387

Bioaccumulation of Total Mercury and Monomethylmercury in the Earthworm Eisenia Fetida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for inorganic mercury in earthworms are usually < 1; however, factors up to ?10 have been reported.\\u000a Little information is available concerning the bioaccumulation of organic mercury in earthworms from actual contaminated soils\\u000a and thus there has been uncertainty in the risk characterization phase of ecological risk assessments of mercury-contaminated\\u000a sites. This study was initiated to determine

Dennis T. Burton; Steven D. Turley; Daniel J. Fisher; Donald J. Green; Tommy R. Shedd

2006-01-01

388

Emission of Methane by Eudrilus eugeniae and Other Earthworms from Brazil  

PubMed Central

Earthworms emit denitrification-derived nitrous oxide and fermentation-derived molecular hydrogen. The present study demonstrated that the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae, obtained in Brazil, emitted methane. Other worms displayed a lesser or no capacity to emit methane. Gene and transcript analyses of mcrA (encoding the alpha subunit of methyl-CoM reductase) in gut contents of E. eugeniae suggested that Methanosarcinaceae, Methanobacteriaceae, and Methanomicrobiaceae might be associated with this emission.

Depkat-Jakob, Peter S.; Hunger, Sindy; Schulz, Kristin; Brown, George G.; Tsai, Siu M.

2012-01-01

389

Effects of high copper concentrations on soil invertebrates (earthworms and oribatid mites)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data in the literature on the toxicity and uptake of copper by soil invertebrates are contradictory. Copper toxicity and bioaccumulation studies were therefore performed using earthworms and oribatid mites. Field-simulating experiments in soil-filled plastic containers showed that earthworms try to escape moderately toxic situations and that they are much more sensitive than oribatid mites to temporary high Cu2+ concentrations in

Bruno Streit

1984-01-01

390

A contribution to the study of the intestinal microflora of Indian earthworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The literature on the microorganisms in the intestine of earthworms is reviewed in the introduction.2.Our methods for the isolation of various types of microorganisms are described.3.The microbiological examination of 60 Indian earthworms mostly by enrichment culture methods resulted in the demonstration of a mixed microflora as represented by our 343 isolates. Their physiological activities, such as oxalate decomposition, cellulose decomposition,

S. R. Khambata; J. V. Bhat

1957-01-01

391

Microbial and decomposition efficiencies of monoculture and polyculture vermireactors, based on epigeic and anecic earthworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts have been made to evaluate the microbial and decomposition efficiency of three different vermireactors: (i) polyculture\\u000a (introducing equal numbers of anecic and epigeic earthworms), (ii) monoculture (anecic) and (iii) monoculture (epigeic), designed\\u000a by using earthworms of two different ecological categories i.e. anecic (Lampito mauritii Kinberg) and epigeic (Eisenia fetida (Savigny)). The microbial load of vermireactors was measured through substrate-induced

Surindra Suthar

2008-01-01

392

Carbon and nitrogen dynamics in ageing earthworm casts in grasslands of the eastern plains of Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of a large species of anecic earthworm, Martiodrilus carimaguensis Jimnez and Moreno, on soil C and N dynamics were investigated in a native savanna and a man-made pasture of the eastern\\u000a plains of Colombia. We compared, across time (11 months), the total C, total N, NH+\\u000a 4 and NO–\\u000a 3 contents in the earthworm casts, the underlying soil

T. Decaëns; A. F. Rangel; N. Asakawa; R. J. Thomas

1999-01-01

393

Assessing the Role of Earthworms in Biocontrol of Soil-Borne Plant Fungal Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Earthworms are integral part of belowground communities, which are actively involved in redesigning the structure of the soil\\u000a environment. In recent decades, several researches have shown the potential of application of vermicompost in controlling\\u000a soil-borne plant fungal diseases. However, complexity of earthworm interactions with various abiotic and biotic components\\u000a of the soil has posed a real challenge before the scientists

Mukesh K. Meghvansi; Lokendra Singh; Ravi B. Srivastava; Ajit Varma

394

Degradation dynamics of surface earthworm casts in grasslands of the eastern plains of Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms are generally considered to fit the definition of ecosystem engineers. The casts they produce are recognised to\\u000a have a great importance in the regulation of soil processes. Lifetimes and degradation rates of these structures remain poorly\\u000a known. In this study, the dynamics of disappearance and the changes in the physical properties of the surface casts of the\\u000a anecic earthworm

T. Decaëns

2000-01-01

395

Earthworm ( Aporrectodea trapezoides )–mycorrhiza ( Glomus intraradices ) interaction and nitrogen and phosphorus uptake by maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactive impacts of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, Glomus intraradices) and earthworms (Aporrectodea trapezoides) on maize (Zea mays L.) growth and nutrient uptake were studied under near natural conditions with pots buried in the soil of a maize field.\\u000a Treatments included maize plants inoculated vs. not inoculated with AMF, treated or not treated with earthworms, at low (25 mg kg?1) or high

Huan Ll; Xiaolin Li; Zhengxia Dou; Junling Zhang; Chong Wang

396

Spring dynamics of soil carbon, nitrogen, and microbial activity in earthworm middens in a no-till cornfield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworm activity may be an important cause of spatial and temporal heterogeneity of soil properties in agroecosystems.\\u000a Structures known as “earthworm middens,” formed at the soil surface by the feeding and casting activities of some earthworms,\\u000a may contribute significantly to this heterogeneity. We compared the temporal dynamics of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and microbial\\u000a acitivity in Lumbricus terrestris middens and

S. Subler; A. S. Kirsch

1998-01-01

397

Cryoprotective and osmotic responses to cold acclimation and freezing in freeze-tolerant and freeze-intolerant earthworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the results of physiological responses to winter acclimation and tissue freezing in a freeze-tolerant\\u000a Siberian earthworm, Eisenia nordenskioeldi, and two freeze-intolerant, temperate earthworm species, Lumbricus rubellus and Aporrectodea caliginosa. By analysing the physiological responses to freezing of both types we sought to identify some key factors promoting freeze\\u000a tolerance in earthworms. Winter acclimation was followed

M. Holmstrup; J. P. Costanzo; R. E. Lee Jr

1999-01-01

398

Lethal critical body residues as measures of Cd, Pb, and Zn bioavailability and toxicity in the earthworm Eisenia fetida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Earthworm heavy metal concentrations (critical body residues, CBRs) may be the most relevant measures of heavy\\u000a metal bioavailability in soils and may be linkable to toxic effects in order to better assess soil ecotoxicity. However, as\\u000a earthworms possess physiological mechanisms to secrete and\\/or sequester absorbed metals as toxicologically inactive forms,\\u000a total earthworm metal concentrations may not relate well with

Jason M. Conder; Roman P. Lanno

2003-01-01

399

Lethal critical body residues as measures of Cd, Pb, and Zn bioavailability and toxicity in the earthworm Eisenia fetida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Earthworm heavy metal concentrations (critical body residues, CBRs) may be the most relevant measures of heavy metal bioavailability\\u000a in soils and may be linkable to toxic effects in order to better assess soil ecotoxicity. However, as earthworms possess physiological\\u000a mechanisms to secrete and\\/or sequester absorbed metals as toxicologically inactive forms, total earthworm metal concentrations\\u000a may not relate well with toxicity.

