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1

The potential of an earthworm avoidance test for evaluation of hazardous waste sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

An earthworm avoidance test has potential advantages for use in evaluation of hazardous wastes sites. Because organisms often exhibit behavioral responses at lower levels of stress than those that acute toxicity tests are able to detect, avoidance tests could provide increased sensitivity to hazardous chemicals. Avoidance is an ecologically relevant endpoint that neither acute nor sublethal tests measure. Avoidance can

Roger B. Yeardley Jr.; L. C. Gast; J. M. Lazorchak

1996-01-01

2

Avoidance tests with earthworms and springtails: Defining the minimum exposure time to observe a significant response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the ability of organisms to avoid contaminated soils, avoidance tests have a great potential as early screening tools in lower tier levels of ERA schemes. Aiming at their standardization, the definition of the minimum exposure time necessary to observe an avoidance response to a contaminant is needed. To fill this gap, avoidance tests with earthworms (Eisenia andrei) and

Tiago Natal-da-Luz; Mónica J. B. Amorim; Jörg Römbke; José Paulo Sousa

2008-01-01

3

THE POTENTIAL OF AN EARTHWORM AVOIDANCE TEST FOR EVALUATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

An earthworm avoidance test has potential advantages for use in evaluation of hazardous wastes sites. Because organisms often exhibit behavioral responses at lower levels of stress than those that acute toxicity tests are able to detect, avoidance tests could provide increased se...

4

Comparative sensitivity of Eisenia andrei and Perionyx excavatus in earthworm avoidance tests using two soil types in the tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial avoidance behavior is proposed as a fast and cost-effective method for assessing effects of pesticides on earthworms. Tropical species however, have rarely been used in avoidance tests. Avoidance tests were performed with Perionyxexcavatus, a tropical species, and Eiseniaandrei as the standard species, using chlorpyrifos and carbofuran in artificial and natural soil. Earthworms were exposed to concentrations of 1–900 (chlorpyrifos)

Cornelis A. M. van Gestel

2009-01-01

5

The potential of an earthworm avoidance test for evaluation of hazardous waste sites  

SciTech Connect

An earthworm avoidance test has potential advantages for use in evaluation of hazardous wastes sites. Because organisms often exhibit behavioral responses at lower levels of stress than those that acute toxicity tests are able to detect, avoidance tests could provide increased sensitivity to hazardous chemicals. Avoidance is an ecologically relevant endpoint that neither acute nor sublethal tests measure. Avoidance can potentially indicate sublethal stress in a short period of time, testing is easily done in a soil matrix, and an avoidance test has the potential for specialized applications for soil testing. Dual-control test data established that, in absence of a toxicant, worms did not congregate, but instead distributed themselves fairly randomly with respect to the two sides of the test chambers, that is, they did not display behavior that might be mistaken for avoidance. In tests with artificial soil spiked with reference toxicants and hazardous site soils, worms avoided soils containing various toxic chemicals. Avoidance behavior proved in most cases be a more sensitive indicator of chemical contamination than acute tests. Determination of avoidance was possible in 1 to 2 d, much less than the current duration of acute and sublethal earthworm tests.

Yeardley, R.B. Jr.; Gast, L.C. [DynCorp, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lazorchak, J.M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1996-09-01

6

Earthworm (Eisenia andrei) Avoidance of Soils Treated with Cypermethrin  

PubMed Central

The pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin is used for agricultural and public health campaigns. Its residues may contaminate soils and the beneficial soil organisms, like the earthworms, that may ingest the contaminated soil particles. Due to its ecological relevance, earthworms Eisenia andrei/fetida have been used in different ecotoxicological tests. The avoidance of soils treated with cypermethrin by compost worms Eisenia andrei was studied here as a bioindicator of the influence of treatment dosage and the pesticide formulation in three different agricultural soils indicated by the Brazilian environmental authorities for ecotoxicological tests. This earthworms’ behavior was studied here as a first attempt to propose the test for regulation purposes. The two-compartment test systems, where the earthworms were placed for a two-day exposure period, contained samples of untreated soil alone or together with soil treated with technical grade or wettable powder formulation of cypermethrin. After 48 h, there was no mortality, but the avoidance was clear because all earthworms were found in the untreated section of each type of soil (p < 0.05). No differences were found by the Fisher’s exact test (p ? 1.000) for each soil and treatment, demonstrating that the different soil characteristics, the cypermethrin concentrations and formulation, as well as the smaller amounts of soil and earthworms did not influence the avoidance behavior of the earthworms to cypermethrin. The number and range of treatments used in this study do not allow a detailed recommendation of the conditions applied here, but to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported attempt to identify the avoidance of pesticide treated tropical soils by earthworms. PMID:22247652

de Sousa, Ana Paula A.; de Andréa, Mara M.

2011-01-01

7

Earthworm (Eisenia andrei) avoidance of soils treated with cypermethrin.  

PubMed

The pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin is used for agricultural and public health campaigns. Its residues may contaminate soils and the beneficial soil organisms, like the earthworms, that may ingest the contaminated soil particles. Due to its ecological relevance, earthworms Eisenia andrei/fetida have been used in different ecotoxicological tests. The avoidance of soils treated with cypermethrin by compost worms Eisenia andrei was studied here as a bioindicator of the influence of treatment dosage and the pesticide formulation in three different agricultural soils indicated by the Brazilian environmental authorities for ecotoxicological tests. This earthworms' behavior was studied here as a first attempt to propose the test for regulation purposes. The two-compartment test systems, where the earthworms were placed for a two-day exposure period, contained samples of untreated soil alone or together with soil treated with technical grade or wettable powder formulation of cypermethrin. After 48 h, there was no mortality, but the avoidance was clear because all earthworms were found in the untreated section of each type of soil (p < 0.05). No differences were found by the Fisher's exact test (p ? 1.000) for each soil and treatment, demonstrating that the different soil characteristics, the cypermethrin concentrations and formulation, as well as the smaller amounts of soil and earthworms did not influence the avoidance behavior of the earthworms to cypermethrin. The number and range of treatments used in this study do not allow a detailed recommendation of the conditions applied here, but to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported attempt to identify the avoidance of pesticide treated tropical soils by earthworms. PMID:22247652

de Sousa, Ana Paula A; de Andréa, Mara M

2011-01-01

8

Biochar aging reduces earthworm avoidance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biochar, a black carbon substance produced by the pyrolysis of organic feedstocks, has been used in many soil improvement strategies ranging from nutrient addition to sequestration of C. Simple toxicity studies and laboratory preference/avoidance assays are recommended but results rarely reported. ...

9

Avoidance behaviour response and esterase inhibition in the earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris, after exposure to chlorpyrifos.  

PubMed

The avoidance response of earthworms to polluted soils has been standardised using a simple and low-cost test, which facilitates soil toxicity screening. In this study, the avoidance response of Lumbricus terrestris was quantified in chlorpyrifos-spiked soils, depending on the pesticide concentration and exposure duration. The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and carboxylesterase (CbE) activities was also determined as indirect measures of pesticide bioavailability. The effects of different chlorpyrifos concentrations were examined in a standardised test (two-chamber system) with 0.6, 3 and 15 mg/kg chlorpyrifos. A modification of the test involved a pre-exposure step (24, 48 or 72 h) in soils spiked with 15 mg/kg. In both protocols, earthworms were unable to avoid the contaminated soils. However, the esterase activities showed that all earthworms were exposed to chlorpyrifos. Acetylcholinesterase activity did not change in earthworms in the standardised behavioural test (0.58 ± 0.20 U/mg protein, mean ± SD; n = 72), whereas the CbE activity was significantly inhibited (62-87 % inhibition) in earthworms exposed to 3 and 15 mg/kg. In the modified test, earthworms had greatly inhibited AChE activity (0.088 ± 0.034 U/mg protein, n = 72), which was supported by reactivation of the inhibited enzyme activity in the presence of pralidoxime (2-PAM). Similarly, the CbE activity was significantly inhibited in earthworms with all treatments. This study suggests that the avoidance behaviour test for organophosphorus-contaminated soils could be supported by specific biomarkers to facilitate a better understanding of pesticide exposure and toxicity during this test. PMID:23435687

Martínez Morcillo, S; Yela, J L; Capowiez, Y; Mazzia, C; Rault, M; Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C

2013-05-01

10

Avoidance behavior of earthworms under exposure to pesticides: is it always chemosensorial?  

PubMed

Soil avoidance by earthworms has been generally considered a relevant and sensitive endpoint for assessing soil contamination by xenobiotics. However, when pesticide ecotoxicological assessment is concerned, the sensitivity of the recently standardized avoidance assay has been questioned. We hypothesized that this controversy may be due to the specific pesticide mode of action of the chemicals used rather than reveal inconsistencies in the test feasibility, i.e. provided that no pesticides interfering with neuronal pathways are tested, this bioassay should keep expected high levels of sensitivity. In this study, the avoidance behaviour of the earthworm Eisenia andrei under exposure to the carbamate insecticide methomyl [S-methyl N-(methylcarbamoyloxy)thioacetimidate] was linked to the corresponding acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. Significant AChE inhibition occurred at lower concentrations (from 0.86 mg Kg(-1) onwards) than significant avoidance of spiked soil (from 5.62 mg Kg(-1) onwards). This indicates that assessments regarding pesticides that have neurotoxic activity may be biased if behavioral endpoints are selected. Despite theoretical hypothesis that have been raised, this should be the first study providing preliminary experimental evidence on such a link between avoidance behavior and neuronal impairment levels in earthworms. Further studies are ongoing that should refine conclusions of this study. PMID:20390955

Pereira, Joana L; Antunes, Sara C; Ferreira, Ana C; Goncalves, Fernando; Pereira, Ruth

2010-04-01

11

Contact tests for pentachlorophenol toxicity to earthworms  

SciTech Connect

The standardized contact filter paper test (EEC and OECD) provides an effective screening test for toxicity to earthworms in a laboratory setting. A need exists for a reliable and inexpensive technique for non-laboratory settings where screening is desired, but facilities cannot provide for the acquisition and maintenance of the glass vials required by the standardized test. This study evaluated two modifications of the standardized test using clear polyethylene bags, with and without filter paper, with Eisenia fetida and domesticated surface-feeding earthworms. The tests were conducted according to EEC and OECD guidelines. Results of the modified tests corresponded in dose and effect to the standardized contact filter paper test indicating the usefulness of the modified tests.

Spontak, D.A. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)

1994-12-31

12

Earthworm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earthworms like to live underground in the moist soil. Two reasons why they are considered to be annelids are because they have a segmented body and they lack true legs. They have soft bodies and as a result don't have any "armor" to protect them. Earthworms can dry up and die after being out of the soil too long or they can easily be eaten by insects, as in the picture.

N/A N/A (None;)

2004-07-06

13

Relating results from earthworm toxicity tests to agricultural soil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The artificial soil tests of the European Economic Community and of the Organization for Economic Cooperation produce data relating earthworm mortality to pesticide concentrations in soil under laboratory conditions. To apply these results to agricultural soils it is necessary to relate these concentrations to amounts of pesticide applied per area. This paper reviews the relevant published literature and suggests a simple relation for regulatory use. Hazards to earthworms from pesticides are suggested to be greatest soon after application, when the pesticides may be concentrated in a soil layer a few millimeters thick. For estimating exposure of earthworms, however, a thicker soil layer should be considered, to account for their movement through soil. During favorable weather conditions, earthworms belonging to species appropriate to the artificial soil test have been reported to confine their activity to a layer about 5 cm. If a 5-cm layer is accepted as relevant for regulatory purposes, then an application of 1 kg/ha would be equivalent to 1-67 ppm (dry) in the artificial soil test.

Beyer, W.N.

1992-01-01

14

Contamination avoidance detector test suite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination avoidancerefers to the military doctrine of avoiding or minimizing the effects of Chemical and Biological (CB) threats. The location, identification and tracking of CB hazards are also major concern for Homeland CB defense. Several advanced detector systems for both chemical and biological threats are being developed for the Armed Services. Current test equipment and methodologies are inadequate for the

Arthur R. Maret; Lorraine C. Castillo; Eddie Meadows; Lyman W. Condie

2003-01-01

15

Contamination avoidance detector test suite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contamination avoidancerefers to the military doctrine of avoiding or minimizing the effects of Chemical and Biological (CB) threats. The location, identification and tracking of CB hazards are also major concern for Homeland CB defense. Several advanced detector systems for both chemical and biological threats are being developed for the Armed Services. Current test equipment and methodologies are inadequate for the complete evaluation of these emerging detector systems. Improvements are needed across the entire test spectrum from agent-simulation correction studies and equipment upgrades to field testing techniques. The Contamination Avoidance Detector Test Suite (CADTS) project is funded by the Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) under the auspices of the Director for Operational Test and Evaluation (DOT&E). This agency is responsible to DoD and congress for the adequate testing of any military hardware before release to the warfighter. This paper discusses the issues involved in CB testing and provides an overview of the characteristics and status of the key capabilities that were selected for funding.

Maret, Arthur R.; Castillo, Lorraine C.; Meadows, Eddie; Condie, Lyman W.

2003-08-01

16

Influences of different standardised test methods on biochemical responses in the earthworm Eisenia fetida andrei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were carried out to determine the effects on the metabolic activities of earthworms of experimental conditions used in toxicity assays. Earthworms (Eisenia fetida andrei) were maintained under constant environmental conditions, in the absence of toxic agents, using three standard toxicology assay procedures (the artisol, contact filter paper and artificial soil tests) for two periods of time. Two controls were

C Arnaud; M Saint-Denis; J. F Narbonne; P Soler; D Ribera

2000-01-01

17

Field tests on the side effects of pesticides on earthworms: Influence of plot size and cultivation practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standardized field tests, which ran for up to one year, were used to investigate the side effects of pesticides on earthworms under agricultural conditions. The studies were run on 10 × 10 m replicate plots of flat, uniform grassland areas. Benomyl was used as a reference substance. To exclude migration of earthworms from untreated plots to plots where earthworm abundance

Fred Heimbach

1997-01-01

18

Dynamic study of the burrowing behaviour of Aporrectodea nocturna and Allolobophora chlorotica : interactions between earthworms and spatial avoidance of burrows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behaviour of earthworms belonging to two different species and ecological types (Aporrectodea nocturna and Allolobophora chlorotica) was studied using two-dimensional (2D) terraria. Two experiments were set up to gain insight into the nature of interactions between these earthworms. Firstly, the evolution of the burrow systems was analysed with the density of the earthworms varying from one to five individuals.

Y. Capowiez; L. Belzunces

2001-01-01

19

Effects of field metal-contaminated soils submitted to phytostabilisation and fly ash-aided phytostabilisation on the avoidance behaviour of the earthworm Eisenia fetida.  

PubMed

The earthworm Eisenia fetida avoidance behaviour test was used to assess the quality recovery of metal-contaminated soils from lands submitted for 10 years to remediation. Soils were from plots located in the surroundings of a former lead smelter plant of Northern France. Metal concentrations in the soils ranged from 93 to 1231, 56 to 1424, 0.3 to 20 and 15 to 45.5mg metal/kg dry soil for Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu, respectively. Several former agricultural plots were treated either by a single phytostabilisation process involving the plantation of a tree mix or by fly ash aided-phytostabilisation. Silico-aluminous or sulfo-calcic ashes used were ploughed up to a 25- to 30-cm soil depth at a rate of 23.3kg/m(2) (i.e., 6 percent W/W). E. fetida was shown to avoid significantly the 10 years ash-treated soils whose habitat function has to be considered as limited. This avoidance would relate to a change of the texture of soils induced by the addition of ashes and consisting in an increased level of fine silts together with a decreased level of clays. By contrast, afforested metal-contaminated soils appeared for E. fetida as more attractive than unplanted ones. Regarding the influence of the metal contamination of the soils on E. fetida, none of the soils tested even the highest contaminated one was significantly avoided by worms. This lack of reaction would result from the low bioavailability of the metals in the soils tested. At the lights of our results and those previously published on both these ashes and these ash-treated soils, the usefulness of these soil treatments is discussed. PMID:24949898

Demuynck, Sylvain; Succiu, Iuliana Rosalia; Grumiaux, Fabien; Douay, Francis; Leprêtre, Alain

2014-09-01

20

Effects of silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate in the earthworm reproduction test.  

PubMed

The widespread use of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), for example, in textiles and cleaning products, means that they are likely to reach the environment via biosolids or the effluent from wastewater treatment plants. The aim of the present study was to determine the ecotoxicity of Ag-NPs in the earthworm reproduction test using Eisenia andrei. In addition to the usual endpoints, the authors also investigated the uptake and accumulation of Ag by adult earthworms and the concentration of free Ag(+) in soil pore water. Silver nanoparticles and Ag nitrate showed similar toxicities in the earthworm reproduction test. The uptake of Ag from Ag-NPs in the earthworm was slightly higher than the uptake of Ag from Ag nitrate. Spiked soils showed a concentration-dependent effect on reproduction, but there was no concentration-dependent increase in the amount of Ag in earthworm tissues. The authors noted a concentration-dependent increase in the levels of free Ag(+) in the soil pore water regardless of the Ag source. The number of juveniles is a more suitable endpoint than biomass or mortality. The uptake of Ag does not appear to inhibit reproduction. Instead, inhibition seems to reflect Ag(+) released into the soil pore water, which affects cocoons and juveniles in the soil. Analysis of transformed Ag-NPs after purification in wastewater treatment plants would provide additional information. PMID:23059754

Schlich, Karsten; Klawonn, Thorsten; Terytze, Konstantin; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin

2013-01-01

21

Toxicity of the ionophore antibiotic lasalocid to soil-dwelling invertebrates: avoidance tests in comparison to classic sublethal tests.  

PubMed

Lasalocid is a veterinary ionophore antibiotic used for prevention and treatment of coccidiosis in poultry. It enters the environment with the use of contaminated manure on agricultural land. Despite its extensive use, the effects of lasalocid on non-target soil organisms are poorly explored. We used classical subleathal ecotoxicity tests to assess the effects of lasalocid on earthworms (Eisenia andrei) and isopods (Porcellio scaber) and compared the results with tests using avoidance behaviour as the endpoint. The results showed that avoidance is a much more sensitive endpoint. For earthworms, EC50 for avoidance (12.3 mg kg(-1) dry soil) was more than five times lower than EC50 for reproduction (69.6 mg kg(-1) dry soil). In isopods the sensitivity of the behavioural response test was even higher. While the highest lasalocid concentration 202 mg kg(-1) had no significant effects on isopod growth or survival, already the lowest used concentration in the behavioural assay (4.51 mg kg(-1)) caused significant impact on isopod behaviour. Using the avoidance test results for calculating the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) of lasalocid to soil invertebrates, the value is close to the predicted environmental concentration (PEC). This indicates that the use of lasalocid-contaminated manure could potentially impair the habitat function of agricultural soils. PMID:23635534

Žižek, Suzana; Zidar, Primož

2013-07-01

22

Depleted uranium mobility across a weapons testing site: isotopic investigation of porewater, earthworms, and soils.  

PubMed

The mobility and bioavailability of depleted uranium (DU) in soils at a UK Ministry of Defence (UK MoD) weapons testing range were investigated. Soil and vegetation were collected near a test-firing position and at eight points along a transect line extending approximately 200 m down-slope, perpendicular to the firing line, toward a small stream. Earthworms and porewaters were subsequently separated from the soils and both total filtered porewater (<0.2 microm) and discrete size fractions (0.2 microm-100 kDa, 100-30 kDa, 30-3 kDa, and <3 kDa)obtainedvia centrifugal ultrafiltration were examined. Uranium concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) for soils and ICP-mass spectrometry (MS) for earthworms and porewaters, while 235U:238U atom ratios were determined by multicollector (MC)-ICP-MS. Comparison of the porewater and earthworm isotopic values with those of the soil solids indicated that DU released into the environment during weapons test-firing operations was more labile and more bioavailable than naturally occurring U in the soils at the testing range. Importantly, DU was shown to be present in soil porewater even at a distance of approximately 185 m from the test-firing position and, along the extent of the transect was apparently associated with organic colloids. PMID:19174886

Oliver, Ian W; Graham, Margaret C; MacKenzie, Angus B; Ellam, Robert M; Farmer, John G

2008-12-15

23

Acute and chronic toxicity testing of TPH-contaminated soils with the earthworm, Eisenia foetida  

SciTech Connect

Responses of Eisenia foetida to petroleum-contaminated soils are being assessed using a 21-day test described previously. The authors prepared dilutions of two soils, referred to as A and B, using their reference-soil counterparts, collected from near the contaminated sites. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of each soil was measured by latroscan before the dilutions were prepared. References for the A and B soils contained 167 and 1,869 ppm of TPH, respectively. Thus, neither reference soil was pristine. Dilutions of the A soil tested with E. foetida contained from 179 to 305 ppm TPH; dilutions of the B soil contained from 1,875 to 1,950 ppm TPH. E foetida survival was 100% in both dilution series. Mean growth of Eisenia in dilutions of the A soil ranged from 48 to 74 mg dry-weight growth per pair of worms; these values were lower than those in any dilution of the B soil series. Lipid levels of worms in higher concentrations of the A and B soils were similar to one another and to published values, suggesting little inhibition of feeding in either dilution series. Earthworm reproduction was zero in the A series, but moderately high in the B series. Thus, the A soil apparently contained materials other than TPH that inhibited earthworm growth and reproduction. This study shows that (1) TPH at concentrations as high as 1,800 ppm may not always be inhibitor to earthworm growth or reproduction and (2) that earthworm survival, as a test endpoint, is much less sensitive than either growth or reproduction.

Stewart, A.J.; Wicker, L.F.; Nazerias, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-12-31

24

Earthworm Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of California Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program provides several links to articles on earthworms. These describe the earthworm's importance to ecosystems and agriculture.

25

Ecotoxicity of aged uranium in soil using plant, earthworm and microarthropod toxicity tests.  

PubMed

Discrepancies about probable no effect concentrations (PNEC) for uranium in soils may be because toxicity tests used freshly contaminated soils. This study used 3 soils amended with a range of uranium concentrations 10 years previously. The toxicity tests with northern wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus); earthworm (Eisenia andrei) were not affected below ~1,000 mg U kg(-1), and the soil arthropod Folsomia candida was not affected below ~350 mg U kg(-1). Survival of Orthonychiurus folsomi was diminished 20% (EC(20)) by ~85-130 mg U kg(-1), supporting a PNEC in the range of 100-250 mg U kg(-1) as derived previously. PMID:22033655

Sheppard, S C; Stephenson, G L

2012-01-01

26

Development of a suitable test method for evaluating the toxicity of contaminated soils to earthworms in Canada  

SciTech Connect

Environment Canada has embarked on a five year program to develop, standardize, and validate a battery of soil toxicity tests which can be used to assess the relative toxicity of contaminants in soils to terrestrial organisms. These tests must be applicable to soil conditions typically found in Canadian environments and the test species must be representative of the species of soil invertebrates or plants inhabiting soil ecosystems in Canada. One of the toxicity tests being developed is designed to assess the toxicity of contaminated soils to earthworms. Five of the potential test species belong to the Lumbricidae family and include the Canadian worm (Allobophora calignosa/Aporrectodea tuberculate), the European bark worm (Dendrodtilus rubidus (rubida)), the pink soil worm (Eisenia rosea), the red marsh worm (Lumbricus rubellus), and the Canadian night crawler or dew worm (Lumbricus terrestris). The sixth species, the white pot worm (Enchytraeus albidus), belongs to the Enchytraeidae family. Further assessment reduced the number of representative species to three. Most earthworm test methods have been developed to assess the toxicity of chemically-spiked artificial soils to Eisenia fetida or E. andrei. Test methods have also been developed to assess the relative toxicity of contaminated soils from hazardous waste sites. Comparative acute toxicity data for three species of earthworm exposed to a hydrocarbon contamination will be presented. Comparative toxicity data for the same three species of earthworm will also be presented using test procedures and conditions that have been modified to accommodate biological differences among the species of earthworm. Recommendations regarding test design, methods, and conditions optimal for each test species will be summarized and discussed with respect to the precision of test results.

Stephenson, G.L. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Scroggins, R. [Environment Canada, Gloucester, Ontario (Canada). Method Development and Application Section

1995-12-31

27

Recycled water sources influence the bioavailability of copper to earthworms.  

PubMed

Re-use of wastewaters can overcome shortfalls in irrigation demand and mitigate environmental pollution. However, in an untreated or partially treated state, these water sources can introduce inorganic contaminants, including heavy metals, to soils that are irrigated. In this study, earthworms (Eisenia fetida) have been used to determine copper (Cu) bioavailability in two contrasting soils irrigated with farm dairy, piggery and winery effluents. Soils spiked with varying levels of Cu (0-1,000 mg/kg) were subsequently irrigated with recycled waters and Milli-Q (MQ) water and Cu bioavailability to earthworms determined by mortality and avoidance tests. Earthworms clearly avoided high Cu soils and the effect was more pronounced in the absence than presence of recycled water irrigation. At the highest Cu concentration (1,000 mg/kg), worm mortality was 100% when irrigated with MQ-water; however, when irrigated with recycled waters, mortality decreased by 30%. Accumulation of Cu in earthworms was significantly less in the presence of recycled water and was dependent on CaCl2-extractable free Cu(2+) concentration in the soil. Here, it is evident that organic carbon in recycled waters was effective in decreasing the toxic effects of Cu on earthworms, indicating that the metal-organic complexes decreased Cu bioavailability to earthworms. PMID:23122192

Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Bolan, Nanthi S; Naidu, Ravi; Kim, Won-Il

2013-10-15

28

UAV Collision Avoidance Radar - Build and Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an experimental radar and data recording system designed to provide the 'sense and avoid' capability required by UAV's to fly in uncontrolled airspace. The radar incorporates the MIMO technique, forming multiple staring beams giving wide angular protection. Algorithms for detection in clutter, tracking, and miss-distance estimation for this radar have been developed, based on synthesised data only,

Benjamin J. Shannon; Ashoka Halappa; Ian D. Longstaff

29

Searching for a more sensitive earthworm species to be used in pesticide homologation tests - a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Pesticide risk assessments include experiments designed to measure the effect of pesticides on earthworms using the Eisenia fetida fetida or Eisenia fetida andrei species. There is no clear consensus in the literature on the sensitivity of different earthworm species to pesticides. We performed a meta-analysis on the sensitivity of several earthworm species to pesticides to determine the most sensitive species, and to discuss their suitability for European homologation tests. A dataset including median lethal dose (LC50) values reported in 44 experimental treatments was constructed and then analyzed in order to compare the sensitivity levels of E. fetida with that of other earthworm species. Results showed that LC50 values reported for Lumbricus terrestris and Aporrectodea caliginosa were on average significantly lower than for E. fetida. Considering the relatively high LC50 values reported for E. fetida and the absence of this species from zones where pesticides are usually applied, the relevance of using E. fetida for pesticide homologation tests is questionable and we advise risk assessors to use A. caliginosa as model species. A new protocol based on this species could be proposed for European homologation tests but its implementation will require the definition of a new standard and take time. In the meantime, the results obtained with E. fetida should be interpreted with caution taking into account the low sensitivity of this species. Our study illustrates the value of the meta-analysis approach for comparing the sensitivity of different earthworm species to pesticides. It would be useful to extend the dataset presented in this paper in order to analyze the sensitivity of other aquatic or terrestrial organism groups used for pesticide homologation or ecotoxicology tests. PMID:23084259

Pelosi, C; Joimel, S; Makowski, D

2013-01-01

30

Biomarker responses in earthworm Eisenia andrei exposed to pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin using different toxicity tests.  

PubMed

The effects of two widely used insecticides - organophosphate pirimiphos-methyl and pyrethroid deltamethrin - were investigated under laboratory conditions following OECD guidelines using the epigeic earthworm Eisenia andrei as the test organism. The overall aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of these pesticides on molecular biomarkers of earthworm E. andrei using the in vitro, filter paper contact and artificial soil test. In this study for the first time the equivalent concentrations of investigated pesticide applied in different tests were calculated. Although the response of measured molecular biomarkers in different toxicity tests had certain similarities, some distinct differences were also evident. Both pesticides inhibited AChE and CES activities in all three applied toxicity tests; however only in the filter paper test the hormetic effect was recorded. The artificial soil test showed that duration of the exposure significantly changed the effects of the investigated pesticides on CAT and GST activities. Namely, after the initial increase, the prolongation of exposure caused the reduction of the CAT and GST activities. Both pesticides significantly inhibited the efflux pump activity. In the artificial soil test, the significant changes in measured biomarkers after application of doses lower than doses recommended for use in the agriculture indicate that the investigated pesticides could have a harmful effect on earthworms in the context of the realistic environment. PMID:23063481

Velki, Mirna; Hackenberger, Branimir K

2013-01-01

31

Evaluation of alternative reference toxicants for use in the earthworm toxicity test  

SciTech Connect

The use of the 14-d earthworm toxicity test to aid in the evaluation of the ecological impact of contaminated soils is becoming increasingly widespread. However, the method is in need of further standardization. As part of this continuing process, the choice of reference toxicants was evaluated. Reference toxicants were rated in relation to the following criteria: (a) reproducibility, (b) low human health hazard, (c) feasibility of measurement, and (d) chemical stability. Potassium chloride (KCl) and ammonium chloride (NH{sub 4}Cl) were evaluated as possible alternatives to the one currently in common use, 2-chloroacetamide. Potassium chloride rated the best for the combination of the four criteria, followed by NH{sub 4}Cl and 2-chloroacetamide. Coefficients of variation (C.V.s) from control charts of six definitive tests were use to measure reproducibility. The best reproducibility (lowest C.V.) was shown by KCl, followed by NH{sub 4}Cl and 2-chloroacetamide. Toxicants ranked KCl < NH{sub 4}Cl {much_lt} 2-chloroacetamide in terms of health hazard; and KCl = NH{sub 4}Cl > 2-chloroacetamide in terms of measurement feasibility. Both 2-chloroacetamide and NH{sub 4}Cl changed in concentration during testing. Evidence is also presented that 2-chloroacetamide degrades rapidly during testing, and that, as dead worms decay, ammonification may be adding another toxicant, ammonia, to tests.

Yeardley, R.B. Jr. [DynCorp-TAI, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lazorchak, J.M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Pence, M.A. [Technology Applications, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1995-07-01

32

Avoiding Pitfalls in Molecular Genetic Testing  

PubMed Central

The molecular testing options available for the diagnosis of genetic disorders are numerous and include a variety of different assay platforms. The consultative input of molecular pathologists and cytogeneticists, working closely with the ordering clinicians, is often important for definitive diagnosis. Herein, we describe two patients who had long histories of unexplained signs and symptoms with a high clinical suspicion of an underlying genetic etiology. Initial molecular testing in both cases was negative, but the application of high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization technology lead to definitive diagnosis in both cases. We summarize the clinical findings and molecular testing in each case, discuss the differential diagnoses, and review the clinical and pathological findings of Mowat-Wilson syndrome. This report highlights the importance for those involved in molecular testing to know the nature of the underlying genetic abnormalities associated with the suspected diagnosis, to recognize the limitations of each testing platform, and to persistently pursue repeat testing using high-resolution technologies when indicated. This concept is applicable to both germline and somatic molecular genetic testing. PMID:21497296

Kluk, Michael Joseph; An, Yu; James, Philip; Coulter, David; Harris, David; Wu, Bai-Lin; Shen, Yiping

2011-01-01

33

Development of a standardized reproduction toxicity test with the earthworm species Eisenia fetida andrei using copper, pentachlorophenol and 2,4-dichloroaniline  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a standardized test method for determining the effect of chemical substances on the reproduction of the earthworm Eisenia fetida andrei. It is based on the existing guidelines for acute toxicity testing with earthworms, and for reasons of standardization the same artificial soil substrate and earthworm species were chosen as prescribed by these guidelines. After being preconditioned for one week in untreated soil, earthworms are exposed to the chemical substances for 3 weeks. The number of cocoons produced is determined, and cocoons are incubated in untreated artificial soil for 5 weeks to assess hatchability. Results are presented from toxicity experiments with pentachlorophenol, copper, and 2,4-dichloroaniline. For these compounds no-effect levels (NEL) for cocoon production were 32, 60-120, and 56 mg.kg-1 dry soil, respectively. Hatching of cocoons was influenced by pentachlorophenol (NEL, 10 mg.kg-1), but not by copper and dichloroaniline. Following exposure, earthworms were incubated in clean soil again to study the possibility of recovery of cocoon production. For copper and dichloroaniline earthworms did recover cocoon production to a level as high as the control level or even higher; in case of pentachlorophenol, cocoon production was still reduced after 3 weeks in clean soil.

van Gestel, C.A.; van Dis, W.A.; van Breemen, E.M.; Sparenburg, P.M. (National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, BA Bilthoven (Netherland))

1989-12-01

34

Comparison of sublethal and lethal criteria for nine different chemicals in standardized toxicity tests using the earthworm Eisenia andrei  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the effects of nine different chemicals on the survival, growth, and reproduction of the earthworm species Eisenia andrei were determined using a recently developed method. Earthworms were exposed for 3 weeks to the test chemicals in an artificial soil substrate. Additional data on the acute toxicity of these chemicals were derived from the literature. For some chemicals, cocoon production was the most sensitive parameter (cadmium, chromium, paraquat, fentin, benomyl, phenmedipham), while for others cocoon hatchability was most sensitive (pentachlorophenol, parathion, carbendazim). In the case of parathion, growth of the worms seemed to be even more sensitive than reproduction. As an overall parameter for the effect on earthworm reproduction, the total number of juveniles produced per worm appeared to be a useful parameter. Differences between (acute) LC50 values and the lowest NOEC value for effects on growth and reproduction were different for each chemical. Difference was greatest for cadmium (a factor of greater than 100) and smallest for fentin, benomyl, and pentachlorophenol (a factor of 5-6).

Van Gestel, C.A.; Dirven-Van Breemen, E.M.; Baerselman, R.; Emans, H.J.; Janssen, J.A.; Postuma, R.; Van Vliet, P.J. (National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven, (Netherlands))

1992-04-01

35

Longitudinal in vivo MR imaging of live earthworms.  

PubMed

Earthworm (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) species are used widely in eco-toxicological tests especially with contaminated soils. These long-term tests are reliable, but a high sample size is needed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can produce fast, robust, sensitive, and longitudinal morphological results using a small sample size. Performing longitudinal in vivo examinations of earthworms using MRI requires the need for anesthetics to completely avoid earthworm's moving. Our goal was to develop a simple and non-invasive method to anesthetize earthworms for in vivo longitudinal imaging studies. We investigated a number of different anesthesia methods and found that propan-2-ol and its vapor was optimal. We used a commercial sequential nanoScan® PET/MRI system (Mediso Ltd, Hungary, Budapest) to explore feasibility of MR imaging in immobilized earthworms. It was possible to visualize via micro MRI the brain, gastrointestinal tract, seminal vesicles, calciferous gland (Morren gland), and main blood vessels of the circulatory system. Our findings show the possibilities to examine changes in morphology using MRI of certain organs using a reversible, long-term immobilization method. PMID:25059556

Budán, Ferenc; Kovács, Noémi; Engelmann, Péter; Horváth, Ildikó; Veres, Dániel S; Németh, Péter; Szigeti, Krisztián; Máthé, Domokos

2014-11-01

36

Comparison of biological and chemical measures of metal bioavailability in field soils: test of a novel simulated earthworm gut extraction.  

PubMed

Bioavailability of metals in soil is a major factor influencing estimates of risk associated with exposure of ecological receptors. Metal concentrations in soil are often compared to ecological screening benchmarks, which are based on total concentrations in soil. Often, the total concentration is not correlated with toxicity. No standardised method exists for determining the bioavailability of metals in soil to ecological receptors. Several surrogate measures of bioavailability were compared to the results of a battery of toxicity tests using copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn)-contaminated soils collected from a former industrial area. A calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) extraction, cyclodextrin (HPCD) extraction, simulated earthworm gut (SEG) test, and earthworm bioaccumulation test were performed using the soils. Extractable metals using the CaCl(2) solution were not correlated with any biological responses of earthworms (Eisenia andrei), collembola (Folsomia candida), northern wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus), or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Concentrations of metals in the HPCD extracts were highly variable and were not adequate for revealing adverse effects. E. andrei tissue concentrations were variable but were predictive of adverse effects to invertebrates. The results of the SEG test correlated with most of the biological endpoints. Bioavailable Cu was correlated with adverse effects to invertebrates and plants using the SEG test. Overall, coefficients of determination associated with the relationships between the biological responses and each measure of bioavailability indicated that those for the SEG test were greater than those for the other surrogate measures of bioavailability. Further validation is required before this test is routinely used to estimate metal bioavailability and toxicity. PMID:20678790

Smith, Ben A; Greenberg, Bruce; Stephenson, Gladys L

2010-10-01

37

Extrapolation of the laboratory-based OECD earthworm toxicity test to metal-contaminated field sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc on survival, growth, cocoon production and cocoon viability of the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny) were determined in three experiments. In experiment 1, worms were exposed to single metals in standard artificial soil. For experiment 2, worms were maintained in contaminated soils collected from sites at different distances from a smelting works situated

David J. Spurgeon; S. P. Hopkin

1995-01-01

38

Testing a collision avoidance display with high-precision navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent years have seen a rise in sophisticated navigational positioning techniques. Starting from classical GPS, differential GPS, ground-based augmentation, and raw data submission have opened possibilities for high precision lateral positioning for beyond what was thinkable before. This yields new perspectives for technologies like ACAS/TCAS, by enabling last-minute lateral avoidance as a supplement to the established vertical avoidance maneuvers. Working together with Ohio University's Avionics Department, DLR has developed and tested a set of displays for situational awareness and lateral last-minute avoidance in a collision situation, implementing some state-of-the art ideas in collision avoidance. The displays include the possibility to foresee the hazard zone of a possible intruder and thus avoid that zone early. The displays were integrated into Ohio University's experimental airplane, and a flight experiment was conducted to make a first evaluation of the applicability. The tests were carried out in fall 2012. We will present the principal architecture of the displays and detail the implementation into the flight carrier. Furthermore, we will give first results of the displays' performance.

Peinecke, Niklas; Uijt de Haag, Maarten; Meysel, Frederik; Duan, Pengfei; Küppers, Rene; Beernink, Bram

2013-06-01

39

Herbivory of an invasive slug is affected by earthworms and the composition of plant communities  

PubMed Central

Background Biodiversity loss and species invasions are among the most important human-induced global changes. Moreover, these two processes are interlinked as ecosystem invasibility is considered to increase with decreasing biodiversity. In temperate grasslands, earthworms serve as important ecosystem engineers making up the majority of soil faunal biomass. Herbivore behaviour has been shown to be affected by earthworms, however it is unclear whether these effects differ with the composition of plant communities. To test this we conducted a mesocosm experiment where we added earthworms (Annelida: Lumbricidae) to planted grassland communities with different plant species composition (3 vs. 12 plant spp.). Plant communities had equal plant densities and ratios of the functional groups grasses, non-leguminous forbs and legumes. Later, Arion vulgaris slugs (formerly known as A. lusitanicus; Gastropoda: Arionidae) were added and allowed to freely choose among the available plant species. This slug species is listed among the 100 worst alien species in Europe. We hypothesized that (i) the food choice of slugs would be altered by earthworms’ specific effects on the growth and nutrient content of plant species, (ii) slug herbivory will be less affected by earthworms in plant communities containing more plant species than in those with fewer plant species because of a more readily utilization of plant resources making the impacts of earthworms less pronounced. Results Slug herbivory was significantly affected by both earthworms and plant species composition. Slugs damaged 60% less leaves when earthworms were present, regardless of the species composition of the plant communities. Percent leaf area consumed by slugs was 40% lower in communities containing 12 plant species; in communities containing only three species earthworms increased slug leaf area consumption. Grasses were generally avoided by slugs. Leaf length and number of tillers was increased in mesocosms containing more plant species but little influenced by earthworms. Overall shoot biomass was decreased, root biomass increased in plant communities with more plant species. Earthworms decreased total shoot biomass in mesocosms with more plant species but did not affect biomass production of individual functional groups. Plant nitrogen concentrations across three focus species were 18% higher when earthworms were present; composition of plant communities did not affect plant quality. Conclusions Given the important role that both herbivores and earthworms play in structuring plant communities the implications of belowground-aboveground linkages should more broadly be considered when investigating global change effects on ecosystems. PMID:23668239

2013-01-01

40

COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF TEN ORGANIC CHEMICALS TO FOUR EARTHWORM SPECIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Ten organic chemicals were tested for toxicity to four earthworm species: Allolobophora tuberculata, Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugeniae and Perionyx excavatus, using the European Economic Community's (EEC) earthworm artificial soil and contact testing procedure. The phenols were t...

41

Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Spacecraft Collision Avoidance Maneuver Decisions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A document discusses sequential probability ratio tests that explicitly allow decision-makers to incorporate false alarm and missed detection risks, and are potentially less sensitive to modeling errors than a procedure that relies solely on a probability of collision threshold. Recent work on constrained Kalman filtering has suggested an approach to formulating such a test for collision avoidance maneuver decisions: a filter bank with two norm-inequality-constrained epoch-state extended Kalman filters. One filter models the null hypotheses that the miss distance is inside the combined hard body radius at the predicted time of closest approach, and one filter models the alternative hypothesis. The epoch-state filter developed for this method explicitly accounts for any process noise present in the system. The method appears to work well using a realistic example based on an upcoming, highly elliptical orbit formation flying mission.

Carpenter, J. Russell; Markley, F. Landis

2013-01-01

42

Teacher's Guide for Earthworms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide on earthworms includes four major sections: (1) introduction, (2) caring for earthworms in the classroom, (3) classroom activities, and (4) the appendix. The introduction includes information concerning grade level, scheduling, materials, obtaining earthworms, field study, classroom clean-up, and records. Caring for earthworms

Bruno, Merle S.; And Others

43

Reproductive and behavioral responses of earthworms exposed to nano-sized titanium dioxide in soil.  

PubMed

Nanometer-sized titanium dioxide (nano-TiO(2) ) is found in a number of commercial products; however, its effects on soil biota are largely unknown. In the present study, earthworms (Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida) were exposed to three types of commercially available, uncoated TiO(2) nanomaterials with nominal diameters of 5, 10, and 21?nm. Nanomaterials were characterized for particle size, agglomeration, surface charge, chemical composition, and purity. Standard lethality, reproduction, and avoidance tests, as well as a juvenile growth test, were conducted in artificial soil or field soil amended with nano-TiO(2) by two methods, liquid dispersion and dry powder mixing. All studies included a micrometer-sized TiO(2) control. Exposure to field and artificial soil containing between 200 and 10,000?mg nano-TiO(2) per kilogram of dry soil (mg/kg) had no significant effect (p?>?0.05) on juvenile survival and growth, adult earthworm survival, cocoon production, cocoon viability, or total number of juveniles hatched from these cocoons. However, earthworms avoided artificial soils amended with nano-TiO(2) . The lowest concentration at which avoidance was observed was between 1,000 and 5,000?mg nano-TiO(2) per kilogram of soil, depending on the TiO(2) nanomaterial applied. Furthermore, earthworms differentiated between soils amended with 10,000?mg/kg nano-TiO(2) and micrometer-sized TiO(2) . A positive relationship between earthworm avoidance and TiO(2) specific surface area was observed, but the relationship between avoidance and primary particle size was not determined because of the agglomeration and aggregation of nano-TiO(2) materials. Biological mechanisms that may explain earthworm avoidance of nano-TiO(2) are discussed. Results of the present study indicate that earthworms can detect nano-TiO(2) in soil, although exposure has no apparent effect on survival or standard reproductive parameters. PMID:21993953

McShane, Heather; Sarrazin, Manon; Whalen, Joann K; Hendershot, William H; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

2012-01-01

44

Chronic toxicity of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) in soil determined using the earthworm ( Eisenia andrei) reproduction test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sublethal and chronic effects of the environmental contaminant and explosive octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) in artificial soil were assessed using the earthworm (Eisenia andrei). Based on various reproduction parameters (total and hatched number of cocoons, number of juveniles and their biomass), fecundity was reduced at the different concentrations of HMX tested (from 280.0±12.3 to 2502.9±230.0 mg kg?1 dry soil) in spiked

P. Y. Robidoux; J. Hawari; S. Thiboutot; G. Ampleman; G. I. Sunahara

2001-01-01

45

Can earthworms survive fire retardants?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most common fire retardants are foams or are similar to common agricultural fertilizers, such as ammonium sulfate and ammonium phosphate. Although fire retardants are widely applied to soils, we lack basic information about their toxicities to soil organisms. We measured the toxicity of five fire retardants (Firetrol LCG-R, Firetrol GTS-R, Silv-Ex Foam Concentrate, Phos-chek D-75, and Phos-chek WD-881) to earthworms using the pesticide toxicity test developed for earthworms by the European Economic Community. None was lethal at 1,000 ppm in the soil, which was suggested as a relatively high exposure under normal applications. We concluded that the fire retardants tested are relatively nontoxic to soil organisms compared with other environmental chemicals and that they probably do not reduce earthworm populations when applied under usual firefighting conditions.

Beyer, W.N.; Olson, A.

1996-01-01

46

ACAT Ground Collision Avoidance Flight Tests Over - Duration: 2:42.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center has concluded flight tests of an Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System (Auto GCAS) under the joint U.S. Air Force/NASA F-16D Automatic Collision Avoidance...

47

Earthworm in the 21st century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthworm (Johnson et al., 1995) is a fully open-source earthquake data acquisition and processing package that is in widespread use through out the world. Earthworm includes basic seismic data acquistion for the majority of the dataloggers currently available and provides network transport mechanisms and common formats as output for data transferral. In addition, it comes with network seismology tools to compute network detections, perform automated arrival picking, and automated hypocentral and magnitude estimations. More importantly it is an open and free framework in the C-programming language that can be used to create new modules that process waveform and earthquake data in near real time. The number of Earthworm installations is growing annually as are the number of contributions to the system. Furthermore its growth into other areas of waveform data acquistion (namely Geomagnetic observatories and Infrasound arrays) show its adaptability to other waveform technologies and processing strategies. In this presentation we discuss the coming challenges to growing Earthworm and new developments in its use; namely the open source add-ons that have become interfaces to Earthworm's core. These add-ons include GlowWorm, MagWorm, Hydra, SWARM, Winston, EarlyBird, Iworm, and most importantly, AQMS (formerly known as CHEETAH). The AQMS, ANSS Quake Monitoring System, is the Earthworm system created in California which has now been installed in the majority of Regional Seismic Networks (RSNs) in the United States. AQMS allows additional real-time and post-processing of Earthworm generated data to be stored and manipulated in a database using numerous database oriented tools. The use of a relational database for persistence provides users with the ability to implement configuration control and research capabilities not available in earlier Earthworm add-ons. By centralizing on AQMS, the RSNs will be able to leverage new developments by easily sharing Earthworm and AQMS modules and avoid the duplication and one-off/custom developments of the past.

Friberg, Paul; Lisowski, Stefan; Dricker, Ilya; Hellman, Sidney

2010-05-01

48

Sensitivity of Eisenia andrei (Annelida, Oligochaeta) to a commercial formulation of abamectin in avoidance tests with artificial substrate and natural soil under tropical conditions.  

PubMed

Obtaining ecotoxicological data on pesticides in tropical regions is imperative for performing more realistic risk analysis, and avoidance tests have been proposed as a useful, fast and cost-effective tool. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the avoidance behavior of Eisenia andrei to a formulated product, Vertimec® 18 EC (a.i abamectin), in tests performed on a reference tropical artificial soil (TAS), to derive ecotoxicological data on tropical conditions, and a natural soil (NS), simulating crop field conditions. In TAS tests an adaptation of the substrate recommended by OECD and ISO protocols was used, with residues of coconut fiber as a source of organic matter. Concentrations of the pesticide on TAS test ranged from 0 to 7 mg abamectin/kg (dry weight-d.w.). In NS tests, earthworms were exposed to samples of soils sprayed in situ with: 0.9 L of Vertimec® 18 EC/ha (RD); twice as much this dosage (2RD); and distilled water (Control), respectively, and to 2RD: control dilutions (12.5, 25, 50, 75%). All tests were performed under 25 ± 2°C, to simulate tropical conditions, and a 12hL:12hD photoperiod. The organisms avoided contaminated TAS for an EC(50,48h) = 3.918 mg/kg soil d.w., LOEC = 1.75 mg/kg soil d.w. and NOEC = 0.85 mg/kg soil d.w. No significant avoidance response occurred for any NS test. Abamectin concentrations in NS were rather lower than EC(50, 48h) and LOEC determined in TAS tests. The results obtained contribute to overcome a lack of ecotoxicological data on pesticides under tropical conditions, but more tests with different soil invertebrates are needed to improve pesticides risk analysis. PMID:22297724

Nunes, Maria Edna Tenório; Espíndola, Evaldo Luiz Gaeta

2012-05-01

49

Earthworms and soil fertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Earthworms redistribute organic materials within the soil, increase soil penetrability and, und certain conditions, influence ion transport in soils. Root distribution may be modified and microbial activity increased by their burrowing and feeding activities. Earthworms influence the supply of nutrients in several ways. Not only is earthworm tissue and cast material enriched in certain nutrients, relative to the soil

J. K. Syers; J. A. Springett

1984-01-01

50

COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF CHEMICALS TO EARTHWORMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The concentration-response (mortality) relationships of four species of earthworms, Eisentia fetida, Allolobophora tuberculata, Eudrilus eugeniae, and Perionyx excavatus are summarized for 62 chemicals and two test protocols. eibull function is used to summarize these data for ea...