Jason M. Conder; Roman P. Lanno

2003-01-01

400

Evolution of burrow systems after the accidental introduction of a new earthworm species into a Swiss pre-alpine meadow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unintentional introduction of a new earthworm species (Aporrectodea nocturna) into a Swiss pre-alpine meadow resulted in a great increase in earthworm density in the newly colonized area (386?m–2) compared with the density observed in the natural area (273?m–2) where an earthworm community was already present. To investigate the impact of this introduction on the burrow systems,\\u000a eight soil cores

Y. Capowiez; A. Pierret; P. Monestiez; L. Belzunces

2000-01-01

401

Introduced earthworms in agricultural and reclaimed land: their ecology and influences on soil properties, plant production and other soil biota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accidental and deliberate introductions of earthworms into agricultural and reclaimed land are natural experiments that provide\\u000a opportunities to understand the attributes of successful invaders and their impacts on local biota and ecosystem processes.\\u000a We consider various case studies (e.g., earthworm invasions in agricultural soils in Australia and Brazil) and deliberate\\u000a introductions of earthworms into reclaimed mine sites, landfills and cutaway

G. H. Baker; G. Brown; K. Butt; J. P. Curry; J. Scullion

402

Male Hatano high-avoidance rats show high avoidance and high anxiety-like behaviors as compared with male low-avoidance rats.  

PubMed

Our prime objective was to establish an optimal model animal for studying avoidance learning and memory in rodents. The two-way rat inbred strains of Hatano high- (HAA) and low-avoidance (LAA) animals were originally selected and bred in accordance with their high or low performance respectively in the shuttle-box active avoidance task. Previous studies demonstrated that they have clear strain differences in endocrine stress response, which is related to acquisition of aversive learning and emotional reactivity. To evaluate the effect of selection by the shuttle-box task on avoidance performance and emotional reactivity, male Hatano rats underwent passive avoidance, open field and elevated plus maze tests. The present results show that the avoidance performance in the passive task was significantly greater in HAA rats than in LAA rats. Furthermore, HAA rats showed high anxiety-like behaviors compared with LAA rats in open field and elevated plus maze tests. Taken together, this study demonstrated that 1) selection and breeding of Hatano HAA and LAA strain rats by shuttle-box task had been properly carried out with the criterion of high and low avoidance performance respectively and that 2) HAA rats were predisposed to high anxiety compared with LAA rats. These results indicated that Hatano HAA and LAA rats can be useful models for studying avoidance learning and memory. PMID:23095815

Horii, Yasuyuki; Kawaguchi, Maiko; Ohta, Ryo; Hirano, Akihiro; Watanabe, Gen; Kato, Nobumasa; Himi, Toshiyuki; Taya, Kazuyoshi

2012-01-01

403

The “deduction” approach: A non-invasive method for estimating secondary production of earthworm communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary production is an important parameter for the study of population dynamics and energy flow through animal communities. Secondary production of earthworm communities has been determined with the size-frequency and instantaneous growth rate methods, whereby earthworm populations are repeatedly sampled at regular intervals and the change in biomass of cohorts or individuals between sampling dates is determined. The major disadvantage of repeated sampling is that it disturbs the soil and permanently removes earthworms from the study area. The " deduction" approach is a theoretical model that partitions individuals into defined pools and makes assumptions about the growth, recruitment and mortality of each pool. In 2004 and 2005, earthworms were added to undisturbed field enclosures and the " deduction" approach was used to estimate secondary production of the indigenous and added earthworm populations during the crop growing period (17-18 weeks) in each year. Secondary production estimates made by the " deduction" approach were similar to estimates from direct earthworm sampling in temperate agroecosystems. The "deduction" approach is an indirect method that estimates population dynamics and secondary production, and is appropriate for manipulation experiments where removal of organisms and physical disturbance of the habitat by repeated sampling could bias results.

Eriksen-Hamel, Nikita S.; Whalen, Joann K.

2009-05-01

404

Self-Assemblage and Quorum in the Earthworm Eisenia fetida (Oligochaete, Lumbricidae)  

PubMed Central

Despite their ubiquity and ecological significance in temperate ecosystems, the behavioural ecology of earthworms is not well described. This study examines the mechanisms that govern aggregation behaviour specially the tendency of individuals to leave or join groups in the compost earthworm Eisenia fetida, a species with considerable economic importance, especially in waste management applications. Through behavioural assays combined with mathematical modelling, we provide the first evidence of self-assembled social structures in earthworms and describe key mechanisms involved in cluster formation. We found that the probability of an individual joining a group increased with group size, while the probability of leaving decreased. Moreover, attraction to groups located at a distance was observed, suggesting a role for volatile cues in cluster formation. The size of earthworm clusters appears to be a key factor determining the stability of the group. These findings enhance our understanding of intra-specific interactions in earthworms and have potential implications for extraction and collection of earthworms in vermicomposting processes.

Zirbes, Lara; Brostaux, Yves; Mescher, Mark; Jason, Maxime; Haubruge, Eric; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

2012-01-01

405

Earthworms Dilong: Ancient, Inexpensive, Noncontroversial Models May Help Clarify Approaches to Integrated Medicine Emphasizing Neuroimmune Systems  

PubMed Central

Earthworms have provided ancient cultures with food and sources of medicinal cures. Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and practices in Japan, Vietnam, and Korea have focused first on earthworms as sources of food. Gradually fostering an approach to potential beneficial healing properties, there are renewed efforts through bioprospecting and evidence-based research to understand by means of rigorous investigations the mechanisms of action whether earthworms are used as food and/or as sources of potential medicinal products. Focusing on earthworms grew by serendipity from an extensive analysis of the earthworm's innate immune system. Their immune systems are replete with leukocytes and humoral products that exert credible health benefits. Their emerging functions with respect to evolution of innate immunity have long been superseded by their well-known ecological role in soil conservation. Earthworms as inexpensive, noncontroversial animal models (without ethical concerns) are not vectors of disease do not harbor parasites that threaten humans nor are they annoying pests. By recognizing their numerous ecological, environmental, and biomedical roles, substantiated by inexpensive and more comprehensive investigations, we will become more aware of their undiscovered beneficial properties.

Cooper, Edwin L.; Balamurugan, Mariappan; Huang, Chih-Yang; Tsao, Clara R.; Heredia, Jesus; Tommaseo-Ponzetta, Mila; Paoletti, Maurizio G.

2012-01-01

406

Isolation and characterization of aerobic microorganisms with cellulolytic activity in the gut of endogeic earthworms.  

PubMed

The ability of earthworms to decompose lignocellulose involves the assistance of microorganisms in their digestive system. While many studies have revealed a diverse microbiota in the earthworm gut, including aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, it remains unclear which of these species contribute to lignocellulose digestion. In this study, aerobic microorganisms with cellulolytic activity isolated from the gut of two endogeic earthworms, Amynthas heteropoda (Megascolecidae) and Eisenia fetida (Lumbricidae) were isolated by solid culture of gut homogenates using filter paper as a carbon source. A total of 48 strains, including four bacterial and four fungal genera, were isolated from two earthworm species. Characterization of these strains using enzyme assays showed that the most representative ones had exocellulase and xylanase activities, while some had weak laccase activity. These findings suggest that earthworms digest lignocellulose by exploiting microbial exocellulase and xylanase besides their own endocellulase. Phylogenetic analysis showed that among the cellulolytic isolates in both earthworm species Burkholderia and Chaetomium were the dominant bacterial and fungal members. PMID:23847816

Fujii, Katsuhiko; Ikeda, Kana; Yoshida, Seo

2012-09-01

407

Bioaccumulation of total and methyl mercury in three earthworm species (Drawida sp., Allolobophora sp., and Limnodrilus sp.).  

PubMed

We determined total and methyl mercury contents in soil, three earthworm species and their vomitus to study the species-specific differences of mercury bioconcentration in Huludao City, a heavily polluted region by chlor-alkali and nonferrous metal smelting industry in Liaoning Province, northeast China. Total and methyl mercury contents were 7.20 mg/kg and 6.94 ng/g in soil, 1.43 mg/kg and 43.03 ng/g in Drawida sp., 2.80 mg/kg and 336.52 ng/g in Alolobophora sp., respectively. Total mercury contents were 0.966 mg/kg in Drawida sp. vomitus and 4.979 mg/kg in Alolobophora sp. vomitus, respectively. Total mercury contents in earthworms and their vomitus were significantly species-specific different and were both in decreasing with earthworms body lengths, which might due to the growth dilution. Among the soil, earthworms and their vomitus, total mercury contents were in the order of soil > earthworms > earthworm vomitus. Methyl mercury was about 3.01% of total mercury in Drawida sp., 12.02% of total mercury in Alolobophora sp., respectively. It suggested that mercury was mostly in inorganic forms in earthworms. Bioaccumulation factors of methyl mercury from soil to earthworms were much higher than those of total mercury, which suggested that methyl mercury might be more easily absorbed by and accumulated in earthworms because of its lipid solubility. PMID:19779655

Zhang, Zhong Sheng; Zheng, Dong Mei; Wang, Qi Chao; Lv, Xian Guo

2009-09-25

408

Effects of stimulation intensity on sociopathic avoidance learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of scores on standardized tests (e.g., the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale), 90 public offenders were selected to represent low, medium, and high levels of anxiety and low and high levels of sociopathy. Ss were exposed to an avoidance situation under either low, medium, or high levels of background auditory stimulation. The avoidance task allowed shock to be

Frank A. Chesno; Peter R. Kilmann

1975-01-01

409

Instructional interventions for reducing situational anxiety and avoidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instructors can manipulate situational variables to help reduce situational anxiety and avoidance in their students. Research reported here tests variations in motivation (percent of grade for communication activity), acquaintance (communication partner as friend or stranger), and context of assignment for their effect on dispositional anxiety and avoidance. Each factor was varied in a cover story which students read and then

1988-01-01

410

Conflict: Run! Reduced Stroop interference with avoidance responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conflict has been hypothesized to be aversive, triggering avoidance behaviour (Botvinick, 2007). To test this hypothesis, a standard Stroop task was modified such that avoiding was part of the response set. More precisely, participants were asked to move a manikin towards or away from Stroop stimuli, depending on the colour of the words. Results showed that the type of response

Nathalie Schouppe; Jan De Houwer; K. Richard Ridderinkhof; Wim Notebaert

2012-01-01

411

Reward dominance and passive avoidance learning in adolescent psychopaths  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tests predictions that adolescent psychopaths are hyperresponsive to rewards (Quay, 1988) and deficient in passive avoidance learning (Newman & Kosson, 1986). Forty male adolescent juvenile offenders were divided into psychopaths and nonpsychopaths using cluster analysis. Subjects were administered a passive avoidance learning task which required learning when to respond to cards associated with either reward or punishment. Results

Angela Scerbo; Adrian Raine; Mary O'Brien; Cheryl-Jean Chan; Cathy Rhee; Norine Smiley

1990-01-01

412

A Comparison of "Direct" versus "Derived" Extinction of Avoidance Responding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To establish a series of derived relations between arbitrary stimuli, 20 subjects were exposed to nonarbitrary and arbitrary relational training and testing procedures. Subjects were then exposed to an avoidance conditioning procedure in which one member from each relation was established as a discriminative stimulus for avoidance and…

Roche, Bryan T.; Kanter, Jonathan W.; Brown, Keri R.; Dymond, Simon; Fogarty, Ciara C.

2008-01-01

413

Facilitation of avoidance behavior by positive brain stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rats were trained in a shuttle box to avoid punishing midbrain stimulation. After avoidance performances stabilized, usually at low levels, brief stimulation was applied to various brain points at the start of a trial; later, each priming electrode was evaluated for positive reinforcement in a self-stimulation test. In general, strongly reinforcing electrodes in the medial forebrain bundle and associated tegmental

Larry Stein

1965-01-01

414

Passive Avoidance Is Linked to Impaired Fear Extinction in Humans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Conventional wisdom dictates we must face our fears to conquer them. This idea is embodied in exposure-based treatments for anxiety disorders, where the intent of exposure is to reverse a history of avoidant behavior that is thought to fuel a patient's irrational fears. We tested in humans the relationship between fear and avoidance by combining…

Cornwell, Brian R.; Overstreet, Cassie; Krimsky, Marissa; Grillon, Christian

2013-01-01

415

Simple biotoxicity tests for evaluation of carbonaceous soil additives: establishment and reproducibility of four test procedures.  

PubMed

Biochar derived from pyrolysis has received much attention recently as a soil additive to sequester carbon and increase soil fertility. Hydrochar, a brown, coal-like substance produced via hydrothermal carbonization, has also been suggested as a beneficial soil additive. However, before soil application, both types of char need to be tested for potential toxic effects. The aim of this study was to develop simple, inexpensive, and easy-to-apply test procedures to identify negative effects of chars but not to provide false-negative results. The following tests, based partly on ISO norm biotoxicity test procedures, were chosen: (i) cress germination test for gaseous phytotoxic emissions; (ii) barley germination and growth test; (iii) salad germination test; and (iv) earthworm avoidance test for toxic substances. Test reproducibility was ensured by carrying out each test procedure three times with the same biochar. Several modifications were necessary to adapt the tests for biochars/hydrochars. The tested biochar did not induce negative effects in any of the tests. In contrast, the beet-root chip hydrochar showed negative effects in all tests. In an extension to the regular procedure, a regrowth of the harvested barley shoots without further nutrient additions yielded positive results for the hydrochar, which initially had negative effects. This implies that the harmful substance(s) must have been degraded or they were water soluble and leached. Tests with a biochar and hydrochar showed that the proposed modified quick-check test procedures provide a fast assessment of risks and effects of char application to soils within a short period of time (<2 wk). PMID:22751044

Busch, Daniela; Kammann, Claudia; Grünhage, Ludger; Müller, Christoph

416

Avoiding versus seeking: the relationship of information seeking to avoidance, blunting, coping, dissonance, and related concepts*  

PubMed Central

Question: How have theorists and empirical researchers treated the human tendency to avoid discomforting information? Data Sources: A historical review (1890–2004) of theory literature in communication and information studies, coupled with searches of recent studies on uptake of genetic testing and on coping strategies of cancer patients, was performed. Study Selection: The authors' review of the recent literature included searches of the MEDLINE, PsychInfo, and CINAHL databases between 1992 and summer of 2004 and selective, manual searches of earlier literature. Search strategies included the following subject headings and key words: MeSH headings: Genetic Screening/psychology, Decision Making, Neoplasms/diagnosis/genetics/psychology; CINAHL headings: Genetic Screening, Genetic Counseling, Anxiety, Decision Making, Decision Making/Patient; additional key words: avoidance, worry, monitoring, blunting, cancer. The “Related Articles” function in MEDLINE was used to perform additional “citation pearl” searching. Main Results: The assumption that individuals actively seek information underlies much of psychological theory and communication practice, as well as most models of the information-seeking process. However, much research has also noted that sometimes people avoid information, if paying attention to it will cause mental discomfort or dissonance. Cancer information in general and genetic screening for cancer in particular are discussed as examples to illustrate this pattern. Conclusion: That some patients avoid knowledge of imminent disease makes avoidance behavior an important area for social and psychological research, particularly with regard to genetic testing.

Case, Donald O.; Andrews, James E.; Johnson, J. David; Allard, Suzanne L.

2005-01-01

417

Conflict: run! Reduced Stroop interference with avoidance responses.  