51

Amino acids in earthworms: Are earthworms ecosystemivorous?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acid contents were studied in eight earthworm species (Lumbricus rubellus, L. terrestris, Nicodrilus roseus, N. caliginosus, Dendrobaena octaedra, Eisenia nordenskioldi, Octolasium lacteum, Drawida ghilarovi), plant litter and soil. There are considerable differences in the content of essential amino acids between earthworms and their food (for most amino acids, one order of magnitude; for methionine, up to two orders of

Andrei D. Pokarzhevskii; Dmitrii P. Zaboyev; Gennadii N. Ganin; Stella A. Gordienko

1997-01-01

52

Accident Avoidance Skill Training and Performance Testing. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-phased study was conducted to determine the feasibility of training drivers to acquire skills needed to avoid critical conflict motor vehicle accidents, and to develop the procedures and materials necessary for such training. Basic data were derived from indepth accident investigations and task analyses of driver behavior. Principal…

Hatterick, G. Richard; Barthurst, James R.

53

Measuring Experiential Avoidance: A Preliminary Test of a Working Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study describes the development of a short, general measure of experiential avoidance, based on a specific theoretical approach to this process. A theoretically driven iterative exploratory analysis using structural equation modeling on data from a clinical sample yielded a single factor comprising 9 items. A fully confirmatory factor…

Hayes, Steven C.; Strosahl, Kirk; Wilson, Kelly G.; Bissett, Richard T.; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Toarmino, Dosheen; Polusny, Melissa A.; Dykstra, Thane A.; Batten, Sonja V.; Bergan, John; Stewart, Sherry H.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Eifert, Georg H.; Bond, Frank W.; Forsyth, John P.; Karekla, Maria; Mccurry, Susan M.

2004-01-01

54

Earthworms and Soil Pollutants  

PubMed Central

Although the toxicity of metal contaminated soils has been assessed with various bioassays, more information is needed about the biochemical responses, which may help to elucidate the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity. We previously reported that the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, accumulates cadmium in its seminal vesicles. The bio-accumulative ability of earthworms is well known, and thus the earthworm could be a useful living organism for the bio-monitoring of soil pollution. In this short review, we describe recent studies concerning the relationship between earthworms and soil pollutants, and discuss the possibility of using the earthworm as a bio-monitoring organism for soil pollution. PMID:22247659

Hirano, Takeshi; Tamae, Kazuyoshi

2011-01-01

55

Accumulation of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chlorinated benzenes are widespread in the environment. Hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene and all isomers of dichlorobenzenes, trichlorobenzenes, and tetrachlorobenzenes, have been detected in fish, water, and sediments from the Great Lakes. This paper describes a long-term (26 week) experiment relating the concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to 1) the length of exposure, and it describes three 8-week experiments relating concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to 2) their concentration in soil 3) the soil organic matter content and, 4) the degree of chlorination. In the 26-week experiment, the concentration of 1,2,4 - trichlorobenzene in earthworms fluctuated only slightly about a mean of 0.63 ppm (Fig. 1). Although a statistically significant decrease can be demonstrated over the test (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = -0.62 p < 0.05), the decrease was minor. Hexachlorobenzene in earthworms showed a cyclical trend that coincided with replacement of the media, and a slight but statistically significant tendency to increase from about 2 to 3 ppm over the 26 weeks (r = 0.55, p < 0.05). Concentrations of both trichlorobenzene and hexachlorobenzene in earthworms increased as the concentrations in the soil increased (Fig. 2), but leveled off at the highest soil concentrations. The most surprising result of this study was the relatively low concentrations in earthworms compared to those in soils. The average concentration of each of the six isomers of trichlorobenzene and tetrachlorobenzene in earthworms was only about 1 ppm (Table 2); the isomeric structure did not affect accumulation. The concentration of organic matter in soil had a prominent effect on hexachlorobenzene concentrations in earthworms (Fig. 3). Hexachlorobenzene concentrations decreased steadily from 9.3 ppm in earthworms kept in soil without any peat moss added to about 1 ppm in soil containing 16 or 32% organic matter.

Beyer, W.N.

1996-01-01

56

Test Anxiety and the Hierarchical Model of Approach and Avoidance Achievement Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research was designed to incorporate the test anxiety (TA) construct into the hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. Hypotheses regarding state and trait TA were tested in 2 studies, and the results provided strong support for the predictions. State TA (specifically, worry) was documented as a mediator of the negative relationship between performance-avoidance goals and exam performance.

Andrew J. Elliot; Holly A. McGregor

1999-01-01

57

Off to the (Earthworm) Races: A Quick and Flexible Lab Experiment for Introductory Zoology Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a hands-on, investigative lab activity for use in an introductory zoology course. Tests the behavioral hypothesis that substrate texture affects earthworm locomotor ability. Provides background information on earthworm locomotion followed by details of the lab exercise. (NB)

Switzer, Paul V.; Fritz, Ann H.

2001-01-01

58

Earthworms lost from pesticides application in potato crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioturbation from earthworm's activity contributes to soil creep and soil carbon dynamics, and provide enough aeration conditions for agricultural practices all over the world. In developing countries where there is a long term misuse of pesticides for agricultural purposes, lost of these benefits from earthworms activity might already yielded negative effects in the current crop production. Little research has been performed on earthworms avoidance to pesticides in developing countries located in the tropics. Furthermore, the complete avoidance reaction (from attraction to 100% avoidance) from earthworms to most of the pesticides used in potato cultivation in developing countries like Colombia is incomplete as yet. Hence the aim of this study is to assess the lost of earthworm on the soils caused by different concentrations of pesticides and associated agricultural impacts caused by a lost in the soil bioturbation. As a first stage, we have studied earthworm's avoidance to pesticide concentration in a potato agricultural area located in Colombia. Local cultivated Eisenia fetida were exposed to four of the most frequent applied active ingredients in potato crops i.e. carbofuran, mancozeb, methamidophos and chlorpyriphos. Adult earthworm toxicity experiments were carried out in two soils, untreated grasslands under standard (ISO guidelines) and undisturbed conditions, and exposed to six different concentrations of the active ingredients. The results of the avoidance reaction on the standard soils were significant for carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos. For each of the three active ingredients, we found i) overuse of pesticide, ii) applied dose of carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos by the farmers potentially caused 20%, 11% and 9% of earthworms avoidance on the cultivated soils, respectively.

Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Forrer, Karin; Binder, Claudia R.

2010-05-01

59

The influence of time on lead toxicity and bioaccumulation determined by the OECD earthworm toxicity test.  

PubMed

Internationally agreed standard protocols for assessing chemical toxicity of contaminants in soil to worms assume that the test soil does not need to equilibrate with the chemical to be tested prior to the addition of the test organisms and that the chemical will exert any toxic effect upon the test organism within 28 days. Three experiments were carried out to investigate these assumptions. The first experiment was a standard toxicity test where lead nitrate was added to a soil in solution to give a range of concentrations. The mortality of the worms and the concentration of lead in the survivors were determined. The LC50s for 14 and 28 days were 5311 and 5395 microgPb g(-1)soil respectively. The second experiment was a timed lead accumulation study with worms cultivated in soil containing either 3000 or 5000 microgPb g(-1)soil. The concentration of lead in the worms was determined at various sampling times. Uptake at both concentrations was linear with time. Worms in the 5000 microg g(-1) soil accumulated lead at a faster rate (3.16 microg Pb g(-1)tissue day(-1)) than those in the 3000 microg g(-1) soil (2.21 microg Pb g(-1)tissue day(-1)). The third experiment was a timed experiment with worms cultivated in soil containing 7000 microgPb g(-1)soil. Soil and lead nitrate solution were mixed and stored at 20 degrees C. Worms were added at various times over a 35-day period. The time to death increased from 23 h, when worms were added directly after the lead was added to the soil, to 67 h when worms were added after the soil had equilibrated with the lead for 35 days. In artificially Pb-amended soils the worms accumulate Pb over the duration of their exposure to the Pb. Thus time limited toxicity tests may be terminated before worm body load has reached a toxic level. This could result in under-estimates of the toxicity of Pb to worms. As the equilibration time of artificially amended Pb-bearing soils increases the bioavailability of Pb decreases. Thus addition of worms shortly after addition of Pb to soils may result in the over-estimate of Pb toxicity to worms. The current OECD acute worm toxicity test fails to take these two phenomena into account thereby reducing the environmental relevance of the contaminant toxicities it is used to calculate. PMID:12475061

Davies, Nicola A; Hodson, Mark E; Black, Stuart

2003-01-01

60

Young Men's Aggressive Tactics to Avoid Condom Use: A Test of a Theoretical Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although research has demonstrated that men's aggression against women and inconsistent condom use are related phenomena, little is known about what factors increase risk for aggression to avoid condom use. The present article tests a theory-based model of condom avoidance through use of sexual aggression. Adult male participants (N = 289) were…

Davis, Kelly Cue; Logan-Greene, Patricia

2012-01-01

61

Measuring and Improving Latency to Avoid Test Suite Wear Out Shin Yoo & Mark Harman  

E-print Network

Measuring and Improving Latency to Avoid Test Suite Wear Out Shin Yoo & Mark Harman King's College London Centre for Research on Evolution, Search & Testing (CREST) London, UK {shin.yoo, mark introduces the concept of test suite latency. The more latent a test suite, the more it is possible

Singer, Jeremy

62

Exotic earthworm invasion increases soil carbon and nitrogen in an old-growth forest in southern  

E-print Network

Exotic earthworm invasion increases soil carbon and nitrogen in an old-growth forest in southern Quebec M. Wironen and T.R. Moore Abstract: To test whether invasion of exotic earthworms affects soil varying in their earthworm populations in an old-growth beech­ maple forest at Mont St. Hilaire, southern

Moore, Tim

63

Darwin, Earthworms & Circadian Rhythms: A Fertile Field for Science Fair Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses why the study of earthworms has fascinated many scientists, and why earthworms make ideal experimental animals for students to test in the laboratory. Although earthworms may appear to be primitive, they are governed by both circadian and seasonal rhythms, just as more advanced organisms are. They possess an intelligence…

Burns, John T.; Scurti, Paul J.; Furda, Amy M.

2009-01-01

64

EARTHWORMS AS ECOTOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT TOOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Increased interest for earthworm research and the need for soil assessment methods has encouraged the use of earthworms as assessment organisms. Earthworms exhibit many advantages for use in assessing the impact of toxic and hazardous materials on soil systems. Earthworms are kno...

65

Population dynamics of Pseudomonas corrugata 2140R lux8 in earthworm food and in earthworm casts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworm food was tested as a carrier and inoculum source for Pseudomonas corrugata 2140R, a biocontrol agent for Take-all disease of wheat, in order to use the feeding, burrowing and casting activity of earthworms to disperse the biocontrol agent through soil. Three experiments are reported here using a bioluminescent derivative, P. corrugata 2140R lux8 (hereinafter called P. corrugata). In the

O. Schmidt; B. M. Doube; M. H. Ryder; K. Killham

1997-01-01

66

Approach avoidance training in the eating domain: Testing the effectiveness across three single session studies.  

PubMed

Dual-process models propose that impulsive behavior plays a key role in the development and maintenance of maladaptive eating patterns. Research outside the eating domain suggests that approach avoidance training, a paradigm which aims to modify automatic behavioral dispositions toward critical stimuli, is an effective tool to weaken unhealthy impulses. The present research tested the effectiveness of approach avoidance training in the eating domain. We conducted three single session studies with varying methodologies in a normal-weight female student population (total N?=?258), in which one group was always trained to avoid pictures of unhealthy food and to approach pictures of healthy food or neutral objects. We found no conclusive evidence that approach avoidance training can change participants' implicit and explicit food preferences and eating behavior. We discuss the potential and the limitations of approach avoidance training in the eating domain and provide suggestions for future research avenues. PMID:25447011

Becker, Daniela; Jostmann, Nils B; Wiers, Reinout W; Holland, Rob W

2015-02-01

67

Disposal of dredged sediments in tropical soils: ecotoxicological effects on earthworms.  

PubMed

The upper limit concentrations of metals established by international legislations for dredged sediment disposal and soil quality do not take into consideration the properties of tropical soils (generally submitted to more intense weathering processes) on metal availability and ecotoxicity. Aiming to perform an evaluation on the suitability of these threshold values in tropical regions, the ecotoxicity of metal-contaminated dredged sediment from the Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) was investigated. Acute and avoidance tests with Eisenia andrei were performed with mixtures of dredged sediment with a ferralsol (0.00, 6.66, 13.12, 19.98, and 33.30 %) and a chernosol (0.00, 6.58, 13.16, 19.74, and 32.90 %). Mercury, lead, nickel, chromium, copper, and zinc concentrations were measured in test mixtures and in tissues of surviving earthworms from the acute tests. While ferralsol test mixtures provoked significant earthworm avoidance response at concentrations ?13.31 %, the chernosol mixtures showed significant avoidance behavior only at the 19.74 % concentration. The acute tests showed higher toxicity in ferralsol mixtures (LC50?=?9.9 %) compared to chernosol mixtures (LC50?=?16.5 %), and biomass increased at the lowest sediment doses in treatments of both test soils. Most probably, the expansive clay minerals present in chernosol contributed to reduce metal availability in chernosol mixtures, and consequently, the ecotoxicity of these treatments. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) for zinc and copper were lower with increasing concentrations of the dredged sediment, indicating the existence of internal regulating processes. Although the BCF for mercury also decreased with the increasing test concentrations, the known no biological function of this metal in the earthworms metabolism lead to suppose that Hg measured was not present in bioaccumulable forms. BCFs estimated for the other metals were generally higher in the highest dredged sediment doses. PMID:24122142

Cesar, Ricardo; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, José Paulo; Colonese, Juan; Bidone, Edison; Castilhos, Zuleica; Egler, Silvia; Polivanov, Helena

2014-03-01

68

Earthworm Effects without Earthworms: Inoculation of Raw Organic Matter with Worm-Worked Substrates Alters Microbial Community Functioning  

PubMed Central

Background Earthworms are key organisms in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with soil microorganisms. They enhance decomposition rates through the joint action of direct effects (i.e. effects due to direct earthworm activity such as digestion, burrowing, etc) and indirect effects (i.e. effects derived from earthworm activities such as cast ageing). Here we test whether indirect earthworm effects affect microbial community functioning in the substrate, as when earthworms are present (i. e., direct effects). Methodology/Principal Findings To address these questions we inoculated fresh organic matter (pig manure) with worm-worked substrates (vermicompost) produced by three different earthworm species. Two doses of each vermicompost were used (2.5 and 10%). We hypothesized that the presence of worm-worked material in the fresh organic matter will result in an inoculum of different microorganisms and nutrients. This inoculum should interact with microbial communities in fresh organic matter, thus promoting modifications similar to those found when earthworms are present. Inoculation of worm-worked substrates provoked significant increases in microbial biomass and enzyme activities (?-glucosidase, cellulase, phosphatase and protease). These indirect effects were similar to, although lower than, those obtained in pig manure with earthworms (direct and indirect earthworm effects). In general, the effects were not dose-dependent, suggesting the existence of a threshold at which they were triggered. Conclusion/Significance Our data reveal that the relationships between earthworms and microorganisms are far from being understood, and suggest the existence of several positive feedbacks during earthworm activity as a result of the interactions between direct and indirect effects, since their combination produces stronger modifications to microbial biomass and enzyme activity. PMID:21298016

Aira, Manuel; Domínguez, Jorge

2011-01-01

69

Nutrition Studies with Earthworms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experiments which demonstrate how different diets affect the growth rate of earthworms. Procedures for feeding baby worms are outlined, the analysis of results are discussed, and various modifications of the exercise are provided. (CS)

Tobaga, Leandro

1980-01-01

70

Earthworms, as ecosystem engineers, influence multiple aspects of a salamander's ecology.  

PubMed

Ecosystem engineers create habitat that can be used by other species in multiple ways, such as refugees from predators, places to breed, or areas with increased prey resources. I conducted a series of enclosure experiments to: (1) determine if salamanders use earthworm burrows, and (2) examine the potential influence of earthworm burrow use and indirect effects on salamander intra- and interspecific competition, predator avoidance, and seasonal performance. I found that one species of woodland salamander, Plethodon cinereus, used earthworm burrows 50% of the time when burrows were present. Neither adults nor juveniles of the congeneric P. glutinosus used earthworm burrows. Intraspecific, but not interspecific, competition by P. cinereus affected salamander behavior when earthworms were absent, with P. cinereus found under cover objects >70% of the time when alone or with a P. glutinosus, but only 40% of the time when with another P. cinereus. When earthworms were present, the behavior of P. cinereus was similar across salamander treatments. Earthworms decreased the amount of leaf litter and microinvertebrates, although this did not affect salamander mass. In subsequent experiments using only P. cinereus, the refuge provided by earthworm burrows increased the survival of P. cinereus over the winter and allowed P. cinereus to avoid being consumed by the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis). Because earthworm burrows provide a refuge for P. cinereus during intraspecific encounters, in the presence of a predator and over the winter, they may serve as an important belowground-aboveground linkage in eastern forests where salamanders are common. PMID:20848134

Ransom, Tami S

2011-03-01

71

Approach, avoidance and weight-related testing: An investigation of frontal EEG asymmetry.  

PubMed

Two motivational systems underlie behaviour and affective responses - an inhibition/avoidance system and an activation/approach system. The purpose of the present study was to explore if individual differences in these motivational systems would occur in response to common weight and body composition testing within a sample of young, adult women. Electroencephalogram was used to distinguish approach or avoidance orientations via frontal asymmetry before and after testing sessions. Clear distinctions in motivational response were found, with 65% of the sample responding with an approach motivation, while 35% responded with an avoidance motivation. Even though all participants, on average, experienced a negative affective response, only the avoidance group self-reported a subsequent increase in "comfort food" consumption of desserts and snacks the week following the testing session. As shown with other stressors, clear individual differences exist in motivational responses to common weight and body composition testing. Such testing produces a general negative affective response; however, the individual differences in motivational responses might produce different behavioural choices. Future research and interventions in health communication should be considerate to this variation in motivational responses to help explain changes in both healthy and unhealthy behaviours following interactions involving one's body weight and/or body composition. PMID:25220609

Faries, Mark D; Kephart, Wesley; Jones, Eric J

2014-09-15

72

Effect of earthworms on the biochemical characterization of biofilms in vermifiltration treatment of excess sludge.  

PubMed

In this study, the biofilms formed in a vermifilter (VF) with earthworms and a conventional biofilter (BF) without earthworms were compared to investigate the effects of earthworms on the characteristics of biofilms during an excess sludge treatment period of 4months. Typical macrographs and micrographs of the biofilms showed that the feeding and casting actions of earthworms remarkably modified the VF morphology. Elemental analysis and fluorescence spectra indicated that earthworms enhanced the stabilization of organic matter by accelerating the mineralization and humification of organic materials during vermiconversion. In addition, bacterial communities inhabiting the VF biofilm showed that earthworms increased both bacterial diversity and metabolic activities in the film, as revealed by automatic testing bacteriology (ATB) expression and sequencing data. These results demonstrate that earthworms influence the structure and biochemical characteristics of biofilms and enhance their bacterial diversity and functions for improved sludge stabilization. PMID:23774291

Yang, Jian; Liu, Jing; Xing, Meiyan; Lu, Zhibo; Yan, Qiong

2013-09-01

73

Cooperative Collision Avoidance Step 1 - Technology Demonstration Flight Test Report. Revision 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Access 5 Project Office sponsored a cooperative collision avoidance flight demonstration program for unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). This flight test was accomplished between September 21st and September 27th 2005 from the Mojave Airport, Mojave, California. The objective of these flights was to collect data for the Access 5 Cooperative Collision Avoidance (CCA) Work Package simulation effort, i.e., to gather data under select conditions to allow validation of the CCA simulation. Subsequent simulation to be verified were: Demonstrate the ability to detect cooperative traffic and provide situational awareness to the ROA pilot; Demonstrate the ability to track the detected cooperative traffic and provide position information to the ROA pilot; Demonstrate the ability to determine collision potential with detected cooperative traffic and provide notification to the ROA pilot; Demonstrate that the CCA subsystem provides information in sufficient time for the ROA pilot to initiate an evasive maneuver to avoid collision; Demonstrate an evasive maneuver that avoids collision with the threat aircraft; and lastly, Demonstrate the ability to assess the adequacy of the maneuver and determine that the collision potential has been avoided. The Scaled Composites, LLC Proteus Optionally Piloted Vehicle (OPV) was chosen as the test platform. Proteus was manned by two on-board pilots but was also capable of being controlled from an Air Vehicle Control Station (AVCS) located on the ground. For this demonstration, Proteus was equipped with cooperative collision sensors and the required hardware and software to place the data on the downlink. Prior to the flight phase, a detailed set of flight test scenarios were developed to address the flight test objectives. Two cooperative collision avoidance sensors were utilized for detecting aircraft in the evaluation: Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System-II (TCAS-II) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B). A single intruder aircraft was used during all the flight testing, a NASA Gulfstream III (G-III). During the course of the testing, six geometrically different near-collision scenarios were evaluated. These six scenarios were each tested using various combinations of sensors and collision avoidance software. Of the 54 planned test points 49 were accomplished successfully. Proteus flew a total of 21.5 hours during the testing and the G-III flew 19.8 hours. The testing fully achieved all flight test objectives. The Flight IPT performed an analysis to determine the accuracy of the simulation model used to predict the location of the host aircraft downstream during an avoidance maneuver. The data collected by this flight program was delivered to the Access 5 Cooperative Collision Avoidance (CCA) Work Package Team who was responsible for reporting on their analysis of this flight data.

Trongale, Nicholas A.

2006-01-01

74

Movement response of Collembola to the excreta of two earthworm species: Importance of ammonium content and nitrogen forms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies reported variable effects of earthworms on microarthropod density and variety. The present study tests the attraction of seven collembolan species belonging to four families, to the excreta of two earthworm species belonging to two families and two ecological categories, Aporrectodea giardi and Hormogaster elisae. Our objectives were (1) to better understand the impact of earthworms on the composition

Mónica Gutiérrez-López; Sandrine Salmon; Dolores Trigo

2011-01-01

75

Simulation and Flight Test Capability for Testing Prototype Sense and Avoid System Elements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and The MITRE Corporation (MITRE) have developed, and successfully demonstrated, an integrated simulation-to-flight capability for evaluating sense and avoid (SAA) system elements. This integrated capability consists of a MITRE developed fast-time computer simulation for evaluating SAA algorithms, and a NASA LaRC surrogate unmanned aircraft system (UAS) equipped to support hardware and software in-the-loop evaluation of SAA system elements (e.g., algorithms, sensors, architecture, communications, autonomous systems), concepts, and procedures. The fast-time computer simulation subjects algorithms to simulated flight encounters/ conditions and generates a fitness report that records strengths, weaknesses, and overall performance. Reviewed algorithms (and their fitness report) are then transferred to NASA LaRC where additional (joint) airworthiness evaluations are performed on the candidate SAA system-element configurations, concepts, and/or procedures of interest; software and hardware components are integrated into the Surrogate UAS research systems; and flight safety and mission planning activities are completed. Onboard the Surrogate UAS, candidate SAA system element configurations, concepts, and/or procedures are subjected to flight evaluations and in-flight performance is monitored. The Surrogate UAS, which can be controlled remotely via generic Ground Station uplink or automatically via onboard systems, operates with a NASA Safety Pilot/Pilot in Command onboard to permit safe operations in mixed airspace with manned aircraft. An end-to-end demonstration of a typical application of the capability was performed in non-exclusionary airspace in October 2011; additional research, development, flight testing, and evaluation efforts using this integrated capability are planned throughout fiscal year 2012 and 2013.

Howell, Charles T.; Stock, Todd M.; Verstynen, Harry A.; Wehner, Paul J.

2012-01-01

76

Toxicokinetics of metals in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus exposed to natural polluted soils--relevance of laboratory tests to the field situation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to estimate the bioavailability of essential (Zn, Cu) and non-essential metals (Cd, Pb) to the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus exposed to soils originating from a gradient of metal pollution in Southern Poland. Metal uptake and elimination kinetics were determined and related to soils properties. Experimental results were compared with tissue metal concentrations observed in earthworms from the studied transect. Cd and Pb were intensively accumulated by the earthworms, with very slow or no elimination. Their uptake rate constants, based on 0.01 M CaCl2-extractable concentrations in the soils, increased with soil pH. Internal concentrations of Cu and Zn were maintained by the earthworms at a stable level, suggesting efficient regulation of these metals by the animals. The estimated uptake and elimination kinetics parameters enabled fairly accurate prediction of metal concentrations reached within a life span of L. rubellus in nature. PMID:24747106

Giska, Iwona; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Skip, Borys; Laskowski, Ryszard

2014-07-01

77

Monte Carlo tests of stochastic Loewner evolution predictions for the 2D self-avoiding walk.  

PubMed

The conjecture that the scaling limit of the two-dimensional self-avoiding walk (SAW) in a half plane is given by the stochastic Loewner evolution (SLE) with kappa = 8/3 leads to explicit predictions about the SAW. A remarkable feature of these predictions is that they yield not just critical exponents but also probability distributions for certain random variables associated with the self-avoiding walk. We test two of these predictions with Monte Carlo simulations and find excellent agreement, thus providing numerical support to the conjecture that the scaling limit of the SAW is SLE(8/3). PMID:11955086

Kennedy, Tom

2002-04-01

78

Earthworm immune responses.  

PubMed

The knowledge of the immunity in annelids started with the use of earthworms as biomarkers indicating changes caused by environmental pollution. Defence strategies effectively protect earthworms against bacterial infections and parasitic invasion. A natural immunity formed by anatomical and chemical protective barriers prevents damage of the underlying tissues, body fluid losses, and microbial infections of the body cavity. The internal defence mechanisms of annelids involve phagocytosis, nodule formation and encapsulation, blood coagulation and wound repair, and antibacterial immune proteins. The antibacterial activity of coelomic fluid associated with lysozyme-like substances and inducible humoral molecules support haemocytic reactions in the annelid defence system. PMID:9557138

Jarosz, J; Gli?ski, Z

1997-01-01

79

Stable isotope 15N and 13C labelling of different functional groups of earthworms and their casts: A tool for studying trophic links  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) have substantial effects on the structure and fertility of soils with consequences for the diversity of plant communities and associated ecosystem functions. However, we still lack a clear understanding of the functional role earthworms play in terrestrial ecosystems, partly because easy-to-use methods to quantify their activities are missing. In this study, we tested whether earthworms and their

Barbara Heiner; Thomas Drapela; Thomas Frank; Johann G. Zaller

2011-01-01

80

Comparison of heavy-metal uptake by Eisenia foetida with that of other common earthworms. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

Earthworms have been used in the field to indicate levels of soil pollution and in the laboratory for the ecotoxicological testing of industrial chemicals. An earthworm bioassay procedure developed at the Waterways Experiment Station (Vicksburg, Mississippi) was modified and evaluated as a method of providing information on heavy-metal bioavailability in contaminated soils and sediments from Europe. Eight soils/sediments containing elevated levels of a least one of the elements Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb were selected as well as a control and a reference soil. Six species of earthworm, including the WES bioassay earthworm E. foetida, and five field species were grown in the soils/sediments for periods of 15, 28 or 56 days. Concentrations of the elements Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Cr and Pb present in the earthworm samples (corrected for the presence of soil-derived metals within the earthworm gut) were compared between earthworm species from the same soil and for each earthworm species from a range of metal contaminated soils/sediments. A close linear relationship between metal uptake by E.foetida and the field species of earthworm emerged and good correlation between total (HNO3/HC104) soil Pb and Cd levels and earthworm tissue concentrations and between DTPA extractable soil Cu and Cc levels and earthworm tissue concentrations was observed.

Stafford, E.A.; Edwards, C.A.

1986-01-01

81

Toxicological responses of the earthworm Eisenia fetida to 18-crown-6 under laboratory conditions.  

PubMed

The earthworm Eisenia fetida was exposed to artificial soil supplemented with 18-crown-6 (1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaoxacyclooctadecane) to investigate its effects on earthworm mortality, growth, avoidance, burrowing behavior and respiration. The results revealed that 18-crown-6 had the potential to negatively affect the behavior of earthworms. The 7-d LC50 was 585 mg kg(-1) soil. Avoidance behavior was the most sensitive endpoint, with a 48-h EC50 of 120 mg kg(-1) soil. Growth, burrow length and respiration showed general decreases with increasing 18-crown-6 concentrations. Behavioral endpoints and respiration may be regarded as sensitive parameters in evaluating the toxicity of this chemical to earthworms. PMID:25100182

Du, Yongtao; Rao, Pinhua; Li, Yinsheng; Qiu, Jiangping; Qiu, Weiguo; Tang, Hao; Potter, Murray A

2014-10-01

82

Protein Hydrolysates Are Avoided by Herbivores but Not by Omnivores in Two-Choice Preference Tests  

PubMed Central

Background The negative sensory properties of casein hydrolysates (HC) often limit their usage in products intended for human consumption, despite HC being nutritious and having many functional benefits. Recent, but taxonomically limited, evidence suggests that other animals also avoid consuming HC when alternatives exist. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated ingestive responses of five herbivorous species (guinea pig, mountain beaver, gopher, vole, and rabbit) and five omnivorous species (rat, coyote, house mouse, white-footed mouse, and deer mouse; N?=?16–18/species) using solid foods containing 20% HC in a series of two-choice preference tests that used a non-protein, cellulose-based alternative. Individuals were also tested with collagen hydrolysate (gelatin; GE) to determine whether it would induce similar ingestive responses to those induced by HC. Despite HC and GE having very different nutritional and sensory qualities, both hydrolysates produced similar preference score patterns. We found that the herbivores generally avoided the hydrolysates while the omnivores consumed them at similar levels to the cellulose diet or, more rarely, preferred them (HC by the white-footed mouse; GE by the rat). Follow-up preference tests pairing HC and the nutritionally equivalent intact casein (C) were performed on the three mouse species and the guinea pigs. For the mice, mean HC preference scores were lower in the HC v C compared to the HC v Cel tests, indicating that HC's sensory qualities negatively affected its consumption. However, responses were species-specific. For the guinea pigs, repeated exposure to HC or C (4.7-h sessions; N?=?10) were found to increase subsequent HC preference scores in an HC v C preference test, which was interpreted in the light of conservative foraging strategies thought to typify herbivores. Conclusions/Significance This is the first empirical study of dietary niche-related taxonomic differences in ingestive responses to protein hydrolysates using multiple species under comparable conditions. Our results provide a basis for future work in sensory, physiological, and behavioral mechanisms of hydrolysate avoidance and on the potential use of hydrolysates for pest management. PMID:19122811

Field, Kristin L.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Mennella, Julie A.; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Kimball, Bruce A.

2009-01-01

83

Science Sampler: Inquiry with earthworms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earthworms wiggle their way into your science curriculum in this fun and hands-on activity. Students experiment with earthworms to gain a better understanding of the process of scientific inquiry and hone their research skills using books and the Internet (see Resources).

Jeanpierre, Bobby; Babyak, Joanne

2006-02-01

84

Earthworm ecotoxicological assessments of pesticides used to treat seeds under tropical conditions.  

PubMed

Ecotoxicological laboratory tests (lower-tier tests) are fundamental tools for assessing the toxicity of pesticides to soil organisms. In this study, using these tests under tropical conditions, we quantified the impact of the insecticides imidacloprid, fipronil, and thiametoxam, and the fungicides captan and carboxin+thiram, all of which are used in the chemical treatment of crop seeds, on the survival, reproduction, and behavior of Eisenia andrei (Oligochaeta). With the exception of imidacloprid, none of the pesticides tested caused mortality in E. andrei in artificial soils. The LC(50) of imidacloprid was estimated as 25.53 mg active ingredient kg(-1) of dry soil. Earthworm reproduction rates were reduced by imidacloprid (EC(50)=4.07 mgkg(-1)), fipronil (EC(20)=23.16 mgkg(-1)), carboxin+thiram (EC(50)=56.38 mgkg(-1)), captan (EC(50)=334.84 mgkg(-1)), and thiametoxam (EC(50)=791.99 mgkg(-1)). Avoidance behavior was observed in the presence of imidacloprid (AC(50)=0.11 mgkg(-1)), captan (AC(50)=33.54 mgkg(-1)), carboxin+thiram (AC(50)=60.32 mgkg(-1)), and thiametoxam (AC(50)=>20 mgkg(-1)). Earthworms showed a preference for soils with the insecticide fipronil. Imidacloprid was the most toxic of the substances tested for E. andrei. The avoidance test was the most sensitive test for most pesticides studied, but results varied between pesticides. These results offer new insights on the toxicity of pesticides used to treat seeds in tropical regions. However, they should be complemented with higher-tier tests in order to reduce the uncertainties in risk assessment. PMID:23261124

Alves, Paulo Roger L; Cardoso, Elke J B N; Martines, Alexandre M; Sousa, José Paulo; Pasini, Amarildo

2013-03-01

85

Physiological and molecular responses of the earthworm (Eisenia fetida) to soil chlortetracycline contamination.  

PubMed

This study aims to evaluate toxic effects of exposure to chlortetracycline (CTC) in soil on reproductive endpoints (juvenile counts and cocoon counts), biochemical responses, and genotoxic potentials of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Results showed that juvenile counts and cocoon counts of the tested earthworms were reduced after exposure to CTC. The effective concentrations (EC(50) values) for juvenile and cocoon counts were 96.1 and 120.3 mg/kg, respectively. Treatment of earthworms with CTC significantly changed the activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). An increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) indicated that CTC could cause cellular lipid peroxidation in the tested earthworms. The percentage of DNA in the tail of single-cell gel electrophoresis of coelomocytes as an indication of DNA damage increased after treatment with different doses of CTC, and a dose-dependent DNA damage of coelomocytes was found. In conclusion, CTC induces physiological responses and genotoxicity on earthworms. PMID:22868346

Lin, Dasong; Zhou, Qixing; Xu, Yingming; Chen, Chun; Li, Ye

2012-12-01

86

Literature-derived bioaccumulation models for earthworms: Development and validation  

SciTech Connect

Estimation of contaminant concentrations in earthworms is a critical component in many ecological risk assessments. Without site-specific data, literature-derived uptake factors or models are frequently used. Although considerable research has been conducted on contaminant transfer from soil to earthworms, most studies focus on only a single location. External validation of transfer models has not been performed. The authors developed a database of soil and tissue concentrations for nine inorganic and two organic chemicals. Only studies that presented total concentrations in departed earthworms were included. Uptake factors and simple and multiple regression models of natural-log-transformed concentrations of each analyte in soil and earthworms were developed using data from 26 studies. These models were then applied to data from six additional studies. Estimated and observed earthworm concentrations were compared using nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Relative accuracy and quality of different estimation methods were evaluated by calculating the proportional deviation of the estimate from the measured value. With the exception of Cr, significant, single-variable (e.g., soil concentration) regression models were fit for each analyte. Inclusion of soil Ca improved model fits for Cd and Pb. Soil pH only marginally improved model fits. The best general estimates of chemical concentrations in earthworms were generated by simple ln-ln regression models for As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb, Zn, and polychlorinated biphenyls. No method accurately estimated Cr or Ni in earthworms. Although multiple regression models including pH generated better estimates for a few analytes, in general, the predictive utility gained by incorporating environmental variables was marginal.

Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II; Beauchamp, J.J.; Efroymson, R.A.

1999-09-01

87

Earthworm biomarker responses on exposure to commercial cypermethrin.  

PubMed

Cypermethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used worldwide in agriculture, home pest control, disease vector control, and food safety. It accumulates in soil. Therefore, traces of cypermethrin may frequently appear in vegetables grown in contaminated soil. There is a push now to develop biomarkers as early warning indicators of environmental pollution. In this study, DNA damage (tail DNA%, tail length, and olive tail moment), the micronucleus, neutral red retention (NRR) time, and pinocytic adherence ability of coelomocytes were investigated in Pheretima peguana earthworms exposed to cypermethrin in filter paper tests. The NRR time of earthworm coelomocytes decreased significantly at a concentration of 3.5 × 10(-3) µg · cm(-2) (1/100 LC50 ) after 48 h exposure, with a highly negative correlation with cypermethrin concentration. Pinocytic adherence ability of coelomocytes also declined significantly at a cypermethrin concentration of 3.5 × 10(-2) µg · cm(-2) (1/10 LC50 ). The DNA damage to earthworm coelomocytes (tail DNA%, tail length, and olive tail moment) increased considerably at the highest concentration (3.5 × 10(-1) µg · cm(-2) ) although the correlation between tail DNA% and cypermethrin concentration was low. Thus, physiological biomarkers were more sensitive than the genotoxic effects in earthworms exposed to commercial cypermethrin. Although a suite of earthworm biomarkers could be used to evaluate cypermethrin terrestrial pollution, the NRR test is easier to conduct and a more sensitive indicator. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2013. PMID:24376091

Muangphra, Ptumporn; Sengsai, Supanyika; Gooneratne, Ravi

2013-12-21

88

Methods for the assessment of the toxicity of environmental chemicals to earthworms  

SciTech Connect

In view of the impending publication of standards for earthworm toxicity testing by the Commission of the European Communities, a review has been made of the recent literature on earthworm toxicology. Relevant studies are reviewed from the standpoints of methods used, reproducibility of results, and ability to extrapolate laboratory results to field situations. Eisenia foetida, a commonly used test species, is much less sensitive to agricultural chemicals than other, native earthworms and is of doubtful utility for extrapolating laboratory data to field conditions, but when native soil organisms are used, such extrapolations show good general agreement. Standardization of test conditions and broadening of the data base are encouraged.

Dean-Ross, D.

1983-03-01

89

Achievement motive and test anxiety conceived as motive to approach success and motive to avoid failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

the following hypotheses are investigated: persons in whom the motive to achieve success is stronger than the motive to avoid failure (a) should prefer tasks of intermediate difficulty, (b) should show greater persistence in working at an achievement related task, and (c) should show more efficiency, or a higher level of accomplishment, than persons in whom the motive to avoid

John W. Atkinson; George H. Litwin

1960-01-01

90

Effects of anesthetic compounds on responses of earthworms to electrostimulation.  

PubMed

Earthworms play an important role in biomedical research, and some surgical procedures require anesthesia. Anesthetic treatments used so far usually induce convulsive body movements connected with extrusion of coelomocyte-containing coelomic fluid that may affect experimental results. Extensive movements connected with the expulsion of coelomic fluid are exploited by immunologists as a method of harvesting immunocompetent coelomocytes from worms subjected to mild electrostimulation (4.5V). The aim of the investigations was to find anesthetic drugs without unintentional coelomocyte depletion. Experiments were performed on adult specimens of Dendrobaena veneta, the coelomocytes of which consist of amoebocytes and riboflavin-storing eleocytes. Earthworm mobility was filmed and extrusion of coelomocytes was quantified by detection of eleocyte-derived riboflavin in immersion fluid. Treatments included earthworms (1) immersed either in physiological saline (controls) or in a solution of one of the tested anesthetic drugs; (2) electrostimulated immediately after anesthesia, and (3) electrostimulated a second time after a 1-hour recovery period. The well-established fish and amphibian anesthetic agent MS-222 induced coelomocyte expulsion. In contrast, solutions of the mammalian local anesthetic drug, prilocaine hydrochloride (0.25-0.5%, 5-10 min) caused temporal earthworm immobilization followed by recovery, thus showing utility as an efficient earthworm anesthetic. PMID:25134346

Podolak-Machowska, Agnieszka; Kostecka, Joanna; Librowski, Tadeusz; Santocki, Michal; Bigaj, Janusz; Plytycz, Barbara

2014-01-01

91

For Better Soil, Let Earthworms Toil.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity involves elementary students in investigating how earthworms affect soil fertility. An introduction discusses topsoil loss and the connections between soil and earthworm ecology. Materials needed and step-by-step procedure are provided. (LZ)

Swinehart, Rebecca, Ed.

1995-01-01

92

Young men’s use of aggressive tactics to avoid condom use: A test of a theoretical model  

PubMed Central

Although research has demonstrated that men’s aggression against women and inconsistent condom use are related phenomena, it is little is known as to what factors increase risk for aggression to avoid condom use. The present article tests a theory-based model of condom avoidance through sexual aggression. Adult male participants (N=289) were recruited nationally through online advertisements. Aggressive tactics to avoid condom use was measured using an adapted version of the revised Sexual Experiences Survey (Abbey et al., 2005) and assessed a variety of aggressive behaviors spanning coercion to physical force. 100 participants (35.3%) reported at least one instance of coercion or aggression to avoid using a condom. Structural equation modeling indicated that, attitudes towards women, inconsistent condom use, and number of sexual partners were significant predictors of aggressive tactics to avoid condom use. A better understanding of the attitudinal and behavioral pathways through which men avoid condom use through aggressive and coercive means will ultimately result in improved education and prevention efforts for at-risk men and women. PMID:23139623

Davis, Kelly Cue; Logan-Greene, Patricia

2011-01-01

93

Soil contamination evaluations: Earthworms as indicators of soil quality  

SciTech Connect

Earthworms have frequently been evaluated in the field and laboratory as representatives of the soil community that are indicative of their habitat`s quality. Within a landscape or at a contaminated site, soil quality, or soil health, has become increasingly critical to cleanup-related issues that revolve around questions of ``how clean is clean`` and the bioaccumulation of soil contaminants. Through an overview of numerous field and laboratory studies, the role that earthworms have played in evaluating soil contamination will be reviewed with a particular focus on evaluations of the bioaccumulation potential of chemicals in soil. Within ecological contexts, earthworms can provide information regarding immediately observable adverse affects related, for example, to acute toxicity. Additionally, earthworms can provide information directly related to the bioaccumulation potential of a chemical and trophic transfer of environmental chemicals, especially through the food-chain. Within the decision-making process, soil contamination evaluations must consider future land-use, as well as current and future expressions of adverse biological and ecological effects under field conditions, potentially following remediation. Through integrated field and laboratory studies using earthworms, the authors have been able to identify adversely affected soil communities and have been able to provide information for assessing adverse ecological effects potentially caused by contaminants. Field surveys and on-site or in situ biological testing with earthworms, however, can not alone identify causes of effects. As such, standardized biological tests have been routinely completed in the laboratory so linkages between expression of effects and contaminants could be more readily addressed in conjunction with appropriate chemical data from the field.

Linder, G.; Wilbom, D. [HeronWorks Farm, Brooks, OR (United States)

1995-12-31

94

Organic carbon sequestration in earthworm burrows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms strongly affect soil organic carbon cycling. The aim of this study was to determine whether deep burrowing anecic earthworms enhance carbon storage in soils and decrease C turnover. Earthworm burrow linings were separated into thin cylindrical sections with different distances from the burrow wall to determine gradients from the burrow wall to the surrounding soil. Organic C, total N,

Axel Don; Bert Steinberg; Ingo Schöning; Karin Pritsch; Monika Joschko; Gerd Gleixner; Ernst-Detlef Schulze

2008-01-01

95

Effects of earthworms on nitrogen mineralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris and Aporrectodea tuberculata) on the rate of net N mineralization was studied, both in soil columns with intact soil structure (partly influenced by past earthworm activity) and in columns with sieved soil. Soil columns were collected from a well drained silt loam soil, and before the experiment all earthworms present were removed. Next, either

J. J. G. M. Willems; J. C. Y. Marinissen; J. Blair

1996-01-01

96

The effects of earthworms on the demography of annual plant assemblages in a long-term mesocosm experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms have been shown to influence plant growth, survival and fecundity. They can therefore affect plant demography in plant communities changing their composition. A long term mesocosm experiment was set-up to test the effects of an endogeic (Aporrectodea caliginosa) and an anecic (Lumbricus terrestris) earthworm species on assemblages of four species of annuals: one grass (Poa annua), two forbs (Veronica

Kam-Rigne Laossi; Diana Cristina Noguera; Thibaud Decäens; Sébastien Barot

2011-01-01

97

INVASION OF EXOTIC EARTHWORMS INTO ECOSYSTEMS INHABITED BY NATIVE EARTHWORMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The most conspicuous biological invasions in terrestrial ecosystems have been by exotic plants, insects and vertebrates. Invasions by exotic earthworms, although not as well studied, may be increasing with global commerce in agriculture, waste management and bioremediation. A number of cases have be...

98

Experimental approaches to test pesticide-treated seed avoidance by birds under a simulated diversification of food sources.  

PubMed

Pesticide coated seeds are known to be potentially toxic for birds, but the risk of poisoning will depend on how likely the individuals are to consume them. To refine the risk assessment of coated seed consumption by birds we studied the consumption and avoidance of seeds treated with imidacloprid, thiram, maneb or rhodamine B under different scenarios of food unpredictability (diversity or changes in food sources). In a first set of experiments, we examined during four days the amount of ingested food by red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) when offered untreated seeds, treated seeds or both. In the latter case, we also assessed the effect of a daily interchange in the position of feeders containing treated and untreated food. A second experiment, conducted with imidacloprid only, consisted of offering, during 27 h, fixed overall amounts of treated and untreated food, equally distributed in a different number of feeders per pen (1, 2, 4 or 8 feeders of each type of food) in order to diversify food sources. All the tested pesticide-treated seeds were avoided in two-choice experiments, and imidacloprid and thiram were also avoided in one-choice experiments. We found that imidacloprid treated seeds were avoided, probably as a consequence of a conditioned aversion effect due to the post-ingestion distress. However, under a diversification of two-choice food sources with multiple feeders, imidacloprid-treated seeds were ingested by partridges at increasing amounts that can produce sublethal effects or even death. Thiram treated seeds were also initially avoided in one-choice experiment, but probably mediated by a sensory repellence that progressively decreased with time. Our results reveal that the risk of pesticide exposure in birds may increase by unpredictability of food resources or prolonged availability of coated seeds, so pesticide registration for seed coating should consider worst-case scenarios to avoid negative impacts on farmland birds. PMID:25079236

Lopez-Antia, Ana; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; Mateo, Rafael

2014-10-15

99

Automated Analysis of Two-Dimensional Positions and Body Lengths of Earthworms (Oligochaeta); MimizuTrack  

PubMed Central

Earthworms are important soil macrofauna inhabiting almost all ecosystems. Their biomass is large and their burrowing and ingestion of soils alters soil physicochemical properties. Because of their large biomass, earthworms are regarded as an indicator of “soil heath”. However, primarily because the difficulties in quantifying their behavior, the extent of their impact on soil material flow dynamics and soil health is poorly understood. Image data, with the aid of image processing tools, are a powerful tool in quantifying the movements of objects. Image data sets are often very large and time-consuming to analyze, especially when continuously recorded and manually processed. We aimed to develop a system to quantify earthworm movement from video recordings. Our newly developed program successfully tracked the two-dimensional positions of three separate parts of the earthworm and simultaneously output the change in its body length. From the output data, we calculated the velocity of the earthworm's movement. Our program processed the image data three times faster than the manual tracking system. To date, there are no existing systems to quantify earthworm activity from continuously recorded image data. The system developed in this study will reduce input time by a factor of three compared with manual data entry and will reduce errors involved in quantifying large data sets. Furthermore, it will provide more reliable measured values, although the program is still a prototype that needs further testing and improvement. Combined with other techniques, such as measuring metabolic gas emissions from earthworm bodies, this program could provide continuous observations of earthworm behavior in response to environmental variables under laboratory conditions. In the future, this standardized method will be applied to other animals, and the quantified earthworm movement will be incorporated into models of soil material flow dynamics or behavior in response to chemical substances present in the soil. PMID:24886977

Yonemura, Seiichiro; Kaneda, Satoshi; Ohashi, Mizue; Ikeno, Hidetoshi

2014-01-01

100

Leaf Litter Disappearance in Earthworm-Invaded Northern  

E-print Network

Leaf Litter Disappearance in Earthworm-Invaded Northern Hardwood Forests: Role of Tree Species, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia ABSTRACT Earthworm invasion in North American temperate forest reduces forest floor mass, yet the interactions between litter composition, invasive earthworm community composition

Minnesota, University of

101

Cellulase and Chitinase of Earthworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

LITTLE is known of the digestive enzymes of the earthworm. The presence of protease, amylase and lipase has been reported in the gut contents in isolated instances. Since up to 10 per cent of the top four inches of soil in grassland may pass through the intestines of worms in a year1, their digestive abilities are of a relevance to

M. V. Tracey

1951-01-01

102

A Note Upon Phosphorescent Earthworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT has been long known that earthworms may be phosphorescent. So long ago as 1836 Prof. Dugès described, under the name of Lumbricus phosphoreus, a worm which showed this peculiarity. In 1887 Prof. Giard showed that a worm probably identical with this, and, if so, not a Lumbricus at all, was marked luminous, especially when the soil was disturbed in

Frank E. Beddard

1899-01-01

103

MEMS earthworm: a thermally actuated peristaltic linear micromotor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the design, fabrication and testing of a bio-mimetic MEMS (micro-electro mechanical systems) earthworm motor with external actuators. The motor consists of a passive mobile shuttle with two flexible diamond-shaped segments; each segment is independently squeezed by a pair of stationary chevron-shaped thermal actuators. Applying a specific sequence of squeezes to the earthworm segments, the shuttle can be driven backward or forward. Unlike existing inchworm drives that use clamping and thrusting actuators, the earthworm actuators apply only clamping forces to the shuttle, and lateral thrust is produced by the shuttle's compliant geometry. The earthworm assembly is fabricated using the PolyMUMPs process with planar dimensions of 400 µm width by 800 µm length. The stationary actuators operate within the range of 4-9 V and provide a maximum shuttle range of motion of 350 µm (approximately half its size), a maximum shuttle speed of 17 mm s-1 at 10 kHz, and a maximum dc shuttle force of 80 µN. The shuttle speed was found to vary linearly with both input voltage and input frequency. The shuttle force was found to vary linearly with the actuator voltage.