PubMed

Conflict has been hypothesized to be aversive, triggering avoidance behaviour (Botvinick, 2007). To test this hypothesis, a standard Stroop task was modified such that avoiding was part of the response set. More precisely, participants were asked to move a manikin towards or away from Stroop stimuli, depending on the colour of the words. Results showed that the type of response (approach versus avoidance) modulated the Stroop congruency effect. Specifically, the reaction time analysis revealed that the stimulus congruency effect disappeared with avoidance responses, contrary to approach responses where a stimulus congruency effect was present. Moreover, the error data showed a reduction of the general congruency effect when avoiding. These results suggest that in the face of conflict, avoidance is the predominant response. PMID:22640724

Schouppe, Nathalie; De Houwer, Jan; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Notebaert, Wim

2012-05-29

418

Acute toxicity of virgin and used engine oil enriched with copper nano particles in the earthworm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In spite of development of nanotechnology and creation of new opportunities for industry, new applications and products initiated by this technology may cause harmful effects on human health and environment. Unfortunately, there is no sufficient information on the harmful effects caused by application of some nano materials; the current knowledge in this field is limited solely to the nano particles but not the final products. Nano cupper particles, as one of the common materials produced in industrial scale is widely used as additives into engine oil to reduce friction and improve lubrication. However, the difference between the effects of virgin and used conventional engine oil (CEO) and the engine oil containing cupper nano particles (NEO) on the environment is not known. Earthworm, as a one of the species which could live and survive in different sorts of earth and has a certain role in protecting the soil structure and fertility, was used in this experiment. In accordance with the recommended method of OECD.1984, Filter Paper test in 24 and 48 h based on 8 concentrations in the range of 3×10-3 - 24×10-3 ml/cm2 and Artificial Soil test in 7 and 14 days based on 7 concentrations in the range of 0.1 mg/kg - 100 g/kg were carried out to study earthworms in terms of lifetime (LC50), morphology and pathology. It was shown that the 48 h LC50 for virgin CEO, virgin NEO, used CEO(8000 km) and used NEO (8000 km) were 6×10-3, 23×10-3, 24×10-3 and 16×10-3 ml/cm2 respectively. Furthermore, 14-day LC50 in artificial soil for all cases were above 100 g/kg. It is concluded that virgin CEO is more toxic than virgin NEO. Meanwhile, the CEO shows significant reduction in toxicity after consumption and the used NEO shows more toxicity in comparison to virgin product. It seems that more investigations on the effects of final products specifically after consumption is necessary because the products after consumption have the most contact with environment and subsequently human health.

Khodabandeh, M.; Koohi, M. K.; Roshani, A.; Shahroziyan, E.; Badri, B.; Pourfallah, A.; Shams, Gh; Hobbenaghi, R.; Sadeghi-Hashjin, G.

2011-07-01

419

Avoided cost standard under PURPA  

SciTech Connect

The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) (P.L. 95-617) was passed to encourage electricity conservation through a variety of regulatory and rate reforms. Information is provided on the controversy surrounding the avoided cost standard established under PURPA. Promulgated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Committee (FERC) in February 1980, the avoided cost standard sets a minimum rate for utilities purchasing power from a qualified facility (QF) at the utilities full avoided cost. Recent court cases have challenged this standard and FERC is currently appealing to the Supreme Court. The impact of these court cases may have little effect on the actual rates set by state Public Utility Commissions (PUCs), which can require rates higher than the minimums established by FERC, since many PUCs appear in favor of requiring full avoided costs. The arguments for and against requiring utilities to pay full avoided costs come down to balancing between incentives for QFs on the one hand and fairness to utilities and their non-QF customers on the other.

Cole, R.J.; Holmlund, I.; Smith, S.A.; Williams, T.A.

1983-04-01

420

Further records of non-cryptic New Zealand earthworms  

PubMed Central

Abstract Current descriptions add natives Aporodrilus aotea sp. n., Aporodrilus ponga sp. n. and Notoscolex repanga sp. n., plus new exotic records to the numbers of megadrile earthworms known from New Zealand, which are now raised from 193 to 222 species in five families, viz: Acanthodrilidae, Octochaetidae and Megascolecidae, plus Lumbricidae and Glossoscolecidae for exotics. Overlooked spermathecal diverticula have been located for Notoscolex equestris Benham, 1942 and for Megascolex animae Lee, 1959 and non-tubular prostrates were misconstrued as tubular in Megascolides tasmani Lee, 1959. Of these latter three species, a lectotype is designated for Notoscolex equestris and holotypes of the other two are briefly redescribed. Whereas Megascolides tasmani now belongs in Notoscolex Fletcher, 1887 and Megascolides animae belongs in Anisochaeta Beddard, 1890, further lack of dorsal pores in Notoscolex equestris as with Notoscolex esculentus (Benham, 1904) and Notoscolex mortenseni (Michaelsen, 1924) newly qualifies all three as additional combs. novae in primarily Tasmanian genus Aporodrilus Blakemore, 2000.

Blakemore, Robert

2011-01-01

421

Earthworms newly from Mongolia (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae, Eisenia).  

PubMed

Two new megadrile earthworms from the steppes, the first species wholly from Outer Mongolia, are ascribed to the partially parthenogenetic Eisenia nordenskioldi (Eisen, 1879) species-complex. Taxonomic justification of sympatric Eisenia nordenskioldi mongol and Eisenia nordenskioldi onon ssp. n. are supported by mtDNA COI barcodes. The unreliability of molecular differentiation based on voucher names compared to definitive types is again demonstrated, as pertains to the ultimate Eisenia andrei Bouché, 1972 synonym of the Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826) sibling species-complex composed of more than a dozen prior names. Similar species described from Northeast China [formerly Manchuria] and North Korea are briefly considered, albeit they are intermittently held in synonymy of cosmopolitan Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826) along with many other taxa including some exotic lumbricids initially found in India. Japanese and North American lumbricids are also mentioned. Distributions are discussed and an annotated checklist of all nine Siberian/sub-arctic Eisenia nordenskioldi ssp. is appended. PMID:23798894

Blakemore, Robert J

2013-04-05

422

Potential biochemical and genetic toxicity of triclosan as an emerging pollutant on earthworms (Eisenia fetida).  

PubMed

Triclosan as an important antimicrobial agent is increasingly detected in the terrestrial environment as sewage sludge and reclaimed water are applied on land, but little is known about its effect on non-target soil organisms. In this study, biochemical responses including changes in the activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and malondialdehyde (MDA) of the earthworm Eisenia fetida were examined in order to assess ecological toxicity of the chemical. The single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) was also used to measure the potential genotoxicity of the chemical. The results showed that the activity of CAT and GST at the highest tested dose could be stimulated after a 2-d exposure, reaching 148% and 123% of that in the control, respectively. However, with prolonged exposure, the activity of CAT and GST at the highest tested dose was inhibited, falling to 47% and 33% of that in the control, respectively. Triclosan induced an increase in the activity of SOD, but no significant (p>0.05) changes were observed. The content of MDA was dependent both on the dose of triclosan and on the exposure duration. The comet assay demonstrated that triclosan treatments led to a dose-dependent DNA damage of E. fetida after exposures of 7 and 14 d. Our findings can suggest that triclosan has sublethal effects on E. fetida. PMID:20825966

Lin, Dasong; Zhou, Qixing; Xie, Xiujie; Liu, Yao

2010-09-09

423

Arsenic speciation in the earthworms Lumbricus rubellus and Dendrodrilus rubidus.  