Arthur, Craig; Ellerington, Neil; Hubbard, Ted; Kujath, Marek

2011-03-01

104

Evolution of earthworm burrow systems after inoculation of lumbricid earthworms in a pasture in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1983, an earthworm-free pasture was inoculated with four earthworm species. The earth-worms dispersed with an average velocity of 6.3 m y?1. In 1991, four burrow systems, ranging in age from 0.6 to 7.3 y, were mapped three-dimensionally to establish the development of these systems. Aporrectodea longa was the fastest colonizer, while Lumbricus terrestris dispersed slowly. The abundance of earthworms

Tom N. Ligthart; Gert J. C. W. Peek

1997-01-01

105

Earthworms as seedling predators: Importance of seeds and seedlings for earthworm nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anecic earthworms have been shown to collect, concentrate and bury seeds in their burrows. Moreover, recent studies suggest that earthworms function as granivores and seedling herbivores thereby directly impacting plant community assembly. However, this has not been proven unequivocally. Further, it remains unclear if earthworms benefit from seed ingestion, i.e., if they assimilate seed carbon. We set up a series

Nico Eisenhauer; Olaf Butenschoen; Stefan Radsick; Stefan Scheu

2010-01-01

106

The Earthworm Inoculation Unit technique: An integrated system for cultivation and soil-inoculation of earthworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of earthworms into degraded or newly restored land is known to promote soil improvement. Obtaining the most appropriate species in the large numbers required can be costly and time consuming using traditional techniques. Research and development of a novel approach, the Earthworm Inoculation Unit (EIU) technique, may help to overcome this. This technique combines cultivation of selected earthworms

Kevin R. Butt; James Frederickson; Richard M. Morris

1997-01-01

107

Earthworms Downunder”: A survey of the earthworm fauna of urban and agricultural soils in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms Downunder” was a national survey of the earthworm fauna of urban and agricultural soils in Australia in which 1450 school children measured earthworm abundance and sent specimens to taxonomists for identification. Abundance varied between habitats with highest numbers found in pastures and orchards (means > 140 m?2) and least in cereal crops (mean < 50 m?2). The most common

G. H. Baker; T. A. Thumlert; L. S. Meisel; P. J. Carter; G. P. Kilpin

1997-01-01

108

First evidence for the presence of efflux pump in the earthworm Eisenia andrei.  

PubMed

Efflux pumps are transport proteins involved in the extrusion of toxic substrates from cells to the external environment. Activities of efflux pumps have been found in many organisms, however such activity has not been evidenced in earthworms. Adult Eisenia andrei earthworms were exposed to efflux modulators - verapamil (a known inhibitor of efflux pump protein) and dexamethasone (a known inducer of efflux activity) - and the amount of absorbed fluorescent dye rhodamine B was measured. The results showed that verapamil inhibited efflux activity and decreased removal of rhodamine B, whereas dexamethasone induced efflux activity and increased removal of rhodamine B. This is the first evidence of the presence of efflux pump in earthworm Eisenia andrei. Since earthworms are often used as test organisms due to their sensitive reactions towards environmental influences, the discovery of efflux pump activity can contribute to the better understanding of toxicity of certain pollutants. PMID:22033226

Hackenberger, Branimir K; Velki, Mirna; Stepi?, Sandra; Hackenberger, Davorka K

2012-01-01

109

Earthworm contamination by PCBs and heavy metals  

SciTech Connect

A comparison is made of soil and earthworm contamination by PCBs and heavy metals between a nature reserve and two sites conditioned by the addition of sewage sludge and compost. The tissues and gut content of the earthworms shows a higher PCB concentration than that of the surrounding soil and also a difference in the fingerprint of some single PCB compounds. Earthworms display a selective accumulation of cadmium and zinc in their tissues and gut content.

Diercxsens, P.; de Weck, D.; Borsinger, N.; Rosset, B.; Tarradellas, J.

1985-01-01

110

An experimental test of the effects of parental modeling on panic-relevant escape and avoidance among early adolescents.  

PubMed

Escape and avoidance behaviors play a prominent role in the maintenance and possibly development of panic disorder, yet the literature regarding the etiology of these emotion-regulation strategies is relatively underdeveloped. The current study experimentally tests hypotheses that parental modeling of escape during a well-established panic-relevant biological challenge increases panic-relevant escape and avoidance among offspring. Fifty physically and psychologically healthy early adolescents (28 females; Mage=11.58; 86% Caucasian), stratified by gender, were randomly assigned to observe one of their parents (39 females; Mage=40.04): either (a) model completing a 3-min voluntary hyperventilation exercise (no escape modeling group) or (b) model premature termination of a similar procedure (escape modeling group). Offspring in the escape modeling group demonstrated a stronger escape response by discontinuing their own challenge sooner than those in the no-escape modeling group (r=.70). No group differences emerged in terms of avoidance responding, as indexed by nearly identical responding in terms of delay time before initiating the challenge, respiration rate, and self-reported willingness to engage in a second proposed challenge. Results suggest that parental behaviors may play an important role in the development of some forms of panic-relevant responding. These preliminary findings may have important implications for future prevention programs targeting parents and at-risk youth. PMID:24912464

Bunaciu, Liviu; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Knapp, Ashley A; Badour, Christal L; Feldner, Matthew T

2014-07-01

111

Using artificial intelligence for automating testing of a resident space object collision avoidance system on an orbital spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resident space objects (RSOs) pose a significant threat to orbital assets. Due to high relative velocities, even a small RSO can cause significant damage to an object that it strikes. Worse, in many cases a collision may create numerous additional RSOs, if the impacted object shatters apart. These new RSOs will have heterogeneous mass, size and orbital characteristics. Collision avoidance systems (CASs) are used to maneuver spacecraft out of the path of RSOs to prevent these impacts. A RSO CAS must be validated to ensure that it is able to perform effectively given a virtually unlimited number of strike scenarios. This paper presents work on the creation of a testing environment and AI testing routine that can be utilized to perform verification and validation activities for cyber-physical systems. It reviews prior work on automated and autonomous testing. Comparative performance (relative to the performance of a human tester) is discussed.

Straub, Jeremy

2014-06-01

112

Holography: Use in Training and Testing Drivers on the Road in Accident Avoidance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines holography, identifies visual factors in driving and the techniques used in on-road visual presentations, and presents the design and testing of a holographic system for driver training. (RAO)

Frey, Allan H.; Frey, Donnalyn

1979-01-01

113

Using the triple test cross to investigate the genetics of behavior in wild populations. II. Escape-avoidance conditioning in Rattus norvegicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detailed results of a triple test cross using wild rats crossed to partially inbred sublines of the Roman High and Low Avoidance selection strains clearly indicated considerable amounts of additive genetic variation in the wild population for avoidance performance while there is a general absence of nonadditive variation, with the exception of some dominance variation together with duplicate type

J. K. Hewitt; D. W. Fulker

1983-01-01

114

ORIGINAL PAPER Tree rings detect earthworm invasions and their effects  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Tree rings detect earthworm invasions and their effects in northern Hardwood forests of European earthworms into the forests of northern North America are causing dramatic changes in forest floor on the effects of invasive earthworms are limited because little data exist on the timing and rate of earthworm

Minnesota, University of

115

How do earthworms affect microfloral and faunal community diversity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the work regarding earthworm effects on other organisms has focused on the functional significance of microbial-earthworm interactions, and little is known on the effects of earthworms on microfloral and faunal diversity. Earthworms can affect soil microflora and fauna populations directly and indirectly by three main mechanisms: (1) comminution, burrowing and casting; (2) grazing; (3) dispersal. These activities change

George G. Brown

1995-01-01

116

Significance of earthworms in stimulating soil microbial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stimulatory effect of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) on soil microbial activity was studied under microcosm-controlled conditions. The hypothesis was tested that microbial\\u000a stimulation observed in the presence of a soil invertebrate would be due to the utilization of additional nutritive substances\\u000a (secretion and excretion products) that it provides. Changes in microbial activity were monitored by measuring simultaneously\\u000a CO2 release

F. Binet; L. Fayolle; M. Pussard; J. J. Crawford; S. J. Traina; O. H. Tuovinen

1998-01-01

117

Earthworm activities and the soil system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms find in soil the energy, nutrient resources, water and buffered climatic conditions that they need. According to the food resource they exploit and the general environmental conditions, earthworms can be grouped into different functional categories which differ essentially in morphology, size, pigmentation, distribution in the soil profile, ability to dig galleries and produce surface casts, demographic profiles and relationships

P. Lavelle

1988-01-01

118

Colonization of new habitats by earthworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a simple model is used to study the dispersal of earthworm populations into new habitats. Simple models do not describe processes accurately, but can help gain insight into the functioning of ecosystems or processes in ecosystems. Using information on reproduction, survival and dispersal at the level of the individual, the velocity of earthworm population expansion was calculated.

J. C. Y. Marinissen; Bosch van den F

1992-01-01

119

EARTHWORMS AND THEIR IMPACT ON SLUG CONTROL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increases in the anecic earthworm species, Lumbricus terrestris L., have occurred in western Oregon grass fields due to increases in surface residue since the phase-out of open field burning. The use of earthworm toxic chemicals has been reduced through concerns for other important vertebrate and in...

120

Improving ecological risk assessment in the Mediterranean area: selection of reference soils and evaluating the influence of soil properties on avoidance and reproduction of two oligochaete species.  

PubMed

A current challenge in soil ecotoxicology is the use of natural soils as test substrates to increase ecological relevance of data. Despite the existence of six natural reference soils (the Euro-soils), some parallel projects showed that these soils do not accurately represent the diversity of European soils. Particularly, Mediterranean soils are not properly represented. To fill this gap, 12 natural soils from the Mediterranean regions of Alentejo, Portugal; Cataluña, Spain; and Liguria, Italy, were selected and used in reproduction and avoidance tests to evaluate the soil habitat function for earthworms (Eisenia andrei) and enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus). Predictive models on the influence of soil properties on the responses of these organisms were developed using generalized linear models. Results indicate that the selected soils can impact reproduction and avoidance behavior of both Oligochaete species. Reproduction of enchytraeids was affected by different soil properties, but the test validity criteria were fulfilled. The avoidance response of enchytraeids was highly variable, but significant effects of texture and pH were found. Earthworms were more sensitive to soil properties. They did not reproduce successfully in three of the 10 soils, and a positive influence of moisture, fine sand, pH, and organic matter and a negative influence of clay were found. Moreover, they strongly avoided soils with extreme textures. Despite these limitations, most of the selected soils are suitable substrates for ecotoxicological evaluations. PMID:21305581

Chelinho, Sónia; Domene, Xavier; Campana, Paolo; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Scheffczyk, Adam; Römbke, Jörg; Andrés, Pilar; Sousa, José Paulo

2011-05-01

121

Avoiding Snakebites  

MedlinePLUS

... Snakebites Avoiding Snakebites How can I avoid snakebites? Snakes are most active in the spring, early summer ... warm and outdoor activities are popular. Although most snakes are not poisonous, there are several kinds of ...

122

A field test for host fruit odour discrimination and avoidance behaviour for Rhagoletis pomonella flies in the western United States.  

PubMed

Prezygotic isolation due to habitat choice is important to many models of speciation-with-gene-flow. Habitat choice is usually thought to occur through positive preferences of organisms for particular environments. However, avoidance of non-natal environments may also play a role in choice and have repercussions for post-zygotic isolation that preference does not. The recent host shift of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) from downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis, to introduced apple, Malus domestica, in the eastern United States is a model for speciation-with-gene-flow. However, the fly is also present in the western United States where it was likely introduced via infested apples ? 60 years ago. R. pomonella now attacks two additional hawthorns in the west, the native C. douglasii (black hawthorn) and the introduced C. monogyna (English ornamental hawthorn). Flight tunnel tests have shown that western apple-, C. douglasii- and C. monogyna-origin flies all positively orient to fruit volatile blends of their respective natal hosts in flight tunnel assays. Here, we show that these laboratory differences translate to nature through field-trapping studies of flies in the state of Washington. Moreover, western R. pomonella display both positive orientation to their respective natal fruit volatiles and avoidance behaviour (negative orientation) to non-natal volatiles. Our results are consistent with the existence of behaviourally differentiated host races of R. pomonella in the west. In addition, the rapid evolution of avoidance behaviour appears to be a general phenomenon for R. pomonella during host shifts, as the eastern apple and downy hawthorn host races also are antagonized by non-natal fruit volatiles. PMID:22435643

Sim, S B; Mattsson, M; Feder, Jasmine L; Cha, D H; Yee, W L; Goughnour, R B; Linn, C E; Feder, Jeffrey L

2012-05-01

123

Acute and sublethal effects of sequential exposure to the pesticide azinphos-methyl on juvenile earthworms (Eisenia andrei).  

PubMed

The use of organophosphate pesticides is an integral part of commercial farming activities and these substances have been implicated as a major source of environmental contamination and may impact on a range of non-target fauna. The extent to which soil dwelling non-target organisms are affected by exposure to the organophosphate azinphos-methyl was investigated through monitoring selected biomarker responses and life cycle effects under laboratory conditions in the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Standard acute toxicity tests were conducted followed by a sequential exposure regime experiment, in order to assess the effects of multiple pesticide applications on biomarker (cholinesterase activity and neutral red retention time), life-cycle (growth and reproduction) and behaviour (avoidance and burrowing activity) responses. The present study indicates that the time between exposure events was a more important variable than concentration and that a longer interval between exposures may mitigate the effects of pesticide exposure provided that the exposure concentration is low. Additionally, it was shown that E. andrei was unable to avoid the presence of azinphos-methyl in soil, even at concentrations as high as 50% of the LC(50) value, indicating that the presence of azinphos-methyl in the soil pose a realistic threat to earthworms and other soil dwelling organisms. The ChE inhibition test showed a high percentage inhibition of the enzyme in all exposure groups that survived and NRR times of exposed organisms were lower than that of the controls. The present study yielded important results that contribute to the understanding of biological impacts of pesticide pollution on the environment. Extrapolating these results can aid in optimising pesticide application regimes to mitigate the environmental effects thereof and thus ensuring sustained soil biodiversity in agricultural areas. PMID:22086221

Jordaan, Martine S; Reinecke, Sophié A; Reinecke, Adriaan J

2012-04-01

124

COMPARISON OF THREE EARTHWORM BIOASSAY PROCEDURES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES CONTAINING HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Three different laboratory earthworm protocols for assessing the potential toxicity of environmental samples were evaluated using Eisenia fetida. The 48-h Contact Test (CT) is a short test and may indicate the presence of water-soluble chemicals. The 14-day Soil Test (ST) is best...

125

Glycosaminoglycans from earthworms ( Eisenia andrei )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The whole tissue of the earthworm (Eisenia andrei) was lyophilized and extracted to purify glycosaminoglycans. Fractions, eluting from an anion-exchange column at 1.0 M and\\u000a 2.0 M NaCl, showed the presence of acidic polysaccharides on agarose gel electrophoresis. Monosaccharide compositional analysis\\u000a showed that galactose and glucose were most abundant monosaccharides in both fractions. Depolymerization of the polysaccharide\\u000a mixture with glycosaminoglycan-degrading enzymes confirmed

A-Rang Im; Joon-Soo Sim; Zhenqing Zhang; Zhenling Liu; Robert J. Linhardt; Yeong Shik Kim

2010-01-01

126

Biotic interactions modify the transfer of cesium-137 in a soil-earthworm-plant-snail food web.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the possible influence of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata on the transfer of cesium-137 ((137)Cs) from a contaminated (130 Bq/kg) deciduous forest soil to the lettuce Lactuca sativa and to the snail Cantareus aspersus (formerly Helix aspersa) in two laboratory experiments. In the first experiment, the International Organization for Standardization 15952 test was used to expose snails for five weeks to contaminated soil with or without earthworms. In these conditions, the presence of earthworms caused a two- to threefold increase in (137)Cs concentrations in snails. Transfer was low in earthworms as well as in snails, with transfer factors (TFs) lower than 3.7 x 10(-2). Activity concentrations were higher in earthworms (2.8- 4.8 Bq/kg dry mass) than in snails (<1.5 Bq/kg). In the second experiment, microcosms were used to determine the contribution of soil and lettuce in the accumulation of (137)Cs in snails. Results suggest that the contribution of lettuce and soil is 80 and 20%, respectively. Microcosms also were used to study the influence of earthworms on (137)Cs accumulation in snail tissues in the most ecologically relevant treatment (soil-earthworm-plant-snail food web). In this case, soil-to-plant transfer was high, with a TF of 0.8, and was not significantly modified by earthworms. Conversely, soil-to-snail transfer was lower (TF, approximately 0.1) but was significantly increased in presence of earthworms. Dose rates were determined in the microcosm study with the EDEN (elementary dose evaluation for natural environment) model. Dose rates were lower than 5.5 x 10(-4) mGy/d, far from values considered to have effects on terrestrial organisms (1 mGy/d). PMID:18266477

Fritsch, Clémentine; Scheifler, Renaud; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Hubert, Philippe; Coeurdassier, Michaël; de Vaufleury, Annette; Badot, Pierre-Marie

2008-08-01

127

Epigeic Earthworms Exert a Bottleneck Effect on Microbial Communities through Gut Associated Processes  

PubMed Central

Background Earthworms play a critical role in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with microorganisms. The ingestion, digestion, assimilation of organic material in the gut and then casting is the first step in earthworm-microorganism interactions. The current knowledge of these direct effects is still limited for epigeic earthworm species, mainly those living in man-made environments. Here we tested whether and to what extent the earthworm Eisenia andrei is capable of altering the microbiological properties of fresh organic matter through gut associated processes; and if these direct effects are related to the earthworm diet. Methodology To address these questions we determined the microbial community structure (phospholipid fatty acid profiles) and microbial activity (fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis) in the earthworm casts derived from three types of animal manure (cow, horse and pig manure), which differed in microbial composition. Principal Findings The passage of the organic material through the gut of E. andrei reduced the total microbial biomass irrespective of the type of manure, and resulted in a decrease in bacterial biomass in all the manures; whilst leaving the fungi unaffected in the egested materials. However, unlike the microbial biomass, no such reduction was detected in the total microbial activity of cast samples derived from the pig manure. Moreover, no differences were found between cast samples derived from the different types of manure with regards to microbial community structure, which provides strong evidence for a bottleneck effect of worm digestion on microbial populations of the original material consumed. Conclusions/Significance Our data reveal that earthworm gut is a major shaper of microbial communities, thereby favouring the existence of a reduced but more active microbial population in the egested materials, which is of great importance to understand how biotic interactions within the decomposer food web influence on nutrient cycling. PMID:21935465

Gómez-Brandón, María; Aira, Manuel; Lores, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge

2011-01-01

128

Plant genetic variation mediates an indirect ecological effect between belowground earthworms and aboveground aphids.  

PubMed

BackgroundInteractions between aboveground and belowground terrestrial communities are often mediated by plants, with soil organisms interacting via the roots and aboveground organisms via the shoots and leaves. Many studies now show that plant genetics can drive changes in the structure of both above and belowground communities; however, the role of plant genetic variation in mediating aboveground-belowground interactions is still unclear. We used an earthworm-plant-aphid model system with two aphid species (Aphis fabae and Acyrthosiphon pisum) to test the effect of host-plant (Vicia faba) genetic variation on the indirect interaction between the belowground earthworms (Eisenia veneta) on the aboveground aphid populations.ResultsOur data shows that host-plant variety mediated an indirect ecological effect of earthworms on generalist black bean aphids (A. fabae), with earthworms increasing aphid growth rate in three plant varieties but decreasing it in another variety. We found no effect of earthworms on the second aphid species, the pea aphid (A. pisum), and no effect of competition between the aphid species. Plant biomass was increased when earthworms were present, and decreased when A. pisum was feeding on the plant (mediated by plant variety). Although A. fabae aphids were influenced by the plants and worms, they did not, in turn, alter plant biomass.ConclusionsPrevious work has shown inconsistent effects of earthworms on aphids, but we suggest these differences could be explained by plant genetic variation and variation among aphid species. This study demonstrates that the outcome of belowground-aboveground interactions can be mediated by genetic variation in the host-plant, but depends on the identity of the species involved. PMID:25331082

Singh, Akanksha; Braun, Julia; Decker, Emilia; Hans, Sarah; Wagner, Agnes; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Zytynska, Sharon E

2014-10-21

129

Assessment of hydraulic conductivity distribution from ERT-monitored tracer tests avoiding the need for petrophysical relationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical methods, such as the Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), have been increasingly used in recent years to analyze the erratic behavior of plumes in natural aquifers. In particular, borehole ERT monitoring of saline tracer tests allows to collect 2D time-lapse electrical data in a control plane, related to spatio-temporal variations of salt concentration within the aquifer. The electrical conductivity (EC) field is reconstructed by means of a geophysical inversion on the basis of raw resistance data, while a petrophysical relationship (e.g., Archie's law) is usually needed to map EC data into solute concentrations, thus retrieving the plume evolution. The latter, in turn, is often used to evaluate the hydraulic conductivity (K) distribution by inverse modeling. To avoid the need for an in-situ specific calibration of a petrophysical relationship and the previous knowledge of the concentration spatio-temporal evolution, this study proposes a new approach for retrieving the K distribution from an ERT monitored saline tracer test, based on travel time modeling of transport integrated with the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). The definition of the solute transport in terms of travel times allows to analyze the sequence of changes in electrical conductivity deduced from an ERT survey without converting the electrical data into concentrations. To do this, a specific travel time procedure is applied: the control plane is subdivided in properly spaced sub-control planes and the cumulative distribution function of the travel time in each of them is independently calculated and then assimilated through EnKF, which allows to update the K distribution. Our approach, initially tested in 3D synthetic aquifers, is here applied to the experimental site of Settolo, Valdobbiadene (TV), where a tracer test monitored by ERT has been carried out. The results show that the suggested method seems to be effective in reproducing the erratic distribution of the hydraulic conductivity at the local scale, which control the non-Fickian evolution of plumes in natural aquifers.

Crestani, E.; Camporese, M.; Salandin, P.

2013-12-01

130

Individual and combined toxic effects of cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos on earthworm.  

PubMed

Toxicities were assessed for a pyrethroid (cypermethrin) and an organophosphate insecticide (chlorpyrifos) individually and in combination. A series of tests were conducted on different responses (acute, chronic, behavioral) of earthworms of species Eisenia fetida andrei in the ecological risk assessment of these pesticides. The results showed that the toxicity of the mixture of cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos was significantly higher than either of these pesticides individually, especially on the earthworm's chronic responses. At a concentration of 5 mg/kg, the mixture caused significant reductions on the growth and reproduction rates of earthworms, but did not cause any significant effect when the individual was tested. The increase in toxicity of the pesticide mixture means that the use of toxicity data obtained exclusively from single-pesticide experiments may underestimate the ecological risk of pesticides that actually present in the field. PMID:21793412

Zhou, Shiping; Duan, Changqun; Michelle, Wong Hang Gi; Yang, Fazhong; Wang, Xuehua

2011-01-01

131

Nanomaterials: Earthworms lit with quantum dots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yeast, bacteria and fungi have been used to synthesize a variety of nanocrystals. Now, the metal detoxification process in the gut of an earthworm is exploited to produce biocompatible cadmium telluride quantum dots.

Tilley, Richard D.; Cheong, Soshan

2013-01-01

132

Earthworm-mediated maternal effects on seed germination and seedling growth in three annual plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many ecological studies have pointed out maternal effects in plants and shown that plant maternal environment influences germination of their seed and subsequent seedling growth. However, few have tested for maternal effects induced by soil macroorganisms. We tested whether two earthworm species (Aporrectodea caliginosa and Lumbricus terrestris) trigger such maternal effects on seed germination and seedling growth of three plant

Kam-Rigne Laossi; Diana-Cristina Noguera; Sébastien Barot

2010-01-01

133

Comparison of earthworm responses to petroleum hydrocarbon exposure in aged field contaminated soil using traditional ecotoxicity endpoints and 1H NMR-based metabolomics.  

PubMed

(1)H NMR metabolomics and conventional ecotoxicity endpoints were used to examine the response of earthworms exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in soil samples collected from a site that was contaminated with crude oil from a pipeline failure in the mid-1990s. The conventional ecotoxicity tests showed that the soils were not acutely toxic to earthworms (average survival ? 90%), but some soil samples impaired reproduction endpoints by >50% compared to the field control soil. Additionally, metabolomics revealed significant relationships between earthworm metabolic profiles (collected after 2 or 14 days of exposure) and soil properties including soil PHC concentration. Further comparisons by partial least squares regression revealed a significant relationship between the earthworm metabolomic data (collected after only 2 or 14 days) and the reproduction endpoints (measured after 63 days). Therefore, metabolomic responses measured after short exposure periods may be predictive of chronic, ecologically relevant toxicity endpoints for earthworms exposed to soil contaminants. PMID:23938450

Whitfield Åslund, Melissa; Stephenson, Gladys L; Simpson, André J; Simpson, Myrna J

2013-11-01

134

Contribution of earthworms to PCB bioremediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty cm deep columns containing Aroclor 1242 contaminated soil were bioaugmented with the PCB-degrading micro-organisms, Ralstonia eutrophus H850 and Rhodococcus sp. strain ACS, each of which were grown on sorbitan trioleate, and induced for PCB degradation by salicylic acid and carvone, respectively. Treatments consisted of soils with and without earthworms. Earthworms were utilized to enhance the dispersal of the bioaugmented

A. C Singer; W Jury; E Luepromchai; C.-S Yahng; D. E Crowley

2001-01-01

135

Biochemical diversity of betaines in earthworms  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? We develop a method for rapid untargetted analysis of betaines. ? We profile betaines in a comparative study of ten earthworm species. ? Earthworms contain a surprisingly high number of different betaine metabolites. ? Earthworms contain betaines normally seen only in plants or marine animals. -- Abstract: The ability to accumulate osmoprotectant compounds, such as betaines, is an important evolutionary feature in many organisms. This is particularly the case for organisms that live in variable environments, which may have fluctuations in moisture and salinity levels. There is, surprisingly, very little known about betaines in soil invertebrates in general, and there is almost no information about earthworms – a group that are important ‘ecosystem engineers’ and key indicators of soil health. Here, we describe a fast and reliable {sup 1}H–{sup 13}C heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) 2D NMR approach for the metabolic profiling of a series of betaines and related metabolites in tissue extracts, and list {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C chemical shifts for the trimethylammonium signal for 23 such compounds. The analysis of ten different species from three different families (Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae and Glossoscolecidae) showed an unexpected diversity of betaines present in earthworms. In total ten betaines were identified, including hydroxyproline-betaine, proline-betaine, taurine-betaine, GABA-betaine and histidine-betaine, and a further eleven as-yet unassigned putative betaine metabolites detected. The findings clearly indicate a hitherto-unappreciated important role for betaine metabolism in earthworms.

Liebeke, Manuel [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)] [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Bundy, Jacob G., E-mail: j.bundy@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

2013-01-25

136

Impact of landspread sewage sludge and earthworm introduction on established earthworms and soil structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge was applied to twelve 4-m2 plots in two forest (mixed hardwood, Norway spruce plantation) site and one old field site. The earthworm Eisenia fetida was introduced to half the control and half the treated plots. Earthworm populations were sampled by formalin extraction and hand-sorting five times in the year following treatment. One year after treatment, soil samples were

W. E. Hamilton; D. L. Dindal

1989-01-01

137

A Longitudinal Test of the Bi-Directional Relations between Avoidance Coping and PTSD Severity during and after PTSD Treatment  

PubMed Central

Avoidance coping and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) covary. However, relatively little research has examined the bi-directional relation between these constructs among individuals in treatment for PTSD. The current longitudinal study examined the reciprocal associations between avoidance coping and PTSD symptom severity during and after residential PTSD treatment among a sample of 1,073 military veterans (88.9% male; Mage = 52.39 years) with chronic, treatment-resistant PTSD. Greater avoidance coping at intake predicted more severe PTSD symptoms at discharge, and severity of PTSD symptoms at discharge predicted increased avoidance at follow-up. Conversely, PTSD symptom severity at intake was not related to avoidance coping at discharge, and in turn avoidance coping at discharge was not related to PTSD symptom severity at follow-up. These findings offer a number of important clinical implications including evidence suggesting avoidance may predict poorer treatment response among individuals seeking treatment for chronic PTSD, and that greater end-of-treatment PTSD symptom severity may predict increased avoidance following treatment. PMID:22835842

Badour, Christal L.; Blonigen, Daniel M.; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Feldner, Matthew T.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.

2012-01-01

138

Testing the nutritional-limitation, predator-avoidance, and storm-avoidance hypotheses for restricted sea otter habitat use in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) inhabiting the Aleutian Islands have stabilized at low abundance levels following a decline and currently exhibit restricted habitat-utilization patterns. Possible explanations for restricted habitat use by sea otters can be classified into two fundamentally different processes, bottom-up and top-down forcing. Bottom-up hypotheses argue that changes in the availability or nutritional quality of prey resources have led to the selective use of habitats that support the highest quality prey. In contrast, top-down hypotheses argue that increases in predation pressure from killer whales have led to the selective use of habitats that provide the most effective refuge from killer whale predation. A third hypothesis suggests that current restricted habitat use is based on a need for protection from storms. We tested all three hypotheses for restricted habitat use by comparing currently used and historically used sea otter foraging locations for: (1) prey availability and quality, (2) structural habitat complexity, and (3) exposure to prevailing storms. Our findings suggest that current use is based on physical habitat complexity and not on prey availability, prey quality, or protection from storms, providing further evidence for killer whale predation as a cause for restricted sea otter habitat use in the Aleutian Islands.

Stewart, Nathan L.; Konar, Brenda; Tinker, M. Tim

2014-01-01

139

Testing the nutritional-limitation, predator-avoidance, and storm-avoidance hypotheses for restricted sea otter habitat use in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska.  

PubMed

Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) inhabiting the Aleutian Islands have stabilized at low abundance levels following a decline and currently exhibit restricted habitat-utilization patterns. Possible explanations for restricted habitat use by sea otters can be classified into two fundamentally different processes, bottom-up and top-down forcing. Bottom-up hypotheses argue that changes in the availability or nutritional quality of prey resources have led to the selective use of habitats that support the highest quality prey. In contrast, top-down hypotheses argue that increases in predation pressure from killer whales have led to the selective use of habitats that provide the most effective refuge from killer whale predation. A third hypothesis suggests that current restricted habitat use is based on a need for protection from storms. We tested all three hypotheses for restricted habitat use by comparing currently used and historically used sea otter foraging locations for: (1) prey availability and quality, (2) structural habitat complexity, and (3) exposure to prevailing storms. Our findings suggest that current use is based on physical habitat complexity and not on prey availability, prey quality, or protection from storms, providing further evidence for killer whale predation as a cause for restricted sea otter habitat use in the Aleutian Islands. PMID:25416538

Stewart, Nathan L; Konar, Brenda; Tinker, M Tim

2014-11-22

140

Histopathological changes in the earthworm Eisenia andrei associated with the exposure to metals and radionuclides.  

PubMed

Earthworms were exposed for 56 d to a contaminated soil, from an abandoned uranium mine, and to the natural reference soil LUFA 2.2. Histological changes in earthworm's body wall (epidermis, circular and longitudinal muscles) and gastrointestinal tract (chloragogenous tissue and intestinal epithelium) were assessed, after 0, 14 and 56 d of exposure. Results have shown alterations in all the studied tissues after 14 d of exposure (except for the intestinal epithelium), yet more severe effects were registered after 56 d of exposure. Herein we report histopathological alterations as a good biomarker for the evaluation of soil quality. We also demonstrate that morphological changes in the body wall and gastrointestinal tract, are important endpoints that could be added to earthworm's standardized tests, for the evaluation of soil toxicity, as part of the risk assessment of contaminated areas. PMID:21911243

Lourenço, Joana; Silva, Ana; Carvalho, Fernando; Oliveira, João; Malta, Margarida; Mendo, Sónia; Gonçalves, Fernando; Pereira, Ruth

2011-11-01

141

Methods using earthworms for the evaluation of potentially toxic materials in soils  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using earthworms to indicate effects of potentially toxic wastes when such wastes are intentionally or accidentally added to soils. Initial work with metals has shown that earthworms exhibit specific growth and reproductive responses. These responses are related to the concentration and solubility of the metal. Of the metals tested, cadmium was found to be the most toxic, followed by nickel, copper, zinc, and lead. The metal concentration in earthworm tissue and the background manure-metal mixture was measured, permitting the concentration factor to be computed. The concentration factor is the ratio of the metal in the worm tissue to that in the surrounding manure-metal mixture. These and other studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that the methods described in this paper may be used to predict the effect of land-applied or atmospherically deposited residues on the soil biota.

Neuhauser, E.F.; Loehr, R.C.; Malecki, M.R.

1982-01-01

142

The second wave of earthworm invasion: soil organic matter dynamics from the stable isotope perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through transformation of plant litter into soil organic matter (SOM) and translocation of ingested organic material among different soil depths, soil organisms, especially earthworms, are one of the major factors affecting SOM dynamics. In North America temperate soil, historical human activity has lead to invasion of European earthworms into habitats that were previously earthworm-free or inhabited only by native species. By consuming leaf litter and SOM, burrowing, and casting, invasive earthworms have been known for reducing the understory vegetation and leaf litter layer while increasing the thickness of organic soil, causing changes in the soil habitat and the distribution of SOM. Recently, another group of invasive earthworm, namely Amynthas from Asia, has been reported invading habitats already dominated by European species, causing a 'second wave of invasion' where the soil ecosystem, already modified by European species, is going through another transition. The mechanisms through which these functionally (ecologically) different species affect C and N transformation could be better understood by tracing the carbon and nitrogen derived from 13C- and 15N-labeled leaf litter into earthworm tissues and SOM. The objective of this study is to understand how earthworm species that differ ecologically, including the Asian Amynthas, interact with each other and how these interactions affect SOM dynamics. We hypothesized that 1) species feeding on different food resources will have different isotopic signature and their tissue 13C and 15N values will change due to facilitation or interspecific competition on food resources, and 2) the short-term fate of litter-derived carbon differs depending on the presence or absence of different earthworm species. These hypotheses were tested by field sampling and lab mesocosm experiments using 13C and 15N double-enriched Tulip Poplar leaf litter (mean 13C = 124‰, mean 15N = 1667‰) produced from tree saplings growing in an airtight chamber. Stable isotope mass balance calculation is used to estimate the recovery of litter-derived carbon from three pools (earthworm tissue, SOM, remaining litter), the loss of litter-derived carbon through soil respiration, and the contribution of different carbon sources to soil CO2 efflux in different earthworm treatments. Our results show that earthworm species recognized as 'soil feeders' have 13C and 15N values that are 1.2‰ and 3.8‰ higher than those of 'litter feeders', and 15N also differ significantly amount different soil feeders, suggesting different food resource usage even within the same functional group. There are strong species effects on both leaf litter disappearance rate and CO2 efflux rate, both being high when Amynthas earthworms are present. Our results suggest that changing earthworm species composition leads to changing resource use, which alters the fate of organic carbon in the forest floor and soil and could potentially affect long-term SOM dynamics in temperate forests.

Chang, C.; Szlavecz, K. A.; Bernard, M.; Pitz, S.

2013-12-01

143

Distribution and impacts of invasive earthworms in Canadian forest ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Canada it is generally accepted that most indigenous earthworms did not survive glaciation, and that the majority of the\\u000a earthworms now inhabiting Canadian soils are relatively recent introductions of European origin. Although these exotic earthworms\\u000a are generally considered to be beneficial in agricultural soils, their effects can be less benign in forested ecosystems.\\u000a Studies have shown that invading earthworms

J. A. Addison

2009-01-01

144

Distribution and impacts of invasive earthworms in Canadian forest ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Canada it is generally accepted that most indigenous earthworms did not survive glaciation, and that the majority of the\\u000a earthworms now inhabiting Canadian soils are relatively recent introductions of European origin. Although these exotic earthworms\\u000a are generally considered to be beneficial in agricultural soils, their effects can be less benign in forested ecosystems.\\u000a Studies have shown that invading earthworms

J. A. Addison

145

Bioconversion of solid paper-pulp mill sludge by earthworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioconversion of solid paper-pulp mill sludges and primary sewage sludge for 40 days at a ratio of 3:1 dw:dw was studied in containers with and without earthworms (Eisenia andrei). This mixture was a suitable medium for optimum growth and reproduction of the earthworms. Regardless of the presence of earthworms, degradation occurred during the bioconversion period, but the presence of earthworms

C. Elvira; M. Goicoechea; L. Sampedro; S. Mato; R. Nogales

1996-01-01

146

Species-Specific Effects of Epigeic Earthworms on Microbial Community Structure during First Stages of Decomposition of Organic Matter  

PubMed Central

Background Epigeic earthworms are key organisms in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with microorganisms. The earthworm species and the quality and/or substrate availability are expected to be major factors influencing the outcome of these interactions. Here we tested whether and to what extent the epigeic earthworms Eisenia andrei, Eisenia fetida and Perionyx excavatus, widely used in vermicomposting, are capable of altering the microbiological properties of fresh organic matter in the short-term. We also questioned if the earthworm-induced modifications to the microbial communities are dependent on the type of substrate ingested. Methodology/Principal Findings To address these questions we determined the microbial community structure (phospholipid fatty acid profiles) and microbial activity (basal respiration and microbial growth rates) of three types of animal manure (cow, horse and rabbit) that differed in microbial composition, after being processed by each species of earthworm for one month. No differences were found between earthworm-worked samples with regards to microbial community structure, irrespective of type of manure, which suggests the existence of a bottleneck effect of worm digestion on microbial populations of the original material consumed. Moreover, in mesocosms containing cow manure the presence of E. andrei resulted not only in a decrease in bacterial and fungal biomass, but also in a reduced bacterial growth rate and total microbial activity, while no such reduction was found with E. fetida and P. excavatus. Conclusions/Significance Our results point to the species of earthworm with its associated gut microbiota as a strong determinant of the process shaping the structure of microbial communities in the short-term. This must nonetheless be weighed against the fact that further knowledge is necessary to evaluate whether the changes in the composition of microbiota in response to the earthworm species is accompanied by a change in the microbial community diversity and/or function. PMID:22363763

Gómez-Brandón, María; Lores, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge

2012-01-01

147

Different earthworm ecological groups interactively impact seedling establishment  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing evidence that direct interactions between earthworms and seeds impact the assembly of plant communities. However, effects of earthworms of different ecological groups and their interactions on plant germination and establishment are little known. We set up a full-factorial greenhouse experiment in order to explore impacts of different ecological groups of earthworms (epigeic, endogeic and anecic) on the

Roman Asshoff; Stefan Scheu; Nico Eisenhauer

2010-01-01

148

Earthworms accelerate soil porosity turnover under watering conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endogeic earthworms significantly modify soil aggregation and porosity, which in turn control water flow in soil. This study aimed to determine how the earthworm casting activity influences soil porosity and its dynamics. The main hypothesis was that the deposition of belowground water-stable casts increases soil porosity and its water stability. First we quantified cast production by the endogeic earthworm species

N. Bottinelli; T. Henry-des-Tureaux; V. Hallaire; J. Mathieu; Y. Benard; T. Duc Tran; P. Jouquet

2010-01-01

149

Earthworms, Dirt, and Rotten Leaves: An Exploration in Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a model for inviting children to "an exploration in ecology" by observing earthworms. It gives reasons to explore earthworms and guides the investigator through a detailed examination of the worms to answer 21 observation questions. Explores the ways in which earthworms interact with their environment. (LZ)

McLaughlin, Molly

1994-01-01

150

ORIGINAL PAPER Resident plant diversity and introduced earthworms have  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Resident plant diversity and introduced earthworms have contrasting effects such as earthworms can also affect invasibility by reducing leaf litter stocks and influencing soil conditions. In a greenhouse experiment, we simulta- neously manipulated resident species diversity and earthworm presence

Minnesota, University of

151

Uptake kinetics and subcellular compartmentalization of cadmium in acclimated and unacclimated earthworms (Eisenia andrei).  

PubMed

Acclimation to cadmium (Cd) levels exceeding background concentrations may influence the ability of earthworms to accumulate Cd with minimum adverse effects. In the present study, earthworms (Eisenia andrei) were acclimated by exposure to 20 mg/kg Cd (dry wt) in Webster soil for 28 d. A 224-d bioaccumulation test was subsequently conducted with both acclimated and unacclimated worms exposed in Webster soils spiked with 20 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg Cd (dry wt). Uptake kinetics and subcellular compartmentalization of Cd were examined. Results suggest that acclimated earthworms accumulated more Cd and required a longer time to reach steady state than unacclimated worms. Most of the Cd was present in the metallothionein (MT) fraction. Cadmium in the MT fraction increased approximately linearly with time and required a relatively longer time to reach steady state than Cd in cell debris and granule fractions, which quickly reached steady state. Cadmium in the cell debris fraction is considered potentially toxic, but low steady state concentrations observed in the present study would not suggest the potential for adverse effects. Future use of earthworms in ecological risk assessment should take into consideration pre-exposure histories of the test organisms. A prolonged test period may be required for a comprehensive understanding of Cd uptake kinetics and compartmentalization. PMID:20821607

Yu, Shuo; Lanno, Roman P

2010-07-01

152

A better method for assessing sublethal effects of soils to the earthworm Eisenia foetida  

SciTech Connect

The authors have developed and tested a procedure which allows quantification of growth and reproductive effects of contaminated soils to the earthworm, Eisenia foetida. The procedure monitors isolated pairs of earthworms and generates a higher ratio of data per organism than other commonly used procedures which require larger numbers of earthworms per experimental unit. The procedure also incorporates an accurate technique for measuring adult growth. The method has high sensitivity and is cost-effective. The method was applied to a variety of soil-testing problems to demonstrate its versatility and provide validation. A food-and-substrate trial demonstrated the sensitivity of the method and the need for food supplementation in OECD artificial soil to stimulate earthworm reproduction. A trial to examine a soil bioremediation technology revealed the advantage of measuring both growth and reproduction and highlighted the usefulness of a single integrated measure of these two responses. The method then was applied as a fast-screening method for field soils in a large-scale ecological risk assessment. Finally, a reference toxicant, applied in dilution series, demonstrated that responses of Eisenia foetida to their method are similar to their responses to the OECD artificial soil test. Collectively, results of this study indicate that their procedure can be used both for regulatory and compliance needs within the framework of ecological risk assessment.

Gibbs, M.H. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wicker, L.F.; Stewart, A.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-12-31

153

Revising lysenin expression of earthworm coelomocytes.  

PubMed

Lysenin is a species-specific bioactive molecule of Eisenia andrei earthworms. This protein is a potent antimicrobial factor; however its cellular expression and induction against pathogens are still not fully understood. We developed a novel monoclonal antibody against lysenin and applied this molecular tool to characterize its production and antimicrobial function. We demonstrated by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry that one subgroup of earthworm immune cells (so called coelomocytes), the chloragocytes expressed the highest amount of lysenin. Then, we compared lysenin expression with earlier established coelomocyte (EFCC) markers. In addition, we determined by immunohistology of earthworm tissues that lysenin production is only restricted to free-floating chloragocytes. Moreover, we observed that upon in vitro Staphylococcus aureus but not Escherichia coli challenged coelomocytes over-expressed and then secreted lysenin. These results indicate that among subpopulations of coelomocytes, lysenin is mainly produced by chloragocytes and its expression can be modulated by Gram-positive bacterial exposure. PMID:23201038

Opper, Balázs; Bognár, András; Heidt, Diána; Németh, Péter; Engelmann, Péter

2013-03-01

154

Dehydration does not affect the radial pressures produced by the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a soil dries, the earthworms in that soil dehydrate and become less active. Moisture stress may weaken an earthworm, lowering the radial pressure that the animal can produce. This possibility was investigated for the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny). Pressures were compared for saturated earthworms (worms taken from saturated soil) and stressed earthworms (worms that had been partially dehydrated by

Robert J. Stovold; W. Richard Whalley; Peter J. Harris

2003-01-01

155

Influence of Exotic Earthworms on the Soil Organic Horizon and the Rare Fern Botrychium mormo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forests north of the last glacial extent have no native earthworms. Exotic earthworms are now col- onizing forests that are naturally free of earthworms. It is currently unknown how these exotic earthworms might affect rare plants. To determine whether there is an association between the presence of an exotic earthworm species and extirpation of the rare fern Botrychium mormo ,

Michael J. Gundale

2002-01-01

156

Earthworm excreta attract soil springtails: laboratory experiments on Heteromurus nitidus (Collembola : Entomobryidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microarthropods are often found more abundantly in soils with earthworms than in soils without. Earthworms probably create a favourable environment for microarthropods but few studies have aimed to explain this earthworm effect. The soil collembolan (Hexapoda) Heteromurus nitidus, living in soils at pH  5 only and thus rich in earthworms, is particularly attracted by earthworms in humus cores. The effect

Sandrine Salmon; Jean-François Ponge

2001-01-01

157

Glycosaminoglycans from earthworms (Eisenia andrei)  

PubMed Central

The whole tissue of the earthworm (Eisenia andrei) was lyophilized and extracted to purify glycosaminoglycans. Fractions, eluting from an anion-exchange column at 1.0 M and 2.0 M NaCl, showed the presence of acidic polysaccharides on agarose gel electrophoresis. Monosaccharide compositional analysis showed that galactose and glucose were most abundant monosaccharides in both fractions. Depolymerization of the polysaccharide mixture with glycosaminoglycandegrading enzymes confirmed the presence of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate in the 2.0 M NaCl fraction. The content of GAGs (uronic acid containing polysaccharide) in the 2.0 M NaCl fraction determined by carbazole assay was 2%. Disaccharide compositional analysis using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analysis after chondroitinase digestion (ABC and ACII), showed that the chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate contained a 4-O-sulfo (76%), 2,4-di-O-sulfo (15%), 6-O-sulfo (6%), and unsulfated (4%) uronic acid linked N-acetylgalactosamine residues. LC-ESI-MS analysis of heparin lyase I/II/III digests demonstrated the presence of N-sulfo (69%), N-sulfo-6-O-sulfo (25%) and 2-O-sulfo-N-sulfo-6-O-sulfo (5%) uronic acid linked N-acetylglucosamine residues. PMID:20013352

Im, A-Rang; Park, Youmie; Sim, Joon-Soo; Zhang, Zhenqing; Liu, Zhenling

2012-01-01

158

Avoidance bio-assays may help to test the ecological significance of soil1 Maite Martnez Aldaya1  

E-print Network

the short-term (100') avoidance of a soil heavily polluted by23 hydrocarbons by the soil springtail Folsomia) and the springtail Folsomia candida (ISO16 11267), populations of these soil animals are submitted to increasing and decomposition stages of leaf litter which25 were either attractive or repellent to soil springtails in the short

Boyer, Edmond

159

Shade Avoidance  

PubMed Central

The presence of neighboring vegetation modifies the light environment experienced by plants, generating signals that are perceived by phytochromes and cryptochromes. These signals cause large changes in plant body form and function, including enhanced growth of the hypocotyl and petioles, a more erect position of the leaves and early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana. Collectively, these so-called shade-avoidance responses tend to reduce the degree of current or future shade by neighbors. Shade light signals increase the abundance of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4) and PIF5 proteins, promote the synthesis and redirection of auxin, favor the degradation of DELLA proteins and increase the expression of auxin, gibberellins and brassinosteroid-promoted genes, among other events downstream the photoreceptors. Selectively disrupting these events by genetic or pharmacological approaches affects shade-avoidance responses with an intensity that depends on the developmental context and the environment. Shade-avoidance responses provide a model to investigate the signaling networks used by plants to take advantage of the cues provided by the environment to adjust to the challenges imposed by the environment itself. PMID:22582029

Casal, Jorge J.

2012-01-01

160

Are laboratory derived toxicity results informative for field situations? Case study on earthworm populations contaminated with heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relevance of laboratory tests on toxicants for field situations is often disputed given that laboratory tests are conducted under, next to the toxicant stress, optimal conditions which are not expected in field situations. In this paper we confront the results of laboratory tests on growth, reproduction and survival of earthworms, in a polluted and a reference field soil with

Chris Klok; Jac Thissen

2009-01-01

161

Combined effects of copper, desiccation, and frost on the viability of earthworm cocoons  

SciTech Connect

The effects of heavy metal pollution on earthworms have been extensively studied, but no studies have examined how earthworms react if they are simultaneously exposed to metal pollution and climatic stress. This question has been addressed in a laboratory study where cocoons of Aporrectodea caliginosa and Dendrobaena octaedra were initially exposed to copper in aqueous solutions of copper chloride and thereafter exposed to realistic degrees of either desiccation or frost. Earthworm embryos absorbed copper in amounts comparable to concentrations found in various tissues of earthworms from metal-polluted soils. Desiccation and copper exposure in combination had synergistic effects on survival rates for both species. For example, at full saturation, the NOEC (the highest tested concentration with no statistically significant effect) for copper of A. caliginosa was 12 mg/L, whereas at 97% relative humidity it was only 6 mg/L. Frost and copper exposure in combination also showed synergistic effects in some experiments. No cocoons of A. caliginosa exposed to 20 mg copper/L were viable after exposure to {minus}3 C but at 0 C viability was as high as 95%. The same tendency was seen in D. octaedra but not as clearly as in A/. caliginosa. A change of the environmental conditions (moisture, temperature) to increasing severity caused a shift in the statistically derived NOEC toward lower critical values of copper. The involvement of combination effects in ecotoxicological tests could therefore improve risk assessment of soil-polluting compounds.

Holmstrup, M. [National Environmental Research Inst., Silkeborg (Denmark). Dept. of Terrestrial Ecology; Petersen, B.F. [National Environmental Research Inst., Silkeborg (Denmark). Dept. of Terrestrial Ecology]|[Univ. of Aarhus (Denmark); Larsen, M.M. [National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark). Dept. of Marine Ecology and Microbiology

1998-01-01

162

Comparative toxicity in earthworms Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris exposed to cadmium nitrate using artificial soil and filter paper protocols  

SciTech Connect

Earthworms are ideal soil organisms for use in terrestrial ecotoxicology. As such, several earthworm protocols have been developed for testing toxic potential of chemicals and contaminated soils. Of these, the 48-h filter paper contact (FP) and the 14-d artificial soil exposure (AS) protocols, using mortality (LC50) as the toxic endpoint and Eisenia fetida as the test species, have received the most attention, with the latter being adopted by both OECD and EEC in Europe and the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in the United States. Although the FP technique, adopted by EEC, provides for inexpensive reproducible toxicity screening for chemicals (i.e. establishing relative toxicities), it has been criticized for lacking the ecotoxicological relevance of the AS protocol. Choice of earthworm species for laboratory testing also has been controversial. The manure worm, E. fetida, is criticized for not being sufficiently sensitive to chemicals or representative of {open_quotes}typical{close_quotes} earthworms. Lumbricus terrestris and Apporectodea caliginosa have been suggested as more sensitive and ecologically relevant earthworms by Dean-Ross and Martin, respectively. This paper compares the AS and FP protocols in assessing toxicity of cadminum to L. terrestris and E. fetida using LC50s and LC50s. 19 refs., 2 tabs.

Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Goven, A.J. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States)] [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Muratti-Ortiz, J.F. [City of Denton Water/Wastewater Laboratory, TX (United States)] [City of Denton Water/Wastewater Laboratory, TX (United States); Venables, B.J. [TRAC Laboratories Inc., Denton, TX (United States)] [TRAC Laboratories Inc., Denton, TX (United States)

1996-07-01

163

Inorganic and organic phosphorus pools in earthworm casts (Glossoscolecidae) and a Brazilian rainforest Oxisol  

E-print Network

, which included large earthworms Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38 (2006) 553­560 wwwInorganic and organic phosphorus pools in earthworm casts (Glossoscolecidae) and a Brazilian We compared differences in soil phosphorus fractions between large earthworm casts (Family

Lehmann, Johannes

164

United States Department of Native and Introduced Earthworms fromAgriculture  

E-print Network

of various southern California wildland habitats. The ecology and biology of earthworms are outlinedUnited States Department of Native and Introduced Earthworms fromAgriculture Forest Service. 1993. Native and introduced earthworms from selected chaparral, woodland, and riparian zones

Standiford, Richard B.

165

Shade avoidance.  

PubMed

The threat to plant survival presented by light limitation has driven the evolution of highly plastic adaptive strategies to either tolerate or avoid shading by neighbouring vegetation. When subject to vegetational shading, plants are exposed to a variety of informational signals, which include altered light quality and a reduction in light quantity. The former includes a decrease in the ratio of red to far-red wavelengths (low R : FR) and is detected by the phytochrome family of plant photoreceptors. Monitoring of R : FR ratio can provide an early and unambiguous warning of the presence of competing vegetation, thereby evoking escape responses before plants are actually shaded. The molecular mechanisms underlying physiological responses to alterations in light quality have now started to emerge, with major roles suggested for the PIF (PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR) and DELLA families of transcriptional regulators. Such studies suggest a complex interplay between endogenous and exogenous signals, mediated by multiple photoreceptors. The phenotypic similarities between physiological responses habitually referred to as 'the shade avoidance syndrome' and other abiotic stress responses suggest plants may integrate common signalling mechanisms to respond to multiple perturbations in their natural environment. PMID:18537892

Franklin, Keara A

2008-01-01

166

Easy Extraction of Roundworms from Earthworm Hosts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the inexpensive and safe method of using roundworms in the classroom or laboratories. Because parasitic infections are so common, students should learn about worms. Provides statistics on just how many people have a worm infection in the world. Explains how to study living nematodes, and obtain and use earthworms. (Contains 13…

Eyster, Linda S.; Fried, Bernard

2000-01-01

167

Reproductive potential of the earthworm Eisenia foetida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regression equations are provided for the earthworm Eisenia foetida with respect to age at which 50% of the population became clitellate at 25° C in relation to population density in activated sludge and in horse manure. Regression equations are provided for progeny per cocoon versus weight of cocoon, and weight of cocoon in relation to weight of parent; from these

Roy Hartenstein; Edward F. Neuhauser; David L. Kaplan

1979-01-01

168

Estimating Earthworm Populations by Using Formalin  

Microsoft Academic Search

WHILE investigating the removal of leaves by earthworms from the soil surface of some apple orchards at Wisbech (Cambs.) an estimate of the population of Lumbricus terrestris was needed because it seemed to be the only species present that pulled apple leaves into its burrows. L. terrestris burrows deeply in the light, well-drained soil of the Wisbech area, and a

F. Raw

1959-01-01

169

The earthworm and the method of trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studied the behavior of the earthworm, which resembled that of the sow bug, Porcellio, and the leech, Glossosiphonia. The comparisons were made in terms of the freedom with which it bent its body when reacting to light. The study was carried out in 2 series, in which the worms were exposed to light of varying intensities, and the \\

L. H. Bittner; G. R. Johnson; H. B. Torrey

1915-01-01

170

Transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in soil in the presence of the earthworm Eisenia andrei  

SciTech Connect

The ability of the earthworm Eisenia andrei to metabolize 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) was studied in experiments with TNT-spiked soils, dermal contact tests, and with an in vitro assay. Lethality of TNT in a forest sandy soil was first determined. Then TNT at lethal and sublethal concentrations was applied to the same soil and was monitored along with its metabolites in extracts of soil and earthworm tissue for up to 14 d post application. High performance liquid chromatography-ultra violet analyses indicated that TNT was transformed in the presence of E. andrei by a reductive pathway to 2-amino-3,6-dinitrotoluene (2-ADNT), 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT), 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2.4-DANT), and traces of 2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluene (2,6-DANT) in earthworm tissues. This transformation could be explained by either a metabolic mechanism within the earthworm or by the enhancement of an earthworm-associated microbial activity or both. The TNT concentrations decreased from the spiked soils. However, the monoamino-dinitrotoluene (2-ADNT and 4-ADNT) concentrations increased with exposure duration and were dependent on the initial TNT soil concentrations. This was also observed to a lesser extent in the TNT-spiked soils with no earthworms present. The biotransformation of TNT into 2-ADNT, 4-ADNT, and 2,4-DANT and the presence of these metabolites in E. andrei after dermal contact on TNT-spiked filter paper showed that dermal uptake can be a significant exposure route for TNT. In vitro experiments showed that earthworm homogenate could metabolize TNT and form 2-ADNT and 4-ADNT at room temperature and at 37 C. This effect was inhibited by heat inactivation prior to incubation or by incubation at 4 C, suggesting that the biotransformation of TNT in the presence of E. andrei may be enzymatic in nature.

Renoux, A.Y.; Sarrazin, M.; Hawari, J.; Sunahara, G.I.

2000-06-01

171

The wave towards a new steady state: effects of earthworm invasion on soil microbial functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms are ecosystem engineers that cause a long cascade of ecological effects when they invade previously earthworm-free\\u000a forests. However, the consequences of earthworm invasion for soil microbial functions are poorly understood. Here, we used\\u000a two well-studied invasion fronts of European earthworms in northern North American hardwood forests previously devoid of earthworms\\u000a in order to investigate three stages of earthworm invasion:

Nico Eisenhauer; Ji?í Schlaghamerský; Peter B. Reich; Lee E. Frelich

172

The bioaccumulation of Molybdenum in the earthworm Eisenia andrei: influence of soil properties and ageing.  

PubMed

Mo bioaccumulation in the earthworm Eisenia andrei was determined after 28 d exposure in ten different European field soils (pH 4.4-7.8) and an artificial soil, freshly spiked with Na?MoO? at concentrations between 3.2 and 3200 mg Mo kg?¹ dry soil. Three field soils were also tested after ageing for 11 months. Earthworm Mo concentrations generally levelled off at high exposure levels but in most soils showed a (nearly) linear increase with increasing soil concentrations in the lower, non-toxic range (below EC10 or NOEC for reproduction effects). Bioaccumulation (BAF) and Bioconcentration factors (BCF) were calculated as the ratio of earthworm concentration to soil and estimated porewater concentrations, respectively. BAFs (0.35-3.44) and BCFs (1.31-276) did not seem much affected by soil concentration, suggesting that earthworms are not capable of regulating their internal Mo concentrations. BAF was best predicted by ammonium oxalate-extractable iron (Fe(ox)) and phosphor (P(ox)) contents of the soils. PMID:21146852

Van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Ortiz, Maria Diez; Borgman, Eef; Verweij, Rudo A

2011-03-01

173

The influence of earthworms on the mobility of microelements in soil and their availability for plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of earthworms ( Aporrectodea caliginosa, Lumbricus rubellus, L. terrestris, and Eisenia fetida) on the mobility of microelements and their availability for plants was studied. The contents of water-soluble Fe and Mn compounds extracted from the coprolites were 5-10 times higher than that in the soil (enriched in calcium carbonate and dried) consumed by the earthworms. This digestion-induced effect became higher with the age of the coprolites (up to 9 days) and took place under their alkalization. In the excreta (surface + enteric) of earthworms, the Fe concentration exceeded those of Mn and Zn by many times. Iron and manganese were mostly concentrated (>80% and >60%, respectively) in the organic part of the excrements. In the tests with hydroponics, the excreta were found to be a source of iron compounds available for plants that were similar to Fe2(SO4)3 or Fe-citrate by their physiological effect in the case when the Fe concentration in the excretions was above 0.7 ?M. However, the single application of excreta of different earthworm species into the CaCO3 enriched soil did not significantly affect the plant (cucumber) nutrition. The analysis of the transport of microelements with xylem sap showed that this fact appeared to be due to the absence of an Fe deficit in the cucumber plants because of their high capability for the absorption of weakly soluble iron compounds.

Bityutskii, N. P.; Kaidun, P. I.

2008-12-01

174

Earthworm symbiont Verminephrobacter eiseniae mediates natural transformation within host egg capsules using type IV pili.  

PubMed

The dense microbial communities commonly associated with plants and animals should offer many opportunities for horizontal gene transfer through described mechanisms of DNA exchange including natural transformation (NT). However, studies of the significance of NT have focused primarily on pathogens. The study presented here demonstrates highly efficient DNA exchange by NT in a common symbiont of earthworms. The obligate bacterial symbiont Verminephrobacter eiseniae is a member of a microbial consortium of the earthworm Eisenia fetida that is transmitted into the egg capsules to colonize the embryonic worms. In the study presented here, by testing for transformants under different conditions in culture, we demonstrate that V. eiseniae can incorporate free DNA from the environment, that competency is regulated by environmental factors, and that it is sequence specific. Mutations in the type IV pili of V. eiseniae resulted in loss of DNA uptake, implicating the type IV pilus (TFP) apparatus in DNA uptake. Furthermore, injection of DNA carrying antibiotic-resistance genes into egg capsules resulted in transformants within the capsule, demonstrating the relevance of DNA uptake within the earthworm system. The ability to take up species-specific DNA from the environment may explain the maintenance of the relatively large, intact genome of this long-associated obligate symbiont, and provides a mechanism for acquisition of foreign genes within the earthworm system. PMID:25400622

Davidson, Seana K; Dulla, Glenn F; Go, Ruth A; Stahl, David A; Pinel, Nicolás

2014-01-01

175

Can commonly measurable traits explain differences in metal accumulation and toxicity in earthworm species?  

PubMed

There is no clear consensus in the literature on the metal accumulation pattern and sensitivity of different earthworm species. In the present study, accumulation and toxicity of Cu, Cd, Ni, and Zn in the earthworms Lumbricus rubellus (epigeic), Aporrectodea longa (anecic), and Eisenia fetida (ultra-epigeic) were determined after 28 days exposure in two soils. Metal accumulation and sensitivity were interpreted using the specific traits of different earthworm species. Results showed that for all four metals tested L. rubellus was the most sensitive species, followed by A. longa and E. fetida. At the same exposure concentration, internal concentrations followed the order: L. rubellus > E. fetida > A. longa for Cu and Ni, L. rubellus ? E. fetida ? A. longa for Cd, and L. rubellus > A. longa > E. fetida for Zn. Langmuir isotherms were used to model metal accumulation at both nontoxic and toxic exposure concentrations. The Cu, Cd, and Zn concentrations in E. fetida generally leveled off at high exposure concentrations but not for the other two species. A. longa showed a high capability of regulating internal Ni concentrations. The traits-based approaches suggested that most likely a group of earthworm traits together determined (differences in) metal accumulation and sensitivity. More research is needed in this respect to build up solid relationships between species-specific responses and traits, enabling cross-species extrapolation of accumulation and toxicity data. PMID:24193403

Qiu, Hao; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Vijver, Martina G

2014-01-01

176

Earthworms and legumes control litter decomposition in a plant diversity gradient.  

PubMed

The role of species and functional group diversity of primary producers for decomposers and decomposition processes is little understood. We made use of the "Jena Biodiversity Experiment" and tested the hypothesis that increasing plant species (1, 4, and 16 species) and functional group diversity (1, 2, 3, and 4 groups) beneficially affects decomposer density and activity and therefore the decomposition of plant litter material. Furthermore, by manipulating the densities of decomposers (earthworms and springtails) within the plant diversity gradient we investigated how the interactions between plant diversity and decomposer densities affect the decomposition of litter belonging to different plant functional groups (grasses, herbs, and legumes). Positive effects of increasing plant species or functional group diversity on earthworms (biomass and density) and microbial biomass were mainly due to the increased incidence of legumes with increasing diversity. Neither plant species diversity nor functional group diversity affected litter decomposition, However, litter decomposition varied with decomposer and plant functional group identity (of both living plants and plant litter). While springtail removal generally had little effect on decomposition, increased earthworm density accelerated the decomposition of nitrogen-rich legume litter, and this was more pronounced at higher plant diversity. The results suggest that earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) and legumes function as keystone organisms for grassland decomposition processes and presumably contribute to the recorded increase in primary productivity with increasing plant diversity. PMID:18705374

Milcu, Alexandru; Partsch, Stephan; Scherber, Christoph; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Scheu, Stefan

2008-07-01

177

The bioavailability of chemicals in soil for earthworms  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The bioavailability of chemicals to earthworms can be modified dramatically by soil physical/chemical characteristics, yet expressing exposure as total chemical concentrations does not address this problem. In order to understand the effects of modifying factors on bioavailability, one must measure and express chemical bioavailability to earthworms in a consistent, logical manner. This can be accomplished by direct biological measures of bioavailability (e.g., bioaccumulation, critical body residues), indirect biological measures of bioavailability (e.g., biomarkers, reproduction), or indirect chemical measures of bioavailability (e.g., chemical or solid-phase extracts of soil). If indirect chemical measures of bioavailability are to be used, they must be correlated with some biological response. Bioavailability can be incorporated into ecological risk assessment during risk analysis, primarily in the estimation of exposure. However, in order to be used in the site-specific ecological risk assessment of chemicals, effects concentrations must be developed from laboratory toxicity tests based on exposure estimates utilizing techniques that measure the bioavailable fraction of chemicals in soil, not total chemical concentrations. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Lanno, R.; Wells, J.; Conder, J.; Bradham, K.; Basta, N.

2004-01-01

178

Examining the relationship between garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) and European earthworms.  

E-print Network

??Our goal was to characterize the interactive feedback between garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) and European earthworm species in southwest Ohio. Earthworm community composition, abundance and… (more)

Zelles, Alexandra M.

2012-01-01

179

Activity of Earthworm in Latosol Under Simulated Acid Rain Stress.  

PubMed

Acid rain is still an issue of environmental concerns. This study investigated the impacts of simulated acid rain (SAR) upon earthworm activity from the Latosol (acidic red soil). Laboratory experiment was performed by leaching the soil columns grown with earthworms (Eisenia fetida) at the SAR pH levels ranged from 2.0 to 6.5 over a 34-day period. Results showed that earthworms tended to escape from the soil and eventually died for the SAR at pH = 2.0 as a result of acid toxicity. The catalase activity in the earthworms decreased with the SAR pH levels, whereas the superoxide dismutases activity in the earthworms showed a fluctuate pattern: decreasing from pH 6.5 to 5.0 and increasing from pH 5.0 to 4.0. Results implied that the growth of earthworms was retarded at the SAR pH ? 3.0. PMID:25351717

Zhang, Jia-En; Yu, Jiayu; Ouyang, Ying

2014-10-29

180

Conditioned suppression/avoidance as a procedure for testing hearing in birds: the domestic pigeon (Columba livia).  

PubMed

Although the domestic pigeon is commonly used in learning experiments, it is a notoriously difficult subject in auditory psychophysical experiments, even those in which it need only respond when it detects a sound. This is because pigeons tend to respond in the absence of sound-that is, they have a high false-positive rate-which makes it difficult to determine a pigeon's audiogram. However, false positives are easily controlled in the method of conditioned suppression/avoidance, in which a pigeon is trained to peck a key to obtain food and to stop pecking whenever it detects a sound that signals impending electric shock. Here, we describe how to determine psychophysical thresholds in pigeons using a method of conditioned suppression in which avoidable shock is delivered through a bead chain wrapped around the base of a pigeon's wings. The resulting audiogram spans the range from 2 to 8000 Hz; it falls approximately in the middle of the distribution of previous pigeon audiograms and supports the finding of Kreithen and Quine (Journal of Comparative Physiology 129:1-4, 1979) that pigeons hear infrasound. PMID:23055174

Heffner, Henry E; Koay, Gimseong; Hill, Evan M; Heffner, Rickye S

2013-06-01

181

Long-term efficiency of soil stabilization with apatite and Slovakite: the impact of two earthworm species (Lumbricus terrestris and Dendrobaena veneta) on lead bioaccessibility and soil functioning.  

PubMed

Remediation soil is exposed to various environmental factors over time that can affect the final success of the operation. In the present study, we assessed Pb bioaccessibility and microbial activity in industrially polluted soil (Arnoldstein, Austria) stabilized with 5% (w/w) of Slovakite and 5% (w/w) of apatite soil after exposure to two earthworm species, Lumbricus terrestris and Dendrobaena veneta, used as model environmental biotic soil factors. Stabilization resulted in reduced Pb bioaccessibility, as assessed with one-step extraction tests and six-step sequential extraction, and improved soil functioning, mirrored in reduced ?-glucosidase activity in soil. Both earthworm species increased Pb bioaccessibility, thus decreasing the initial stabilization efficacy and indicating the importance of considering the long-term fate of remediated soil. The earthworm species had different effects on soil enzyme activity, which can be attributed to species-specific microbial populations in earthworm gut acting on the ingested soil. PMID:23219407

Tica, D; Udovic, M; Lestan, D

2013-03-01

182

Relation of pH and other soil variables to concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Se in earthworms  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Various soil treatments (clay, composted peat, superphosphate, sulfur, calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, zinc chloride, selenous acid) were added to experimental field plots to test the effect of different soil variables on the concentrations of 5 elements in earthworms (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Se). Concentrations of the 5 elements were related to 9 soil variables (soil Pb, soil Cu, soil Zn, pH, organic matter, P, K, Mg, and Ca) with linear multiple regression. Lead concentrations in earthworms were positively correlated with soil Pb and soil organic matter, and negatively correlated with soil pH and soil Mg, with an R2 of 64%. Se concentrations were higher in earthworms from plots amended with Se, and Zn concentrations were higher in earthworms from plots amended with Zn. However, none of the other soil variables had important effects on the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd and Se in earthworms. Although some significant statistical relations were demonstrated, the values of r2 of all relations (> 20%) were so low that they had little predictive value.

Beyer, W.N.; Hensler, G.L.; Moore, J.

1987-01-01

183

Interaction of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles with earthworm coelomic fluid and related cytotoxicity in Eisenia andrei.  

PubMed

Understanding the interaction of nanoparticles with biological fluid is important for predicting the behavior and toxicity of nanoparticles in living systems. The earthworm Eisenia andrei was exposed to citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (cAgNPs), and the interaction of cAgNPs with earthworm coelomic fluid (ECF), the cytotoxicity of cAgNPs in earthworm coelomocytes was assessed. The neutral red retention assay showed a reduction in lysosomal stability after exposure. The toxicity of silver ions dissolved from cAgNPs in the soil medium was not significant. The aggregation and dissolution of cAgNPs increased in ECF, which contains various electrolytes that alter the properties of nanoparticles, and their subsequent toxicity. Microscopic and dissolution studies demonstrated that the aggregation of cAgNPs rapidly increased, and readily dissolved in ECF. The bioavailability of cAgNPs to earthworms induced lysosomal cytotoxicity. This is the first report to test the interaction and lysosomal cytotoxicity of nanoparticles in earthworm biofluids. PMID:24532537

Kwak, Jin Il; Lee, Woo-Mi; Kim, Shin Woong; An, Youn-Joo

2014-11-01

184

Lead accumulations and toxic effects in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in the presence of decabromodiphenyl ether.  

PubMed

Lead (Pb) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) are the main contaminants at e-waste recycling sites, and their potential toxicological effects on terrestrial organisms have received extensive attention. However, the impact on earthworms of exposure to the two chemicals remains almost unknown. Therefore, indoor incubation tests were performed on control and contaminated soil samples to determine the Pb accumulations and toxic effects by earthworms in the presence of BDE209 for the first time. The results have demonstrated that BDE209 presence can affect Pb bioaccumulation efficiency compared with exposure to Pb alone. The Pb contents in earthworms had a highly positive correlation with the Pb concentrations in soils. For different Pb doses, almost contrary response trends were found for Pb uptake examined separately on day 7 or 28, and dose-effect relationships were clearly observed in the presence of BDE209. After 7 days of exposure, the earthworm bodies receiving 1-mg kg(-1) BDE209 dose showed significantly lower Pb contents (average?=?175.85 mg kg(-1)) and bioaccumulation factor (average?=?0.574) than those receiving non-BDE209 treatments (217.39 mg kg(-1) and 1.209, respectively). As the incubation time extended, the influence of BDE209 presence on Pb uptake gradually declined. Additionally, either single or combined exposure to both chemicals can affect the protein synthesis in earthworms (p?

Zhang, Wei; Chen, Lin; Liu, Kou; Chen, Lei; Lin, Kuangfei; Guo, Jie; Liu, Lili; Cui, Changzheng; Yan, Zenguang

2014-03-01

185

Dissecting the multi-scale spatial relationship of earthworm assemblages with soil environmental variability.  

PubMed

BackgroundStudying the drivers and determinants of species, population and community spatial patterns is central to ecology. The observed structure of community assemblages is the result of deterministic abiotic (environmental constraints) and biotic factors (positive and negative species interactions), as well as stochastic colonization events (historical contingency). We analyzed the role of multi-scale spatial component of soil environmental variability in structuring earthworm assemblages in a gallery forest from the Colombian ¿Llanos.¿ We aimed to disentangle the spatial scales at which species assemblages are structured and determine whether these scales matched those expressed by soil environmental variables. We also tested the hypothesis of the ¿single tree effect¿ by exploring the spatial relationships between root-related variables and soil nutrient and physical variables in structuring earthworm assemblages. Multivariate ordination techniques and spatially explicit tools were used, namely cross-correlograms, Principal Coordinates of Neighbor Matrices (PCNM) and variation partitioning analyses.ResultsThe relationship between the spatial organization of earthworm assemblages and soil environmental parameters revealed explicitly multi-scale responses. The soil environmental variables that explained nested population structures across the multi-spatial scale gradient differed for earthworms and assemblages at the very-fine- (<10 m) to medium-scale (10¿20 m). The root traits were correlated with areas of high soil nutrient contents at a depth of 0¿5 cm. Information on the scales of PCNM variables was obtained using variogram modeling. Based on the size of the plot, the PCNM variables were arbitrarily allocated to medium (>30 m), fine (10¿20 m) and very fine scales (<10 m). Variation partitioning analysis revealed that the soil environmental variability explained from less than 1% to as much as 48% of the observed earthworm spatial variation.ConclusionsA large proportion of the spatial variation did not depend on the soil environmental variability for certain species. This finding could indicate the influence of contagious biotic interactions, stochastic factors, or unmeasured relevant soil environmental variables. PMID:25476419

Jiménez, Juan J; Decaëns, Thibaud; Lavelle, Patrick; Rossi, Jean-Pierre

2014-12-01

186

Greenhouse-gas emissions from soils increased by earthworms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthworms play an essential part in determining the greenhouse-gas balance of soils worldwide, and their influence is expected to grow over the next decades. They are thought to stimulate carbon sequestration in soil aggregates, but also to increase emissions of the main greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. Hence, it remains highly controversial whether earthworms predominantly affect soils to act as a net source or sink of greenhouse gases. Here, we provide a quantitative review of the overall effect of earthworms on the soil greenhouse-gas balance. Our results suggest that although earthworms are largely beneficial to soil fertility, they increase net soil greenhouse-gas emissions.

Lubbers, Ingrid M.; van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Fonte, Steven J.; Six, Johan; Brussaard, Lijbert; van Groenigen, Jan Willem

2013-03-01

187

Minimally perturbing a gene regulatory network to avoid a disease phenotype: the glioma network as a test case  

PubMed Central

Background Mathematical modeling of biological networks is an essential part of Systems Biology. Developing and using such models in order to understand gene regulatory networks is a major challenge. Results We present an algorithm that determines the smallest perturbations required for manipulating the dynamics of a network formulated as a Petri net, in order to cause or avoid a specified phenotype. By modifying McMillan's unfolding algorithm, we handle partial knowledge and reduce computation cost. The methodology is demonstrated on a glioma network. Out of the single gene perturbations, activation of glutathione S-transferase P (GSTP1) gene was by far the most effective in blocking the cancer phenotype. Among pairs of perturbations, NFkB and TGF-? had the largest joint effect, in accordance with their role in the EMT process. Conclusion Our method allows perturbation analysis of regulatory networks and can overcome incomplete information. It can help in identifying drug targets and in prioritizing perturbation experiments. PMID:20184733

2010-01-01

188

Reconfirmation of antimicrobial activity in the coelomic fluid of the earthworm Eisenia fetida andrei by colorimetric assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel tetrazolium salt, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulphophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS)\\u000a was used in the assessment of antimicrobial activity in earthworm in the presence of phenazine methosulphate (PMS) as an electron\\u000a coupling reagent. This activity was purified from the coelomic fluid of the earthworm (ECF),Eisenia fetida andrei (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae, annelids) using a series of column chromatography techniques and was tested against three Gram-negative\\u000a strains ofEscherichia

Weidong Pan; Xianghui Liu; Feng Ge; Tao Zheng

2003-01-01

189

Checklist of earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) from Germany.  

PubMed

A checklist of the German earthworm fauna (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) is presented, including published data, data from reports, diploma- and PhD- theses as well as unpublished data from museum collections, research institutions and private persons. Overall, 16,000 datasets were analyzed to produce the first German checklist of Lumbricidae. The checklist comprises 46 earthworm species from 15 genera and provides ecological information, zoogeographical distribution type and information on the species distribution in Germany. Only one species, Lumbricus badensis Michaelsen, 1907, is endemic to Germany, whereas 41% are peregrine. As there are 14 species occurring exclusively in the southern or eastern part of Germany, the species numbers in German regions increase from north to south. PMID:25283656

Lehmitz, Ricarda; Römbke, Jörg; Jänsch, Stephan; Krück, Stefanie; Beylich, Anneke; Graefe, Ulfert

2014-01-01

190

Removal of mercury from soil with earthworms  

SciTech Connect

Earthworms can live in soils containing high quantities of mercury, lead, and zinc. The worms (Lumbricus terrestris) concentrate these heavy metals in their tissues. The use of these worms to reduce the quantities of mercury and other heavy metals in soils may be practical. In July, 1993, a preliminary study was made using earthworms and soils with differing amounts of mercury, The quantities were 0.0 grams, 0.5 grams, and 1.0 grams of mercury as mercuric chloride. Earthworms were placed into these soils for two or more weeks, then harvested. The worms were rinsed with deionized water, then dissolved in nitric acid. Each sample was prepared for analysis with the addition of HNO{sub 3}, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, potassium permanganate, and hydrozylamine hydrochloride. A Jerome Instrument gold foil analyzer was used to determine levels of mercury after volatilizing the sample with stannous chloride. Worms exposed to contaminated soils remove 50 to 1,400 times as much mercury as do worms in control soils. In a hypothetical case, a site contaminated with one pound of mercury, 1,000 to 45,000 worms would be required to reduce mercury levels to background levels in the soil (about 250 ppb). After harvesting worms in contaminated soil they could be dried (90% of their weight is water), and the mercury regained by chemical processes. Soil conducive to earthworm survival is required. This includes a well aerated loamy soil, proper pH (7.0), and periodic watering and feeding. There are several methods of harvesting worms, including flooding and electricity. Large numbers of worms can be obtained from commercial growers.

Dorfman, D. [Monmouth Coll., West Long Branch, NJ (United States)

1994-12-31

191

Effects of historic metal(loid) pollution on earthworm communities.  

PubMed

The effects of metal(loid)s (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, As and Sb) from atmospheric fallout on earthworm communities were investigated in a fallow meadow located close to a 60-year-old lead recycling factory. We examined abundance and species diversity as well as the ratio of adult-to-juvenile earthworms, along five 140m parallel transects. The influence of soil pollution on the earthworm community at the plot scale was put in context by measuring some physico-chemical soil characteristics (OM content, N content, pH), as well as total and bioavailable metal(loid) concentrations. Earthworms were absent in the highly polluted area (concentration from 30,000 to 5000mgPb·kg(-1) of dried soil), just near the factory (0-30m area). A clear and almost linear relationship was observed between the proportion of juvenile versus mature earthworms and the pollution gradient, with a greater proportion of adults in the most polluted zones (only adult earthworms were observed from 30 to 50m). Apporectodea longa was the main species present just near the smelter (80% of the earthworms were A. longa from 30 to 50m). The earthworm density was found to increase progressively from five individuals·m(-2) at 30m to 135individuals·m(-2) at 140m from the factory. On average, metal(loid) accumulation in earthworm tissues decreased linearly with distance from the factory. The concentration of exchangeable metal(loid)s in earthworm surface casts was higher than that of the overall soil. Finally, our field study clearly demonstrated that metal(loid) pollution has a direct impact on earthworm communities (abundance, diversity and proportion of juveniles) especially when Pb concentrations in soil were higher than 2050mg·kg(-1). PMID:25616191

Lévêque, Thibaut; Capowiez, Yvan; Schreck, Eva; Mombo, Stéphane; Mazzia, Christophe; Foucault, Yann; Dumat, Camille

2015-04-01

192

Differences in burrowing behaviour and spatial interaction between the two earthworm species Aporrectodea nocturna and Allolobophora chlorotica  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study intraspecific and interspecific interactions between different ecological types of earthworm, the burrowing behaviour\\u000a of two earthworm species (the anecic earthworm Aporrectodea nocturna and the endogeic earthworm Allolobophora chlorotica) was observed in a microcosm. Earthworms were either alone in the microcosm, together with a conspecific earthworm, or with\\u000a an earthworm of the other species. Observations under red light, including

Y. Capowiez

2000-01-01

193

Existential Threat or Dissociative Response? Examining Defensive Avoidance of Point-of-Care Testing Devices Through a Terror Management Theory Framework.  

PubMed

Using a terror management theory framework, this study investigated if providing mortality reminders or self-esteem threats would lead participants to exhibit avoidant responses toward a point-of-care testing device for cardiovascular disease risk and if the nature of the device served to diminish the existential threat of cardiovascular disease. One hundred and twelve participants aged 40-55 years completed an experimental questionnaire. Findings indicated that participants were not existentially threatened by established terror management methodologies, potentially because of cross-cultural variability toward such methodologies. Highly positive appraisals of the device also suggest that similar technologies may beneficially affect the uptake of screening behaviors. PMID:24972015

Dunne, Simon; Gallagher, Pamela; Matthews, Anne

2015-01-01

194

Biochemical diversity of betaines in earthworms.  

PubMed

The ability to accumulate osmoprotectant compounds, such as betaines, is an important evolutionary feature in many organisms. This is particularly the case for organisms that live in variable environments, which may have fluctuations in moisture and salinity levels. There is, surprisingly, very little known about betaines in soil invertebrates in general, and there is almost no information about earthworms - a group that are important 'ecosystem engineers' and key indicators of soil health. Here, we describe a fast and reliable (1)H-(13)C heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) 2D NMR approach for the metabolic profiling of a series of betaines and related metabolites in tissue extracts, and list (1)H and (13)C chemical shifts for the trimethylammonium signal for 23 such compounds. The analysis of ten different species from three different families (Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae and Glossoscolecidae) showed an unexpected diversity of betaines present in earthworms. In total ten betaines were identified, including hydroxyproline-betaine, proline-betaine, taurine-betaine, GABA-betaine and histidine-betaine, and a further eleven as-yet unassigned putative betaine metabolites detected. The findings clearly indicate a hitherto-unappreciated important role for betaine metabolism in earthworms. PMID:23261439

Liebeke, Manuel; Bundy, Jacob G

2013-01-25

195

Determination of arsenic compounds in earthworms  

SciTech Connect

Earthworms and soil collected from six sites in Styria, Austria, were investigated for total arsenic concentrations by ICP-MS and for arsenic compounds by HPLC-ICP-MS. Total arsenic concentrations ranged from 3.2 to 17.9 mg/kg dry weight in the worms and from 5.0 to 79.7 mg/kg dry weight in the soil samples. There was no strict correlation between the total arsenic concentrations in the worms and soil. Arsenic compounds were extracted from soil and a freeze-dried earthworm sample with a methanol/water mixture (9:1, v/v). The extracts were evaporated to dryness, redissolved in water, and chromatographed on an anion- and a cation-exchange column. Arsenic compounds were identified by comparison of the retention times with known standards. Only traces of arsenic acid could be extracted from the soil with the methanol/water (9:1, v/v) mixture. The major arsenic compounds detected in the extracts of the earthworms were arsenous acid and arsenic acid. Arsenobetaine was present as a minor constituent, and traces of dimethylarsinic acid were also detected. Two dimethylarsinoyltribosides were also identified in the extracts by co-chromatography with standard compounds. This is the first report of the presence of dimethylarsinoylribosides in a terrestrial organism. Two other minor arsenic species were present in the extract, but their retention times did not match with the retention times of the available standards.

Geiszinger, A.; Goessler, W.; Kuehnelt, D.; Kosmus, W. [Karl-Franzens-Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. for Analytical Chemistry] [Karl-Franzens-Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. for Analytical Chemistry; Francesconi, K. [Odense Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Biology] [Odense Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Biology

1998-08-01

196

A method for assessing sublethal effects of contaminants in soils to the earthworm, Eisenia foetida  

SciTech Connect

The authors developed and tested a procedure that allows quantification of the effects of soil contaminants on earthworm (Eisenia foetida) growth and reproduction. The procedure monitors isolated pairs of earthworms and generates a higher ratio of data per organisms than other commonly used procedures. It also incorporates an accurate technique for measuring adult growth, has high sensitivity compared to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 14-d acute toxicity test, and is cost effective. The authors applied the method to a variety of soil-testing problems. A food-and-substrate trial using artificial soil demonstrated the sensitivity of the method and the need for food supplementation to stimulate earthworm reproduction. Application of the procedure to assess efficacy of a soil bioremediation technology revealed the advantage of measuring both growth and reproduction and highlighted the usefulness of a single integrated measure of these two responses. The method also was used as a fast-screening analysis for field soils in a large-scale ecological risk assessment. Finally, a reference toxicant, used in dilution series, demonstrated that responses of E. foetida using the authors` method were similar to their responses in the OECD artificial-soil test method. The results of this study indicate that this procedure can be used both for regulatory and compliance needs within the framework of ecological risk assessment.

Gibbs, M.H. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology; Wicker, L.F.; Stewart, A.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

1996-03-01

197

Assessing the impact of organic and inorganic amendments on the toxicity and bioavailability of a metal-contaminated soil to the earthworm Eisenia andrei.  

PubMed

Metal-contaminated soil, from the El Arteal mining district (SE Spain), was remediated with organic (6% compost) and inorganic amendments (8% marble sludge) to reduce the mobility of metals and to modify its potential environmental impact. Different measures of metal bioavailability (chemical analysis; survival, growth, reproduction and bioaccumulation in the earthworm Eisenia andrei), were tested in order to evaluate the efficacy of organic and inorganic amendments as immobilizing agents in reducing metal (bio)availability in the contaminated soil. The inorganic amendment reduced water and CaCl2-extractable concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn, while the organic amendment increased these concentrations compared to the untreated soil. The inorganic treatment did not significantly reduce toxicity for the earthworm E. andrei after 28 days exposure. The organic amendment however, made the metal-contaminated soil more toxic to the earthworms, with all earthworms dying in undiluted soil and completely inhibiting reproduction at concentrations higher than 25%. This may be due to increased available metal concentrations and higher electrical conductivity in the compost-amended soil. No effects of organic and inorganic treatments on metal bioaccumulation in the earthworms were found and metal concentrations in the earthworms increased with increasing total soil concentrations. PMID:23677751

González, Verónica; Díez-Ortiz, María; Simón, Mariano; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

2013-11-01

198

The hormone-like effect of earthworm casts on plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fertilizing effect of earthworm casts depends on microbial metabolites, mainly growth regulators. The hormone-like effect of earthworm casts is discussed with reference to the literature and ad hoc experiments. When used in plant propagation, earthworm casts promote root initiation and root biomass and increase root percentage. When applied as a casing layer, earthworm casts stimulate carpophore formation in Agaricus

U. Tomati; A. Grappelli; E. Galli

1988-01-01

199

Earthworm excreta attract soil springtails: laboratory experiments on Heteromurus Nitidus (Collembola: Entomobryidae)  

E-print Network

1 Earthworm excreta attract soil springtails: laboratory experiments on Heteromurus Nitidus are often found more abundantly in soils with earthworms than in soils without. Earthworms probably create a favourable environment for microarthropods but few studies have aimed to explain this earthworm effect

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

200

Earthworm community structure and diversity in experimental agricultural watersheds in Northeastern Ohio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms are known to have an important impact on soil fertility but much remains to be known about the factors that influence earthworm abundance and species diversity in agricultural soils and the impact of earthworm diversity on soil processes in those soils. We have studied factors that influence earthworm community structure and biodiversity in experimental agricultural watersheds at the North

Patrick J. Bohlen; William M. Edwards; Clive A. Edwards

1995-01-01

201

Field decomposition of leaf litters: earthworm–microorganism interactions —the ploughing-in effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a new decomposition model including the consequences of earthworm mechanical activity, especially the ploughing-in effect. In an experiment we tested this ploughing-in effect on the disappearance of leaf litter from four tree species (sessile oak, Quercus petraea L., holm oak, Quercus ilex L., sweet chestnut, Castanea sativa Mill and beech, Fagus sylvatica L.) during two 2y exposure at

J. Cortez; M. B. Bouché

1998-01-01

202

Ontogenetic change in relative performance of allozyme genotypes influences detection of heterosis in the earthworm Eisenia andrei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ontogeny on relationships between allozyme genotypes and fresh weight was measured weekly throughout the life history of the earthworm Eisenia andrei to test the hypothesis that there is an ontogenetic component to variation in such relationships. Two of six allozyme loci showed a significant increase in apparent heterosis with ontogeny, while one locus showed a significant decrease

T C McElroy; W J Diehl

2005-01-01

203

Potential effects of earthworms on leaf-chewer performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detritivores affect plant performance and therefore have the potential indirectly to affect above-ground herbivore populations. 2. In a microcosm study we asked whether changes in the performance of two plant species, Cardamine hirsuta L. and Veronica persica Poiret., arising from the activity of various earthworm communities influenced the consumption rate and development of a leaf-chewer, Mamestra brassicae L. 3. Earthworms

J. E. Newington; H. Setälä; T. M. Bezemer; T. H. Jones

2004-01-01

204

Noninducibility of cytochrome P-450 in the earthworm Dendrobaena veneta.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P-450 has been measured in the earthworm Dendrobaena veneta (Rosa) in a direct spectrophotometric procedure. The P-450 was found not in the dense microsomal fraction, but in the less dense overlying fraction often referred to as buffy coat. Earthworm P-450 was not induced by 3-methylcholanthrene or phenobarbitol. PMID:2877809

Milligan, D L; Babish, J G; Neuhauser, E F

1986-01-01

205

Recovery of Native Earthworms in Abandoned Tropical Pastures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regeneration of secondary forests is recognized as an important means for the recovery of native species biodiversity in human-disturbed tropical lands. Native earthworms are often replaced with exotic spe- cies after deforestation. We studied changes in earthworm diversity and community structure along a chro- nosequence of abandoned tropical pastures in the Cayey Mountains of Puerto Rico. This chronosequence con- sisted

Yaniria Sanchez-De Leon; Xiaoming Zou; Sonia Borges; Honghua Ruan

2003-01-01

206

Earthworms, water infiltration and soil stability: Some new assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water infiltration (by limiting surface water run-off) and stable crumb formation (by increasing top infiltration and decreasing slaking) are two key soil factors greatly affected by earthworms. Because of the great number of environmental variables controlling (1) earthworm populations; (2) their physical rôle behaviour; (3) their feeding behaviour inducing faeces composition; and (4) the microbial activity stabilizing faeces to crumbs,

Marcel B. Bouché; Fathel Al-Addan

1997-01-01

207

Earthworm effects on movement of water and solutes in soil  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study were to determine and model the effects of earthworms on water and solute movement in soil. Microrelief and rainfall effects on water and solute movement were determined in packed buckets inoculated with earthworms (Aporrectodea tuberculata). A solution of Br[sup [minus

Trojan, M.D.

1993-01-01

208

The bioavailability of chemicals in soil for earthworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioavailability of chemicals to earthworms can be modified dramatically by soil physical\\/chemical characteristics, yet expressing exposure as total chemical concentrations does not address this problem. In order to understand the effects of modifying factors on bioavailability, one must measure and express chemical bioavailability to earthworms in a consistent, logical manner. This can be accomplished by direct biological measures of

R. Lanno; J. Wells; J. Conder; K. Bradham; N. Basta

2004-01-01

209

Cadmium, nickel, lead, and zinc in earthworms from roadside soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn in soils and earthworms along two Maryland highways decreased with increasing distance (10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 ft) from the roadway. Metals were quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Metal residues were higher at the location along each highway where traffic volume was greater. Correlations between residues in earthworms and soil decreased with decreasing atomic

Charles D. Gish; Robert E. Christensen

1973-01-01

210

Bioconcentration and biokinetics of heavy metals in the earthworm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the steady state and non-steady state kinetics of five metals, cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc in earthworms. The steady state kinetics are based on field studies in which worms from contaminated and uncontaminated sites were collected and measurements were made of concentrations in the earthworms and soils. For each of the metals, evidence suggests that bioconcentration

Edward F. Neuhauser; Zoran V. Cukic; Michael R. Malecki; Raymond C. Loehr; Patrick R. Durkin

1995-01-01

211

Ecosystem Consequences of Exotic Earthworm Invasion of North Temperate Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invasion of north temperate forests by exotic species of earthworms is an important issue that has been overlooked in the study and management of these forests. We initiated research to address the hypothesis that earthworm invasion will have large consequences for nutrient retention and uptake in these ecosystems. In this special feature of Ecosystems, we present five papers describing

Patrick J. Bohlen; Peter M. Groffman; Timothy J. Fahey; Melany C. Fisk; Esteban Suarez; Derek M. Pelletier; Robert T. Fahey

2004-01-01

212

Trade-offs between nitrous oxide emission and C-sequestration in the soil: the role of earthworms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapidly rising concentrations of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere has spurred the interest in soils as a potential carbon (C) sink. However, there are many reports indicating that C- sequestration is often negated by elevated emissions of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). It is not yet clear what the driving factors behind this trade-off are, nor how it can be avoided. We suggest that earthworm activity may be partly responsible for the trade-off. Earthworm activity is increasingly recognized as being beneficial to C-sequestration through stabilization of SOM. We report experimental results suggesting that they can also lead to strongly elevated N2O-emissions. In a first experiment, dried grass residue (Lolium perenne) was applied at the top of a loamy soil or mixed through the soil, and N2O-emission was followed for three months. Treatments included presence of the epigeic earthworm Lumbricus rubellus and the anecic earthworm Aporrectodea longa. Cumulative N2O-emissions increased significantly for both species. The strongest effect was measured for L. rubellus, where N2O-emissions significantly increased from 55.7 to 789.1 micro g N2O-N kg- 1 soil. This effect was only observed when residue was applied on top of the soil. In a second experiment we determined the effect of epigeic (L. rubellus) and endogeic (Aporrectodea caliginosa) earthworms on N2O-emissions for two different soil types (loam and sand) in the presence of 15N-labeled radish residue (Raphanus sativus subsp. oleiferus). Both species showed significant increases in N2O-emissions, which differed with residue application method and soil type. N2O- emissions were generally larger in loamy soils and the strongest effect was measured for A. caliginosa when residue was mixed into the soil, increasing emissions from 1350.1 to 2223.2 micro g N2O-N kg- 1 soil. L. rubellus only resulted in elevated N2O-emissions when residue was applied on top. These studies make it clear that elevated N2O-emissions due to earthworm activity is a widespread phenomenon, and that the nature of earthworm-induced effect is largely controlled by its feeding habit and interactions with other species. Our results contribute to understanding the important but intricate relations between (functional) biodiversity and the soil greenhouse gas balance.

van Groenigen, J.; Lubbers, I. M.; Giannopoulos, G.