PubMed

Two species of earthworm, Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister and Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny) collected from an arsenic-contaminated mine spoil site and an uncontaminated site were investigated for total tissue arsenic concentrations and for arsenic compounds by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). For L. rubellus, whole-body total tissue arsenic concentrations were 7.0 to 17.0 mg arsenic/ kg dry weight in uncontaminated soil and 162 to 566 mg arsenic/kg dry weight in contaminated soil. For D. rubidus, whole-body tissue concentrations were 2.0 to 5.0 mg arsenic/kg dry weight and 97 to 321 mg arsenic/kg dry weight, respectively. Arsenobetaine was the only organic arsenic species detected in both species of earthworms, with the remainder of the extractable arsenic being arsenate and arsenite. There was an increase in the proportion of arsenic present as arsenobetaine in the total arsenic burden. Lumbricus rubellus and D. rubidus have similar life styles, both being surface living and litter feeding. Arsenic speciation was found to be similar in both species for both uncontaminated and contaminated sites, with dose-dependent formation of arsenobetaine. When L. rubellus and D. rabidus from contaminated sites were incubated in arsenic-free soils, the total tissue burden of arsenic diminished. Initially, L. rubellus from the tolerant populations (from the contaminated site) eliminated arsenic in the first 7 d of exposure before accumulating arsenic in tissues, whereas nontolerant populations (from the uncontaminated site) accumulated arsenic linearly. The tolerant and nontolerant L. rubellus eliminated tissue arsenic linearly over 21 d when incubated in uncontaminated soil. PMID:12785588

Langdon, Caroline J; Piearce, Trevor G; Feldmann, Jörg; Semple, Kirk T; Meharg, Andrew A

2003-06-01

424

TOPRAK SOLUCANLARININ FARKLI BAKIAÇILARINDAN B ?R MODEL ORGAN ?ZMA OLARAK DE ?ERLEND ?R?LMES ? EVALUATION OF EARTHWORMS AS A MODEL ORGANISM FROM D IFFERENT PERSPECTIVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms are at the basis of terrestrial food cha ins. Understanding different mechanisms in these organisms is therefore essential for predi ction of potential food-chain effects of soil contamination. Models with different aspects such a s regeneration of these organisms, uptake of chemicals from soil into earthworms and genotoxi city evaluations are needed to support risk assessment methods. Earthworm toxicity

Ahu Karademir; Stephen Otieno Akech; Talgat Sailov; Murat Karakol; Duran Sakalli; Irem Uzonur

425

Learning a Traversal Pattern in a Shock Avoidance Maze.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Six male monkeys (Macaca mulatta), naive to psychological testing, were given training on a traversal pattern in a shock avoidance maze. Three training conditions were employed to determine the most efficient means for training subjects to master a proble...

E. M. Gresko S. J. Kaplan D. W. Conrad H. D. Cooper

1968-01-01

426

Experiential avoidance as an emotion regulatory function: an empirical analysis of experiential avoidance in relation to behavioral avoidance, cognitive reappraisal, and response suppression.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to empirically test the suggestion that experiential avoidance in an emotion regulation context is best understood as an emotion regulatory function of topographically distinct strategies. To do this we examined whether a measure of experiential avoidance could statistically account for the effects of emotion regulation strategies intervening at different points of the emotion-generative process as conceptualized by Gross' (1998) process model of emotion regulation. The strategies under examination were behavioral avoidance, cognitive reappraisal, and response suppression. The specific hypotheses to be tested were (1) that behavioral avoidance, cognitive reappraisal, and response suppression would statistically mediate the differences in measures of psychological well-being between a clinical and nonclinical sample, but that (2) these indirect effects would be reduced to nonsignificant levels when controlling for differences in experiential avoidance. The results provide clear support for the first hypothesis with regard to all the studied strategies. In contrast to the second hypothesis, the results showed the predicted outcome pattern only for the response-focused strategy "response suppression" and not for cognitive reappraisal or behavioral avoidance. The results are interpreted and discussed in relation to theories on experiential avoidance and emotion regulation. PMID:23721612

Wolgast, Martin; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar; Viborg, Gardar

2013-05-31

427

Earthworms, Collembola and residue management change wheat (Triticum aestivum) and herbivore pest performance (Aphidina: Rhophalosiphum padi).  

PubMed

Management practices of arable systems determine the distribution of soil organic matter thereby changing decomposer animal activity and their impact on nutrient mineralization, plant growth and plant-herbivore interactions. Decomposer-mediated changes in plant growth and insect pest performance were investigated in wheat-aphid model systems in the greenhouse. Three types of litter distribution were established: litter patch at the soil surface (simulating mulching), litter patch deeper in soil (simulating ploughing) and litter homogeneously mixed into soil (simulating disk cultivation). The litter was labelled with (15)N to follow the mineralization and uptake of nutrients by the plants. Earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) and Collembola (Protaphorura armata) were included as representatives of major functional groups of decomposers. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) was planted and aphids (Rhophalosiphum padi) were introduced to leaves as one of the most important pests. Earthworms, Collembola and litter distribution affected plant growth, N acquisition and aphid development in an interactive way. Earthworms and Collembola increased biomass of seeds, shoots and roots of wheat. Increased plant growth by earthworms and Collembola was mainly due to increased transfer of N from soil (rather than litter) into plants. Despite increasing plant growth, earthworms reduced aphid reproduction. Aphid reproduction was not correlated closely with plant N concentrations, but rather with the concentration of litter N in wheat. Unexpectedly, both Collembola and earthworms predominantly affected the mobilization of N from soil organic matter, and by altering the distribution of litter earthworms reduced infestation of crops by aphids via reducing plant capture of litter N, in particular if the litter was concentrated deeper in soil. The results suggest that management practices stimulating a continuous moderate increase in nutrient mobilization from soil organic matter rather than nutrient flushes from decomposing fresh organic matter result in maximum plant growth with minimum plant pest infestation. PMID:18654802

Ke, Xin; Scheu, Stefan

2008-07-25

428

Adaptive Avoidance of Reef Noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Auditory information is widely used throughout the animal kingdom in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Some marine species are dependent on reefs for adult survival and reproduction, and are known to use reef noise to guide orientation towards suitable habitat. Many others that forage in food-rich inshore waters would, however, benefit from avoiding the high density of predators resident on

Stephen D. Simpson; Andrew N. Radford; Edward J. Tickle; Mark G. Meekan; Andrew G. Jeffs; A. Peter Klimley

2011-01-01

429

How Jews Avoid Alcohol Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suggests that four social processes protect against alcoholism in American Jews: (1) association of alcohol abuse with non-Jews; (2) integration of moderate drinking norms, practices, and symbolism during childhood through religious and secular ritual; (3) restriction of adult relationships to other moderate drinkers; and (4) techniques to avoid

Glassner, Barry; Berg, Bruce

1980-01-01

430

Transuranic waste minimization and avoidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the effectiveness of existing, planned and proposed waste avoidance and minimization projects in reducing the amount of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Transuranic (TRU) waste requiring disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The majority of the TRU wastes generated at LANL are associated with the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program, the Milliwatt Heat Source Program,

R. L. Dodge; A. J. Montoya

2001-01-01

431

Avoiding plagiarism in academic writing.  

PubMed

Plagiarism means taking the work of another and presenting it as one's own, resulting in potential upset for the original author and disrepute for the professions involved. This article aims to explore the issue of plagiarism and some mechanisms for detection and avoidance. PMID:19186631

Anderson, Irene

432

Influence of Earthworm Invasion on Redistribution and Retention of Soil Carbon and Nitrogen in Northern Temperate Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed soil organic matter distribution and soil solution chemistry in plots with and without earthworms at two sugar maple ( Acer saccharum)–dominated forests in New York State, USA, with differing land-use histories to assess the influence of earthworm invasion on the retention or loss of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in northern temperate forests. Our objectives were to

Patrick J. Bohlen; Derek M. Pelletier; Peter M. Groffman; Timothy J. Fahey; Melany C. Fisk

2004-01-01

433

Earthworms strongly modify microbial biomass and activity triggering enzymatic activities during vermicomposting independently of the application rates of pig slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the relationships between earthworm activity, microbial biomass and the activation and dynamics of several enzyme activities. We carried out an experiment in which low and high rates (1.5 and 3 kg respectively) of pig slurry were applied to small scale reactors with and without earthworms. We found that extracellular enzyme activity increased with rate of pig slurry. In both

Manuel Aira; Fernando Monroy; Jorge Domínguez

2007-01-01

434

POPULATION DYNAMICS OF AMBIENT AND ALTERED EARTHWORM COMMUNITIES IN ROW-CROP AGROECOSYSTEMS IN THE MIDWESTERN U.S.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although earthworms affect agroecosystem processes, few studies have addressed population dynamics when earthworms are intentionally introduced. Therefore, handsorting and formalin extraction were used semi-annually from fall 1994 to fall 1997 to measure populations in ambient and addition plots in ...

435

Earthworm activity affecting organic matter, aggregation and microbial activity in soils restored after opencast mining for coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms were introduced into physically degraded soils restored after opencast coal mining. Their effects on soil organic matter and associated soil aggregation were then measured after a period of 9 yr. Earthworm inputs increased stable aggregation and resulted in a higher proportion of the soil organic matter as carbohydrates. Although the total amount of organic matter in the top 15

J. Scullion; A. Malik

2000-01-01

436

Use of an earthworm lysosomal biomarker for the ecological assessment of pollution from an industrial plastics fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-cost field technique employing retention of the dye neutral-red by lysosomes in coelomocyte cells taken from earthworms (Lumbricus castaneus), was used as a means of assessing the ecological effects (if any) of an industrial accident. Earthworms and soil samples were collected at the site of a large industrial plastics fire in Thetford, UK along a 200 m transect leading

Claus Svendsen; Andrew A. Meharg; Paul Freestone

1996-01-01

437

Soil moisture and temperature interact to affect growth, survivorship, fecundity, and fitness in the earthworm Eisenia fetida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life history and fitness characters of the earthworm Eisenia fetida were measured for all combinations of three soil moistures (2, 3, 4 ml H2O\\/g peat moss) and four soil temperatures (15, 20, 25, 28°C). Maximal growth early in ontogeny, fecundity (cocoons per week per earthworm), and fitness (fecundity × survivorship) occurred in high moistures and moderate temperatures. After reproductive maturity,

M. Lance Presley; Tom C. McElroy; Walter J. Diehl

1996-01-01

438

Extrusion of earthworm coelomocytes: comparison of the cell populations recovered from the species Lumbricus terrestris, Eisenia fetida and Octolasion tyrtaeum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Coelomocytes were extruded from three earthworm species: Lumbricus terrestris, Eisenia fetida and Octolasion tyrtaeum. Featuring a simple low-vacuum holding device, the proposed methodology allows the recovery of cells with minimum risk of contamination by faecal material. The viability of O. tyrtaeum coelomocytes was highly reproducible (average 93%), with an average yield of 0.92 x 106 viable cells per earthworm.

J. Diogène; M. Dufour; G. G. Poirier; D. Nadeau

1997-01-01

439

Species-specific differences in biomarker responses in two ecologically different earthworms exposed to the insecticide dimethoate.  

PubMed

Earthworms ingest large amounts of soil and therefore are continuously exposed to contaminants through their alimentary surfaces. Additionally, several studies have shown that earthworm skin is a significant route of contaminant uptake as well. In order to determine effects of dimethoate, a broad-spectrum organophosphorous insecticide, two ecologically different earthworm species were used - Eisenia andrei and Octolasion lacteum. Although several studies used soil organisms to investigate the effects of dimethoate, none of these studies included investigations of dimethoate effects on biochemical biomarkers in earthworms. Earthworms were exposed to 0.001, 0.005, 0.01, 0.5 and 1 ?g/cm(2) of dimethoate for 24 h, and the activities of acetylcholinesterase, carboxylesterase, catalase and efflux pump were measured. In both earthworm species dimethoate caused significant inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and carboxylesterase activities, however in E. andrei an hormetic effect was evident. Efflux pump activity was inhibited only in E. andrei, and catalase activity was significantly inhibited in both earthworm species. Additionally, responses of earthworm acetylcholinesterase, carboxylesterase and catalase activity to dimethoate were examined through in vitro experiments. Comparison of responses between E. andrei and O. lacteum has shown significant differences, and E. andrei has proved to be less susceptible to dimethoate exposure. PMID:22609974

Velki, Mirna; Hackenberger, Branimir K

2012-05-18

440

DNA damage in earthworms from highly contaminated soils: Assessing resistance to arsenic toxicity by use of the Comet assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms native to the former mine site of Devon Great Consols (DGC), UK reside in soils highly contaminated with arsenic (As). These earthworms are considered to have developed a resistance to As toxicity. The mechanisms underlying this resistance however, remain unclear. In the present study, non-resistant, commercially sourced Lumbricus terrestris were exposed to a typical DGC soil in laboratory mesocosms.

Mark Button; Gawen R. T. Jenkin; Karen J. Bowman; Chris F. Harrington; Tim S. Brewer; George D. D. Jones; Michael J. Watts

2010-01-01

441

Toxicity of Neatex (industrial detergent) and Norust CR 486 (corrosion inhibitors) to earthworms (Aporrectodea longa) in naturally spiked soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological effects of indiscriminate disposal of industrial chemicals into soils of the Niger Delta environment of Nigeria were assessed using earthworms in spiked natural soil in the laboratory. Populations of indigenous epigeic adult earthworms, Aporrectodea longa, were exposed to varying concentrations of two chemicals (industrial detergent and corrosion inhibitor) in natural soil to determine the acute toxicity of the chemicals.

442

Assessment of soil structural differentiation around earthworm burrows by means of X-ray computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The burrowing activity of earthworms creates a distinct area around the resulting macropores called the drilosphere, which controls various soil processes. Density and microstructure of the drilosphere were studied and compared with those of the surrounding soil. For this purpose soil cores were separately inoculated with the vertically burrowing earthworm species Lumbricus terrestris. After 70 days some cores were compacted by

Stefan Schrader; Helmut Rogasik; Ingrid Onasch; Danielle Jégou

2007-01-01

443

Supercritical fluid extraction of persistent organic pollutants from natural and artificial soils and comparison with bioaccumulation in earthworms.  

PubMed

Selective supercritical fluid extraction (SSFE) was used as a measurement of compound chemical accessibility and as a predictor of compound bioavailability from three natural soils and artificial analogues prepared to have comparable total organic carbon content. Soils spiked with phenanthrene, pyrene, PCB 153, lindane, and p,p'-DDT were aged for 0, 14, 28, or 56 days and then selectively extracted by supercritical fluid extraction. Compounds exhibited decreasing extractability with increasing pollutant-soil contact time and increasing total organic carbon content in tested soils. However, the different extractability of compounds from artificial and natural pairs having comparable TOC indicates the limitations of using TOC as an extrapolation basis between various soils. The comparison of extractability with bioaccumulation by earthworms (Eisenia fetida) previously published by Vl?ková and Hofman (2012) showed that only for PAHs it was possible to predict their bioaccumulation by means of selective SFE. PMID:23416268

Bielská, Lucie; Šmídová, Klára; Hofman, Jakub

2013-02-13

444

Stress synergy between environmentally realistic levels of copper and frost in the earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra.  

PubMed

In their natural habitat, animals are exposed to a variety of stress factors, including extreme temperatures, low water availability, and toxic stress from chemical pollutants. In this study we examined the interaction between realistic environmental levels of soil-copper contamination and realistic winter temperatures on survival of the cosmopolitan freeze-tolerant earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra. These interactions were tested using a full factorial design with six copper concentrations between 0 and 200 mg Cu/kg dry soil and five temperatures from +2 to -8 degrees C. A highly significant synergistic interaction existed that demonstrates that exposure to subzero temperatures significantly reduced copper tolerance and, conversely, that copper exposure significantly reduced freeze tolerance. Copper had no effect on glucose production, which is believed to be a major component of the cryoprotective system and the only known cryoprotectant in D. octaedra. This points to other mechanisms behind the observed synergy, possibly impaired osmoregulatory function of the cell membrane. The results support the working hypothesis that interactions between toxicants and dominant natural stress factors can alter the organisms' tolerance to these individual stressors. PMID:16117123

Bindesbøl, Anne-Mette; Holmstrup, Martin; Damgaard, Christian; Bayley, Mark

2005-06-01

445

Ecotoxicological responses of the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to soil contaminated with HHCB.  