2008-12-01

213

Evaluation of a remediation process for lead contaminated soil by toxicity bioassays: Plants and earthworms  

SciTech Connect

Soil from a site contaminated with heavy metals (predominantly lead) was treated using the TERRAMET{reg_sign} lead extraction process. Earthworm acute toxicity and plant seed germination/root elongation (SG/RE) bioassays were used to evaluate the toxicity of the soil before treatment (BT), after treatment (AT) and after treatment, followed by rinsing with water, intended to simulate exposure to rainfall (RT). The results showed BT and RT were not toxic to earthworms in a 14-day exposure while AT showed significant toxicity. The LC{sub 50} values for Eisenia and Lumbricus were 44.04 and 28.83 (as % AT soil/test soil mixture), respectively. The phytotoxicity data indicated that all 3 test soils significantly inhibited lettuce SG/RE in a dose-related manner, with AT being the most phytotoxic. In oats, RT had no effect on SG/RE and AT was more toxic than BT. For the two local-site grass seeds tested (blue grama and sideoat grama), the AT soil was the most phytotoxic followed by BT and RT. The results suggest that the soil after this remediation process exerts significant toxicity on both plant and earthworm, but after a rain-simulating rinse, the toxicity is the same as, or less than, the toxicity before treatment. Further studies are in progress to confirm the assumption that the high salt concentrations generated by acidification during the leaching process, followed by neutralization are responsible for the increased toxicity of unrinsed soil in both plant and earthworm.

Chana, L.W.; Smith, K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1995-12-31

214

Agricultural practices and the spatial distribution of earthworms in maize fields. Relationships between earthworm abundance, maize plants and soil compaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between the spatial heterogeneity of maize fields, due to row-cropping and farm machinery traffic, and earthworm abundance were studied in three plots receiving different organic matter treatments: no organic fertilizer, pig slurry and farmyard-manure. In all plots, there was no significant effect of farm machinery traffic although there was a tendancy for earthworms to be less abundant under

F. Binet; V. Hallaire; P. Curmi

1997-01-01

215

Effects of European Earthworm Invasion on Soil Characteristics in Northern Hardwood Forests of Minnesota, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

European earthworms are colonizing worm-free hardwood forests across North America. Leading edges of earthworm invasion in\\u000a forests of northern Minnesota provide a rare opportunity to document changes in soil characteristics as earthworm invasions\\u000a are occurring. Across leading edges of earthworm invasion in four northern hardwood stands, increasing total earthworm biomass\\u000a was associated with rapid disappearance of the O horizon. Concurrently,

Cindy M. Hale; Lee E. Frelich; Peter B. Reich; John Pastor

2005-01-01

216

Aircraft wake turbulence avoidance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical studies and flight tests are used to describe the formation and severity of trailing vortices and the spatial extent of their influence. This information is then used to outline procedures for ready application by pilots, tower operators, and others concerned with the flow of traffic. The procedures provide the necessary appreciation of the physical attributes of trailing vortices, the potential hazards involved when encountering them, and how best to avoid the dangerous portions of the wake during flight operations.

Mcgowan, W. A.

1971-01-01

217

DNA damage and biochemical toxicity of antibiotics in soil on the earthworm Eisenia fetida.  

PubMed

DNA damage and changes in enzyme activities were used as biomarkers to evaluate the genotoxicity and oxidative stress of tetracycline and chlortetracycline on the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The results showed that both antibiotics induced significant genotoxicity on earthworms in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.01) with chlortetracycline having a stronger effect than tetracycline in the short term. The tests on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes further indicated biochemical stresses induced by the antibiotics. An N-shaped activity pattern was noted with the enzyme activities being stimulated first, then inhibited, and stimulated again with increasing concentration. The induced activity of SOD or CAT could scavenge oxygen free radicals and protect the organisms against oxidative stress by alleviating the corresponding DNA damage. Compared to enzyme activities, DNA damage as a biomarker was more sensitive and is thus more suitable for detecting low concentration exposure and diagnosing the genotoxicity of contaminants in terrestrial environment. PMID:22647195

Dong, Luxi; Gao, Jie; Xie, Xiujie; Zhou, Qixing

2012-09-01

218

Near infrared spectroscopy for identifying the earthworm's participation to soil macroaggregation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As ecosystem engineers, earthworms are major actors of soil aggregation, a process that drives the delivery of ecosystem services by soils. However, our inability to identify the origins of different types of macroaggregates found in soils, the macroaggregates persistence in the soil matrix, their degradation rates, and their role in the dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM) and nutrients remain poorly known. Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) was tested as a tool to discriminate between origins of macroaggregates, collected in the field at the soil surface and in the 25 first cm of the soil. In parallel, NIR spectral signatures of earthworm casts were measured, during the ageing processes of the aggregates. During the first experiment, earthworm casts of unknown origins, collected in the field, were identified by comparing their NIR spectral signatures to the signatures of macroaggregates produced by the same ecosystem engineers in laboratory conditions, living in the same soil. Principal component analysis of NIR spectra permitted us to characterize macroaggregates of each species by a specific spectral signature (p<0.001; total variance explained: 38.3%). The organic matters included in the soil macroaggregates present quantitative and qualitative differences according to the earthworm species that produced them. During the second experiment, realized in laboratory conditions, NIR spectral signatures were measured in subterranean and surface casts of different earthworm species, incubated in controlled laboratory conditions for different periods of time. In parallel, dynamics of total amounts of C and N were assessed in ageing macroaggregates. As casts aged, NIR spectral signatures went through three main stages in the maturation process: (1) rapid changes in the NIR signal during the first 48 h, (2) a maturation period from days 3-30 with much slower change in NIR spectral signatures and (3) a further stage of maturation (days 45-90), where cast spectral signature and C and N contents converged towards those of the control soil. The first two axes of the PCA corresponded closely to the C and N content, respectively, of the casts. These two complementary experiments demonstrate that NIRS allows identifying origins of macroaggregates produced by various earthworm species in different environments. Other complementary experiences we realized in laboratory conditions highlight that OM modifications, caused in aging casts, are large enough to be detected by NIRS in macroaggregates and to estimate a cast's age. We propose a new method to analyse soil macroaggregates origins, to quantify the relative contribution of ecosystem engineers to soil aggregation and to evaluate soil macroaggregates dynamics in the soil structure.

Zangerlé, Anne; Hissler, Christophe; Lavelle, Patrick

2014-05-01

219

Toxic effects of PCDD/Fs mixtures on Eisenia andrei earthworms.  

PubMed

The earthworms Eisenia andrei were used to study the toxicity of PCDD/Fs mixtures to earthworms during 28 day of exposure. The experiments were performed on artificial soils contaminated with dioxins at levels of C1 (0.1 ng 2, 3, 7, 8-TCDD/g soil), C2 (1 ng 2, 3, 7, 8-TCDD/g soil) and C3 (1.5 ng 2, 3, 7, 8-TCDD/g soil). Effects of PCDD/Fs on survival, growth rate and immune responses; phagocytosis and NK-like cell activity, were determined. No mortality was observed at the lowest concentration (C1), while mortalities of 10 and 100% were noted at the highest concentrations tested C2 and C3, respectively. A significant reduction in growth rate was obtained at C2 and no effects at C1. Additionally, an inhibition of phagocytic activity and efficiency was observed at higher concentrations. In contrast, an enhancement of NK-like cell activity was shown at lower concentrations. Based on our results, we hypothesize that the PCDD/Fs mixtures tested at levels equal or higher to C2 (1 ng 2378-TCDD/g soil), lead to adverse effects on biotic potential and immune functions in E. andrei earthworms. PMID:22401954

Belmeskine, Hayet; Haddad, Sami; Vandelac, Louise; Sauvé, Sébastien; Fournier, Michel

2012-06-01

220

Pesticide application to agricultural fields: effects on the reproduction and avoidance behaviour of Folsomia candida and Eisenia andrei.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to assess the impact of pesticide application to non-target soil organisms simulating what happens following pesticide application in agricultural fields and thus obtaining higher realism on results obtained. For that purpose, three commercial formulations containing the insecticides chlorpyrifos and endosulfan and the herbicide glyphosate were applied to a Mediterranean agricultural field. The soil was collected after spraying and dilution series were prepared with untreated soil to determine the impact of the pesticides on the avoidance behaviour and reproduction of the earthworm Eisenia andrei and the collembolan Folsomia candida. A significant avoidance was observed at the recommended field dose in case of endosulfan by earthworms (60 %) and in case of chlorpyrifos by collembolans (64 %). In addition, both insecticides affected the number of juveniles produced by the earthworms (EC(50) were below the recommended field dose). Glyphosate did not seem to affect either earthworms or collembolans in the recommended field dose. Folsomia candida was more sensitive to pesticide application than Eisenia andrei, what was corroborated by the EC(50) and LC(50) values. In conclusion, insecticides may affect the structure of the soil community by reducing the survival of collembolans and the reproductive capacity of collembolans and earthworms. PMID:22711551

Santos, M J G; Ferreira, M F L; Cachada, A; Duarte, A C; Sousa, J P

2012-11-01

221

Avoiding character collisions in games  

E-print Network

that solves this problem for situations with at least thirty characters. A program was written to test and demonstrate the method. This method might also contribute to the solution of collision avoidance problems in robotics....

Calderon, Manuel

2012-06-07

222

Earthworms increase plant production: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

To meet the challenge of feeding a growing world population with minimal environmental impact, we need comprehensive and quantitative knowledge of ecological factors affecting crop production. Earthworms are among the most important soil dwelling invertebrates. Their activity affects both biotic and abiotic soil properties, in turn affecting plant growth. Yet, studies on the effect of earthworm presence on crop yields have not been quantitatively synthesized. Here we show, using meta-analysis, that on average earthworm presence in agroecosystems leads to a 25% increase in crop yield and a 23% increase in aboveground biomass. The magnitude of these effects depends on presence of crop residue, earthworm density and type and rate of fertilization. The positive effects of earthworms become larger when more residue is returned to the soil, but disappear when soil nitrogen availability is high. This suggests that earthworms stimulate plant growth predominantly through releasing nitrogen locked away in residue and soil organic matter. Our results therefore imply that earthworms are of crucial importance to decrease the yield gap of farmers who can't -or won't- use nitrogen fertilizer. PMID:25219785

van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Lubbers, Ingrid M; Vos, Hannah M J; Brown, George G; De Deyn, Gerlinde B; van Groenigen, Kees Jan

2014-01-01

223

Burrowing activity of the geophagous earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus1 (Oligochaeta: Glossoscolecidae) in the presence of charcoal2  

E-print Network

1 Burrowing activity of the geophagous earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus1 (Oligochaeta 12 The geophagous earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus is frequently found in13 burnt tropical soils. Introduction7 8 The geophagous earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus, an endogeic species9 feeding on soil

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

224

Vermicomposting of Taro (Colocasia esculenta) with two epigeic earthworm species.  

PubMed

The bioconversion potential of two epigeic species (Eisenia foetida Sav. and Eudrilus eugeniae Kinberg) of earthworms was assessed in terms of efficiency and sustainability of vermicomposting of Taro (Colocasia esculenta (Linn) Schott in Schott and Endl). In different vermireactors, each run in triplicates with one of the two species of earthworms, and 60 g of 6:1 Colocasia:cowdung as feed, vermicasts were produced with steadily increasing output in all the reactors. E. eugeniae was found to be more efficient producer of vermicasts than E. foetida. In all reactors, the earthworms grew well, increasing their weights and number. PMID:16051486

Kurien, J; Ramasamy, E V

2006-07-01

225

Carbon-Mineral Interactions along an Earthworm Invasion Gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We broadly agree that the interactions of organic matter and minerals contribute to soils’ capacity to store carbon. Such interactions may be controlled by the processes that determine the availability of organic matter and minerals and their physical contacts. One of these processes is bioturbation, and earthworms are the best known organisms that physically mix soils. We are studying carbon mineral interactions along an approximately 200 meter long earthworm invasion transect in a hardwood forest in northern Minnesota. This transect extends from the soils where earthworms are absent to the soils that have been invaded by earthworms for ~30-40 years. Pre-invasion soils have approximately 5 cm thick litter layer, thin (~5 cm) A horizon, silt rich E horizon, and clay-rich Bt horizons. The A and E horizons formed from aeolian deposits, while the clay-rich Bt horizons developed from glacial till. With the advent of earthworm invasion, the litter layer disappears, and the A horizon thickens at the expense of the E horizons. Carbon and nitrogen concentrations in the A and E horizons significantly increased with the advent of earthworm invasion. Simultaneously, minerals’ capacities to complex the organic matter appear to be greater in the soils with active earthworm populations. Based on the data from the two end member soils along the transect, minerals’ specific surface area in the A and E horizons are larger in the earthworm invaded soil than in the pre-invasion soil. Additionally, earthworm invasion rapidly (within < 5 yrs) turned A horizons materials from single grain to strong medium granular structure. Second, significantly greater amounts of Fe oxides and organically-complexed Fe are present in the earthworm invaded soil. While the amounts of organic matter and the minerals’ capacity to complex carbon increase with earthworm invasion, they are also more vigorously mixed. The depth profiles of 210Pb activities from the two end member soils show significantly enhanced rate and deeper reach of soil mixing at the invaded site. We are currently extending the measurements of carbon, specific surface area, and 210Pb activities to the seven soil pits along the entire length of the transect. This growing data set, when ultimately combined with ongoing monitoring of (1) the population dynamics of earthworms along the transect and (2) dissolved organic carbon, will allow us to answer how and how much soils’ capacity to store carbon are affected by burrowing organisms who are often the key stone species of given ecosystems.

Lyttle, A.; Yoo, K.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Hale, C.; Sebestyen, S. D.

2010-12-01

226

Earthworm Egg Capsules as Vectors for the Environmental Introduction of Biodegradative Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Earthworm egg capsules (cocoons) may acquire bacteria from the environment in which they are produced. We found that Ralstonia eutropha (pJP4) can be recovered from Eisenia fetida cocoons formed in soil inoculated with this bacterium. Plasmid pJP4 contains the genes necessary for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) degradation. In this study we determined that the presence of R. eutropha (pJP4) within the developing earthworm cocoon can influence the degradation and toxicity of 2,4-D and 2,4-DCP, respectively. The addition of cocoons containing R. eutropha (pJP4) at either low or high densities (102 or 105 CFU per cocoon, respectively) initiated degradation of 2,4-D in nonsterile soil microcosms. Loss of 2,4-D was observed within the first week of incubation, and respiking the soil with 2,4-D showed depletion within 24 h. Microbial analysis of the soil revealed the presence of approximately 104 CFU R. eutropha (pJP4) g?1 of soil. The toxicity of 2,4-DCP to developing earthworms was tested by using cocoons with or without R. eutropha (pJP4). Results showed that cocoons containing R. eutropha (pJP4) were able to tolerate higher levels of 2,4-DCP. Our results indicate that the biodegradation of 2,4-DCP by R. eutropha (pJP4) within the cocoons may be the mechanism contributing to toxicity reduction. These results suggest that the microbiota may influence the survival of developing earthworms exposed to toxic chemicals. In addition, cocoons can be used as inoculants for the introduction into the environment of beneficial bacteria, such as strains with biodegradative capabilities. PMID:10347016

Daane, L. L.; Häggblom, M. M.

1999-01-01

227

Vermistabilization of textile mill sludge spiked with poultry droppings by an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida.  

PubMed

Investigations were made to explore the potential of an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida to transform textile mill sludge spiked with poultry droppings in to value added product, i.e., vermicompost. The growth and reproduction of E. foetida was monitored in a range of different feed mixtures for 77 days in the laboratory under controlled experimental conditions. The maximum growth was recorded in 100% cow dung (CD). Replacement of poultry droppings by cow dung in feed mixtures and vice versa had little or no effect on worm growth rate and reproduction potential. Worms grew and reproduced favourably in 70% poultry droppings (PD)+30% solid textile mill sludge (STMS) and 60% PD+40% STMS feed mixtures. Greater percentage of STMS in the feed mixture significantly affected the biomass gain and cocoon production. Net weight gain by earthworms in 100% CD was 2.9-18.2 fold higher than different STMS containing feed mixtures. The mean number of cocoon production was between 23.4+/-4.65 (in 100% CD) and 3.6+/-1.04 (in 50% PD+50% STMS) cocoons earthworm(-1) for different feed mixtures tested. Vermicomposting resulted in significant reduction in C:N ratio and increase in nitrogen and phosphorus contents. Total potassium, total calcium and heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Pb and Cd) contents were lower in the final product than initial feed mixtures. Our trials demonstrated vermicomposting as an alternate technology for the recycling and environmentally safe disposal/management of textile mill sludge using an epigeic earthworm E. foetida if mixed with poultry droppings. PMID:15668203

Garg, V K; Kaushik, Priya

2005-06-01

228

Acetylcholinesterase activity in the earthworm Eisenia andrei at different conditions of carbaryl exposure.  

PubMed

Recent reports have stressed the need for a better understanding of earthworm biomarker responses. We aimed at investigating acethylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the earthworm Eisenia andrei after exposure to carbaryl or its commercial formulation Zoril 5 under different in vitro and in vivo experiments. In addition, lysosome membrane stability was assessed by neutral red retention assay in the same experimental conditions. AChE basal Km and Vm values were about 0.16 mM and 41 nmol min(-1) mg protein(-1), respectively. Carbaryl dose-dependently decreased Vmax, while not affecting Km values. Carbaryl reduced earthworm AChE activity within 1 day of in vivo exposure to contaminated filter paper. Tested on soil, carbaryl inhibited AChE with the maximum effect after 3 days; in contrast, lysosome membrane stability of coelomocytes indicated a maximum toxicity after one day, followed by a recovery. AChE inhibition by Zoril 5 was highest after one day, while lysosome membrane stability declined progressively. In all cases, carbaryl dose-dependently decreased Vmax while not affecting Km values. In conclusion, E. andrei AChE activity assessed in vitro is dose-dependently inhibited by the carbamate compound carbaryl, which acts as a pure competitive inhibitor. In vivo experiments suggested that pure and co-formulated carbaryl have different time and/or dose dependent effects on earthworms. Our results further support the use of AChE inhibition as an indicator of pesticide contamination, to be included in a battery of biomarkers for monitoring soil toxicity. PMID:17428735

Gambi, Naimj; Pasteris, Andrea; Fabbri, Elena

2007-05-01

229

Reproductive responses of the earthworm (Eisenia fetida) to antiparasitic albendazole exposure.  

PubMed

Albendazole (ABZ) is a veterinary drug with a high efficiency against helminths. Here reproductive responses of earthworms Eisenia fetida to ABZ exposure (0, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 mg kg(-1) soil dry weight) were investigated for 56 d in chronic reproduction test, and deformed sperm were counted and morphological alterations in the seminal vesicles were qualitatively assessed by light and transmission electron microscopy. Results have showed that cocoon number of earthworms was more sensitive to low concentrations of ABZ than cocoon hatching success and hatching survival, showing a significant dose-related decrease in cocoon number at 3, 6, 9 and 12 mg kg(-1). In short-time exposure of 14 d, the sperm deformity (%) of earthworms increased at 6, 9 and 12 mg kg(-1), and the microstructural alteration in seminal vesicles was also observed at these concentrations, whereas ultrastructural alteration of germ cells, particularly morphology of mitochondria, was observed at 3 mg kg(-1) and above, suggesting the high sensitivity of germ cell ultrastructure to low concentrations of ABZ in short-time exposure. The results can provide important information for prediction of ecologically significant toxic effects. PMID:25462294

Gao, Yuhong; Li, Xuemei; Guo, Jianjun; Sun, Zhenjun

2015-02-01

230

First evidence of the P-glycoprotein gene expression and multixenobiotic resistance modulation in earthworm.  

PubMed

Multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) is an important mechanism of cellular efflux mediated by ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters that bind and actively remove toxic substrates from the cell. This study was the first to identify ABC transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1) as a representative of the MXR phenotype in earthworm (Eisenia fetida). The identified partial cDNA sequence of ABCB1 overlapped with ABCB1 homologues of other organisms from 58.5 % to 72.5 %. We also studied the effect of five modulators (verapamil, cyclosporine A, MK571, probenecid, and orthovanadate) on the earthworm's MXR activity by measuring the accumulation of model substrates rhodamine B and rhodamine 123 in whole body tissue of the adult earthworm. MK571, orthovanadate, and verapamil significantly inhibited MXR activity, and rhodamine 123 turned out to better reflect MXR activity in that species than rhodamine B. Our results show that E. fetida can serve well as a test organism for environmental pollutants that inhibit MXR activity. PMID:24622780

Bošnjak, Ivana; Bielen, Ana; Babi?, Sanja; Sver, Lidija; Popovi?, Natalija Topi?; Strunjak-Perovi?, Ivan?ica; Což-Rakovac, Rozelinda; Klobu?ar, Roberta Sauerborn

2014-03-01

231

A filter circuit board for the Earthworm Seismic Data Acquisition System  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Earthworm system is a seismic network data acquisition and processing system used by the Northern California Seismic Network as well as many other seismic networks. The input to the system is comprised of many realtime electronic waveforms fed to a multi-channel digitizer on a PC platform. The digitizer consists of one or more National Instruments Corp. AMUX–64T multiplexer boards attached to an A/D converter board located in the computer. Originally, passive filters were installed on the multiplexers to eliminate electronic noise picked up in cabling. It was later discovered that a small amount of crosstalk occurred between successive channels in the digitizing sequence. Though small, this crosstalk will cause what appear to be small earthquake arrivals at the wrong time on some channels. This can result in erroneous calculation of earthquake arrival times, particularly by automated algorithms. To deal with this problem, an Earthworm filter board was developed to provide the needed filtering while eliminating crosstalk. This report describes the tests performed to find a suitable solution, and the design of the circuit board. Also included are all the details needed to build and install this board in an Earthworm system or any other system using the AMUX–64T board. Available below is the report in PDF format as well as an archive file containing the circuit board manufacturing information.

Jensen, Edward Gray

2000-01-01

232

Does the deep-burrowing earthworm, Aporrectodea longa, compete with resident earthworm communities when introduced to pastures in south-eastern Australia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pastures in southern Australia are dominated by endogeic earthworms such as Aporrectodea caliginosa (Sav.). Introductions of the anecic earthworm, A. longa (Ude), which is mostly restricted to Tasmania at present, are likely to increase the functional diversity of local communities and thereby enhance plant production and agricultural sustainability. However, the potential impact of A. longa on resident earthworm communities first needs assessing.

Geoff Baker; Penny Carter; Vicki Barrett; Jeff Hirth; Pauline Mele; Cameron Gourley

2002-01-01

233

Metals and terrestrial earthworms (Annelida: Oligochaeta)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The toxicity of metals to earthworms and the residues of metals found in earthworms are reviewed. Meta 1 concentrations are rarely high enough to be toxic to worms, but copper may reduce populations in orchards heavily treated with fungicides and in soil contaminated with pig wastes. The metals in some industrial sewage sludges may interfere with using sludge in vermiculture. Storage ratios (the concentration of a metal in worms divided by the concentration in soil) tend to be highest in infertile soil and lowest in media rich in organic matter, such as sewage sludge. Cadmium, gold, and selenium are highly concentrated by worms. Lead concentrations in worms may be very high, but are generally lower than concentrations in soil. Body burdens of both copper and zinc seem to be regulated by worms. Because worms are part of the food webs of many wildlife species, and also because they are potentially valuable feed supplements for domestic animals, the possible toxic effects of cadmium and other metals should be studied. Worms can make metals more available to food webs and can redistribute them in soil.

Beyer, W.N.

1981-01-01

234

Application of microcosmic system for assessment of insecticide effects on biomarker responses in ecologically different earthworm species.  

PubMed

Earthworms from different ecological categories--epigeic Eisenia andrei and Lumbricus rubellus, endogeic Octolasion lacteum and anecic Lumbricus terrestris--were exposed in a microcosmic system to three commonly used insecticides. The effects of the insecticides were evaluated by measuring the following molecular biomarkers-the activities of AChE, CES, CAT, GST and the concentration of GSH. The results showed that environmentally relevant doses of organophosphates dimethoate and pirimiphos-methyl significantly affected the measured biomarkers, whereas pyrethroid deltamethrin did not affect the earthworms at the recommended agricultural dose. Considering the ecological category of earthworms, the results were inhomogeneous and species-specific differences in the biomarker responses were recorded. Since the biomarker responses of the investigated earthworm species were different after exposure to organophosphates in a microcosm compared to the exposure via standardized toxicity tests, two types of species sensitivity should be distinguished-physiological and environmental sensitivity. In addition, the hormetic effect of organophosphates on AChE and CES activities was recorded. The detection of hormesis in a microcosm is of great importance for future environmental research and soil biomonitoring, since in a realistic environment pollutants usually occur at low concentrations that could cause a hormetic effect. The results demonstrate the importance of the application of microcosmic systems in the assessment of the effects of environmental pollutants and the necessity of taking into account the possible differences between physiological and environmental species sensitivity. PMID:24650551

Velki, Mirna; Hackenberger, Branimir K; Lon?ari?, Zeljka; Hackenberger, Davorka K

2014-06-01

235

Different sensitivities of biomarker responses in two epigeic earthworm species after exposure to pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides.  

PubMed

In many studies that investigate the toxic effects of pollutants on earthworms, experiments are performed using only one species of earthworms, most commonly the Eisenia species. However, the differences in sensitivities of different earthworm species could potentially lead to an underestimation of environmental aspects of pollutants. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity of biomarker responses of Eisenia andrei, an epigeic compost species commonly used in laboratory experiments, with those of Lumbricus rubellus, an epigeic species widely distributed in temperate regions. The earthworms were exposed to the three commonly used insecticides: organophosphates dimethoate (0.03, 0.3, and 3 mg kg(-1)) and pirimiphos-methyl (0.02, 0.2, and 2 mg kg(-1)), as well as pyrethroid deltamethrin (0.01, 0.1, and 0.5 mg kg(-1)), for 1 and 15 days using an artificial soil test. The effects of the pesticides were assessed by measuring the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase (CES), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) as well as the concentration of glutathione (GSH). The pesticides caused a significant inhibition of AChE and CES activities and significant changes in activities of CAT, GST, and GSH concentration in both earthworm species. A comparison of biomarker responses between E. andrei and L. rubellus showed significant differences; E. andrei proved to be less susceptible to pesticide exposure than L. rubellus. In addition, the results from the filter-paper contact test mortality experiments showed that lethal concentrations were lower for L. rubellus compared with the E. andrei, further showing a greater sensitivity of L. rubellus. The difference in sensitivities of these epigeic species should be taken into account when conducting toxicity studies. PMID:23811990

Velki, Mirna; Hackenberger, Branimir K

2013-10-01

236

How to reduce false positive results when undertaking in vitro genotoxicity testing and thus avoid unnecessary follow-up animal tests: Report of an ECVAM Workshop.  

PubMed

Workshop participants agreed that genotoxicity tests in mammalian cells in vitro produce a remarkably high and unacceptable occurrence of irrelevant positive results (e.g. when compared with rodent carcinogenicity). As reported in several recent reviews, the rate of irrelevant positives (i.e. low specificity) for some studies using in vitro methods (when compared to this "gold standard") means that an increased number of test articles are subjected to additional in vivo genotoxicity testing, in many cases before, e.g. the efficacy (in the case of pharmaceuticals) of the compound has been evaluated. If in vitro tests were more predictive for in vivo genotoxicity and carcinogenicity (i.e. fewer false positives) then there would be a significant reduction in the number of animals used. Beyond animal (or human) carcinogenicity as the "gold standard", it is acknowledged that genotoxicity tests provide much information about cellular behaviour, cell division processes and cellular fate to a (geno)toxic insult. Since the disease impact of these effects is seldom known, and a verification of relevant toxicity is normally also the subject of (sub)chronic animal studies, the prediction of in vivo relevant results from in vitro genotoxicity tests is also important for aspects that may not have a direct impact on carcinogenesis as the ultimate endpoint of concern. In order to address the high rate of in vitro false positive results, a 2-day workshop was held at the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), Ispra, Italy in April 2006. More than 20 genotoxicity experts from academia, government and industry were invited to review data from the currently available cell systems, to discuss whether there exist cells and test systems that have a reduced tendency to false positive results, to review potential modifications to existing protocols and cell systems that might result in improved specificity, and to review the performance of some new test systems that show promise of improved specificity without sacrificing sensitivity. It was concluded that better guidance on the likely mechanisms resulting in positive results that are not biologically relevant for human health, and how to obtain evidence for those mechanisms, is needed both for practitioners and regulatory reviewers. Participants discussed the fact that cell lines commonly used for genotoxicity testing have a number of deficiencies that may contribute to the high false positive rate. These include, amongst others, lack of normal metabolism leading to reliance on exogenous metabolic activation systems (e.g. Aroclor-induced rat S9), impaired p53 function and altered DNA repair capability. The high concentrations of test chemicals (i.e. 10 mM or 5000 microg/ml, unless precluded by solubility or excessive toxicity) and the high levels of cytotoxicity currently required in mammalian cell genotoxicity tests were discussed as further potential sources of false positive results. Even if the goal is to detect carcinogens with short in vitro tests under more or less acute conditions, it does not seem logical to exceed the capabilities of cellular metabolic turnover, activation and defence processes. The concept of "promiscuous activation" was discussed. For numerous mutagens, the decisive in vivo enzymes are missing in vitro. However, if the substrate concentration is increased sufficiently, some other enzymes (that are unimportant in vivo) may take over the activation-leading to the same or a different active metabolite. Since we often do not use the right enzyme systems for positive controls in vitro, we have to rely on their promiscuous activation, i.e. to use excessive concentrations to get an empirical correlation between genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. A thorough review of published and industry data is urgently needed to determine whether the currently required limit concentration of 10mM or 5000 microg/ml, and high levels of cytotoxicity, are necessary for the detection of in vivo genotoxins and DNA-reactive, mutagenic car

Kirkland, David; Pfuhler, Stefan; Tweats, David; Aardema, Marilyn; Corvi, Raffaella; Darroudi, Firouz; Elhajouji, Azeddine; Glatt, Hansruedi; Hastwell, Paul; Hayashi, Makoto; Kasper, Peter; Kirchner, Stephan; Lynch, Anthony; Marzin, Daniel; Maurici, Daniela; Meunier, Jean-Roc; Müller, Lutz; Nohynek, Gerhard; Parry, James; Parry, Elizabeth; Thybaud, Veronique; Tice, Ray; van Benthem, Jan; Vanparys, Philippe; White, Paul

2007-03-30

237

Toxicity of metals to the earthworm Eisenia fetida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of methods to measure the effect of man's residuals on soil ecosystems is desirable. Earthworms, as one of the largest and most easily obtained components of the soil biota, are suitable for evaluating perturbations to soil ecosystems.

E. F. Neuhauser; R. C. Loehr; D. L. Milligan; M. R. Malecki

1985-01-01

238

Effects of Intermittent Aerobic Training on Passive Avoidance Test (Shuttle Box) and Stress Markers in the Dorsal Hippocampus Of Wistar Rats Exposed to Administration of Homocysteine  

PubMed Central

Objective: Elevated amino acid homocysteine (Hcy) levels and insufficient physical activity are the risk factors in Alzheimer disease (AD) development. The effect of intermittent aerobic training on memory retention test and Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in the dorsal hippocampus of rats which were stimulated with Hcy is investigated. Methods: In order to determine the dose at which using Shuttle Box Test recognizes degenerative changes and/or memory impairment, 40 rats were injected by different dosages of Hcy to the dorsal hippocampus. It was observed that the required Hcy dose is 0.6 M. Then 44 rats were divided into four groups including training and control groups at 4 weeks of aerobic exercise in training and control groups at 8 weeks. To determine the effect of homocysteine on the memory impairment, Shuttle Box Test was used on treadmill (5 sessions/week, 12-18 m/min and 10-58.5 min). Results: Hcy administration caused memory impairment and significant increase in TBARS. Significant decrease in TBARS level was noted after 8 weeks of aerobic exercise, but not after just 4 weeks of exercise compared with control group. In addition, performing 8 weeks of aerobic training led to significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) level and the time of avoidance learning test. Conclusion: Hyperhomocysteinemia caused learning and memory deficits probably by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the present study showed that regular moderate intensity intermittent exercise may reverse this process and exercise is recommended as a strategy to improve symptoms of senile neurodegenerative disease . Declaration of Interest: None. PMID:24644498

Hosseinzadeh, Somayeh; Dabidi Roshan, Valiollah; Pourasghar, Mehdi

2013-01-01

239

Protection of soil carbon by microaggregates within earthworm casts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms are known to play a role in aggregate formation and soil organic matter (SOM) protection. However, it is still unclear at what scale and how quickly earthworms manage to protect SOM. We investigated the effects of Aporrectodea caliginosa on aggregation and aggregate-associated C pools using 13C-labeled sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) leaf residue. Two incubations were set up. The

Heleen Bossuyt; Johan Six; Paul F. Hendrix

2005-01-01

240

Effects of earthworms on Zn fractionation in soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory incubation experiments were conducted to examine the effect of earthworm (Pheretima sp.) activity on soil pH, zinc (Zn) fractionation and N mineralization in three soils. No Zn uptake by earthworms was observed. Zinc addition decreased pH of red soil (soil 1) and hydragric paddy soil (soil 3) by 0.5 and 0.2 unit, respectively, but had no effect on alluvial

Jiemin Cheng; Ming H. Wong

2002-01-01

241

Cadmium-binding proteins induced in the earthworm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms,Eisenia foetida, grown in composts of different cadmium concentrations accumulated cadmium in a dose-dependent manner and the cadmium was bound to three different molecular weight cadmium-binding proteins induced in the earthworm. The three proteins were stable to heat treatment and accompanied by a concomitant increase of absorbance at 254 nm and not at 280 nm. Each of the three proteins

Kazuo T. Suzuki; Mitsuru Yamamura; Tadahiro Mori

1980-01-01

242

A global survey of the bacteria within earthworm nephridia.  

PubMed

Earthworms comprise 16 described families in the Crassiclitellata plus a few other minor groups. Microscopy studies of the early 20th century detected bacteria within the excretory organs, the nephridia, of species within a few of these families. More recent evidence for the consistent and specific association of bacteria with nephridia within the Lumbricidae has been well documented, but the presence and identity of nephridial bacteria among the rest of the Crassiclitellata families had not been explored. The study presented here aimed to identify members of Crassiclitellata families that harbor bacteria in their nephridia, and identify these bacteria based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Eleven earthworm families were surveyed from countries of six continents, and two island nations. The results revealed members of four bacterial orders commonly occurred within nephridia of genera within nine Crassiclitellata families. Members of the bacterial phyla Bacteroidetes (order Sphingobacteriales), Betaproteobacteria (order Burkholderiales; family Comamonadaceae), and Alphaproteobacteria (orders Rhodospirillales and Rhizobiales) were detected in the nephridia of basal Crassiclitellata, as well as in derived families. Earthworm genera with meronephridia, multiple small nephridia per segment, lacked bacteria, whereas bacteria were often detected in holonephridia, single pairs of large nephridia with a distinct morphology and external excretory pore. The Acanthodrilidae members, a large derived family of earthworms, did not appear to possess nephridial bacteria regardless of nephridial form. Although earthworms from a variety of habitat types were sampled, there were no clear correlations of lifestyle with symbiont types, with the exception of the aquatic earthworms that contained bacteria unrelated to those in any other earthworms. The findings support an evolutionarily long association of bacteria within the Crassiclitellata, and suggest a contribution to nitrogen conservation for the earthworms. PMID:23268186

Davidson, Seana K; Powell, Ryan; James, Sam

2013-04-01

243

1H NMR Metabolomics: A New Molecular Level Tool for Assessment of Organic Contaminant Bioavailability to Earthworms in Soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At contaminated field sites, the complete removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is rarely achieved since a portion of these compounds remain tightly bound to the soil matrix. The concentration of PAHs in soil typically decreases until a plateau is reached, at which point the remaining contaminant is considered non- bioavailable. Numerous soil extraction techniques, including cyclodextrin extraction, have been developed to estimate contaminant bioavailability. However, these are indirect methods that do not directly measure the response of organisms to chemical exposure in soil. Earthworm metabolomics offers a promising new way to directly evaluate the bioavailability and toxicity of contaminants in soil. Metabolomics involves the measurement of changes in small-molecule metabolites, including sugars and amino acids, in living organisms due to an external stress, such as contaminant exposure. The objective of this study was to compare cyclodextrin extraction of soil (a bioavailability proxy) and 1H NMR metabolomic analysis of aqueous earthworm tissue extracts as indicators of contaminant bioavailability. A 30 day laboratory experiment was conducted using phenanthrene-spiked sphagnum peat soil and the OECD recommended earthworm species for toxicity testing, Eisenia fetida. The initial phenanthrene concentration in the soil was 320 mg/kg. Rapid biodegradation of phenanthrene occurred and concentrations decreased to 16 mg/kg within 15 days. After 15 days, phenanthrene biodegradation slowed and cyclodextrin extraction of the soil suggested that phenanthrene was no longer bioavailable. Multivariate statistical analysis of the 1H NMR spectra for E. fetida tissue extracts indicated that the metabolic profile of phenanthrene exposed earthworms differed from control earthworms throughout the 30 day experiment. This suggests that the residual phenanthrene remaining in the soil after 15 days continued to elicit a metabolic response, even though it was not extractable using cyclodextrin. Hence, while cyclodextrin extraction may serve as a good proxy for microbial bioavailability, our results suggest that it may not serve as a good proxy for earthworm bioavailability. 1H NMR metabolomics therefore offers considerable promise as a novel, molecular-level method to directly monitor earthworm bioavailability of potentially toxic and persistent compounds in the environment.

McKelvie, J. R.; Wolfe, D. M.; Celejewski, M. A.; Simpson, A. J.; Simpson, M. J.

2009-05-01

244

Toxicity and bioaccumulation of ethofumesate enantiomers in earthworm Eisenia fetida.  

PubMed

Earthworms represent an important food source for many vertebrates and as a result, predators may encounter toxic effects via the food chain from consumption of contaminated worms. Therefore, including an assessment of xenobiotic to worms in risk assessment procedures is advisable. Here we studied the acute toxicity, bioaccumulation and elimination of ethofumesate enantiomers in earthworm, Eisenia fetida, in a soil. A slight difference in toxicity to earthworm between two enantiomers was found, and the calculated LC50 values for (+)-, rac- and (-)-ethofumesate were 4.51, 5.93 and 7.98 ?g/cm(2), respectively, indicating that the acute toxicity of ethofumesate enantiomers was enantioselective. Earthworm can uptake ethofumesate but the bioaccumulation curve did not reach the steady state. In the elimination experiment, the concentrations of ethofumesate in earthworm declined following a first-order decay model with a short half life of 1.8d. The bioaccumulation and elimination of ethofumesate in earthworm were both nonenantioselective. In combination with other studies, a linear relationship between Log BSAFs and Log Kow was observed, and the Log BSAFs increased with increasing Log Kow. But the elimination rate did not show any correlation with the Kow value. PMID:25048902

Xu, Peng; Wang, Yinghuan; Zhang, Yanfeng; Li, Jianzhong; Wang, Huili

2014-10-01

245

EPR detection of hydroxyl radical generation and oxidative perturbations in lead-exposed earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in the presence of decabromodiphenyl ether.  

PubMed

Lead (Pb) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) are the main contaminants at e-waste recycling sites, and their potential toxicological effects on terrestrial organisms have received extensive attention. However, the impacts on the oxidative perturbations and hydroxyl radical (·OH) generation in earthworms of exposure to the two chemicals remain almost unknown. Therefore, indoor incubation tests were performed on control and contaminated soil samples to determine the effects of Pb in earthworms Eisenia fetida in the presence of BDE209 through the use of several biomarkers in microcosms. The results have demonstrated that the addition of BDE209 (1 or 10 mg kg(-1)) decreased the enzymatic activities [superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), peroxidase] and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) compared with exposure to BDE209 alone (50, 250 or 500 mg kg(-1)). Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra indicated that ·OH radicals in earthworms were significantly induced by Pb in the presence of BDE209. The changing pattern of malondialdehyde (MDA) contents was accordant with that of ·OH intensity suggested that reactive oxygen species might lead to cellular lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, CAT exhibited more sensitive response to single Pb exposure than the other biomarkers, while T-AOC, ·OH and MDA might be three most sensitive biomarkers in earthworms after simultaneous exposure to Pb and BDE209. The results of these observations suggested that oxidative stress appeared in E. fetida, and it may play an important role in inducing the Pb and BDE209 toxicity to earthworms. PMID:25373545

Liu, Kou; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Kuangfei; Zhao, Li

2014-11-01

246

High sensitive thyroglobulin assay on thyroxine therapy: can it avoid stimulation test in low and high risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients?  

PubMed

Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a key marker in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Diagnostic accuracy of serum Tg is higher after TSH stimulation than during thyroxine treatment. However, some studies suggest that TSH stimulation could be not necessary in a large part of patients, if Tg is measured by high sensitive assay under replacement therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the need of Tg stimulation test in DTC followed-up by sensitive Tg assay. In a prospective multicenter explorative study, 68 low or high risk patients underwent Tg measurement on thyroxine (ON-LT4-Tg) and after LT4 withdrawal (OFF-LT4-Tg). Undetectable ON-LT4-Tg and OFF-LT4-Tg values (i. e.,<0.15 ng/ml) were found in 56/68 patients, all with negative imaging workup. Twelve subjects had skewed OFF-LT4-Tg: 8 cases had increased ON-LT4-Tg and local recurrence (n=6), distant metastasis (n=1), or benign thyroglossal duct (n=1); the remaining 4 patients had undetectable ON-T4-Tg but detectable OFF-LT4-Tg and neck metastasis was recorded in one of these. By ROC analysis, the most accurate cutoff for ON-LT4-Tg and OFF-LT4-Tg were set at 0.23 ng/ml and 0.70 ng/ml, respectively. A positive ON-LT4-Tg value accurately predicts a positive stimulation test and confers an Odds Ratio of 464 (95% CI from 26.3 to 8 173.2, p<0.0001) to have persistent/recurrent disease. This study shows that DTC patients with ON-LT4-Tg below 0.23 ng/ml by our high sensitive assay should be considered disease free and they can avoid Tg stimulation test. High sensitive Tg assays should be used to better manage DTC patients. PMID:23720229

Trimboli, P; La Torre, D; Ceriani, L; Condorelli, E; Laurenti, O; Romanelli, F; Ventura, C; Signore, A; Valabrega, S; Giovanella, L

2013-09-01

247

Earthworm populations of highly metal-contaminated soils restored by fly ash-aided phytostabilisation.  

PubMed

Highly metal contaminated soils found in the North of France are the result of intense industrial past. These soils are now unfit for the cultivation of agricultural products for human consumption. Solutions have to be found to improve the quality of these soils, and especially to reduce the availability of trace elements (TEs). Phytostabilisation and ash-aided phytostabilisation applied since 2000 to an experimental site located near a former metallurgical site (Metaleurop-Nord) was shown previously as efficacious in reducing TEs mobility in soils. The aim of the study was to check whether this ten years trial had influenced earthworm communities. This experimental site was compared to plots located in the surroundings and differing by the use of soils. Main results are that: (1) whatever the use of soils, earthworm communities are composed of few species with moderate abundance in comparison with communities found in similar habitats outside the TEs-contaminated area, (2) the highest abundance and specific richness (4-5 species) were observed in afforested plots with various tree species, (3) ash amendments in afforested plots did not increase the species richness and modified the communities favoring anecic worms but disfavoring epigeic ones. These findings raised the questions of when and how to perform the addition of ashes firstly, to avoid negative effects on soil fauna and secondly, to keep positive effects on metal immobilization. PMID:25499051

Grumiaux, Fabien; Demuynck, Sylvain; Pernin, Céline; Leprêtre, Alain

2015-03-01

248

Uptake, bioaccumulation, and biodegradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and its reduced metabolites (MNX and TNX) by the earthworm (Eisenia fetida).  

PubMed

Uptake and accumulation kinetics of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and its two major N-nitroso metabolites, hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX), in earthworms was investigated. Results indicated that RDX and its N-nitroso metabolites were rapidly absorbed into earthworms (Eisenia fetida), reaching the highest concentrations within a few days. Accumulation of RDX was greater than its N-nitroso metabolites, as evidenced by a higher bioconcentration factor (BCF); BCFs were 1.86, 0.39, and 0.05 for RDX, MNX, and TNX, respectively. RDX and its N-nitroso metabolites were also rapidly eliminated from the earthworm and/or transformed to other metabolites, as evidenced by the rapid decrease of test compounds in earthworms after reaching their highest concentrations. The uptake of MNX and TNX increased as exposure concentration increased. Although these earthworms might (anaerobically) degrade RDX to MNX and MNX to TNX, it is hypothesized that this process would be slow. Other biotransformation pathways may be involved in biodegradation of RDX and its N-nitroso metabolites due to the fact that concentrations of tested compounds decreased in both soil and earthworms. It is hoped that these data can be used to refine environmental management strategies for RDX and for performing specific risk assessments of RDX and its N-nitroso metabolites. PMID:19278715

Zhang, Baohong; Pan, Xiaoping; Cobb, George P; Anderson, Todd A

2009-06-01

249

Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38 (2006) 16081614 Endogeic earthworms differentially influence bacterial communities  

E-print Network

Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38 (2006) 1608­1614 Endogeic earthworms differentially influence C. Rilliga , Johan Sixb a Division of Biological Sciences, Microbial Ecology Program, The University November 2005 Available online 2 February 2006 Abstract Endogeic earthworm activities can strongly

Rilli, Matthias C.

250

Construction of an electrical device for sampling earthworm populations in the field  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Well-known methods for estimating earthworm population densities range from laborious handsorting through chemical applications to electrical extraction. Of these methods, only the electrical extraction allows for sampling of earthworms without detrimental soil disturbance or contamination. However,...

251

Organochlorine insecticide residues in soil and earthworms in the Delhi area, India, August-October 1974  

SciTech Connect

DDT residues in soil and earthworms from 50 sites in Delhi were monitored. DDT was detected in all but two samples each of soil and earthworms. Among DDT residues, p,p'-DDE was most common and was found in 48 samples each of soil and earthworms; p,p'-DDT was detected in only 43 soil samples and 46 earthworm samples. p,p'-TDE and o,p'-DDT were also present in smaller concentrations in 29 and 15 soil samples and in 43 and 25 earthworm samples, respectively. Maximum total DDT concentration of 2.6 ppm was detected in the soil from Durga Nagar in the vicinity of a DDT factory. The highest concentration of 37.7 ppm total DDT in earthworms was also obtained from the same site. The maximum concentration factor found in the earthworms was 551. The total DDT concentration in the earthworms and soil showed significant correlation.

Yadav, D.V.; Mittal, P.K.; Agarwal, H.C.; Pillai, M.K.

1981-09-01

252

Soil and elemental mixing rates across an earthworm invasion chronosequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Burrowing soil fauna significantly contribute to earth surface processes. In particular, earthworms are well known for their ability to move large masses of soil through ingestion and burrowing activities. Over the past decades, humans have increased the geographic range of earthworms through agricultural and recreational activities, exacerbating their invasion into soils devoid of native earthworms since the Last Glacial Maximum. Invasive earthworms, by mixing soils, have substantially altered forest floor ecology and soil morphology. Though the depth extent of mixing can be inferred from altered soil horizonation, mixing rates of various elements in earthworm invaded soils have not previously been calculated. The earthworm invasion chronosequence in a sugar maple forest in Northern Minnesota provides an ideal outdoor laboratory to understand the relationships between dynamics of invasive earthworm populations and soil elemental mixing rates. In this study we used 137-Cs as a tracer for soil mixing due to its strong adsorption to clays and organic matter and its atmospheric origin. Least invaded soils show high 137-Cs activity in the upper 5 centimeters which quickly disappears with depth, while heavily invaded soils show a greater depth reach and homogenized depth profiles of 137-Cs activity. Along the invasion gradient, the depth profiles of many elements are consistent with 137-Cs activities. Currently, a mass balance equation is being combined with 137-Cs activities and total elemental chemistry to determine mixing rates of major elements: Fe, Si, Al and biologically important: Ca, Mg, and P. It is also evident that mixing alone cannot explain the invasive earthworms' impacts on depth profiles of several elements. Geochemical mass balance calculations show a reduction of Ca, Mg, and K in 0-7cm depths. The loss of Ca from the biologically active zone may have ecological consequences. In contrast, we found greater contents of Fe and Al and dithionite-citrate extractable Fe and Al, which may help stabilize organic matter and may impede chemical weathering of minerals by coating their reactive surfaces. We expect that the behavior of a given element will be based upon its biological demand, complexation with organic matter, and hydrological mobility. Understanding how quickly and what extent various elements are mixed by invasive earthworms will help determine the magnitude of invasive earthworms' impact on the future nutrient cycles in hardwood forests.

Resner, K. E.; Yoo, K.; Lyttle, A.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Sebestyen, S. D.

2012-12-01

253

Investigation of the toxicokinetics of petroleum hydrocarbon distillates with the earthworm Eisenia andrei.  

PubMed

The Canada-wide standards for petroleum hydrocarbons in soils regulate petroleum hydrocarbons based on four distillate ranges: F1 (C6-C10), F2 (>C10-C16), F3 (>C16-C34), and F4 (>C34). Previous toxicity tests with earthworms and F2, as well as two subfractions of F3, F3a (>C16-C23) and F3a (>C23-C34), indicate that test durations might not be sufficiently long to reach threshold effect concentrations, likely because of the differing toxicokinetics for each distillate. A study was conducted to determine the toxicokinetics of both aliphatic and aromatic fractions of F2, F3a, and F3b with the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Peak accumulation curves were observed for F2 aliphatics and aromatics and F3a aromatics, likely as a result of changes in exposure concentration over the test duration via loss or a decrease in the bioavailable fraction. Biota-soil accumulation factors were >1 for total F2 aliphatics and aromatics and F3a aromatics as well as for several individual polyaromatic hydrocarbons for each distillate. Aromatics were disproportionately accumulated over aliphatics and were the main contributors to toxicity; therefore, aromatics and aliphatics should be regulated separately. The toxicokinetics were used to interpret previous toxicity data. Higher molecular weight distillates need longer-than-standard test durations to determine toxicity, so toxicity test results from fixed, standard-duration tests are not strictly comparable for these petroleum distillates. PMID:23364619

Cermak, Janet; Stephenson, Gladys; Birkholz, Detlef; Dixon, D George

2013-04-01

254

Influence of temperature on the toxicity of zinc to the earthworm Eisenia fetida  

SciTech Connect

A range of toxicity tests have been proposed to assess the potential hazards of pollutants to earthworms. Of these, the two acute toxicity tests using Eisenia fetida recommended by the OECD and EEC have become routinely used in the risk assessment and regulation of new and existing chemicals. In addition to the acute tests, procedures have also been proposed for measuring the sub-lethal effects of chemicals on parameter such as reproduction and weight change. In both the lethal and sub-lethal toxicity tests developed with worms, attempts have been made to standardise test conditions to allow results from different laboratories to be directly compared. However, variability in exposure conditions and responses are fundamental to determine the effects of pollutants under natural conditions. In the field, conditions such as light, moisture availability, pH, temperature and humidity all fluctuate over time. Such variations affect both the sensitivity and exposure of individuals to toxic chemicals. Hence when evaluating the potential effects of pollutants, it may be important to known how changes in test conditions influence toxicity. This study assessed the effects of different temperatures on the lethal and sub-lethal toxicity of zinc for the earthworm Eisenia fetida. 23 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Spurgeon, D.J.; Tomlin, M.A.; Hopkin, S.P. [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom)

1997-02-01

255

Comparative and combined acute toxicity of butachlor, imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos on earthworm, Eisenia fetida.  

PubMed

Various pesticides have become widespread contaminants of soils due to their large applications in agriculture and homes. An earthworm assay was used to assess the acute toxicity of butachlor, imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos with different modes of action. Ecotoxicities of these pesticides were compared for earthworm Eisenia fetida separately and in combination in artificial soil and contact filter paper tests. Imidacloprid was the most toxic for E. fetida with LC?? (lethal concentration 50) values three orders magnitude lower than that of butachlor and chlorpyrifos in both tests. The toxicity of the mixtures was compared to that predicted by the concentration addition (CA) model. According to the CA model, the observed toxicities of all binary mixtures were less than additive. However, for all the mixtures in 14 d artificial soil test, and mixtures of butachlor plus chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid plus chlorpyrifos in 48 h contact filter paper test, the difference in toxicity was less than 30%, hence it was concluded that the mixtures conformed to CA. The combined effects of the pesticides in contact filter paper tests were not consistent with the results in artificial soil toxicity tests, which may be associated with the interaction of soil salts with the pesticides. The CA model provides estimates of mixture toxicity that did not markedly underestimate the measured toxicity, and therefore the CA model is the most suitable to use in ecological risk assessments of the pesticides. PMID:24377448

Chen, Chen; Wang, Yanhua; Zhao, Xueping; Wang, Qiang; Qian, Yongzhong

2014-04-01

256

Postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance in guppies.  

PubMed

In many species, the negative fitness effects of inbreeding have facilitated the evolution of a wide range of inbreeding avoidance mechanisms. Although avoidance mechanisms operating prior to mating are well documented, evidence for postcopulatory mechanisms of inbreeding avoidance remain scarce. Here, we examine the potential for paternity biases to favour unrelated males when their sperm compete for fertilizations though postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance mechanisms in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. To test this possibility, we used a series of artificial inseminations to deliver an equal number of sperm from a related (either full sibling or half sibling) and unrelated male to a female while statistically controlling for differences in sperm quality between rival ejaculates. In this way, we were able to focus exclusively on postcopulatory mechanisms of inbreeding avoidance and account for differences in sperm competitiveness between rival males. Under these carefully controlled conditions, we report a significant bias in paternity towards unrelated males, although this effect was only apparent when the related male was a full sibling. We also show that sperm competition generally favours males with highly viable sperm and thus that some variance in sperm competitiveness can be attributed to difference in sperm quality. Our findings for postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance are consistent with prior work on guppies, revealing that sperm competition success declines linearly with the level of relatedness, but also that such effects are only apparent at relatedness levels of full siblings or higher. These findings reveal that postcopulatory processes alone can facilitate inbreeding avoidance. PMID:25387854

Fitzpatrick, J L; Evans, J P

2014-12-01

257

Acute toxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes, sodium pentachlorophenate, and their complex on earthworm Eisenia fetida.  

PubMed

Laboratory experiments were undertaken to relate biomarker responses to the toxicities of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and sodium pentachlorophenate (PCP-Na), both individually and combined. The acute toxicities of MWCNTs and PCP-Na on earthworm Eisenia fetida were studied through different exposure methods (filter paper contact test, immersion contact test, and artificial soil contact test). Enzyme activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the earthworm E. fetida exposed to MWCNTs and PCP-Na in filter paper contact test, both individually and under combined exposure, were determined. After exposure, PCP-Na induced observable acute toxicity while the MWCNTs induced slight toxicity. Interestingly the earthworms exposed to the mixture of MWCNTs and PCP-Na demonstrated different expression of enzymatic biomarkers from those exposed to MWCNTs or PCP-Na alone. Our results indicated that the toxicity of PCP-Na on E. fetida may be alleviated by the appearance of MWCNTs for all exposure methods except for immersion contact test. PMID:24562180

Zhang, Liujun; Hu, Changwei; Wang, Weili; Ji, Funian; Cui, Yibin; Li, Mei

2014-05-01

258

Earthworm effects on plant growth do not necessarily decrease with soil fertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms are known to generally increase plant growth. However, because plant-earthworm interactions are potentially mediated\\u000a by soil characteristics the response of plants to earthworms should depend on the soil type. In a greenhouse microcosm experiment,\\u000a the responsiveness of plants (Veronica persica, Trifolium dubium and Poa annua) to two earthworm species (in combination or not) belonging to different functional groups (Aporrectodea.

Kam-Rigne Laossi; Amandine Ginot; Diana Cristina Noguera; Manuel Blouin; Sébastien Barot

2010-01-01

259

Exotic Earthworm Influence on Nitrogen Cycling in FACE Forest Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exotic earthworm invasion in northern North American forests has the potential to significantly alter nitrogen and carbon cycling in forest soils, through litter layer losses, loss of organic horizon, and changes in fine root density. Earthworm influence on nitrogen cycling is currently being investigated in the free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) sites at Rhinelander, WI. Because of the 13C depleted CO2 used in the FACE experiment and a 15N addition to the soil, this system affords an ideal opportunity to determine the impact of earthworm activity on soil organic matter dynamics by tracking the relative abundance and stable isotope compositions of biopolymers (amino acids, etc.) isolated in earthworms fecal pellets and soils. The 15N and 13C isotope composition of earthworm fecal matter from epigeic (litter and organic matter horizon dwelling) and endogeic (predominantly mineral soil dwelling) species highlighted their distinct role in litter, surface soil, and deeper soil movement through the soil. Specifically, endogeic fecal matter exhibited a lower uptake of FACE-derived C and a more enriched 15N signal. Nitrogen content of soil between the control and elevated CO2 treatments is not significantly different; however, elevated CO2 treatments exhibited relative depletion in both the soil and root 15N with respect to controls. The loss of 15N in the roots and the top 5 cm of the soil under elevated CO2, suggests that there is greater cycling power with increased below ground productivity and earthworm activity under elevated CO2, as higher abundances of earthworms exist in the elevated CO2 treatments. Amino acid extractions from the soil and fecal matter are ongoing and will help clarify the details regarding molecular nitrogen cycling.

Top, S. M.; Filley, T. R.

2010-12-01

260

Effects of gypsum on trace metals in soils and earthworms.  

PubMed

Mined gypsum has been beneficially used for many years as an agricultural amendment. A large amount of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum is produced by removal of SO from flue gas streams when fuels with high S content are burned. The FGD gypsum, similar to mined gypsum, can enhance crop production. However, information is lacking concerning the potential environmental impacts of trace metals, especially Hg, in the FGD gypsum. Flue gas desulfurization and mined gypsums were evaluated to determine their ability to affect concentrations of Hg and other trace elements in soils and earthworms. The study was conducted at four field sites across the United States (Ohio, Indiana, Alabama, and Wisconsin). The application rates of gypsums ranged from 2.2 Mg ha in Indiana to 20 Mg ha in Ohio and Alabama. These rates are 2 to 10 times higher than typically recommended. The lengths of time from gypsum application to soil and earthworm sampling were 5 and 18 mo in Ohio, 6 mo in Indiana, 11 mo in Alabama, and 4 mo in Wisconsin. Earthworm numbers and biomass were decreased by FGD and mined gypsums in Ohio. Among all the elements examined, Hg was slightly increased in soils and earthworms in the FGD gypsum treatments compared with the control and the mined gypsum treatments. The differences were not statistically significant except for the Hg concentration in the soil at the Wisconsin site. Selenium in earthworms in the FGD gypsum treatments was statistically higher than in the controls but not higher than in the mined gypsum treatments at the Indiana and Wisconsin sites. Bioaccumulation factors for nondepurated earthworms were statistically similar or lower for the FGD gypsum treatments compared with the controls for all elements. Use of FGD gypsum at normal recommended agricultural rates seems not to have a significant impact on concentrations of trace metals in earthworms and soils. PMID:25602559

Chen, Liming; Kost, Dave; Tian, Yongqiang; Guo, Xiaolu; Watts, Dexter; Norton, Darrell; Wolkowski, Richard P; Dick, Warren A

2014-01-01

261

Comparative toxicity of pentachlorophenol to three earthworm species in artificial soil  

SciTech Connect

Although methods for standardized toxicity tests with earthworms exist, many of the test parameters and conditions have not been validated in actual tests and with different species of worms. This study evaluated the toxicity of pentachlorophenol (PCP) to three species of earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris, Eisenia fetida, and Eudrilus eugeniae using various methods of data analysis and body residues. Tests were conducted in artificial soil for a period of 28 days or until an Acute Lethality Threshold (ALT) was reached. An intensive temporal sampling regime was applied to generate sufficient data for the accurate estimation of ALTs using both LC50/time and time-to-death/soil concentration methods of data analysis. L. terrestris was tested at 15 C, E. eugeniae at 24 C, and E. fetida at both temperatures. Total body residues of PCP were measured by GC following cryogenic separation of the lipid fraction of the worm. ALTs were significantly different between E. fetida and the two larger species of worms. No effect of temperature on the ALT for E. fetida was observed, although the time taken to reach the ALT increased at the lower temperature. The relationship of PCP residues at mortality will be discussed in terms of the effects of species, body size and temperature. Limitations of the artificial soil based upon growth curves of worms will also be examined.

Fitzgerald, D.; Lanno, R.P.; Farwell, A.; Dixon, D.G. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology

1994-12-31

262

Influence of soil properties on molybdenum uptake and elimination kinetics in the earthworm Eisenia andrei  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed at determining the uptake and elimination kinetics of molybdenum in the earthworm Eisenia andrei, and the influence of soil properties on molybdenum bioaccumulation. Three natural and four artificial soils were spiked at concentrations of 10 and 100?g Mog?1 dry soil. Earthworms were exposed individually to spiked soils and sampled at different time intervals for 21d. Remaining earthworms

Maria Díez-Ortiz; Iwona Giska; Maartje Groot; Eef M. Borgman; Cornelis A. M. Van Gestel

2010-01-01

263

Large-Scale Effects of Earthworms on Soil Organic Matter and Nutrient Patrick Lavelle,1  

E-print Network

that protect soil fertility through an enhancement of biological processes. Earthworms may be considered1 Large-Scale Effects of Earthworms on Soil Organic Matter and Nutrient Dynamics Patrick Lavelle,1 and a severe depletion of soil invertebrate communities, especially earthworms (Lavelle et al. 1994

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

264

Toxicity of nickel to the earthworm and the applicability of the neutral red retention assay  

E-print Network

Toxicity of nickel to the earthworm and the applicability of the neutral red retention assay JANECK of exposure to a nickel-chloride spiked loamy sand soil. The ability of a simple earthworm biomarker-red retention time showed large individual variation for the earthworms within each exposure concentration

Hopkin, Steve

265

Using earthworms as model organisms in the laboratory: Recommendations for experimental implementations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms are used in an increasing number of microcosm experiments that investigate their behaviour and biology or that consider earthworms an environmental factor that influences soil properties and biological interactions. However, there exists no standardized protocol for performing comparable studies. After giving a short overview of the different experimental approaches using earthworms as model organisms, the present paper provides recommendations

Heinz-Christian Fründ; Kevin Butt; Yvan Capowiez; Nico Eisenhauer; Christoph Emmerling; Gregor Ernst; Martin Potthoff; Martin Schädler; Stefan Schrader

2010-01-01

266

Trophic transfer of fatty acids from gut microbiota to the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diet of earthworms includes soil organic matter, soil microbes and other microfauna, but the relative contribution of these dietary components to earthworm nutrition is not well known. Analysis of fatty acid (FA) profiles can reveal trophic relationships in soil food webs, leading to a better understanding of the energy and nutrient flows from microbiota to earthworms. The objective of

Luis Sampedro; Richard Jeannotte; Joann K. Whalen

2006-01-01

267

Influence of earthworm invasion on soil microbial biomass and activity in a northern hardwood forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent invasion and activity of exotic earthworms has profoundly altered the chemical and physical environment of surface soils in northern hardwood forests that previously had mor humus horizons. We investigated the influence of earthworm invasion on soil microbial biomass and activity in surface soils of Allegheny northern hardwood forests in central New York state. Earthworm activity in these sites had

Xuyong Li; Melany C Fisk; Timothy J Fahey; Patrick J Bohlen

2002-01-01

268

Effects of Earthworms on Soil Organic Matter and Nutrient Dynamics at a Landscape Scale over Decades  

E-print Network

of biological processes. Earthworms may be considered a biological resource for farming systems1 Effects of Earthworms on Soil Organic Matter and Nutrient Dynamics at a Landscape Scale over, and severe depletion of soil invertebrate communities, especially earthworms (Decaëns et al. 1994; Lavelle et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

269

Abstract This study addressed differences between Dip-locardia spp. (a native North American earthworm) and  

E-print Network

earthworm) and Octolasion tyrtaeum (an introduced European species), with respect to behavior, influence on soil microbial bio- mass, and plant uptake of N in tallgrass prairie soils. We manipulated earthworms to addition of earthworms, seedlings of An- dropogon gerardii (a dominant tallgrass) were estab- lished

Blair, John

270

Non-native invasive earthworms as agents of change in northern temperate forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

7 Exotic earthworms from Europe and Asia are invading many northern forests in North America that cur- rently lack native earthworms, providing an opportunity to assess the role of this important group of invertebrates in forest ecosystems. Research on earthworm invasions has focused on changes in soil struc- ture and carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling that occur following invasion.

Patrick J. Bohlen; Stefan Scheu; Cindy M. Hale; Mary Ann McLean; Sonja Migge; Peter M. Groffman; Dennis Parkinson

2004-01-01

271

Soil Biology & Biochemistry 39 (2007) 10141022 Influence of earthworm activity on aggregate-associated carbon and  

E-print Network

Soil Biology & Biochemistry 39 (2007) 1014­1022 Influence of earthworm activity on aggregate 18 November 2006 Available online 26 December 2006 Abstract Earthworms are known to be important population densities of the earthworm Aporrectodea rosea in three maize-tomato cropping systems [conventional

van Kessel, Chris

272

Is earthworms' dispersal facilitated by the ecosystem engineering activities of conspecifics?1 Gal Caro1*  

E-print Network

1 Is earthworms' dispersal facilitated by the ecosystem engineering activities of conspecifics?1 2 of earthworm's galleries on their speed of25 movements during dispersal events in the soil. We quantified, by using X-rays, the dispersal26 behaviour of earthworms in the soil. The observations were conducted

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

273

Comparisons of metal accumulation and excretion kinetics in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to contaminated  

E-print Network

Comparisons of metal accumulation and excretion kinetics in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed are present at increased concentrations in earthworms inhabiting contami- nated soils (for references see of earthworms to assim- ilate metals has led to this group being recommended for monitoring the spatial

Hopkin, Steve

274

Impact of earthworms on the diversity of microarthropods in a vertisol (Martinique)  

E-print Network

1 Impact of earthworms on the diversity of microarthropods in a vertisol (Martinique) G. Loranger communities were correlated with the spatial distribution of the earthworm Polypheretima elongata (Megascolecidae). In patches of high earthworm density (133 individuals m­2 ), microarthropod density

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

275

Influence of ground cover on earthworm communities in an unmanaged beech forest: linear gradient studies  

E-print Network

1 Influence of ground cover on earthworm communities in an unmanaged beech forest: linear gradient-mail: jean-francois.ponge@wanadoo.fr Running title: Influence of ground cover on earthworm species communities Abstract: Micro-scale changes in earthworm communities and ground cover types were studied along

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

276

The heterogeneity of humus profiles and earthworm communities in a virgin beech forest  

E-print Network

1 The heterogeneity of humus profiles and earthworm communities in a virgin beech forest J.F. Ponge and compared with the distribution of earthworm communities, canopy cover, and soil types. Geomorphology with a sandstone stratum near the ground surface was associated with the absence of earthworms and the appearance

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

277

INVASION NOTE The wave towards a new steady state: effects of earthworm  

E-print Network

INVASION NOTE The wave towards a new steady state: effects of earthworm invasion on soil microbial / Accepted: 25 June 2011 Ã? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011 Abstract Earthworms are ecosystem engineers that cause a long cascade of ecological effects when they invade previously earthworm-free forests

Minnesota, University of

278

Earthworms (Millsonia anomala, Megascolecidae) do not increase rice growth1 through enhanced nitrogen mineralization.2  

E-print Network

1 Earthworms (Millsonia anomala, Megascolecidae) do not increase rice growth1 through enhanced (LEST), UMR 137, IRD, Bondy, 93143,6 France.7 8 Abstract9 10 Earthworms have been shown to increase in the presence of earthworms (Millsonia anomala,15 Megascolecidae) and demonstrated that enhanced nitrogen

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

279

Combined effects of soil moisture and carbaryl to earthworms and plants: simulation of flood and drought scenarios.  

PubMed

Studying tolerance limits in organisms exposed to climatic variations is key to understanding effects on behaviour and physiology. The presence of pollutants may influence these tolerance limits, by altering the toxicity or bioavailability of the chemical. In this work, the plant species Brassica rapa and Triticum aestivum and the earthworm Eisenia andrei were exposed to different levels of soil moisture and carbaryl, as natural and chemical stressors, respectively. Both stress factors were tested individually, as well as in combination. Acute and chronic tests were performed and results were discussed in order to evaluate the responses of organisms to the combination of stressors. When possible, data was fitted to widely employed models for describing chemical mixture responses. Synergistic interactions were observed in earthworms exposed to carbaryl and drought conditions, while antagonistic interactions were more representative for plants, especially in relation to biomass loss under flood-simulation conditions. PMID:21514022

Lima, Maria P R; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

2011-07-01

280

Toxicity of mixtures of ?-cyhalothrin, imidacloprid and cadmium on the earthworm Eisenia fetida by combination index (CI)-isobologram method.  

PubMed

Contaminants in the environment do not appear singly and usually occur as mixtures. We applied the combination index (CI)-isobologram method which allows computerized quantitation of synergism, additive effect and antagonism to determine the nature of toxicological interactions of two pesticides ?-cyhalothrin, imidacloprid, and heavy metal cadmium towards earthworm Eisenia fetida. In an artificial soil test, ?-cyhalothrin and Cd combination was slightly synergistic at low effect levels which turned into a slight antagonism above fa values of 0.6, while the binary mixtures containing imidacloprid exhibited antagonism. The presence of imidacloprid in the ternary mixture also resulted in an antagonistic effect to the earthworms. This behavior became more antagonistic in the ternary mixture in filter paper tests. PMID:25450940

Wang, Yanhua; Chen, Chen; Qian, Yongzhong; Zhao, Xueping; Wang, Qiang; Kong, Xiangzhen

2015-01-01

281

A new and sensitive method for measuring in vivo and in vitro cytotoxicity in earthworm coelomocytes by flow cytometry.  

PubMed

This study describes a new and sensitive method for measuring the in vivo and in vitro cytotoxicity of 2 earthworm species, Eisenia andrei and Perionyx excavatus, exposed to copper. Specifically, we measured the number of coelomocyte cells that were affected by copper following in vivo and in vitro exposure by flow cytometry, after calcein acetoxymethyl ester (calcein-AM) staining. We found that the coelomocyte viability of both earthworm species was noticeably reduced in the in vivo cytotoxicity test at concentrations of 100mg/kg copper in dry soil. However, pathological symptoms, such as mucous secretion and bleeding, swelling, thinning, and fragmentation, and burrowing symptoms were not evident following exposure to copper levels of <400mg/kg dry soil. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that calcein-AM is a more sensitive test of earthworm coelomocyte cytotoxicity compared to the traditional individual level toxicity test. Therefore, this test could be used to detect low levels of metal contamination in soils. PMID:25127522

Kwak, Jin Il; Kim, Shin Woong; An, Youn-Joo

2014-10-01

282

Use of plant and earthworm bioassays to evaluate remediation of soil from a site contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls  

SciTech Connect

Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was treated with a pilot-scale, solvent extraction technology. Bioassays in earthworms and plants were used to examine the efficacy of the remediation process for reducing the toxicity of the soil. The earthworm toxicity bioassays were the 14-d survival test and 21-d reproduction test, using Lumbricus terrestris and Eisenia fetida andrei. The plant bioassays included phytotoxicity tests for seed germination and root elongation in lettuce and oats, and a genotoxicity test (anaphase aberrations) in Allium cepa (common onion). Although the PCB content of the soil was reduced by 99% (below the remediation goal), toxicity to earthworm reproduction remained essentially unchanged following remediation. Furthermore, phytotoxicity and genotoxicity were higher for the remediated soil compared to the untreated soil. The toxicity remaining after treatment appeared to be due to residual solvent introduced during the remediation process, and/or to heavy metals or other inorganic contaminants not removed by the treatment. Mixture studies involving isopropanol and known toxicants indicated possible synergistic effects of the extraction solvent and soil contaminants. The toxicity in plants was essentially eliminated by a postremediation, water-rinsing step. These results demonstrate a need for including toxicity measurements in the evaluation of technologies used in hazardous waste site remediations, and illustrate the potential value of such measurements for making modifications to remediation processes.

Meier, J.R.; Chang, L.W.; Meckes, M.C.; Smith, M.K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Jacobs, S. [DynCorp, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Torsella, J. [Oak Ridge Inst. of Science and Education, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1997-05-01

283

Fate and Uptake of Pharmaceuticals in Soil–Earthworm Systems  

PubMed Central

Pharmaceuticals present a potential threat to soil organisms, yet our understanding of their fate and uptake in soil systems is limited. This study therefore investigated the fate and uptake of 14C-labeled carbamazepine, diclofenac, fluoxetine, and orlistat in soil–earthworm systems. Sorption coefficients increased in the order of carbamazepine < diclofenac < fluoxetine < orlistat. Dissipation of 14C varied by compound, and for orlistat, there was evidence of formation of nonextractable residues. Uptake of 14C was seen for all compounds. Depuration studies showed complete elimination of 14C for carbamazepine and fluoxetine treatments and partial elimination for orlistat and diclofenac, with greater than 30% of the 14C remaining in the tissue at the end of the experiment. Pore-water-based bioconcentration factors (BCFs), based on uptake and elimination of 14C, increased in the order carbamazepine < diclofenac < fluoxetine and orlistat. Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography–Fourier transform mass spectrometry indicated that the observed uptake in the fluoxetine and carbamazepine treatments was due to the parent compounds but that diclofenac was degraded in the test system so uptake was due to unidentifiable transformation products. Comparison of our data with outputs of quantitative structure?activity relationships for estimating BCFs in worms showed that these models tend to overestimate pharmaceutical BCFs so new models are needed. PMID:24762061

2014-01-01

284

Fate and uptake of pharmaceuticals in soil-earthworm systems.  

PubMed

Pharmaceuticals present a potential threat to soil organisms, yet our understanding of their fate and uptake in soil systems is limited. This study therefore investigated the fate and uptake of (14)C-labeled carbamazepine, diclofenac, fluoxetine, and orlistat in soil-earthworm systems. Sorption coefficients increased in the order of carbamazepine < diclofenac < fluoxetine < orlistat. Dissipation of (14)C varied by compound, and for orlistat, there was evidence of formation of nonextractable residues. Uptake of (14)C was seen for all compounds. Depuration studies showed complete elimination of (14)C for carbamazepine and fluoxetine treatments and partial elimination for orlistat and diclofenac, with greater than 30% of the (14)C remaining in the tissue at the end of the experiment. Pore-water-based bioconcentration factors (BCFs), based on uptake and elimination of (14)C, increased in the order carbamazepine < diclofenac < fluoxetine and orlistat. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-Fourier transform mass spectrometry indicated that the observed uptake in the fluoxetine and carbamazepine treatments was due to the parent compounds but that diclofenac was degraded in the test system so uptake was due to unidentifiable transformation products. Comparison of our data with outputs of quantitative structure-activity relationships for estimating BCFs in worms showed that these models tend to overestimate pharmaceutical BCFs so new models are needed. PMID:24762061

Carter, Laura J; Garman, Catherine D; Ryan, James; Dowle, Adam; Bergström, Ed; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Boxall, Alistair B A

2014-05-20

285

Toxicity of sodium tungstate to earthworm, oat, radish, and lettuce.  

PubMed

Due to unknown effects of the potential exposure of the terrestrial environment to tungsten substances, a series of toxicity studies of sodium tungstate (Na(2) WO(4) ) was conducted. The effect on earthworm (Eisenia fetida) survival and reproduction was examined using Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guideline 222. No effect on either endpoint was seen at the highest concentration tested, resulting in a 56-d no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) of ?586 mg tungsten/kg dry soil (nominal concentrations). The effect of sodium tungstate on emergence and growth of plant species was examined according to OECD Guideline 208: oat (Avena sativa), radish (Raphanus sativus), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). No effects on emergence, shoot height, and dry shoot weight were observed in oats exposed to the highest concentration, resulting in a 21-d NOEC of ?586 mg tungsten/kg dry soil. The NOECs for radish and lettuce were 65 and 21.7 mg tungsten/kg dry soil (nominal concentrations), respectively. Respective 21-d median effective concentration values (EC50) for radish and lettuce were >586 and 313 mg tungsten/kg dry soil (based on shoot height) (confidence level [CL] -8.5-615); EC25 values were 152 (CL 0-331) and 55 (CL 0-114) mg tungsten/kg dry soil. Results are consistent with the few other tungsten substance terrestrial toxicity studies in the literature. PMID:21805499

Bamford, Josie E; Butler, Alicia D; Heim, Katherine E; Pittinger, Charles A; Lemus, Ranulfo; Staveley, Jane P; Lee, K Brian; Venezia, Carmen; Pardus, Michael J

2011-10-01

286

Earthworm species influence on carbon-mineral association in a sugar maple forest in northern Minnesota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-native European earthworms are invading previously earthworm-free hardwood forests in the northern Great Lakes Region. Whereas earthworms' impacts on soil morphology and geochemical properties have been well documented in agricultural settings, the role of earthworms in biogeochemical cycles of undisturbed forests remains poorly understood. The forest soils that were recently invaded by exotic earthworms, therefore, provide a unique opportunity to understand how and how much earthworms contribute to biogeochemistry of non-agricultural environments. Increased degree and extent of soil mixing is one of the better known consequences of the earthworm invasion. Our hypothesis is that invasive earthworms positively affect carbon (C) stabilization by enhancing contacts between organic matter and minerals. We are studying C-mineral complexation along a well-established earthworm chronosequence in a sugar maple forest in northern Minnesota. We have observed changes in total earthworm biomass, A horizon C storage, and total specific surface area (SSA) of minerals as the invasion progresses. Because each earthworm species has different feeding and dwelling habits, biogeochemical imprints of the invasion reflect not only earthworms' biomass but also their species composition. All earthworm species show an increase in their biomass with greater time length since the invasion, though epigeic earthworms tend to be the pioneer species. As the total earthworm biomass increases, we find greater incorporation of organic C into the A horizon; the O horizon thickness decreases from 8 to 0 cm as the A horizon thickens from ~5 cm to ~12 cm. While leaf litter biomass is negatively correlated with total earthworm biomass, dramatic decreases in litter biomass are coupled with considerable increases in the biomass of epi-endogeic species. Despite the general decrease in C storage in the A horizon with greater degree of invasion, the storages fluctuate along the transect because earthworms affect not only C concentration but also soil bulk density and A horizon thickness. Mineral's SSA in the A and E is significantly larger and greater portions of the mineral SSA are coated with C in soils with greater earthworm biomass. These results show that both mineral's capacity to complex C and the actual complexation are enhanced by earthworm invasion presumably because earthworms' ability to vertically mix soils. This growing data set will ultimately elucidate how soils' capacity to stabilize C is influenced by exotic earthworm species.

Lyttle, A.; Yoo, K.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Hale, C. M.; Sebestyen, S. D.

2011-12-01

287

Interactions between residue placement and earthworm ecological strategy affect aggregate turnover and N 2O dynamics in agricultural soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous laboratory studies using epigeic and anecic earthworms have shown that earthworm activity can considerably increase nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from crop residues in soils. However, the universality of this effect across earthworm functional groups and its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The aims of this study were (i) to determine whether earthworms with an endogeic strategy also affect N2O emissions;

Georgios Giannopoulos; Mirjam M. Pulleman; Jan Willem Van Groenigen

2010-01-01

288

Toxicity and bioaccumulation of reduced TNT metabolites in the earthworm Eisenia andrei exposed to amended forest soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and TNT primary reduction products have been found to be toxic to certain soil invertebrates, such as earthworms. The mechanism of toxicity of TNT and of its by-products is still not known. To ascertain if one of the TNT reduction products underlies TNT toxicity, we tested the toxicity and bioaccumulation of TNT reduction products. 2-Amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene

Bernard Lachance; Agnès Y. Renoux; Manon Sarrazin; Jalal Hawari; Geoffrey I. Sunahara

2004-01-01

289

Biochemical responses of the earthworm Eisenia fetida andrei exposed to contaminated artificial soil: effects of benzo(a)pyrene  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), at different concentrations and exposure times on the biochemical responses of the earthworm Eisenia fetida andrei to (1) elucidate the mechanisms of action of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and (2) explore the potential for using these responses as biomarkers for monitoring PAH-contaminated soils or for use in sublethal assays for chemical testing in

M Saint-Denis; J. F Narbonne; C Arnaud; E Thybaud; D Ribera

1999-01-01

290

The influence of soil characteristics on the toxicity of four chemicals to the earthworm Eisenia fetida andrei (Oligochaeta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute toxicity of Cd (chloride), chloroacetamide, 3,4-dichloroaniline and pentachlorophenol to the earthworm Eisenia fetida andrei was determined using the OECD (1984) artificial soil and contact testing procedures. To investigate the influence of two soil characteristics (pH and organic-matter content), the toxicity of the chemicals was also determined in two natural sandy soils. It is concluded that the filter-paper contact

C. A. M. van Gestel; W. A. Dis

1988-01-01

291

The role of sublethal effects in evaluating earthworm responses to soil contamination  

SciTech Connect

Frequently, standard test methods rely upon relatively straightforward, easily interpreted endpoints to evaluate biological effects, like growth inhibition, gross morbidity or death. In soil contamination evaluations, for example, earthworm toxicity tests are routinely completed in order to consider adverse biological effects associated with exposures to soil samples in the laboratory or field. Here, the toxicity endpoint measured in the standard test using Eisenia foetida is death; however, if chronic effects are more appropriate to the questions being asked within a risk assessment context, then alternative test endpoints must be developed and standardized. Prior evaluations have relied upon sublethal endpoints, most frequently behavioral and morphological observations, for evaluating chronic effects associated with contaminant exposures. The authors applied these behavioral and morphological endpoints in analyzing potential chronic effects in earthworms exposed to heavy metal-contaminated soils in both the laboratory and field. In using a relatively standard set of these sublethal endpoints the authors found that these endpoints could be used to evaluate chronic effects associated with soil exposures, but that selection of the specific end-points had to be adequately standardized and that observer bias had to be adequately characterized in order for these measures of chronic effects to be unequivocally applied within an ecological risk assessment.

Wilborn, D.; Bollman, M.; Linder, G. [ManTech Environmental Technology, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States)

1994-12-31

292

Robot collision avoidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planning for collision avoidance is essential in any robot application, but for most single robot cells the ancillary equipment and tooling remain in fixed and known positions relative to the cell and thus collision avoidance strategies can be planned once only, at the start of program development. With multiple robot cells not only do the robots have to avoid the

Paul Brunn

1996-01-01

293

Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document represents two views of the Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). One viewgraph presentation reviews the development and system design of Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). Two types of ACAT exist: Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance (AGCAS) and Automatic Air Collision Avoidance (AACAS). The AGCAS Uses Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) for mapping functions, and uses Navigation data to place aircraft on map. It then scans DTED in front of and around aircraft and uses future aircraft trajectory (5g) to provide automatic flyup maneuver when required. The AACAS uses data link to determine position and closing rate. It contains several canned maneuvers to avoid collision. Automatic maneuvers can occur at last instant and both aircraft maneuver when using data link. The system can use sensor in place of data link. The second viewgraph presentation reviews the development of a flight test and an evaluation of the test. A review of the operation and comparison of the AGCAS and a pilot's performance are given. The same review is given for the AACAS is given.

Swihart, Donald E.; Skoog, Mark A.

2007-01-01

294

Combined effects of oxytetracycline and Pb on earthworm Eisenia fetida.  

PubMed

Combined effects of oxytetracycline (OTC) and Pb on lysosomal membrane stability and coelomocyte apoptosis of earthworm were studied in the paper. Compared with control, the lysosomal membrane stability decreased and coelomocyte apoptosis increased in the treatments of single OTC and Pb contamination. As for compound pollution, combined effect of (5 mg/kg OTC+50 mg/kg Pb) treatment on earthworm lysosomal was synergistic (except 28 d). However, it was antagonistic at higher concentration of (10 mg/kg OTC+50 mg/kg Pb) and (20 mg/kg OTC+50 mg/kg Pb) treatment. In addition, coelomocyte apoptosis of earthworm decreased significantly compared with single OTC, indicating an antagonistic reaction. And joint toxicity of OTC and Pb decreased significantly with the increasing OTC concentration. PMID:24607684

Gao, Minling; Zhou, Qian; Song, Wenhua; Ma, Xiaojun

2014-03-01

295

Recombinant Protein Production of Earthworm Lumbrokinase for Potential Antithrombotic Application  

PubMed Central

Earthworms have been used as a traditional medicine in China, Japan, and other Far East countries for thousands of years. Oral administration of dry earthworm powder is considered as a potent and effective supplement for supporting healthy blood circulation. Lumbrokinases are a group of enzymes that were isolated and purified from different species of earthworms. These enzymes are recognized as fibrinolytic agents that can be used to treat various conditions associated with thrombosis. Many lumbrokinase (LK) genes have been cloned and characterized. Advances in genetic technology have provided the ability to produce recombinant LK and have made it feasible to purify a single lumbrokinase enzyme for potential antithrombotic application. In this review, we focus on expression systems that can be used for lumbrokinase production. In particular, the advantages of using a transgenic plant system to produce edible lumbrokinase are described. PMID:24416067

Wang, Kevin Yueju; Wang, Nan; Liu, Dehu

2013-01-01

296

Impact of Parthenium weeds on earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae) during vermicomposting.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of Parthenium-mediated compost on Eudrilus eugeniae during the process of vermicomposting. Nine different concentrations of Parthenium hysterophorus and cow dung mixtures were used to assess toxicity. The earthworms' growth, fecundity and antioxidant enzyme levels were analysed every 15 days. The antioxidant activities of enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)], considered as biomarkers, indicate the biochemical and oxidative stresses due to the toxin from Parthenium weeds. The earthworms' growth, biomass gain, cocoon production and antioxidant enzymes were in a low level in a high concentration of P. hysterophorus (without cow dung). The results clearly indicated that appropriate mixing of P. hysterophorus quantity is an essential factor for the survival of earthworms without causing any harm. PMID:24938809

Rajiv, P; Rajeshwari, Sivaraj; Rajendran, Venckatesh

2014-11-01

297

Methylation of Mercury in Earthworms and the Effect of Mercury on the Associated Bacterial Communities  

PubMed Central

Methylmercury compounds are very toxic for most organisms. Here, we investigated the potential of earthworms to methylate inorganic-Hg. We hypothesized that the anaerobic and nutrient-rich conditions in the digestive tracts of earthworm's promote the methylation of Hg through the action of their gut bacteria. Earthworms were either grown in sterile soils treated with an inorganic (HgCl2) or organic (CH3HgCl) Hg source, or were left untreated. After 30 days of incubation, the total-Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations in the soils, earthworms, and their casts were analyzed. The impact of Hg on the bacterial community compositions in earthworms was also studied. Tissue concentrations of methyl-Hg in earthworms grown in soils treated with inorganic-Hg were about six times higher than in earthworms grown in soils without Hg. Concentrations of methyl-Hg in the soils and earthworm casts remained at significantly lower levels suggesting that Hg was mainly methylated in the earthworms. Bacterial communities in earthworms were mostly affected by methyl-Hg treatment. Terminal-restriction fragments (T-RFs) affiliated to Firmicutes were sensitive to inorganic and methyl-Hg, whereas T-RFs related to Betaproteobacteria were tolerant to the Hg treatments. Sulphate-reducing bacteria were detected in earthworms but not in soils. PMID:23577209

Rieder, Stephan Raphael; Brunner, Ivano; Daniel, Otto; Liu, Bian; Frey, Beat

2013-01-01

298

Accumulation of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms  

SciTech Connect

Chlorinated benzenes are widespread in the environment. Hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene and all isomers of dichlorobenzenes, trichlorobenzenes, and tetrachlorobenzenes, have been detected in fish, water, and sediments from the Great Lakes. They probably entered the water as leachates from chemical waste dumps and as effluents from manufacturing. Hexachlorobenzene and pentachlorobenzene are commonly present in Herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs from the Great Lakes, and some of the isomers of trichlorobenzene and tetrachlorobenzene are occasionally detected at low concentrations. Hexachlorobenzene, which was formerly used as a fungicide, has been the most thoroughly studied chlorinated benzene, and has been detected in many species. Its use as a fungicide in the United States was canceled in 1984. Since about 1975 hexachlorobenzene has been formed mainly in the production of chlorinated solvents. It is highly persistent in the environment and some species are poisoned by hexachlorobenzene at very low chronic dietary exposures. As little as 1 ppm in the diet of mink (Mustela vison) reduced the birth weights of young, and 5 ppm in the diet of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) caused slight liver damage. This paper describes a long-term (26 wk) experiment relating the concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to length of exposure and three 8 wk experiments relating concentration to the concentration in soil the soil organic matter content, and the degree of chlorination. 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Beyer, W.N. [Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD (United States)] [Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD (United States)

1996-12-31

299

Earthworms facilitate carbon sequestration through unequal amplification of carbon stabilization compared with mineralization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent review concluded that earthworm presence increases CO2 emissions by 33% but does not affect soil organic carbon stocks. However, the findings are controversial and raise new questions. Here we hypothesize that neither an increase in CO2 emission nor in stabilized carbon would entirely reflect the earthworms’ contribution to net carbon sequestration. We show how two widespread earthworm invaders affect net carbon sequestration through impacts on the balance of carbon mineralization and carbon stabilization. Earthworms accelerate carbon activation and induce unequal amplification of carbon stabilization compared with carbon mineralization, which generates an earthworm-mediated ‘carbon trap’. We introduce the new concept of sequestration quotient to quantify the unequal processes. The patterns of CO2 emission and net carbon sequestration are predictable by comparing sequestration quotient values between treatments with and without earthworms. This study clarifies an ecological mechanism by which earthworms may regulate the terrestrial carbon sink.

Zhang, Weixin; Hendrix, Paul F.; Dame, Lauren E.; Burke, Roger A.; Wu, Jianping; Neher, Deborah A.; Li, Jianxiong; Shao, Yuanhu; Fu, Shenglei

2013-10-01

300

Earthworm bioturbation influences the phytoavailability of metals released by particles in cultivated soils.  

PubMed

The influence of earthworm activity on soil-to-plant metal transfer was studied by carrying out six weeks mesocosms experiments with or without lettuce and/or earthworms in soil with a gradient of metal concentrations due to particles fallouts. Soil characteristics, metal concentrations in lettuce and earthworms were measured and soil porosity in the mesocosms was determined. Earthworms increased the soil pH, macroporosity and soil organic matter content due to the burying of wheat straw provided as food. Earthworm activities increased the metals concentrations in lettuce leaves. Pb and Cd concentrations in lettuce leaves can increase up to 46% with earthworm activities … These results and the low correlation between estimated by CaCl2 and EDTA and measured pollutant phytoavailability suggest that earthworm bioturbation was the main cause of the increase. Bioturbation could affect the proximity of pollutants to the roots and soil organic matter. PMID:24858803

Leveque, Thibaut; Capowiez, Yvan; Schreck, Eva; Xiong, Tiantian; Foucault, Yann; Dumat, Camille

2014-08-01

301

Genotoxic effects of glyphosate or paraquat on earthworm coelomocytes.  

PubMed

The potential genotoxicity (nuclear anomalies, damage to single-strand DNA) and pinocytic adherence activity of two (glyphosate-based and paraquat-based) commercial herbicides to earthworm coelomocytes (immune cells in the coelomic cavity) were assessed. Coelomocytes were extracted from earthworms (Pheretima peguana) exposed to concentrations earthworms exposed to glyphosate at 25 × 10(-1) (10(-3) LC50) and paraquat at 39 × 10(-5) (10(-4) LC50) ?g cm(-2) filter paper. In earthworms exposed to glyphosate, no differences in tail DNA%, tail length, and tail moment of coelomocytes were detected. In contrast, for paraquat at 10(-1) LC50 concentration, there were significant (P < 0.05) differences between tail DNA % and tail length, and at LC50 concentration, tail moment was also significantly different when compared with controls. A decline in pinocytic adherence activity in coelomocytes occurred on exposure to glyphosate or paraquat at 10(-3) LC50 concentration. This study showed that, at concentrations well below field application rates, paraquat induces both clastogenic and aneugenic effects on earthworm coelomocytes whereas glyphosate causes only aneugenic effects and therefore does not pose a risk of gene mutation in this earthworm. PMID:22644885

Muangphra, Ptumporn; Kwankua, Wimon; Gooneratne, Ravi

2014-06-01

302

Solid phase microextraction of organic pollutants from natural and artificial soils and comparison with bioaccumulation in earthworms.  

PubMed

The presented study investigates the use of passive sampling, i.e. solid phase microextraction with polydimethylsiloxane fibers (PDMS-SPME), to assess the bioavailability of fiver neutral organic chemicals (phenanthrene, pyrene, lindane, p,p'-DDT, and PCB 153) spiked to natural and artificial soils after different aging times. Contaminant bioavailability was assessed by comparing PDMS concentrations with results from a 10 day bioaccumulation test with earthworms (Eisenia fetida). The hypotheses tested were (i) organic carbon (OC) normalization, which is commonly used to account for sorption and bioavailability of hydrophobic organic chemicals in soil risk assessment, has limitations due to differences in sorptive properties of OC and aging processes (i.e. sequestration and biodegradation) and (ii) PDMS-SPME provides a more reliable measure of soil contaminant bioavailability than OC normalized soil concentrations. The above stated hypotheses were confirmed since the results showed that: (i) the PDMS/soil organic carbon partition ratio (R) accounting for the role that OC plays in partitioning significantly differed between soils and aging times and (ii) the correlation with earthworm concentrations was better using porewater concentrations derived from PDMS concentrations than when organic normalized soil concentrations were used. Capsule: Sorption of organic compounds measured by SPME method and their bioavailability to earthworms cannot be reliably predicted using OC content. PMID:24433790

Bielská, Lucie; Šmídová, Klára; Hofman, Jakub

2014-02-01

303

Screening of actinomycetes from earthworm castings for their antimicrobial activity and industrial enzymes  

PubMed Central

Actinomycetes from earthworm castings were isolated and screened for their antimicrobial activity and industrial enzymes. A total of 48 isolates were obtained from 12 samples of earthworm castings. Highest numbers of isolates were recovered from forest site (58.33 %) as compared to grassland (25%) and agricultural land (16.66%). The growth patterns, mycelial coloration of abundance actinomycetes were documented. The dominant genera Identified by cultural, morphological and physiological characteristics were Streptomyces (60.41%) followed by Streptosporangium (10.41%),Saccharopolyspora (6.25%) and Nocardia (6.25%). Besides these, other genera like Micromonospora, Actinomadura, Microbispora, Planobispora and Nocardiopsis were also recovered but in low frequency. Among the 48 isolates, 52.08% were found active against one or more test organisms. Out of 25 active isolates 16% showed activity against bacterial, human fungal as well as phytopathogens. Among 48 isolates 38, 32, 21, 20, 16 and 14 produced enzyme amylase, caseinase, cellulase, gelatinase, xylanase and lipase respectively while 10 isolates produced all the enzymes. More interestingly 2, 3, and 1 isolates produced amylase, xylanase and lipase at 45°C respectively. In the view of its antimicrobial activity as well as enzyme production capability the genus Streptomyces was dominant. The isolate EWC 7(2) was most promising on the basis of its interesting antimicrobial activity and was identified as Streptomyces rochei. The results of these findings have increased the scope of finding industrially important actinomycetes from earthworm castings and these organisms could be promising sources for industrially important molecules or enzymes. PMID:24031819

Kumar, Vijay; Bharti, Alpana; Negi, Yogesh Kumar; Gusain, Omprakash; Pandey, Piyush; Bisht, Gajraj Singh

2012-01-01

304

Bioaccumulation of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) in earthworms in the presence of lead (Pb).  