PubMed

Although polycyclic musks have been shown to cause lethal and sub-lethal effects on organisms, their biochemical toxicity to earthworms is not well understood. In the current study, we investigated the responses of antioxidant systems and lipid peroxidation after exposing Eisenia fetida to soil contaminated with 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-cyclopenta-?-2-benzopyran (HHCB). Significant increase in lipid peroxidation level was observed on day 14 at two high concentrations, 50 and 100 mg kg(-1). Among antioxidant enzymes, the primary response to chronic HHCB exposure can be attributed to superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Of the two enzymes, SOD exhibited more sensitive response to HHCB stress. In addition, these two enzymes could have a combined effect on fighting damage by reactive oxygen species, evidenced by a marked relationship between lipid peroxidation and enzyme activity. On the other hand, dose-dependent inhibition of peroxidase (POD) activity has been observed throughout the test. The results suggest that the variations in investigated parameters of E. fetida could be used as responsive biomarkers for oxidative stress caused by HHCB in a soil environment. PMID:21334043

Liu, Shuo; Zhou, Qixing; Wang, Yingying

2011-02-18

446

Immunotoxicological response of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris following exposure to cement kiln dusts.  

PubMed

Cement kiln dusts are made of a complex mixture of elements. We have evaluated the potential negative impact of those dusts on the immune system of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris. We specifically studied cell viability and phagocytic activity of coelomocytes extruded during electrical stimulation. We used two modes of exposures: in vitro, and soil incubation using OECD artificial soil media. Extruded coelomocytes were exposed 18 h in vitro to 10, 100, and 500 mg L(-1) of cement kiln dust particles. The phagocytosis and the cell viability were determined using a double-laser-flow acquisition cytometry system. Using the double laser allows us to use a dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) marker to discriminate the biological cells from the cement kiln dusts. Dead cells are marked using propidium iodide (PI). All three exposure levels showed highly significant impacts on cell viability and phagocytic activity. The in vivo soil incubation was performed using 10, 100, and 1000 mg kg(-1) of cement kiln dusts incorporated into the OECD media. Here, to discriminate the biological cells from the mineral dusts we only needed to use PI. The day-to-day variability of the in vivo assay was high and although we can observe an overall reduction in cell viability at the highest concentration tested, no statistically significant effects could be observed on either cell viability or phagocytosis. PMID:15261717

Massicotte, R; Robidoux, P-Y; Sauvé, S; Flipo, D; Mathiot, A; Fournier, M; Trottier, B

2004-09-01

447

Bioavailability of phthalate congeners to earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in artificially contaminated soils.  

PubMed

Bioavailability of phthalate congeners, dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and dioctyl phthalate, to earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were studied when earthworms were exposed to two artificially contaminated agricultural and forest soils. Only DBP and DEHP were detected in earthworms. The uptake kinetics of DBP and DEHP in earthworms was fast within the initial 10 days followed by a nearly steady state for the subsequent 20 days. An equilibrium partitioning model could be used to describe the uptake kinetics of DBP and DEHP by earthworm in two types of soils (r = 0.709-0.864). The average biota-to-soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) of DBP and DEHP at 5 mg kg(-1) in soil were 0.27 +/- 0.07 and 0.17 +/- 0.03, respectively, in agricultural soil, while the BSAFs were 0.21 +/- 0.06 and 0.07 +/- 0.02, respectively, in forest soil. The concentrations of phthalates in earthworms increased with increasing concentrations of phthalates in soil. There was a significant correlation between logC(soil) and logC(worm), with r = 0.999-0.993, demonstrating a single linear partitioning of phthalates between soil and earthworms. The bioavailability of DBP and DEHP was assessed by Soxhlet, methanol, and methanol-water (1:1) extraction methods. Our results indicated that the extractable amounts of freshly added DBP and DEHP in soils by these extraction methods were significantly correlated with those in earthworms. It was observed that the extractable DBP and DEHP by the methanol and methanol-water (1:1) extraction methods decreased with their increasing residence time in soil. In contrast, the amount extracted by the Soxhlet extraction method did not show a similar decline. Therefore, Soxhlet extraction was a poor indicator of the bioavailability of DBP and DEHP to earthworms in soil, which could lead to overestimation of the risk of soil-associated DBP and DEHP. The extractable DBP and DEHP by methanol and methanol-water (1:1) significantly decreased over 440 days. Compared with the methanol-water (1:1) extraction method, the methanol extraction method was preferred for its ability to predict the bioavailability of DBP and DEHP in aged soils. PMID:15978288

Hu, Xiao-yu; Wen, Bei; Zhang, Shuzhen; Shan, Xiao-quan

2005-09-01

448

Stable isotopic studies of earthworm feeding ecology in tropical ecosystems of Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Feeding strategies of earthworms and their influence on soil processes are often inferred from morphological, behavioral and physiological traits. We used (13)C and (15)N natural abundance in earthworms, soils and plants to explore patterns of resource utilization by different species of earthworms in three tropical ecosystems in Puerto Rico. In a high altitude dwarf forest, native earthworms Trigaster longissimus and Estherella sp. showed less (15)N enrichment ((15)N = 3-6 per thousand) than exotic Pontoscolex corethrurus ((15)N =7-9 per thousand) indicating different food sources or stronger isotopic discrimination by the latter. Conversely, in a lower altitude tabonuco forest, Estherella sp. and P. corethrurus overlapped completely in (15)N enrichment ((15)N = 6-9 per thousand), suggesting the potential for interspecific competition for N resources. A tabonuco forest converted to pasture contained only P. corethrurus which were less enriched in (15)N than those in the forest sites, but more highly enriched in (13)C suggesting assimilation of C from the predominant C(4) grass. These results support the utility of stable isotopes to delineate resource partitioning and potential competitive interactions among earthworm species. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:10407313

Hendrix; Lachnicht; Callaham; Zou

1999-07-01

449

Earthworm sublethal responses to titanium dioxide nanomaterial in soil detected by ¹H NMR metabolomics.  

PubMed

¹H NMR-based metabolomics was used to examine the response of Eisenia fetida earthworms raised from juveniles for 20-23 weeks in soil spiked with either 20 or 200 mg/kg of a commercially available uncoated titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) nanomaterial (nominal diameter of 5 nm). To distinguish responses specific to particle size, soil treatments spiked with a micrometer-sized TiO(2) material (nominal diameter, <45 ?m) at the same concentrations (20 and 200 mg/kg) were also included in addition to an unspiked control soil. Multivariate statistical analysis of the (1)H NMR spectra for aqueous extracts of E. fetida tissue suggested that earthworms exhibited significant changes in their metabolic profile following TiO(2) exposure for both particle sizes. The observed earthworm metabolic changes appeared to be consistent with oxidative stress, a proposed mechanism of toxicity for nanosized TiO(2). In contrast, a prior study had observed no impairment of E. fetida survival, reproduction, or growth following exposure to the same TiO(2) spiked soils. This suggests that (1)H NMR-based metabolomics provides a more sensitive measure of earthworm response to TiO(2) materials in soil and that further targeted assays to detect specific cellular or molecular level damage to earthworms caused by chronic exposure to TiO(2) are warranted. PMID:22148900

Whitfield Åslund, Melissa L; McShane, Heather; Simpson, Myrna J; Simpson, André J; Whalen, Joann K; Hendershot, William H; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

2011-12-22

450

Earthworm genomes, genes and proteins: the (re)discovery of Darwin's worms  

PubMed Central

Small incremental biological change, winnowed by natural selection over geological time scales to produce large consequences, was Darwin's singular insight that revolutionized the life sciences. His publications after 1859, including the ‘earthworm book’, were all written to amplify and support the evolutionary theory presented in the Origin. Darwin was unable to provide a physical basis for the inheritance of favoured traits because of the absence of genetic knowledge that much later led to the ‘modern synthesis’. Mistaken though he was in advocating systemic ‘gemmules’ as agents of inheritance, Darwin was perceptive in seeking to underpin his core vision with concrete factors that both determine the nature of a trait in one generation and convey it to subsequent generations. This brief review evaluates the molecular genetic literature on earthworms published during the last decade, and casts light on the specific aspects of earthworm evolutionary biology that more or less engaged Darwin: (i) biogeography, (ii) species diversity, (iii) local adaptations and (iv) sensitivity. We predict that the current understanding will deepen with the announcement of a draft earthworm genome in Darwin's bicentenary year, 2009. Subsequently, the earthworm may be elevated from the status of a soil sentinel to that elusive entity, an ecologically relevant genetic model organism.

Sturzenbaum, S.R.; Andre, J.; Kille, P.; Morgan, A.J.

2008-01-01

451

Beneficial Effect of Verminephrobacter Nephridial Symbionts on the Fitness of the Earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata? †  

PubMed Central

Almost all lumbricid earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) harbor species-specific Verminephrobacter (Betaproteobacteria) symbionts in their nephridia (excretory organs). The function of the symbiosis, and whether the symbionts have a beneficial effect on their earthworm host, is unknown; however, the symbionts have been hypothesized to enhance nitrogen retention in earthworms. The effect of Verminephrobacter on the life history traits of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen) was investigated by comparing the growth, development, and fecundity of worms with and without symbionts given high (cow dung)- and low (straw)-nutrient diets. There were no differences in worm growth or the number of cocoons produced by symbiotic and aposymbiotic worms. Worms with Verminephrobacter symbionts reached sexual maturity earlier and had higher cocoon hatching success than worms cured of their symbionts when grown on the low-nutrient diet. Thus, Verminephrobacter nephridial symbionts do have a beneficial effect on their earthworm host. Cocoons with and without symbionts did not significantly differ in total organic carbon, total nitrogen, or total hydrolyzable amino acid content, which strongly questions the hypothesized role of the symbionts in nitrogen recycling for the host.

Lund, Marie B.; Holmstrup, Martin; Lomstein, Bente A.; Damgaard, Christian; Schramm, Andreas

2010-01-01

452

Stimulating effect of earthworm excreta on the mineralization of nitrogen compounds in soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of excreta of earthworm species Aporrectodea caliginosa and Eisenia fetida on the mineralization of nitrogen compounds in soils has been studied. A single application of excreta obtained from three earthworms in one day increased the formation of nitrate nitrogen compounds in the soil by 10 50%. The application of ammonium nitrogen (in the form of NH4Cl) in amounts equivalent to the ammonium nitrogen content in the daily excreta of three earthworms had the same effect on the mineralization of nitrogen compounds. The effect of earthworm excreta, as well as the effect of ammonium nitrogen, on the nitrification process was an order of magnitude higher than their contribution to the formation of nitrates due to the oxidation of the introduced ammonium. Hence, ammonium—an important component of the earthworm excreta—can exert a stimulating effect on nitrification processes in the soil and produce long-term cumulative effects that are much more significant than the direct effect of this nitrogen compound.

Bityutskii, N. P.; Solov'eva, A. N.; Lukina, E. I.; Oleinik, A. S.; Zavgorodnyaya, Yu. A.; Demin, V. V.; Byzov, B. A.

2007-04-01

453

Edaphic factors affecting the toxicity and accumulation of arsenate in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris  

SciTech Connect

The toxicity and accumulation of arsenate was determined in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris in soil from different layers of a forest profile. Toxicity increased fourfold between 2 and 10 d. Edaphic factors (pH, soil organic matter, and depth in soil profile) also affected toxicity with a three fold decrease in the concentration that causes 50% mortality with increasing depth in soil. In a 4-d exposure study, there was no evidence of arsenic bioconcentration in earthworm tissue, although bioaccumulation was occurring. There was a considerable difference in tissue residues between living and dead earthworms, with dead worms having higher concentrations. This difference was dependent on both soil arsenate concentration and on soil type. Over a wide range of soil arsenate concentrations, earthworm arsenic residues are homeostatically maintained in living worms, but this homeostasis breaks down during death. Alternatively, equilibration with soil residues may occur via accumulation after death. In long-term accumulation studies in soils dosed with a sublethal arsenate concentration, bioconcentration of arsenate did not occur until day 12, after which earthworm concentrations rose steadily above the soil concentration, with residues in worms three fold higher than soil concentrations by the termination of the study. This bioconcentration only occurred in depurated worms over the time period of the study. Initially, depurated worms had lower arsenic concentrations than undepurated until tissue concentrations were equivalent to the soil concentration. Once tissue concentration was greater than soil concentration, depurated worms had higher arsenic residues than undepurated.

Meharg, A.A.; Shore, R.F.; Broadgate, K. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology, Huntingdon (United Kingdom)

1998-06-01

454

Cellular biomarkers for measuring toxicity of xenobiotics: Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on earthworm Lumbricus terrestris coelomocytes  

SciTech Connect

Acute toxicity in earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) was assayed immediately after 5-d filter paper exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclor 1254, using coelomocyte viability, total extruded cell counts (ECC), differential cell counts (DCC), and formation of erythrocyte (ER) and secretory rosettes (SR) with, and phagocytosis of, antigenic rabbit red blood cells (RRBC). Chronic toxicity was assayed using rates by which earthworms replaced viable immunoactive coelomocytes, removed noninvasively immediately after exposure, over an 18-week depuration period. All cytological parameters, except ECC, were acutely affected immediately after exposure, when tissue concentrations were ([anti X] [plus minus] SE) 91.2 [plus minus] 8.19 [mu]g PCB per gram dry mass. Replacement of viable immunoactive coelomocytes occurred within six weeks in unexposed control earthworms. Exposed earthworms showed significant alteration in viability, ECC, DCC, ER, and SR formation, and phagocytosis at 6 and 12 weeks when PCB tissue concentrations were 41 [plus minus] 0.31 and 30.2 [plus minus] 0.88 [mu]g/g dry mass, respectively. Replacement of extruded coelomocytes with normal DCC of viable immunocompetent cells was not observed until week 18, when PCB had decreased to 15.7 [plus minus] 0.83 [mu]g/g dry mass. Low inherent natural variability in coelomocyte viability, ECC, DCC, rosette formation, and phagocytosis, and their sensitivity to sublethal PCB body burdens, indicated that earthworm coelomocytes have potential as nonmammalian biomarkers for assaying acute and chronic sublethal toxicity of xenobiotics.

Goven, A.J.; Fitzpatrick, L.C. (Univ. of North Texas, Denton (United States)); Eyambe, G.S. (Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock (United States)); Venables, B.J. (TRAC Labs., Denton, TX (United States)); Cooper, E.L. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

1993-05-01

455

Assessing ecotoxicity and uptake of metals and metalloids in relation to two different earthworm species (Eiseina hortensis and Lumbricus terrestris).  

PubMed

Due to diffuse atmospheric fallouts of process particles enriched by metals and metalloids, polluted soils concern large areas at the global scale. Useful tools to assess ecotoxicity induced by these polluted soils are therefore needed. Earthworms are currently used as biotest, however the influence of specie and earthworm behaviour, soil characteristics are poorly highlighted. Our aim was therefore to assess the toxicity of various polluted soils with process particles enriches by metals and metalloi