PubMed

BDE209 (decabromodiphenyl ether) and lead (Pb) are the main contaminants at e-waste recycling sites, and their potential toxicological effects on terrestrial organisms have received extensive attention. However, the impact on earthworms of exposure to the two chemicals remains almost unknown. Therefore, indoor incubation tests were performed on control and contaminated soil samples to determine the uptake and transformation of BDE209 in the presence of Pb for the first time. The results have demonstrated that Pb addition can affect BDE209 bioaccumulation efficiency compared with exposure to BDE209 alone. For a low BDE209 concentration (1mgkg(-1)), Pb addition barely affected the uptake of BDE209, whereas for a high BDE209 concentration (100mgkg(-1)), Pb addition elicited a complex response. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation indicated that a higher level of Pb (250 and 500mgkg(-1)) facilitated the uptake of BDE209 through the skin. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis showed that the peak of BDE209 accumulation usually appeared in the joint exposure groups involving 10 or 100mgkg(-1) BDE209 and 250mgkg(-1) Pb, and the average bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was 0.53, which is more than 1.2 times that of single exposure to BDE209 (average=0.44). Also, the earthworms eliminated more BDE209 after 21d, and the biodegradation products were mainly BDE206 and BDE208. Furthermore, Pb addition can affect the transformation efficiency of BDE209 in earthworms, and several lower bromodiphenyl ethers can be detected. The results of these observations have provided a basic understanding of the potential ecotoxicological effects of joint PBDE and heavy metal exposure on terrestrial invertebrates. PMID:24556543

Zhang, Wei; Chen, Lin; Liu, Kou; Chen, Lei; Lin, Kuangfei; Chen, Yongsheng; Yan, Zenguang

2014-07-01

305

An earthworm-like actuator using segmented solenoids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A biomimetic actuator is developed using four segmented solenoids mimicking earthworm locomotion. The proposed actuator not only has a simple structure composed of cores and coils, but also enables bi-directional actuation and high speed locomotion regardless of friction conditions. We have implemented theoretical analysis to design the optimal profiles of input current signal for maximum speed and predict the output force and stroke. Experiments using a prototype show that the earthworm-like actuator travels with a speed above 60 mm s-1 regardless of friction conditions.

Shin, Bu Hyun; Choi, Seung-Wook; Bang, Young-Bong; Lee, Seung-Yop

2011-10-01

306

Glycosylated trypsin-like proteases from earthworm Eisenia fetida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although groups of earthworm proteases have been found by several laboratories, it is still unclear how many of the isolated trypsin-like fibrinolytic enzymes are in glycosylated form. Here, eight glycosylated fibrinolytic proteases (EfP-0-1, EfP-0-2, EfP-I-1, EfP-I-2, EfP-II-1, EfP-II-2, EfP-III-1 and EfP-III-2) were isolated from an earthworm species (Eisenia fetida) through a stepwise-purification procedure: ammonium sulfate precipitation, affinity chromatography on a

Jin Xia Wu; Xiao Yu Zhao; Rong Pan; Rong Qiao He

2007-01-01

307

A multi-biomarker risk assessment of the impact of brominated flame retardant-decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) on the antioxidant system of earthworm Eisenia fetida.  

PubMed

Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) is the major contaminant at e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs), and its potential toxicological effects on terrestrial organisms have received extensive attention. However, the impacts of BDE209 on the antioxidant defense system in terrestrial organisms remain vague. Therefore, indoor incubation tests were performed systematically on control and contaminated soil samples to determine the effects of BDE209 on the antioxidant system of earthworm Eisenia fetida. The results showed that compared to the controls, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in all treated groups were elevated significantly after 21 and 28 days exposure; catalase (CAT) activities were much higher in all tests during the entire exposure period; peroxidase (POD) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) activities generally decreased and indicated contrary response trend; the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) after exposure to low level of BDE209 (1 mg kg(-1)) was induced, whereas at 10 and 100 mg kg(-1) concentrations it showed suppression status; electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra suggested that hydroxyl radicals (OH) in earthworms were significantly induced by BDE209; the changes in malondialdehyde (MDA) contents suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) might lead to cellular lipid peroxidation in earthworms. The results of these observations suggested that severe oxidative stress occurred in E. fetida, and it may play an important role in inducing the BDE209 toxicity to earthworms. PMID:25016100

Zhang, Wei; Liu, Kou; Chen, Lin; Chen, Lei; Lin, Kuangfei; Fu, Rongbing

2014-07-01

308

{sup 32}P-postlabeling determination of DNA adducts in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris exposed to PAH-contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

The importance of the search for reliable biomarkers of DNA damage in environmental health assessment is well recognized by the scientific community and regulatory agencies. Among the major biomarkers of DNA damage is the measurement of DNA adducts in target cells or tissues. Up to now, DNA adduct determinations have been directed mostly toward human exposure to toxic substances from the workplace and environment. Moreover, techniques for measuring DNA adducts, and in particular the {sup 32}P-postlabelling technique, presented also the possibility of determining DNA adduct levels in endogenous animal populations exposed to polluted environments as early warning monitors of ecotoxicity. Soil contamination is becoming a major environmental issue. Therefore, numerous contaminated sites must now be remediated to protect human health and to permit new uses of these sites as agricultural, residential, or industrial areas. Fulfillment of this task requires standardized and sensitive bioassays to carry out site evaluations and to establish scientifically defensible soil quality criteria. To that effect, the earthworm appears to be one of the best organisms for use in soil toxicity evaluation. Earthworms are probably the most relevant soil species, representing 60 to 80% of the total animal biomass in soil. Present soil bioassays focus mostly on plant species with end points like seed germination, root elongation, seedling growth and seedling emergence, and on acute toxicity evaluation (re: LC 50) on the earthworm Eisenia fetida. As yet, a standardized soil invertebrate test for teratogenic or mutagenic end points has not been developed. In this paper, we report the feasibility of DNA adduct determination by {sup 32}P-postlabelling in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris as a way to detect the presence of genotoxic substances in soils. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Walsh, P. [Laval Univ. Research Center, Quebec (Canada)]|[Ministere de l`Environnement et de la Faune du Quebec (Canada); El Adlouni, C.; Mukhopadhyay, M.J.; Nadeau, D.; Poirier, G.G. [Laval Univ. Research Center, Quebec (Canada); Viel, G. [CreaLab., Quebec (Canada)

1995-05-01

309

Heavy metal concentrations in earthworms from soil amended with sewage sludge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Metal concentrations in soil may be elevated considerably when metal-laden sewage sludge is spread on land. Metals in earthworms (Lumbricidae) from agricultural fields amended with sewage sludge and from experimental plots were examined to determine if earthworms are important in transferring metals in soil to wildlife. Earthworms from four sites amended with sludge contained significantly (P . < 0.05) more Cd (12 times), Cu (2.4 times), Zn (2.0 times), and Pb (1.2 times) than did earthworms from control sites, but the concentrations detected varied greatly and depended on the particular sludge application. Generally, Cd and Zn were concentrated by earthworms relative to soil, and Cu, Pb, and Ni were not concentrated. Concentrations of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb in earthworms were correlated (P < 0.05) with those in soil. The ratio of the concentration of metals in earthworms to the concentration of metals in soil tended to be lower in contaminated soil than in clean soil. Concentrations of Cd as high as 100 ppm (dry wt) were detected in earthworms from soil containing only 2 ppm Cd. These concentrations are considered hazardous to wildlife that eat worms. Liming soil decreased Cd concentrations in earthworms slightly (P < 0.05) but had no discernible effect on concentrations of the other metals studied. High Zn concentrations in soil substantially reduced Cd concentrations in earthworms.

Beyer, W.N.; Chaney, R.L.; Mulhern, B.M.

1982-01-01

310

Partial characterization of phosphotriesterase activity from the earthworm, Eisenia andrei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphotriesterase (PTE) receives attention because it seems to be associated with the detoxification of organophosphorous pesticides and organophosphate resistance mechanism. In order to understand the biodegradation of phosphotriester pesticides and its significance in the earthworm, a major non-target animal of pesticides, selected properties of phosphotriesterase activity derived from the crude extract of Eisenia andrei were investigated. PTE activity appeared to

Myung Sik Lee; Sung Jin Cho; Eun Sik Tak; Ki Seok Koh; Jong Kil Choo; Hee Woo Park; Eungbin Kim; Youngeun Na; Soon Cheol Park

2001-01-01

311

In vitro characterization of cholinesterases in the earthworm Eisenia andrei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of pollution impact in soil ecosystems has become a priority and interest has grown concerning the use of invertebrates as sentinel organisms. Inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) activity has a great potential as a biomarker of pesticide exposure, and we evaluated the ChE kinetic parameters in the earthworm Eisenia andrei in the presence of acetylthiocholine (ASCh), proprionylthiocholine (PSCh) and butyrylthiocholine

Federico Caselli; Laura Gastaldi; Naimj Gambi; Elena Fabbri

2006-01-01

312

Microbial activity and nutrient dynamics in earthworm casts (Lumbricidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial respiration, microbial biomass and nutrient requirements of the microflora (C, N, P) were studied in the food substrate (soil taken from the upper 3 cm of the mineral soil of a beech wood on limestone), the burrow walls and the casts of the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny). The passage of the soil through the gut caused an increase in

S. Scheu

1987-01-01

313

Do earthworms increase N2O emissions in ploughed grassland?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworm activity has been reported to lead to increased production of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). This is due to emissions from worms themselves, their casts and drilosphere, as well as to general changes in soil structure. However, it remains to be determined how important this effect is on N2O fluxes from agricultural systems under realistic conditions in terms

C. Bertora; Vliet van P. C. J; E. W. J. Hummelink; Groenigen van J. W

2007-01-01

314

Earthworm casting: Stabilization or destabilization of soil structure?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the gut passage through earthworms on the aggregate stability of soils varying in texture, carbonate and organic matter content. The soil material used originated from the Ap and B horizon of a loam soil (Gleyic Luvisol) and from the Ap and P horizon of a clay soil (Calcaric-Vertic Cambisol).

Stefan Schrader; Haiquan Zhang

1997-01-01

315

Do earthworms increase N 2O emissions in ploughed grassland?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworm activity has been reported to lead to increased production of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). This is due to emissions from worms themselves, their casts and drilosphere, as well as to general changes in soil structure. However, it remains to be determined how important this effect is on N2O fluxes from agricultural systems under realistic conditions in terms

Chiara Bertora; Petra C. J. van Vliet; Eduard W. J. Hummelink; Jan Willem van Groenigen

2007-01-01

316

TOXICITY OF METALS TO THE EARTHWORM 'EISENIA FETIDA'  

EPA Science Inventory

Development of methods to measure the effect of man's residuals on soil ecosystems is desirable. Earthworms, as one of the largest and most easily obtained components of the soil biota, are suitable for evaluating perturbations to soil ecosystems. The impact of five metals (Cd, C...

317

Impact of biochar on earthworm populations: A review  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Despite the overwhelming importance of earthworm activity in the soil system, there are a limited number of studies that have examined the impact resulting from biochar addition to soil. Biochar is part of the black carbon continuum of chemo-thermal converted biomass. This review summarizes existing...

318

Mechanisms of stabilization of earthworm casts and artificial casts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh casts were collected from the earthworm species Aporrectodea caliginosa, and artificial casts were also made. The casts were subjected to ageing, drying-rewetting, and sterilization by hexanol vapour. Clay dispersion was determined, as a measure of the lack of stability of the casts. Two soils were used, the topsoil of a recently reclaimed polder soil in the Netherlands and the

J. C. Y. Marinissen; A. R. Dexter

1990-01-01

319

ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL DETECTION OF SUBLETHAL NEUROTOXIC EFFECTS IN INTACT EARTHWORMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The nervous system of earthworms is a logical site for studying the deleterious effects of many toxic substances because neural functions are often more sensitive to disruption than other physiological processes. However, the sublethal effects of toxicants on neural and behaviora...

320

Earthworm Population Studies : a Comparison of Sampling Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

SVENDSEN1 showed that the estimate of an earthworm population obtained by hand sorting soil samples was much greater than that by the prevalent method of bringing worms to the soil surface with potassium permanganate solution, and so emphasized that, although laborious, hand sorting was more accurate for population studies. The accuracy of estimates by hand sorting has not been studied

F. Raw

1960-01-01

321

The Earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae)of Wyoming, USA, Revisited.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This survey of the earthworms from 22 of the 23 counties of Wyoming recorded 13 species of terrestrial Oligochaeta, all members of the family Lumbricidae. One of these species, Aporrectodea limicola, is reported for the first time from the state. Current nomenclature is applied to historical records...

322

A Colony of Highly Phosphorescent EarthWorms  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN the sheltered westward corner of a small grass-plat in this city there is a colony of highly phosphorescent earth-worms. The annelid is round, pellucid, slender, of a faint yellowish tint, is about two inches long, and is not flattened behind. I have been unable to distinguish segmentation. The worm is entirely luminous. The phosphorescence has precisely the bright greenish

J. Lloyd-Bozward

1897-01-01

323

The diversity of digestive systems in tropical geophagous earthworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the enzymes found in the gut contents of endogeic geophagous earthworms are produced by ingested microflora. This study compares the origin and activities of glucosidic enzymes present in the gut contents of adult Polypheretima elongata from Sainte Anne (Martinique), Pontoscolex corethrurus from Palma Sola, Veracruz (Mexico) and Millsonia anomala from Lamto (Côte d'Ivoire). Substrates characteristic of plant material

C Lattaud; S Locati; P Mora; C Rouland; P Lavelle

1998-01-01

324

Effects of dioxin exposure in Eisenia andrei: integration of biomarker data by an Expert System to rank the development of pollutant-induced stress syndrome in earthworms.  

PubMed

A battery of biomarkers has recently been developed in the earthworm Eisenia andrei. In this study, different biomarkers (i.e. Ca²?-ATPase activity, lysosomal membrane stability-LMS, lysosomal lipofuscin and neutral lipid content) were utilized to evaluate the alterations in the physiological status of animals, induced by exposure for 3d to different sublethal concentrations of TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) (1.5 × 10?³, 1.5 × 10?², 1.5×10?¹ ng mL?¹) utilizing the paper contact toxicity test. Lysosome/cytoplasm volume ratio and DNA damage were also evaluated as a biomarker at the tissue level and as a biomarker of genotoxicity, respectively. Moreover, the NR retention time assay conditions were optimized for the determination of in vivo LMS in earthworm coelomocytes. The results demonstrate that LMS and Ca²?-ATPase activity were early warning biomarkers able to detect the effects of minimal amounts of TCDD and that biomarkers evaluated at the tissue level are important for following the evolution of the stress syndrome in earthworms. To evaluate the health status of the animals, an Earthworm Expert System (EES) for biomarker data integration and interpretation was developed. The EES proved to be a suitable tool able to rank, objectively, the different levels of the stress syndrome in E. andrei induced by the different concentrations of TCDD. PMID:21777938

Sforzini, Susanna; Dagnino, Alessandro; Oliveri, Laura; Canesi, Laura; Viarengo, Aldo

2011-10-01

325

Ternary toxicological interactions of insecticides, herbicides, and a heavy metal on the earthworm Eisenia fetida.  

PubMed

The combined toxicities of five insecticides (chlorpyrifos, avermectin, imidacloprid, ?-cyhalothrin, and phoxim), two herbicides (atrazine and butachlor), and a heavy metal (cadmium) have been examined using the acute toxicity test on the earthworm. With a concentration of 2.75mg/kg being lethal for 50% of the organisms, imidacloprid exhibited the highest acute toxicity toward the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Toxicological interactions of these chemicals in ternary mixtures were studied using the combination-index (CI) equation method. Twenty-one ternary mixtures exhibited various interactive effects, in which 11 combinations showed synergistic effects, four led to dual synergistic/additive behaviors, one exhibited an additive effect, and five showed increasing antagonism within the entire range of effects. The CI method was compared with the classical models of concentration addition and independent action, and it was found that the CI method could accurately predict combined toxicity of the chemicals studied. The predicted synergism in the majority of the mixtures, especially at low-effect levels, might have implications in the real terrestrial environment. PMID:25463238

Wang, Yanhua; Chen, Chen; Qian, Yongzhong; Zhao, Xueping; Wang, Qiang

2015-03-01

326

Effects of PAHs and dioxins on the earthworm Eisenia andrei: A multivariate approach for biomarker interpretation.  

PubMed

In this study, a battery of biomarkers was utilised to evaluate the stress syndrome induced in the earthworm Eisenia andrei by exposure to environmentally realistic concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD) in OECD soil. The set of tests was then employed to assess the toxicity of field soils contaminated with organic xenobiotic compounds (such as PAHs, dioxins and PCBs). The results highlighted an impairment of immune and metabolic functions and genotoxic damage in worms exposed also to lower bioavailable concentrations of toxic chemicals. Multivariate analysis of biomarker data showed that all different contaminated soils had a detrimental effect on the earthworms. A separation between temporal and concentration factors was also evident for B[a]P and TCDD treatments; and field contaminated soils were further differentiated reflecting a diverse contamination. Multivariate analysis also demonstrated that lysosomal membrane stability can be considered a prognostic indicator for worm health status. PMID:25305466

Sforzini, Susanna; Moore, Michael N; Boeri, Marta; Bencivenga, Mauro; Viarengo, Aldo

2015-01-01

327

Urban soil biomonitoring by beetle and earthworm populations  

SciTech Connect

Two macro invertebrate groups were chosen for biomonitoring environmental changes. The beetle population was pitfall trapped (five month in 1994) at five downtown sites (parks) of Budapest and in a hilly original woodland as a control site 33km NW of Budapest. Earthworms were collected by using formol solution. Five heavy metals were measured (Pb, Co, Hg, Zn, Cu) in the upper soil layer at the same sampling sites. Pb, Hg, Zn and Cu was over the tolerable limit in a park near the railway, extreme high Pb (530 mg/kg dry soil) and Zn content was measured in one park. Roads are also salted in wintertime. The number of beetle species in the downtown parks varied 10 to 22 (226--462 specimen). Near to the edge of the city up to 45 beetle species were found in a park with 1,027 specimen. In the woodland area 52 beetle species with 1,061 specimen were found. Less dominance and higher specific diversity showed the direction from downtown to woodland. Only 2 or 3 cosmopolitan earthworm species existed in downtown parks with 30--35 specimen/m{sup 2}, in the control woodland area 7 mostly endemic earthworm species were found with 74 specimens/m{sup 2}. But earthworm biomass was higher in three well fertilized parks (43--157 g/m{sup 2}), than in the original woodland (25-g/m{sup 2}). The beetle populations seem to be good tools for biomonitoring. Earthworms are susceptible to environmental changes but they also strongly depend on the leaf litter and the organic matter of the soil. The change in the animal populations is the result of summarized environmental impacts in such a big city like Budapest.

Janossy, L.; Bitto, A. [ELTE Univ., Budapest (Hungary)

1995-12-31

328

Accumulation of heavy metals in the earthworm Eisenia foetida  

SciTech Connect

Conversion of waste-activated sludge into egesta by the earthworm Eisenia foetida resulted in neither an increase nor decrease of 0.1 N HCl-extractable cadmium, copper, nickel, lead, or zinc. The addition of 2500 ppM copper as copper sulfate to activated sludge caused 100% mortality whthin 1 week, though feeding upon nonamended activated sludges with up to 1500 ppM copper over several months was innocuous. Amendment of sludge with 10, 50, and 100 ppM Cd as CdSO/sub 4/ resulted in 3.90-, 2.04-, and 1.44-fold concentrations in the earthworm over the quantities present in the sludge, with a range of 118 to 170 ppM being found on exposure to the highest level for periods of 1 to 5 weeks at 25/sup 0/C. In field trials with nonamended sludge, however, containing 12 to 27 ppM Cd, biweekly sampling for 28 weeks revealed accumulations in E. foetida ranging from 8 to 46 ppM; control earthworms not exposed to culture media with easily measurable Cd levels contained 0.3 to 2 ppM Cd. Upwards to about 50 ppM Ni, 325 ppM Pb, and 250 ppM Zn accumulated from sludges amended with ionic soluble forms of these metals. In the field, where these metals ranged from 2 to 46, 1 to 53, and 68 to 210 ppM, respectively, an upper concentration of about 50 ppM Ni, 55 ppM Pb, and 250 ppM Zn were found in the earthworm. Distinctions were made between accumulable and concentratable and a discussion is provided to show that each of the most problematic heavy metals, Cd, Zn, Ni, Pb, and Cu, may accumulate or concentrate in the earthworm.

Hartenstein, R. (State Univ. of New York, Syracuse); Neuhauser, E.F.; Collier, J.

1980-01-01

329

Localization and characterization of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the body of the earthworm Eisenia andrei (Oligochaeta, Annelida)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to characterize the compartmental distribution of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (S-GAGs) in adults and their occurrence during the development of the earthworm Eisenia andrei. S-GAGs were extracted from the body of earthworms to identify their composition and the time of their appearance and disappearance in embryonic, newborn, juvenile, and adult earthworms. S-GAGs were also analyzed in

Hanna B. F. Amaral; Samuel H. Mateus; Laina C. Ferreira; Cristiane C. Ribeiro; Antonio Palumbo-Junior; Maria-Aparecida O. Domingos; Leonardo P. Cinelli; Adilson Costa-Filho; Luiz E. Nasciutti; Luiz-Claudio F. Silva

2011-01-01

330

Earthworm influence on carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide fluxes from an unfertilized corn agroecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms modify the soil environment through their feeding, casting, and burrowing activities, which may lead to more decomposition\\u000a and respiration in aerobic microsites and more denitrification in anaerobic microsites. The objective of this study was to\\u000a determine whether earthworms increase CO2 and N2O fluxes from an unfertilized corn agroecosystem. Earthworm populations within field enclosures (2.9 m2) were reduced by repeatedly applying

Alicia B. Speratti; Joann K. Whalen; Philippe Rochette

2007-01-01

331

Population dynamics of earthworm communities in corn agroecosystems receiving organic or inorganic fertilizer amendments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of earthworm populations were investigated in continuously-cropped, conventional disk-tilled corn agroecosystems\\u000a which had received annual long-term (6 years) amendments of either manure or inorganic fertilizer. Earthworm populations were\\u000a sampled at approximately monthly intervals during the autumn of 1994 and spring and autumn of 1995 and 1996. The dominant\\u000a earthworm species were Lumbricus terrestris L. and Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen),

J. K. Whalen; R. W. Parmelee; C. A. Edwards

1998-01-01

332

Endogeic earthworms differentially influence bacterial communities associated with different soil aggregate size fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endogeic earthworm activities can strongly influence soil structure. Although soil microorganisms are thought to be central to earthworm-facilitated aggregate formation, how and where within the soil matrix earthworm-facilitated influences on soil microbial communities are manifested is poorly defined. In this study we used 16S rRNA gene-based terminal restriction fragment polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses to examine bacterial communities associated with different aggregate

Daniel L. Mummey; Matthias C. Rillig; Johan Six

2006-01-01

333

Earthworm-induced distribution of organic matter in macro-aggregates from differently managed arable fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the influence of soil structure on organic matter decomposition, and the possible role of earthworms therein, aggregates of the size of earthworm casts (3–4.8 mm) were sieved from air-dry soil of three arable fields. Due to different management histories (in terms of manuring and pesticide use), organic matter contents and earthworm population densities varied markedly between the fields.

J. C. Y. Marinissen; S. I. Hillenaar

1997-01-01

334

Movement of N from decomposing earthworm tissue to soil, microbial and plant N pools  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microcosm experiment was made to determine the fate of nitrogen released from 15N-labelled decomposing earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) in soil in the presence or absence of ryegrass seedlings (Lolium perenne). Earthworm tissue (2.0% 15N atom enriched) was added to each microcosm. Nitrogen movement from earthworm tissue to soil N [mineral N (NH4-N+NO3-N), dissolved organic N (DON) and organic N], microbial

Joann K. Whalen; Robert W. Parmelee; David A. McCartney; Jessica L. Vanarsdale

1999-01-01

335

Earthworm populations and species distributions under no-till and conventional tillage in Indiana and Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms often play an important role in maintaining or improving soil physical conditions, and earthworm populations often increase under reduced tillage systems. The objective of our study was to determine earthworm populations and species distributions under long-term no-till vs conventional tillage on a variety of soil types in the states of Indiana and Illinois, U.S.A. Fourteen paired sites were located

Eileen J. Kladivko; Neela M. Akhouri; Glenn Weesies

1997-01-01

336

Accumulation of methylmercury in the earthworm, Eisenia foetida, and its effect on regeneration  

SciTech Connect

Earthworms provide an appropriate model for evaluating the environmental hazards of metals in soil, and they are also excellent organisms for studying the process of regeneration. Two studies have found that concentrations of mercury in earthworms were higher than those in the soil where they lived. This study investigates the accumulation of methylmercury in the earthworm, Eisenia foetida (Savigny), and its effect on regeneration after excision of the caudal end.

Beyer, W.N.; Cromartie, E.; Moment, G.B.

1985-08-01

337

Toxicity and transformation of insecticide fenamiphos to the earthworm Eisenia fetida  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to investigate the toxicity of the organophosphate insecticide fenamiphos to earthworms (Eisenia fetida) under laboratory conditions. Earthworms were exposed to soils differing in their physico-chemical properties spiked with\\u000a fenamiphos at concentrations ranging from 10 to 200 mg kg?1 for a period of 4 weeks. Residues of fenamiphos and its metabolites were determined in both soils and earthworms after 4 weeks

Tanya P. Cáceres; Mallavarapu Megharaj; Ravi Naidu

2011-01-01

338

Earthworm response to rotation and tillage in a Missouri claypan soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural management practices affect earthworm populations. A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect\\u000a of two rotations and two tillage systems on earthworm population density and biomass in a claypan soil. The rotations were\\u000a soybean\\/corn and wheat\\/corn, and the tillage systems were conventional tillage (chisel plowed and disked) and no-tillage.\\u000a Earthworm and soil samples were collected in fall 1995,

V. C. Hubbard; D. Jordan; J. A. Stecker

1999-01-01

339

Role of soil interstitial water in the accumulation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine in the earthworm Eisenia andrei.  

PubMed

The uptake of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) from soil by the earthworm Eisenia andrei was examined by using the equilibrium partitioning (EqP) theory and a three-compartment model including soil (S), interstitial water (IW), and earthworms (E). The RDX concentrations were measured using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Method 8330A and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The S-IW studies were conducted using four natural soils with contrasting physicochemical properties that were hypothesized to affect the bioavailability of RDX. Each soil was amended with nominal RDX concentrations ranging from 1 to 10,000 mg/kg. The HPLC analysis showed that the IW extracted from soil was saturated with RDX at 80 mg/kg or greater soil concentrations. The calculated S-IW coefficient (K(p)) values for RDX ranged from 0.4 to 1.8 ml/g soil, depending on the soil type, and were influenced by the organic matter content. In the IW-E studies, earthworms were exposed to nonlethal RDX concentrations in aqueous media. The uptake of RDX by the earthworms correlated well (r(2) = 0.99) with the dissolved RDX concentrations. For the E-S studies, earthworms were exposed to RDX-amended soils used in the S-IW studies. The bioconcentration factors (BCF; ratios of E-to-IW RDX concentrations) were relatively constant ( approximately 5) up to 80 mg/kg soil RDX concentrations, which encompass the RDX saturation limit in the interstitial water of the tested soils. At this concentration range, the RDX uptake from interstitial water was likely dominated by passive diffusion and could be used as an indicator of bioavailability. Other mechanisms may be involved at greater RDX soil concentrations. PMID:20821531

Savard, Kathleen; Sarrazin, Manon; Dodard, Sabine G; Monteil-Rivera, Fanny; Kuperman, Roman G; Hawari, Jalal; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

2010-04-01

340

Localization and characterization of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the body of the earthworm Eisenia andrei (Oligochaeta, Annelida).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterize the compartmental distribution of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (S-GAGs) in adults and their occurrence during the development of the earthworm Eisenia andrei. S-GAGs were extracted from the body of earthworms to identify their composition and the time of their appearance and disappearance in embryonic, newborn, juvenile, and adult earthworms. S-GAGs were also analyzed in earthworm tissue using histochemical metachromatic staining. Purified S-GAGs obtained from the whole body of adult earthworms were composed of chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparan sulfate (HS). In addition, an unknown, highly sulfated polysaccharide (HSP) was detected. In order to characterize specifically the S-GAG composition in the integument, earthworms were dissected and as much as possible of their viscera was removed. HS and CS were the predominant sulfated polysaccharides in the dissected integument, whereas in viscera, CS, HS and the HSP were found in proportions similar to those identified in the body. The qualitative S-GAG composition in juveniles was similar to that obtained from adult earthworms. CS was the predominant S-GAG in newborn earthworms, accompanied by lesser amounts of HS and by tiny amounts of the HSP. This study provides a detailed descriptive account of the pattern of S-GAG synthesis during development, and also the characterization of the tissue distribution of these compounds in the body of earthworms. PMID:20546857

Amaral, Hanna B F; Mateus, Samuel H; Ferreira, Laina C; Ribeiro, Cristiane C; Palumbo-Junior, Antonio; Domingos, Maria-Aparecida O; Cinelli, Leonardo P; Costa-Filho, Adilson; Nasciutti, Luiz E; Silva, Luiz-Claudio F

2011-07-01

341

[Chemical composition of earthworm (Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus rubellus) silages].  

PubMed

Earthworms (Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus rubellus) were ensiled with ground sorghum and molasses in the following proportions: 1) 60% earthworms, 40% sorghum; 2) 60% earthworms, 40% sorghum, adjusting pH to 4.0 with HCl; 3) 60% earthworms, 20% sorghum, 20% molasses; 4) 60% earthworms, 20% sorghum, 20% molasses, adjusting pH to 4.0 with HCl. These mixtures were allowed to ferment for 15 days at 18 degrees C. pH, proximate chemical analyses, digestible protein, true protein, ammonia nitrogen, acetic, propionic and butyric acid, lactic acid and gross energy were analyzed in the ensiled mixtures. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and orthogonal contrasts. No differences (P > 0.0001) were found in the percentage of moisture, ether extract, crude fiber and crude protein (52.22, 2.96, 1.15, 22.00, 51.76, 3.48, 1.28, 20.17; 53.89, 3.23, 0.95, 20.63; 54.87, 2.99, 1.03, 21.14, for treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively). Neither there was any difference (P > 0.0001) for true protein and gross energy (7.57, 4.37; 6.92, 4.41; 5.45, 4.37; 6.38, 4.30, for treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively). Ash content (P < 0.0001) and nitrogen free extract (p < 0.02) were different between treatments with sorghum and treatments with sorghum and molasses (3.80, 70.09; 3.60, 71.47; 6.08, 69.11; 6.63, 68.21, for treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively). Digestible protein was also different (P < 0.01) for treatment 1 (96.78) than 2 (94.34). pH values were lower (P < 0.03) for treatment 2 (3.80) and 4 (3.76), where HCl was added than for 1 (4.06) and 3 (4.16). Ammonia nitrogen values were very low for all treatments. Lactic:acetic acid ratio was large for all treatments (7.55, 14.83, 8.30, 7.63 for treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively). It is concluded that it is possible to preserve the earthworms E. fetida and L. rubellus by ensiling, adding a source of carbohydrates, such as sorghum or molasses. Not being necessary the addition of acids to have an adequate fermentation. PMID:9429616

Ortega Cerrilla, M E; Reyes Ortigoza, A L; Mendoza Martínez, G

1996-12-01

342

Reactive Collision Avoidance Algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reactive collision avoidance (RCA) algorithm allows a spacecraft to find a fuel-optimal trajectory for avoiding an arbitrary number of colliding spacecraft in real time while accounting for acceleration limits. In addition to spacecraft, the technology can be used for vehicles that can accelerate in any direction, such as helicopters and submersibles. In contrast to existing, passive algorithms that simultaneously design trajectories for a cluster of vehicles working to achieve a common goal, RCA is implemented onboard spacecraft only when an imminent collision is detected, and then plans a collision avoidance maneuver for only that host vehicle, thus preventing a collision in an off-nominal situation for which passive algorithms cannot. An example scenario for such a situation might be when a spacecraft in the cluster is approaching another one, but enters safe mode and begins to drift. Functionally, the RCA detects colliding spacecraft, plans an evasion trajectory by solving the Evasion Trajectory Problem (ETP), and then recovers after the collision is avoided. A direct optimization approach was used to develop the algorithm so it can run in real time. In this innovation, a parameterized class of avoidance trajectories is specified, and then the optimal trajectory is found by searching over the parameters. The class of trajectories is selected as bang-off-bang as motivated by optimal control theory. That is, an avoiding spacecraft first applies full acceleration in a constant direction, then coasts, and finally applies full acceleration to stop. The parameter optimization problem can be solved offline and stored as a look-up table of values. Using a look-up table allows the algorithm to run in real time. Given a colliding spacecraft, the properties of the collision geometry serve as indices of the look-up table that gives the optimal trajectory. For multiple colliding spacecraft, the set of trajectories that avoid all spacecraft is rapidly searched on-line. The optimal avoidance trajectory is implemented as a receding-horizon model predictive control law. Therefore, at each time step, the optimal avoidance trajectory is found and the first time step of its acceleration is applied. At the next time step of the control computer, the problem is re-solved and the new first time step is again applied. This continual updating allows the RCA algorithm to adapt to a colliding spacecraft that is making erratic course changes.

Scharf, Daniel; Acikmese, Behcet; Ploen, Scott; Hadaegh, Fred

2010-01-01

343

Capacitor Test, Evaluation. and Modeling Within NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program. "Why Ceramic Capacitors Fracture During Manual Soldering and How to Avoid Failures"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presentation discusses: (1) Why Multi-Layer Ceramic Capacitors(MLCCs) crack during manual soldering? Workmanship and parts issues. (2) Do existing qualification requirements assure crack-free soldering? MIL-spec Thermal Shock (TS) testing. MIL-spec Resistance to Soldering Heat (RSH) test. (3) What test can assure reliable soldering? Mechanical characteristics of ceramics. Comparison of three TS techniques: LND, TSD, and IWT. (4) Simulation of TS conditions.

Teverovsky, Alexander

2011-01-01

344

Influence of mineral soil on the palatability of organic matter for lumbricid earthworms: A simple food preference study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The food-preference behaviour of earthworms was examined in order to develop earthworm feeds which might act as a microbial carrier in earthworm-mediated dispersal of beneficial microorganisms in soil. A circular choice chamber containing 18 feeding stations was used to assess the food-type preference of four earthworm species (Aporrectodea caliginosa, A. longa, Lumbricus rubellus, L. terrestris). Representatives of each species were

Bernard M. Doube; Olaf Schmidt; Ken Killham; Ray Correll

1997-01-01

345

In situ localization and substrate specificity of earthworm protease-II and protease-III-1 from Eisenia fetida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the function in fibrinolysis of earthworm proteases has been studied. In our experiments, earthworm protease-II (EfP-II) and earthworm protease-III-1 (EfP-III-1) were isolated and purified from Eisenia fetida. As shown by the assay of sections of the earthworm on fibrin plates, the enzymic activity was mainly detected around the clitellum. In the presence of anti-EfP-II or anti-EfP-III-1 serum, the immunological

Jing Zhao; Rong Xiao; Jian He; Rong Pan; Rong Fan; Cheng Wu; Xiang Liu; Ying Liu; Rong-Qiao He

2007-01-01

346

Riboflavin content in autofluorescent earthworm coelomocytes is species-specific.  

PubMed

We have recently shown that a large proproportion of earthworm coelomocytes exhibit strong autofluorescence in some species (Dendrobaena veneta, Allolobophora chlorotica, Dendrodrilus rubidus, Eisenia fetida, and Octolasion spp.), while autofluorescent coelomocytes are very scarce in representatives of Lumbricus spp. and Aporrectodea spp. Riboflavin (vitamin B2) was identified as a major fluorophore in Eisenia jetida coelomocytes. The main aim of the present experiments was to quantify riboflavin content in autofluorescent coelomocytes (eleocytes) from several earthworm species through a combination of flow cytometric and spectrofluorometric measurements. Spectrofluorometry of coelomocyte lysates showed that riboflavin was non-detectable in the coelomocytes of Aporrectodea spp. and Lumbricus spp., but was a prominent constituent of lysates from species with autofluorescent eleocytes. In the latter case, riboflavin content was the highest in E. fetida, followed by Octolasion spp. > A. chlorotica > D. rubidus. The riboflavin content of coelomocytes correlates positively with eleocyte autofluorescence intensity measured by flow cytometry and visible with fluorescence microscopy. PMID:17219722

P?ytycz, Barbara; Homa, Joanna; Kozio?, Beata; Rózanowska, Ma?gorzata; Morgan, A John

2006-01-01

347

Genotoxicity assessment in Eisenia andrei coelomocytes: a study of the induction of DNA damage and micronuclei in earthworms exposed to B[a]P- and TCDD-spiked soils.  

PubMed

Earthworms are useful indicators of soil quality and are widely used as model organisms in terrestrial ecotoxicology. The assessment of genotoxic effects caused by environmental pollutants is of great concern because of their relevance in carcinogenesis. In this work, the earthworm Eisenia andrei was exposed for 10 and 28 days to artificial standard soil contaminated with environmentally relevant concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) (0.1, 10, 50ppm) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD) (1×10(-5), 1×10(-4), 2×10(-3)ppm). Micronucleus (MNi) induction was evaluated in earthworm coelomocytes after DNA staining with the fluorescent dye DAPI. In the same cells, the DNA damage was assessed by means of the alkaline comet assay. Induction of MNi in coelomocytes, identified according to standard criteria, was demonstrated. B[a]P exposure for 10 and 28 days induced a significant increase in MNi frequency. In TCDD-treated earthworms, a significant effect on chromosomal damage was observed at all the concentrations used; surprisingly, greater effects were induced in animals exposed to the lowest concentration (1×10(-5)ppm). The data of the comet assay revealed a significant increase in the level of DNA damage in coelomocytes of earthworms exposed for 10 and 28 days to the different concentrations of B[a]P and TCDD. The results show that the comet and MN assays were able to reveal genotoxic effects in earthworms exposed even to the lowest concentrations of both chemicals tested here. The combined application in E. andrei of the comet assay and the micronucleus test, which reflect different biological mechanisms, may be suggested to identify genotoxic effects induced in these invertebrates by environmental contaminants in terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:22459015

Sforzini, Susanna; Boeri, Marta; Dagnino, Alessandro; Oliveri, Laura; Bolognesi, Claudia; Viarengo, Aldo

2012-07-01

348

Dietary Uptake of Superlipophilic Compounds by Earthworms ( Eisenia andrei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uptake and elimination of three superlipophilic compounds (hexabromobenzene, PCB153, and octachloronaphthalene) after dietary uptake was studied in earthworms (Eisenia andrei). All three compounds were taken up from the food, although they did not significantly accumulate despite their hydrophobicity. Both uptake efficiencies (E) and biomagnification factors (BMF) were low. E varied between 0.70 and 7.5%, while BMF values were all

A. Belfroid; J. Meiling; H. J. Drenth; J. Hermens; W. Seinen; K. Vangestel

1995-01-01

349

Feeding activity of the earthworm Eisenia andrei in artificial soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative information on the feeding activity of earthworms is scarce but this information is valuable in many eco(toxico)logical studies. In this study, the feeding activity of the compost worm Eisenia andrei is examined in artificial soil (OECD medium), with and without a high-quality food source (cow manure), and at two temperatures (10 and 20°C). Methods are provided to estimate the

Tjalling Jager; Roel H. L. J. Fleuren; Willem Roelofs; Arthur C. de Groot

2003-01-01

350

Earthworms and Their Use in Eco(toxico)logical Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A healthy terrestrial food web is essential for the sustainable use of soils. Earthworms are key species within terrestrial\\u000a food webs and perform a number of essential functionalities like decomposition of organic litter, tillage and aeration of\\u000a the soil, and enhancement of microbial activity. Chemicals may impact the functions of the soil by directly affecting one\\u000a or more of these

Willie J. G. M. Peijnenburg; Martina G. Vijver

351

Earthworm-Mycorrhiza Interactions Can Affect the Diversity, Structure and Functioning of Establishing Model Grassland Communities  

PubMed Central

Both earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important ecosystem engineers co-occurring in temperate grasslands. However, their combined impacts during grassland establishment are poorly understood and have never been studied. We used large mesocosms to study the effects of different functional groups of earthworms (i.e., vertically burrowing anecics vs. horizontally burrowing endogeics) and a mix of four AMF taxa on the establishment, diversity and productivity of plant communities after a simulated seed rain of 18 grassland species comprising grasses, non-leguminous forbs and legumes. Moreover, effects of earthworms and/or AMF on water infiltration and leaching of ammonium, nitrate and phosphate were determined after a simulated extreme rainfall event (40 l m?2). AMF colonisation of all three plant functional groups was altered by earthworms. Seedling emergence and diversity was reduced by anecic earthworms, however only when AMF were present. Plant density was decreased in AMF-free mesocosms when both anecic and endogeic earthworms were active; with AMF also anecics reduced plant density. Plant shoot and root biomass was only affected by earthworms in AMF-free mesocosms: shoot biomass increased due to the activity of either anecics or endogeics; root biomass increased only when anecics were active. Water infiltration increased when earthworms were present in the mesocosms but remained unaffected by AMF. Ammonium leaching was increased only when anecics or a mixed earthworm community was active but was unaffected by AMF; nitrate and phosphate leaching was neither affected by earthworms nor AMF. Ammonium leaching decreased with increasing plant density, nitrate leaching decreased with increasing plant diversity and density. In order to understand the underlying processes of these interactions further investigations possibly under field conditions using more diverse belowground communities are required. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that belowground-aboveground linkages involving earthworms and AMF are important mediators of the diversity, structure and functioning of plant communities. PMID:22216236

Zaller, Johann G.; Heigl, Florian; Grabmaier, Andrea; Lichtenegger, Claudia; Piller, Katja; Allabashi, Roza; Frank, Thomas; Drapela, Thomas

2011-01-01

352

Managing Earthworm Castings (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) in Turfgrass using a Natural By-Product of Tea Oil (Camellia sp.) Manufacture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Earthworm casts are a problem on golf courses and sport fields when they disrupt the playability, aesthetics, and maintenance of playing surfaces. Abundant earthworms alongside airport runways can increase bird strike risk. Currently no pesticides are labeled for earthworms in the United States. W...

353

Earthworm Aporrectodea trapezoides had no effect on the dispersal of a vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Glomus intraradices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the interactions between earthworms and vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi. The effects of earthworms (Aporrectodea trapezoides) at three densities, on the initiation of mycorrhizal colonization of roots of Trifolium subterraneum L. were examined in Experiment 1. An increasing density of earthworms was associated with a decrease in proportional colonization of the roots by mycorrhizal fungi, with a significant difference

G. S. Pattinson; S. E. Smith; B. M. Doube

1997-01-01

354

Effect of organic manure and the endogeic earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus (Oligochaeta: Glossoscolecidae) on soil fertility and bean  

E-print Network

1 Effect of organic manure and the endogeic earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus (Oligochaeta) and the inoculation of the endogeic earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus on pod production of Vigna unguiculata of earthworms at a density of 80 sub-adults m­2 did not significantly affect either pod production or soil

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

355

Neutral red retention by lysosomes from earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) coelomocytes: A simple biomarker of exposure to soil copper  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple subcellular histochemical staining technique employing the lysosomal probe neutral red has been developed for use with the epiendogeic earthworm Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister. Coelomocytes extracted from the coelomic cavity of earthworms into an isotonic earthworm Ringer solution were allowed to adhere to a microscope slide for 30 s before the application of a neutral red dye. This red dye

Claus Svendsen

1996-01-01

356

The development of genetically inherited resistance to zinc in laboratory-selected generations of the earthworm Eisenia fetida  

E-print Network

of the earthworm Eisenia fetida D.J. Spurgeon a, *, S.P. Hopkin b a Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Monks Wood. # 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Earthworm; Zinc; Selection; Resistance-history characteristics of the F1 and F2 progeny of Orchesella cincta from contaminated sites. For earthworms, indirect

Hopkin, Steve

357

Allometric estimation of earthworm ash-free dry mass from diameters and lengths of select megascolecid and lumbricid species  

E-print Network

Allometric estimation of earthworm ash-free dry mass from diameters and lengths of select-free dry mass allometric equations for seven earthworm species from the families Megascolecidae the two earthworm families, significant differences in slopes of length­biomass regressions existed among

Tiegs, Scott

358

Reduction of pesticide use can increase earthworm populations in wheat crops in a European1 temperate region2  

E-print Network

of pesticide use can increase earthworm populations in wheat crops in a European1 temperate region2 3 C-input cropping systems have not yet been3 precisely assessed. Earthworm, having important agro indicator of pesticide pressure - and the abundance of three important earthworm species. We8 found

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

359

Transmission of Nephridial Bacteria of the Earthworm Eisenia fetida  

PubMed Central

The lumbricid earthworms (annelid family Lumbricidae) harbor gram-negative bacteria in their excretory organs, the nephridia. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing of bacteria associated with the nephridia of several earthworm species has shown that each species of worm harbors a distinct bacterial species and that the bacteria from different species form a monophyletic cluster within the genus Acidovorax, suggesting that there is a specific association resulting from radiation from a common bacterial ancestor. Previous microscopy and culture studies revealed the presence of bacteria within the egg capsules and on the surface of embryos but did not demonstrate that the bacteria within the egg capsule were the same bacteria that colonized the nephridia. We present evidence, based on curing experiments, in situ hybridizations with Acidovorax-specific probes, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, that the egg capsules contain high numbers of the bacterial symbiont and that juveniles are colonized during development within the egg capsule. Studies exposing aposymbiotic hatchlings to colonized adults and their bedding material suggested that juvenile earthworms do not readily acquire bacteria from the soil after hatching but must be colonized during development by bacteria deposited in the egg capsule. Whether this is due to the developmental stage of the host or the physiological state of the symbiont remains to be investigated. PMID:16391117

Davidson, Seana K.; Stahl, David A.

2006-01-01

360

Modeling of the accumulation of organic lipophilic chemicals in earthworms  

SciTech Connect

For aquatic and terrestrial species living in contaminated sediments and soils it is assumed that the major route of uptake of organic lipophilic compounds is by passive diffusion of the compound dissolved in the interstitial water. Dietary uptake will only be important for extremely lipophilic compounds with log K{sub ow} larger than 5--6. An accumulation study with earthworms in OECD artificial soil confirmed this hypothesis. However, the authors also observed dietary uptake in earthworms after feeding them with food contaminated with three chlorobenzenes, PCB153 and octachloronaphthalene. Still, the question remained whether dietary uptake is an important route of exposure. Therefore, a model was developed that, unlike for example the equilibrium partition theory, incorporates two routes of uptake. The model can be used to estimate the accumulation of inert organic chemicals with log Kow 2--7 in earthworms, but also to determine the relative contribution of the two routes of uptake to the total body burden. It will be shown that the relative contribution depends on the lipophilicity of the compound and also on the type of soil.

Belfroid, A.; Seinen, W.; Leeuwen, K. van; Hermens, J. [Univ. of Utrecht (Netherlands). Research Inst. of Toxicology; Gestel, K. van [Vrije Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Ecology and Ecotoxicology

1994-12-31

361

Earthworm-produced calcite granules: A new terrestrial palaeothermometer?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we show for the first time that calcite granules, produced by the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris, and commonly recorded at sites of archaeological interest, accurately reflect temperature and soil water ?18O values. Earthworms were cultivated in an orthogonal combination of two different (granule-free) soils moistened by three types of mineral water and kept at three temperatures (10, 16 and 20 °C) for an acclimatisation period of three weeks followed by transfer to identical treatments and cultivation for a further four weeks. Earthworm-secreted calcite granules were collected from the second set of soils. ?18O values were determined on individual calcite granules (?18Oc) and the soil solution (?18Ow). The ?18Oc values reflect soil solution ?18Ow values and temperature, but are consistently enriched by 1.51 (± 0.12)‰ in comparison to equilibrium in synthetic carbonates. The data fit the equation 1000 ln ? = [20.21 ± 0.92] (103 T-1) - [38.58 ± 3.18] (R2 = 0.95; n = 96; p < 0.0005). As the granules are abundant in modern soils, buried soils and archaeological contexts, and can be dated using U-Th disequilibria, the developed palaeotemperature relationship has enormous potential for application to Holocene and Pleistocene time intervals.

Versteegh, Emma A. A.; Black, Stuart; Canti, Matthew G.; Hodson, Mark E.

2013-12-01

362

Subacute toxicity of copper and glyphosate and their interaction to earthworm (Eisenia fetida).  

PubMed

Glyphosate (GPS) and copper (Cu) are common pollutants in soils, and commonly co-exist. Due to the chemical structure of GPS, it can form complexes of heavy metals and interface their bioavailability in soil environment. In order to explore the interactions between GPS and Cu, subacute toxicity tests of Cu and GPS on soil invertebrate earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were conducted. The relative weight loss and whole-worm metal burdens increased significantly with the increasing exposure concentration of Cu, while the toxicity of GPS was insignificant. The joint toxicity data showed that the relative weight loss and the uptake of Cu, as well as the superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde activities, were significantly alleviated in the present of GPS, which indicated that GPS could reduce the toxicity and bioavailability of Cu in the soil because of its strong chelating effects. PMID:23733011

Zhou, Chui-Fan; Wang, Yu-Jun; Li, Cheng-Cheng; Sun, Rui-Juan; Yu, Yuan-Chun; Zhou, Dong-Mei

2013-09-01

363

A field screening method using earthworms (Eisenia foetida andrei) to evaluate contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

An on-site biological assessment for soil toxicity was performed using a lumbricid earthworm, Eisenia foetida andrei, at the Milltown Reservoir Superfund Site on the Clark Fork River near Missoula, MT. The assessment provided an opportunity to evaluate test containers and methodologies. Sixty-four field test stations, each consisting of three test containers of site soil, a control container of artificial soil, and a container to house soil moisture and temperature recording devices, were used. Laboratory tests were conducted on soil samples from selected field stations. The test containers were constructed from sections of polyvinyl chloride pipe and were found to be suitable in preventing escape of test organisms and damage by animals. The site soils had levels of arsenic, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc higher than those in surrounding watersheds. Combined mortality for exposure to the site soil was similar in both the laboratory and field tests. Combined sublethal responses to the site soil were also similar in both laboratory and field tests. Artificial soil controls in both field and laboratory tests resulted in combined mortality rates of 1% or less. The methodologies employed proved successful in maintaining an adequate soil moisture level and allowed for measurement of soil temperature.

Wilborn, D.C.; Bollman, M.A.; Gillett, C.S.; Ott, S.L.; Linder, G.L. [Takena Ecological Services, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States)

1997-09-01

364

Avoiding the Flu  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Avoiding the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Children ... should still get the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. H1N1 Flu: Who Should Be Vaccinated First The Centers for ...

365

Relative abundance and seasonal activity of earthworms (Lumbricidae and Megascolecidae) as determined by hand-sorting and formalin extraction in forest soils on the southern Appalachian Piedmont  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative efficiency of different sampling methods for earthworms may vary with site characteristics, season and earthworm species. We conducted a study in which earthworms were collected by hand-sorting and by formalin extraction in a successional, mixed hardwood-pine forest. The efficiency of each collecting technique was assessed in terms of seasonal trends, soil physical properties and species collected. Earthworm community

M. A. Callaham; P. F. Hendrix

1997-01-01

366

Competition between invasive earthworms ( Amynthas corticis, Megascolecidae) and native North American millipedes ( Pseudopolydesmus erasus, Polydesmidae): Effects on carbon cycling and soil structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive earthworms can have significant impacts on C dynamics through their feeding, burrowing, and casting activities, including the protection of C in microaggregates and alteration of soil respiration. European earthworm invasion is known to affect soil micro- and mesofauna, but little is known about impacts of invasive earthworms on other soil macrofauna. Asian earthworms (Amynthas spp.) are increasingly being reported

Bruce A. Snyder; Bas Boots; Paul F. Hendrix

2009-01-01

367

Dose-response and Kinetics of the Formation of DNA Adducts in the Earthworm Eisenia Fetida Andrei Exposed to B(A)P-contaminated Artificial Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms, Eisenia fetida andrei (E. f. a.), were exposed to soils contaminated with increasing concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene for different periods of time to investigate: the possible metabolism pathways of B(a)P; the toxicological significance of DNA adduct formation in the worm; and the suitability of the P-postlabelling method as a bioassay for chemical toxicity testing and for surveys of soil contamination.Our

M. Saint-denis; A. Pfohl-leszkowicz; J. F. Narbonne; D. Ribera

2000-01-01

368

Why are earthWorms important? Only a few decades ago, the predominating  

E-print Network

in the excrement of earthworms through chelation of the micronutrients. Soil pH Soil passed through the gut crops, climate, soil, and living organisms play important roles in sustaining our agriculture. Earthworms are among the most visible of soil organisms and have received considerable attention. They play

Kaye, Jason P.

369

Acetylcholinesterase activity in the earthworm Eisenia andrei at different conditions of carbaryl exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reports have stressed the need for a better understanding of earthworm biomarker responses. We aimed at investigating acethylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the earthworm Eisenia andrei after exposure to carbaryl or its commercial formulation Zoril 5 under different in vitro and in vivo experiments. In addition, lysosome membrane stability was assessed by neutral red retention assay in the same experimental

Naimj Gambi; Andrea Pasteris; Elena Fabbri

2007-01-01

370

Age-specific immunocompetence of the earthworm Eisenia andrei: exposure to methylmercury chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little information with regard to the sensitivity of the immune system of earthworms to toxicants is currently available. To that effect, we evaluated the yield of coelomocyte immune cells and their phagocytosis potential for four different stages of development of the earthworm Eisenia andrei both for in vitro and in vivo exposure. Cell viability was similar among size classes; extruded

Sébastien Sauvé; Michel Fournier

2005-01-01

371

Transcriptome analysis in the midgut of the earthworm ( Eisenia andrei) using expressed sequence tags  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to gain insight into the expression profiles of the earthworm midgut, we analyzed 1106 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from the earthworm midgut cDNA library. Among the 1106 ESTs analyzed, 557 (50.4%) ESTs showed significant similarity to known genes and represented 229 unique genes of which 166 ESTs were singletons and 63 ESTs manifest as two or more

Myung Sik Lee; Sung Jin Cho; Eun Sik Tak; Jong Ae Lee; Hyun Ju Cho; Bum Joon Park; Chuog Shin; Dae Kyong Kim; Soon Cheol Park

2005-01-01

372

Soil structure and earthworm activity in a marine silt loam under pasture versus arable land  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural management influences soil organic matter (SOM) and earthworm activity which interact with soil structure. We aimed to describe the change in earthworm activity and related soil (micro)structure and SOM in a loamy Eutrodept as affected by permanent pasture (PP) and conventional arable (CA). Thin sections were studied and biogenic calcite spheroids, worm casts, infillings and groundmass coatings were quantified.

A. G. Jongmans; M. M. Pulleman; J. C. Y. Marinissen

2001-01-01

373

Earthworm species composition affects the soil bacterial community and net nitrogen mineralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the effects of species diversity within taxonomic groups on nutrient cycling is important for understanding the role of soil biota in sustainable agriculture. We hypothesized that earthworm species specifically affect nitrogen mineralization, characteristically for their ecological group classifications, and that earthworm species interactions would affect mineralization through competition and facilitation effects. A mesocosm experiment was conducted to investigate

Maria B. Postma-Blaauw; Jaap Bloem; Jack H. Faber; Jan Willem van Groenigen; Ron G. M. de Goede; Lijbert Brussaard

2006-01-01

374

Effect of earthworm casts on protein synthesis in radish ( Raphanus sativum ) and lettuce ( Lactuga sativa ) seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protein-synthesizing capacity of 3-day-old seedlings of radish and lettuce grown in the presence of earthworm casts was investigated using L-14-C-leucine incorporation. The results showed that earthworm casts increased protein synthesis by 24% for lettuce and 32% for radish, althought no significant differences in protein content were evident.

U. Tomati; E. Galli; A. Grappelli; G. Di Lena

1990-01-01

375

Earthworms as vectors of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in soil and vermicomposts.  

PubMed

Survival and movement of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in both soil and vermicompost is of concern with regards to human health. Whilst it is accepted that E. coli O157:H7 can persist for considerable periods in soils, it is not expected to survive thermophilic composting processes. However, the natural behavior of earthworms is increasingly utilized for composting (vermicomposting), and the extent to which earthworms promote the survival and dispersal of the bacterium within such systems is unknown. The faecal material produced by earthworms provides a ready supply of labile organic substrates to surrounding microbes within soil and compost, thus promoting microbial activity. Earthworms can also cause significant movement of organisms through the channels they form. Survival and dispersal of E. coli O157:H7 were monitored in contaminated soil and farmyard manure subjected to earthworm digestion over 21 days. Our findings lead to the conclusion that anecic earthworms such as Lumbricus terrestris may significantly aid vertical movement of E. coli O157 in soil, whereas epigeic earthworms such as Dendrobaena veneta significantly aid lateral movement within compost. Although the presence of earthworms in soil and compost may aid proliferation of E. coli O157 in early stages of contamination, long-term persistence of the pathogen appears to be unaffected. PMID:16958908

Williams, A Prysor; Roberts, Paula; Avery, Lisa M; Killham, Ken; Jones, David L

2006-10-01

376

Phagocytosis in earthworms: An environmentally acceptable endpoint to assess immunotoxic potential of contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

Phagocytosis, a host-defense mechanism phylogenetically conserved throughout the animal kingdom, by earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) coelomocytes has potential as a surrogate for vertebrates to be used as an environmentally acceptable endpoint to assess sublethal immunotoxic risks of contaminated soils to environmental (eg. higher wildlife) and public health. Coelomocytes can be exposed in vivo to complex contaminated parent soils by placing earthworms in situ at hazardous waste sites (HWS) or into soil samples and their dilutions with artificial soil (AS) in the laboratory, or in vitro to soil extracts and their fractionations. Here the authors report on phagocytosis by coelomocytes in earthworms exposed to pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated soils from a wood treatment HWS, PCP-spiked AS and PCP treated filter paper (FP). HWS soil was diluted to 25% with AS to a sublethal concentration (ca. 125 mg kg{sup {minus}1}) and earthworms exposed for 14d at 10 C under light conditions. AS was spiked at ca. 125 mg kg{sup {minus}1} PCP and earthworms were similarly exposed. Controls for both consisted of earthworms exposed to 100% AS. Earthworms were exposed to FP treated with a sublethal PCP concentration (15 {micro}g cm{sup {minus}2}) at 10 C under dark conditions for 96H. Controls were similarly exposed without PCP. Phagocytosis by coelomocytes in earthworms exposed to HWS soil, spiked AS and treated FP was suppressed 37, 41 and 29%, respectively. Results are discussed in terms of PCP body burdens and exposure protocols.

Giggleman, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Goven, A.J. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Venables, B.J. [TRAC Labs., Inc., Denton, TX (United States); Callahan, C.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, San Francisco, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

377

Stoichiometry of Subunits and Heme Content of Hemoglobin from the Earthworm Lumbricus terrestris*  

E-print Network

Stoichiometry of Subunits and Heme Content of Hemoglobin from the Earthworm Lumbricus terrestris-1064, ¶Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology and the Keck Center for Computational Biology, Rice University Carolina 27710 The extracellular hemoglobin (Hb) of the earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris, has four major O2

Riggs, Austen

378

EARTHWORMS AND COLLEMBOLA RELATIONSHIPS: EFFECTS2 OF PREDATORY CENTIPEDES AND HUMUS FORMS3  

E-print Network

1 EARTHWORMS AND COLLEMBOLA RELATIONSHIPS: EFFECTS2 OF PREDATORY CENTIPEDES AND HUMUS FORMS3 4-00496576,version1-30Jun2010 Author manuscript, published in "Soil Biology and Biochemistry 37, 3 (2005) 487-495" DOI : 10.1016/j.soilbio.2004.08.011 #12;1 Abstract1 2 Relationships between anecic earthworms

Boyer, Edmond

379

Effects of Earthworm Invasion on Plant Species Richness in Northern Hardwood Forests  

E-print Network

Effects of Earthworm Invasion on Plant Species Richness in Northern Hardwood Forests ANDREW R. HOLDSWORTH, LEE E. FRELICH, AND PETER B. REICH University of Minnesota, Conservation Biology Graduate of non-native earthworms (Lumbricus spp.) into a small number of intensively studied stands of northern

Minnesota, University of

380

Potentiality of Earthworms for Waste Management and in Other Uses - A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific investigations have established the viability of using earthworms as a treatment technique for numerous waste streams besides producing organic fertilizers. Vermicomposting results in the bioconversion of the waste stream into two useful products, earthworm biomass and vermicompost. The former can be used as a protein source whereas vermicompost is considered as an excellent product since it is homogenous, has

Satyawati Sharma; Kaviraj Pradhan; Santosh Satya; Padma Vasudevan

2005-01-01

381

Distribution of Heteromurus nitidus (Hexapoda, Collembola) according to soil acidity: interactions with earthworms and predator pressure.  

E-print Network

with earthworms and predator pressure. Sandrine SALMON and Jean François PONGE Laboratoire d'Ecologie Générale,version1-19Jul2010 Author manuscript, published in "Soil Biology and Biochemistry 31, 8 (1999) 1161) according to soil acidity: interactions with earthworms and predator pressure. Sandrine SALMON and Jean

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

382

Earthworm effects on selected physical and chemical properties of soil aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some physical and chemical properties of 1-to 2-mm aggregates obtained from casts and the burrow-wall material of the earthworm species Lumbricus terrestris, Aporrectodea longa, and Aporrectodea caliginosa were determined in order to show the effects of earthworms on the stabilization of soil aggregates. The results were compared with those of the natural soil from the Ap horizon of a Parabraunerde

H. Zhang; S. Schrader

1993-01-01

383

Species effects on earthworm density in tropical tree plantations in Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree species differ in the quantity and quality of litter produced, and these differences may significantly affect ecosystem structure and function. I examined the importance of tree species in determining earthworm densities in replicated stands of Eucalyptus saligna Sm. and Albizia falcataria (L.) Fosberg, and in mixed stands (25% albizia and 75% eucalyptus). Mean earthworm densities ranged from 92 m-2

Xiaoming Zou

1993-01-01

384

Earthworm effects on respiratory activity in a dung-soil system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many pastures earthworms are crucially important in the disappearance of dung pats, as they are the major agent affecting transport of organic material away from the pat. The aim of this study was to examine to what extent this earthworm mediated process could contribute to the microbial respiration in soil below dung. Plastic pots with soil and cattle dung,

Niels Bohse Hendriksen

1997-01-01

385

Regulation of soil structure by geophagous earthworm activities in humid savannas of Côte d'Ivoire  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of endogeic earthworms in the maintenance of the structure of an African savanna soil has been investigated in a 28-month field experiment. Changes of aggregate size distribution, porosity and aggregate stability were analysed in undisturbed soil monoliths from which earthworms had been removed and which had then been submitted to four treatments: (1) recolonization by natural savanna fauna

E. Blanchart; P. Lavelle; E. Braudeau; Y. Le Bissonnais; C. Valentin

1997-01-01

386

Detritivorous earthworms directly modify the structure, thus altering the functioning of a microdecomposer food web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epigeic earthworms are key organisms in fresh organic matter mounds and other hotspots of heterotrophic activity. They turn and ingest the substrate intensively interacting with microorganisms and other soil fauna. By ingesting, digesting and assimilating the surrounding substrate, earthworms could directly modify the microdecomposer community, yet little is known of such direct effects. Here we investigate the direct effects of

Manuel Aira; Luis Sampedro; Fernando Monroy; Jorge Domínguez

2008-01-01

387

Labeling earthworms uniformly with 13C and 15N: implications for monitoring nutrient fluxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable isotopes hold promise for improving our ability to quantify energy and N released from earthworm populations through metabolic processes and mortality. However, the isotopic labels 13C and 15N must be incorporated uniformly into the structural and labile tissues of earthworms to trace C and N fluxes accurately. We examined the distribution of 13C and 15N in the tissue and

Joann K Whalen; H. Henry Janzen

2002-01-01

388

Density and biomass of earthworms in forest and herbaceous microecosystems in central New York, North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have determined and assessed the earthworm population community structure under different selected microecosystems (i.e. forest ecosystem and herbaceous ecosystem). Samples of earthworms and soil were studied from four sites in Lafayette Forest Experimental Station, State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry. These sites are the Northern Hardwood forest, Tamarack plantation, Norway spruce and Old Field

Safwat H. Shakir; Daniel L. Dindal

1997-01-01

389

Interaction of the earthworm Diplocardia mississippiensis (Megascolecidae) with microbial and nutrient dynamics in a subtropical Spodosol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct and indirect effects of earthworm feeding and activity can alter soil microbial and nutrient dynamics. Little is known about influence of native North American earthworms on these dynamics. We investigated effects of native D. mississippiensis activity on total and soluble C, N and microbial biomass pools in Spodosols from the Apalachicola National Forest in North Florida, USA. Soil native

Sharon. L Lachnicht; Paul F Hendrix

2001-01-01

390

Earthworms, Microbes and the Release of C and N in Biochar Amended Soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Land application of biochar has the potential to increase soil fertility and sequester carbon. It is unclear how soil microbes and earthworms interact with biochar and affect release or retention of nutrients. In order to determine the effects and interactions among soil microbes, earthworms, and bi...

391

The role of earthworms for assessment of sustainability and as bioindicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms, which inhabit soils and litter layers in most landscapes, can offer an important tool to evaluate different environmental transformations and impacts. Agricultural landscapes, urban and industrialized habitats have some earthworms that represent interesting indicators to monitor different contaminations, to assess different farming practices and different landscape structures and transformations. Species number, abundance and biomass can give easily measurable elements.

Maurizio G. Paoletti

1999-01-01

392

Effects of treatment with sodium fluoride and subsequent starvation on fluoride content of earthworms  

SciTech Connect

The two experiments described here originated during a long-term investigation into the occurrence and movement of pollutant fluoride in a terrestrial ecosystem. Moles (Talpa europaea) whose diet consist largely of various species of earthworm Lumbricidae, are one of the species under investigation. Bone fluoride in moles was found to be higher, on average, than in foxes or small rodents. Moles probably acquire fluoride from their earthworm diet. Earthworms do not have any readily identifiable tissue in which to store large amounts of fluoride but, for their size, they have a considerable amount of soil in their gut, up oto 20% of their dry weight. Preliminary measurements of fluoride in whole earthworms suggested that observed levels could probably be accounted for by fluoride bound in the mineral part of contained soil and released during preparatory ashing. Two experiments to investigate this situation are described; here their aims were: to expose earthworms kept in soil to different concentrations of sodium fluoride; to measure resulting fluoride in earthworms when soil was removed from their gut by starvation for varying periods of time; and to compare amounts of fluoride in whole starved earthworms with those in starved earthworms from which remaining soil had also been physically removed by dissection and washing.

Walton, K.C.

1987-01-01

393

USING THE EARTHWORM, EISENIA FETIDA, TO ASSESS THE ECOTOXICITY OF WASTE FOUNDRY SANDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Earthworms are often used to monitor the toxicity of contaminated soils. In this experiment, the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, was utilized to assess the ecotoxicity of waste foundry sands. Each year the U.S. foundry industry generates several million tons of waste sand that is no longer useful to pr...

394

Mutualism between common earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) and giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) varies between Ohio and Illinois  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed caching of giant ragweed by common earthworm has been found to contribute to giant ragweed recruitment success in Ohio (OH) by protecting the seeds from postdispersal predation at a depth in the earthworm midden that is also suitable for germination. The objective of this study was to quantify ...

395

Toxicity and bioaccumulation of chlorophenols in earthworms, in relation to bioavailability in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute toxicity of five chlorophenols for two earthworm species was determined in two sandy soils differing in organic matter content and the results were compared with adsorption data. Adsorption increased with increasing organic matter content of the soils, but for tetra- and pentachlorophenol was also influenced by soil pH. Earthworm toxicity was significantly higher in the soil with a

C. A. van Gestel; W. C. Ma

1988-01-01

396

Earthworms as phoretic hosts for Steinernema carpocapsae and Beauveria bassiana: Implications for enhanced biological control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Prior research indicated that earthworms may serve as phoretic hosts to entomopathogenic nematodes. Therefore, we hypothesized that biocontrol efficacy of nematodes could be enhanced in the presence of earthworms based on increased nematode dispersal through the soil. We also hypothesized that ear...

397

Lethal and sublethal effects of imidacloprid on two earthworm species ( Aporrectodea nocturna and Allolobophora icterica )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical imidacloprid is the major component of many widely used insecticides and is relatively persistent in soils. A set of experiments was carried out to estimate the lethal (mortality) and sublethal (weight loss) effects of one of these insecticides, Confidor, on two earthworm species commonly found in agricultural soils. A preliminary experiment in the absence of earthworms showed that

Yvan Capowiez; Magali Rault; Guy Costagliola; Christophe Mazzia

2005-01-01

398

The effect of earthworms and snails in a simple plant community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snails and earthworms affected the dynamics of a simple, three-species plant community, in the Ecotron controlled environment facility. Earthworms enhanced the establishment, growth and cover of the legume Trifolium dubium, both via the soil and interactions with other plant species. Worms increased soil phosphates, increased root nodulation in T. dubium, and enabled T. dubium seedlings to establish in the presence

Lindsey Thompson; Chris D. Thomas; Julie M. A. Radley; Sarah Williamson; John H. Lawton

1993-01-01

399

Earthworm activity in no-tillage and conventional tillage systems in Missouri soils: A preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms play a major role in overall soil fertility and productivity. Many Missouri soils are characterized by a claypan layer which can be a significant barrier to water infiltration and root penetration. Our objective was to characterize the earthworms in these soils under various tillages, crop rotation, and nitrogen applications. The field study has a split-split plot design with the

D. Jordan; J. A. Stecker; V. N. Cacnio-Hubbard; F. Li; C. J. Gantzer; J. R. Brown

1997-01-01

400

Derived Avoidance Learning: Transformation of Avoidance Response Functions in Accordance with Same and Opposite Relational Frames  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments were designed to replicate and extend previous findings on the transformation of avoidance response functions in accordance with the relational frames of Same and Opposite. Participants were first exposed to non-arbitrary and arbitrary relational training and testing. Next, during avoidance conditioning, one stimulus from the…

Dymond, Simon; Roche, Bryan; Forsyth, John P.; Whelan, Robert; Rhoden, Julia

2008-01-01

401

Earthworm survival and behavior results from a Clark Fork River Superfund site: Grant-Kohrs Ranch N.H.S., Montana  

SciTech Connect

Concentrations of heavy metals in sediments and soils deposited along the floodplain of the Clark Fork River, within the boundaries of the Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site, have exceeded those typically found in uncontaminated soils. Upstream mining activities along the Clark Fork River in the Deer Lodge Valley, Montana, have produced substantial quantities of mine waste which have been deposited throughout the watershed. Releases and re-releases of these contaminated substances continue to occur, and appear to be preventing the germination and establishment of critical riparian plant species and depressing soil microbe activity. Slickens, bare spots devoid of all vegetation, occur frequently in the floodplain along the Clark Fork River. This research investigates the toxicity of slicken soils using a series of earthworm (Eisenia foetida andrei) survival and behavior tests. In dilution tests, earthworm survival was reduced significantly in as little as 12.5% slicken soil. Results from earthworm behavior tests currently being conducted using non-lethal slicken soil dilutions will also be presented.

Rader, B.R.; Nimmo, D.R.; Chapman, P.L. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1995-12-31

402

Earthworm responses to different reclamation processes in post opencast mining lands during succession.  

PubMed

This study provides earthworm population data obtained from localities with a substantial anthropogenic impact spoils. The spoil heaps were reclaimed at the end of an opencast brown coal mining period. We studied spoils reclaimed by the two most commonly used reclamation processes: forestry and agricultural. The results show the significance of the locality age and the utilized reclamation process and treatment and their effect on earthworm communities. Our data indicate that apart from soil physical and chemical properties, the reclamation process itself may also induce viability and distribution of earthworm communities. Under standardized soil properties, the changes in earthworm populations during the succession were larger within the agricultural reclamation process as opposed to the forestry reclamation process for earthworm ecological groups and individual species. PMID:25380717

Hlava, Jakub; Hlavová, Anna; Hakl, Josef; Fér, Miroslav

2015-01-01

403

Fluoride accumulation in different earthworm species near an industrial emission source in southern Germany  

SciTech Connect

The information on fluorides (F)-pollution of soil invertebrates is sparse and only a few recent publications deal with F accumulation in some taxonomic groups of soil fauna. Earthworms in particular become the focus of soil-soil fauna interactions in F-polluted sites, even more so since a significant relationship between soil pollution and F load in earthworms was observed. Earthworms coat their burrowings and this may be a mechanism of F-dissemination and subsoil contamination. Evidence is growing that fluorides pass through food chains. Earthworms as the preferred prey of a wide range of animals are therefore in the center of interest as a possible way of F-bioaccumulation in higher trophic levels. For a risk assessment of F-pollution and pathways of F through organisms and ecosystems, detailed knowledge of F-accumulation in soil fauna, and in earthworms in particular is required.

Vogel, J.; Ottow, J.C.G. (Justus-Liebig Univ., Giessen (Germany))

1991-10-01

404

Metal content of earthworms in sludge-amended soils: uptake and loss  

SciTech Connect

The widespread practice of landspreading of sludge has raised concern about increasing concentrations of potentially toxic metals in soils, with the possibility of these metals adversely impacting terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Earthworms, as one of the largest components of the soil biota, are useful indicators of potentially toxic soil metal concentrations. The study describes the metal content of five metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in one earthworm species, Allolobophora tuberculata, as a function of varying soil metal concentrations in the same soil type and the ability of the earthworms to bioconcentrate the five metals. The rate of uptake of the five metals in earthworms with initially low concentrations of metals placed in a soil with high metal concentrations was evaluated for a 112 day period. The rate of loss of the five metals in earthworms with initially high metal concentrations placed in soil with low metal concentrations was also examined.

Neuhauser, E.F.; Malecki, M.R.; Cukic, Z.V.

1985-11-01

405

Arsenic resistance and cycling in earthworms residing at a former gold mine in Canada.  

PubMed

Earthworms (Lumbricus castaneous and Dendrodrilus rubidus), their host soils and leaf litter were collected from a former gold mine with widespread arsenic (As) contamination in Nova Scotia, Canada and determined for total and speciated As. Resistance to As toxicity was investigated by measurement of DNA damage in exposed earthworm populations using the comet assay. Arsenobetaine (AB) was observed at low concentration in the earthworms but not in the host soil or leaf litter. Several different organoarsenic species were observed in the leaf litter and only inorganic As was found in the host soils. The results suggest that 1) adaptation to As toxicity in earthworms is widespread and not particular to a single species, 2) AB originates in the earthworm and not the consumed soil or leaf litter and 3) as previously hypothesised (Button et al., 2010), biotransformation of inorganic As to AB is not likely involved in the adaptation. PMID:22683483

Button, Mark; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J

2012-10-01

406

The Perceived-Threat Behavioral Approach Test (PT-BAT): Measuring Avoidance in High-, Mid-, and Low-Spider-Fearful Participants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One hundred twenty female participants, with varying levels of spider fear were asked to complete an automated 8-step perceived-threat behavioral approach test (PT-BAT). The steps involved asking the participants if they were willing to put their hand into a number of opaque jars with an incrementally increasing risk of contact with a spider (none…

Cochrane, Andy; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne

2008-01-01

407

Earthworm ? 13 C and ? 15 N analyses suggest that putative functional classifications of earthworms are site-specific and may also indicate habitat diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural abundances of the stable isotope pairs 13C\\/12C and 15N\\/14N (?13C and ?15N) were measured from earthworms sampled from six sites with contrasting habitats (deciduous and coniferous woodland, arable and permanent pasture). Knowledge about the function of earthworms is important to the understanding of their ecology. The hypothesis, that endogeic (primarily soil and organic matter feeders) and epigeic (surface litter

Roy Neilson; Brian Boag; Michael Smith

2000-01-01

408

Potential impacts of invasive European earthworms and soil moisture on herbaceous species richness within the Ojibwa Red Lake Reservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout many northern North American forests invasive earthworms have caused significant ecological alteration to soil structure and chemistry, fine root distributions, duff and litter layer thickness, and soil moisture. Additionally, this phenomenon has been implicated in shifts in herbaceous-layer vegetation. Over the past 4 years, we have established research plots in forests on the Ojibwa Red Lake Reservation (Minnesota) to study the impact of exotic earthworms on forest ecosystem structure and functions. To examine herbaceous-layer response to potential gradients in earthworm abundance and soil moisture, we conducted surveys of herbaceous-layer species cover, earthworm abundance, and soil moisture across six plot dispersed along a previously identified gradient of earthworm activity. Our initial results have shown that the earthworms abundance is positively related to soil moisture (R2 = 0.76, P = 0.023). Herbaceous species richness displayed a strong negative relationship to soil moisture (R2 = 0.91, P < 0.001) and a weak negative relationship to earthworm abundance (R2 =0.51, P = 0.113). On average, the number of earthworms is increasing and the sites with more earthworms typically have less leaf litter. Additional work is needed to determine if earthworms are influencing site moisture conditions, or if moisture availability is a driver of earthworm abundance.

Thayer, C.; Top, S. M.; Filley, T. R.; Jourdain, J.; Zurn-Birkhimer, S.; Kroeger, T.; Welle, P.; Jenkins, M.; Johnson, A.; Gemscholars

2010-12-01

409

Utilizing thin-film solid-phase extraction to assess the effect of organic carbon amendments on the bioavailability of DDT and dieldrin to earthworms  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Improved approaches are needed to assess bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds in contaminated soils. Performance of thin-film solid-phase extraction (TF-SPE) using vials coated with ethylene vinyl acetate was compared to earthworm bioassay (Lumbricus terrestris). A DDT and dieldrin contaminated soil was amended with four organic carbon materials to assess the change in bioavailability. Addition of organic carbon significantly lowered bioavailability for all compounds except for 4,4?-DDT. Equilibrium concentrations of compounds in the polymer were correlated with uptake by earthworms after 48d exposure (R2 = 0.97; p 40yr of aging. Results show that TF-SPE can be useful in examining potential risks associated with contaminated soils and to test effectiveness of remediation efforts.

Andrade, Natasha A.; Centofanti, Tiziana; McConnell, Laura L.; Hapeman, Cathleen J.; Torrents, Alba; Anh, Nguyen; Beyer, W. Nelson; Chaney, Rufus L.; Novak, Jeffrey M.; Anderson, Marya O.; Cantrell, Keri B.

2014-01-01

410

Abandoned coal mining sites: using ecotoxicological tests to support an industrial organic sludge amendment.  

PubMed

The different stages involved in coal mining-related activities result in a degraded landscape and sites associated with large amounts of dumped waste material. Remediation of these contaminated soils can be carried out by application of industrial organic sludge if the concerns regarding the potential negative environmental impacts of this experimental practice are properly addressed. In this context, the objective of this study was to use ecotoxicological tests to determine the quantity of organic industrial sludge that is required as a soil amendment to restore soil production while avoiding environmental impact. Chemical analysis of the solids (industrial sludge and soil) and their leachates was carried out as well as a battery of ecotoxicity tests on enzymes (hydrolytic activity), bacteria, algae, daphnids, earthworms, and higher plants, according to standardized methodologies. Solid and leachate samples of coal-contaminated soil were more toxic than those of industrial sludge towards enzyme activity, bacteria, algae, daphnids, and earthworms. In the case of the higher plants (lettuce, corn, wild cabbage, and Surinam cherry) the industrial sludge was more toxic than the coal-contaminated soil, and a soil/sludge mixture (66:34% dry weight basis) had a stimulatory effect on the Surinam cherry biomass. The ecotoxicological assessment of the coal-contaminated soil remediation using sludge as an amendment is very important to determine application rates that could promote a stimulatory effect on agronomic species without negatively affecting the environment. PMID:23114837

Chiochetta, Claudete G; Radetski, Marilice R; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Tischer, Vinícius; Tiepo, Erasmo N; Radetski, Claudemir M

2013-11-01

411

Serum albumin and globulin analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma detection avoiding false-negative results from alpha-fetoprotein test negative subjects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of serum albumin and globulin were employed to detect hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Tentative assignments of SERS bands show specific biomolecular changes associated with cancer development. These changes include a decrease in relative amounts of tryptophan, glutamine, glycine, and serine, indicating excessive consumption of amino acids for protein duplication. Principal component analysis was also introduced to analyze the obtained spectra, resulting in both diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100%. More importantly, it reveals that this method can detect HCC patients with alpha-fetoprotein negative test results, suggesting its great potential as a new alternative to detect HCC.

Wang, Jing; Feng, Shangyuan; Lin, Juqiang; Zeng, Yongyi; Li, Ling; Huang, Zufang; Li, Buhong; Zeng, Haishan; Chen, Rong

2013-11-01

412

Aggregate formation and soil carbon sequestration by earthworms at the ORNL FACE experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthworms have an important role in soil carbon sequestration, but their contribution to carbon sequestration in soils exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations has been largely overlooked. Previous studies at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Free Air CO2 Experiment (ORNL FACE) site showed that the formation of soil aggregates is a key mechanism for soil carbon sequestration. We did a microcosm experiment to quantify earthworm-mediated aggregate formation and compare between two earthworm species with different feeding habits (endogeic vs. epi-edogeic). In addition, we wanted to identify the carbon source (soil, leaf litter or root litter) within aggregates formed by earthworms. We used 13C-depleted soil and 15N-enriched sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) leaf and root litter collected from the ORNL FACE site to assess soil aggregate formation of the native, endogeic earthworm Diplocardia sp. and European, epi-endogeic earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. Both earthworm species are present at the ORNL FACE site. We crushed, sieved (< 250 ?m) soil and prepared four treatments: (I) soil only; (II) soil and plant material; (III) soil, plant material and Diplocardia sp.; (IV) soil, plant material and L. rubellus. All treatments were at 30% water content and temperature was maintained at 20°C. The incubation period lasted 26 days. We measured aggregate size distribution, total aggregate carbon content and 13C and 15N to elucidate aggregate carbon source. Newly formed soil macroaggregates (> 250 ?m) were higher in treatments with earthworms (III and IV) than in treatments without earthworms (I and II) (p = 0.02). Within macroaggregates, most of the carbon was soil-derived. Leaf and root-derived carbon was found in treatment IV only. Our results suggest that earthworms at the ORNL FACE site directly contribute to the formation of soil aggregates, thus contributing to soil carbon sequestration. Carbon source within macroaggregates correspond with earthworm feeding habits, with endogeic earthworms (Diplocardia sp.) feeding mostly on mineral soil and epi-endogeic earthworm (L. rubellus) feeding on both plant residues and soil organic matter.

Sanchez-de Leon, Y.; Gonzalez-Meler, M. A.; Lugo-Perez, J.; Wise, D. H.; Jastrow, J. D.

2012-12-01

413

Interactions between organic matter and mineral surfaces along an earthworm invasion gradient in a sugar maple forest of Minnesota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sorption of organic matter on mineral surface is critical for protection of organic carbon (C) against decomposition and thus may potentially increase the capacity of soils to store C. Such sorption, however, requires physical contacts between organic matter and available mineral surfaces. This study attempts to better understand how bioturbation by invasive earthworms influences the contacts between organic matter and mineral surface, and affects sorption of organic matter on mineral surface. Vertical soil mixing is a direct consequence of the introduction of invasive earthworms in natural forests previously devoid of native earthworm populations. Here we focus on an intensively studied earthworm invasion chronosequence in a glaciated sugar maple forest in northern Minnesota. With the advance of invasive earthworms, leaf litter disappears while the A horizon expands at the expense of the overlying litter layer and the underlying wind blown silt materials. Earthworms' biomasses and functional group compositions, depth profiles of soil C contents, and total and organic matter-covered mineral surface areas are determined at different stages of invasion. We found that minerals' specific surface areas (SSA) in the A horizons decrease with greater degree of earthworm invasion. Furthermore, less fractions of mineral SSA were found to be coated with organic C in the soils with active earthworm populations. These observations appear to contradict another finding that amounts of crystalline Fe oxide and organically-complexed Fe increase with the greater earthworm population. The overall trend shows that earthworms' active mixing resulting in incorporating silt materials with low SSA from the underlying E horizons to the A horizons. We are currently investigating whether the increased crystalline Fe oxides and organically-complexed Fe pools with increasing earthworm population helped reducing the gradient of overall trend. Our study highlights the importance of earthworm bioturbation and material processing through earthworm intestines in determining the interactions between organic matter and mineral surface and thus helps understanding how soils' capacity to stabilize organic matter is influenced by invasive earthworm species.

Lyttle, A.; Yoo, K.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Sebestyen, S. D.; Hale, C.

2012-12-01

414

Clostridiaceae and Enterobacteriaceae as active fermenters in earthworm gut content  

PubMed Central

The earthworm gut provides ideal in situ conditions for ingested heterotrophic soil bacteria capable of anaerobiosis. High amounts of mucus- and plant-derived saccharides such as glucose are abundant in the earthworm alimentary canal, and high concentrations of molecular hydrogen (H2) and organic acids in the alimentary canal are indicative of ongoing fermentations. Thus, the central objective of this study was to resolve potential links between fermentations and active fermenters in gut content of the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-based stable isotope probing, with [13C]glucose as a model substrate. Glucose consumption in anoxic gut content microcosms was rapid and yielded soluble organic compounds (acetate, butyrate, formate, lactate, propionate, succinate and ethanol) and gases (carbon dioxide and H2), products indicative of diverse fermentations in the alimentary canal. Clostridiaceae and Enterobacteriaceae were users of glucose-derived carbon. On the basis of the detection of 16S rRNA, active phyla in gut contents included Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, Tenericutes and Verrucomicrobia, taxa common to soils. On the basis of a 16S rRNA gene similarity cutoff of 87.5%, 82 families were detected, 17 of which were novel family-level groups. These findings (a) show the large diversity of soil taxa that might be active during gut passage, (b) show that Clostridiaceae and Enterobacteriaceae (fermentative subsets of these taxa) are selectively stimulated by glucose and might therefore be capable of consuming mucus- and plant-derived saccharides during gut passage and (c) indicate that ingested obligate anaerobes and facultative aerobes from soil can concomitantly metabolize the same source of carbon. PMID:20613788

Wüst, Pia K; Horn, Marcus A; Drake, Harold L

2011-01-01

415

Avoidance of hydrolyzed casein by mice  

PubMed Central

When casein, a milk protein, is hydrolyzed, it renders human foods that contain it (e.g., hypoallergenic infant formula, cheeses) distasteful to many people. This rejection of hydrolyzed casein (HC)-containing foods has recently been found to also occur in a non-human species (deer, Odocoileus spp.). Identifying other animals that avoid HC would facilitate understanding how and why HC-containing food is often rejected. This study determined whether HC-containing food is avoided by Mus musculus and whether consumption patterns were sensitive to testing conditions, specifically food form (powder, pellet or dough) and food access (ad libitum or 1.5 h/day following 6 h of food deprivation). Diets were offered in two-choice tests that paired an HC-containing food with an intact casein-containing alternative at seven protein concentrations (0%–50% w/w). Five experimental groups were tested under different combinations of food form and food access. Three groups (ad lib/powder, ad lib/pellet, and 1.5 h/pellet) avoided the HC diet starting at the 30% protein level. At the 40% and 50% protein levels, all groups showed strong avoidance of HC. Although testing conditions influenced total caloric intake and body weight gain, avoidance of HC at the highest concentrations was robust to the manipulations in experimental conditions. Our study suggests that mice may be a useful model for understanding the mechanisms of HC rejection. PMID:17900635

Field, Kristin L.; Kimball, Bruce A.; Mennella, Julie A.; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.

2008-01-01

416

Avoiding Death by Vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two-Higgs doublet model (2HDM) can have two electroweak breaking, CP-conserving, minima. The possibility arises that the minimum which corresponds to the known elementary particle spectrum is metastable, a possibility we call the "panic vacuum". We present analytical bounds on the parameters of the softly broken Peccei-Quinn 2HDM which are necessary and sufficient conditions to avoid this possibility. We also show that, for this particular model, the current LHC data already tell us that we are necessarily in the global minimum of the theory, regardless of any cosmological considerations about the lifetime of the false vacua.

Barroso, A.; Ferreira, P. M.; Ivanov, I.; Santos, R.; Silva, João P.

2013-07-01

417

Concentration of cadmium in Coturnix quail fed earthworms  

SciTech Connect

Earthworms (Lumbriscus terrestris), collected from soils in southern Ontario, Canada, that had no previous history of cadmium application, contained 3 ppm cadmium. They were fed to Coturnix quail as 60% dry weight of their diet for 63 d to examine the extent of deposition of native cadmium. Cadmium in kidney, liver, and excreta was greatly elevated above that of birds fed a control diet without worms. No increase in the level of cadmium in eggs was found. The factors affecting the association of cadmium in soils and worms and their assimilation and possible toxic effects in foraging birds are discussed.

Stoewsand, G.S.; Bache, C.A.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Lisk, D.J.

1986-01-01

418

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) depress allogeneic natural cytotoxicity by earthworm coelomocytes  

SciTech Connect

Coelomocytes of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris caused significant spontaneous allogeneic cytotoxicity in a 24-h trypan blue assay, but not in an assay using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Allogeneic cytotoxicity assays using cells from worms exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) suggest that PCBs can suppress a natural killing (NK-like) reaction. The implications of this work are twofold: understanding the evolution of natural killing (NK-like) activity and providing preliminary information on how spontaneous killing, a component of cellular immunity, may be compromised by pollutants.

Suzuki, M.M.; Cooper, E.L. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Lab. of Comparative Immunology; Eyambe, G.S.; Goven, A.J.; Fitzpatrick, L.C. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Venables, B.J. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences]|[TRAC Labs., Denton, TX (United States)

1995-10-01

419

Earthworm populations as related to woodcock habitat usage in Central Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lumbricid earthworms were sampled 'on two central Maine study areas between late April and early September, 1974, to relate earthworm abundance to use of feeding covers by American woodcock(Philoheli minor). On sampling days, occurring at 2 to 3 week intervals, a formalin solution was applied to thirty O.25m areas in heavjly, commonly, and rarely used woodcock covers (5 samples/type of feedjngcover/study area). The extent of cover usage was based on use of vegetation by 51 radio-equipped woodcock, 1970-73 (605 woodcockdays). A total of 2,546 earthworms of nine species was collected; species and age compositions of collected lumbricids were similar on both study areas. Similarly. number and biomass (dry weight) of earthworms extracted did not differ significantly between study areas. However. the number and biomass of sampled earthworms were directly and significantly related to the intensity to which woodcock used covers. Those diurnal covers most heavily used by woodcock sustained the highest lumbricid populations, ostensibly because these covers provided earthworms with preferred foods (i.e., leaf litters) and optimum soil moisture-temperature conditions. In terms of earthworms and woodcock supported per unit area, management of second-growth hardwoods appears more efficient than attempting to alter coniferous or mixed forests.

Reynolds, J.W.; Krohn, W.B.; Hordan, G.A.

1977-01-01

420

Effects of heavy metals on the litter consumption by the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus in field soils  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aim of this study was to determine effects of heavy metals on litter consumption by the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus in National Park the "Brabantsche Biesbosch", the Netherlands. Adult L. rubellus were collected from 12 polluted and from one unpolluted field site. Earthworms collected at the unpolluted site were kept in their native soil and in soil from each of the 12 Biesbosch sites. Earthworms collected in the Biesbosch were kept in their native soils. Non-polluted poplar (Populus sp.) litter was offered as a food source and litter consumption and earthworm biomass were determined after 54 days. Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations were determined in soil, pore water and 0.01 M CaCl2 extracts of the soil and in earthworms. In spite of low available metal concentrations in the polluted soils, Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations in L. rubellus were increased. The litter consumption rate per biomass was positively related to internal Cd and Zn concentrations of earthworms collected from the Biesbosch and kept in native soil. A possible explanation is an increased demand for energy, needed for the regulation and detoxification of heavy metals. Litter consumption per biomass of earthworms from the reference site and kept in the polluted Biesbosch soils, was not related to any of the determined soil characteristics and metal concentrations. ?? 2005 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

Hobbelen, P.H.F.; Koolhaas, J.E.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

2006-01-01

421

Importance of earthworm-seed interactions for the composition and structure of plant communities: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil seed bank composition and dynamics are crucial elements for the understanding of plant population and community ecology. Earthworms are increasingly recognized as important dispersers and predators of seeds. Through direct and indirect effects they influence either positively or negatively the establishment and survival of seeds and seedlings. Seedling establishment is affected by a variety of earthworm-mediated mechanisms, such as selective seed ingestion and digestion, acceleration or deceleration of germination, and seed transport. Earthworm casts deposited on the soil surface and the entrance of earthworm burrows often contain viable seeds and constitute important regeneration niches for plant seedlings and therefore likely favour specific seed traits. However, the role of earthworms as seed dispersers, mediators of seed bank dynamics and seed predators has not been considered in concert. The overall effect of earthworms on plant communities remains little understood. Most knowledge is based on laboratory studies on temperate species and future work has to explore the biological significance of earthworm-seed interactions under more natural conditions. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on earthworm-seed interactions and discuss factors determining these interactions. We highlight that this interaction may be an underappreciated, yet major driving force for the dynamics of soil seed banks and plant communities which most likely have experienced co-evolutionary processes. Despite the experimental bias, we hypothesize that the knowledge gathered in the present review is of crucial relevance for restoration and conservation ecology. For instance, as earthworms emerge as successful and ubiquitous invaders in various ecosystems, the summarized information might serve as a basis for realistic estimations and modelling of consequences on native plant communities. We depict promising directions of future research and point to the need to consider above- and belowground interactions in order to mechanistically understand the driving forces of plant community assembly.

Forey, Estelle; Barot, Sébastien; Decaëns, Thibaud; Langlois, Estelle; Laossi, Kam-Rigne; Margerie, Pierre; Scheu, Stefan; Eisenhauer, Nico

2011-11-01

422

Geochemistry and Chemical Weathering in Soils along an Earthworm Invasion Gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the central tenets in geomorphology is that a chemical denudation rate is limited by the total denudation rate, which controls how fast minerals are exposed to reactive environments of the earth’s surface. Though the mineral supply rate has been routinely tied to tectonic uplifts, in soil mantled landscapes, organisms such as earthworms may also significantly contribute to exposing minerals to varying geochemical environments and thus altering chemical denudation rates of the landscapes they inhabit through mineral translocation. In glaciated parts of North America, many forests evolved without native earthworms, since the last glacial retreat, until they were invaded by exotic earthworm species that arrived with agriculture, recreational fishing, and logging. Therefore, an earthworm invasion chronosequence in northern Minnesota--the focus of this ongoing study--provides an ideal natural laboratory to quantitatively study how burrowing organisms, by mixing soils, contribute to chemically denuding the landscapes. We are currently determining the inorganic chemistry of soils along a ~200 meter long transect that includes pre earthworm invasion soils as well as soils populated with several earthworm species with different burrowing habits. Additionally, six soils pits along the transect are densely installed with lysimeters, piezometers, and gas sampling tubes. The soils’ elemental chemistry profiles show that earthworms have significantly relocated minerals vertically, which is consistent with the 210Pb activity profiles determined with gamma spectroscopy. Major elements, depending on their solubility, biological demands, and susceptibility to be complexed with organic matter, respond to the enhanced mixing rates in different ways. To constrain the impacts of earthworm burrowing on chemical denudation, we are also measuring cations, anions, and alkalinity in the water samples collected with the lysimeters and piezometers. Ultimately, the soil and water chemistry and 210Pb activities, together with ongoing monitoring of earthworms’ species composition and population density, will allow us to understand how and to what degree the soil mixing organisms affect chemical denudation of landscapes, which is central to our efforts in finding the topographic signatures of life.

Resner, K.; Yoo, K.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Hale, C.; Sebestyen, S. D.

2010-12-01

423

Mapping spatial distribution of preferential flow using earthworms distribution models in combination with tracer infiltration patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slow matrix flow and rapid by-pass, i.e. preferential flow, result in a large variability of flow in the topsoil. The spatiotemporal infiltration variability in the topsoil strongly determines the distribution of precipitation water to surface runoff, soil moisture storage and rapid percolation to groundwater. Measurement of quantitative indicators for preferential flow and conversion to input parameters for hydrological modelling remain major difficulties in modelling the impact of preferential flow. Preferential flow often takes place along macropores of biological origin, such as earthworm burrows and root channels. There are three different earthworm types which have different burrowing patterns. These result in different preferential infiltration patterns, varying from rapid deep vertical infiltration to a stronger diffuse distribution of water and solutes in the upper soil layers. Thus the spatial distribution of different ecological earthworm types can help us to understand the spatial variability in preferential infiltration patterns. Geometrical properties of macropores however have in the past proven insufficient to predict preferential flow rates as different numbers and sizes of pores may be hydrologically effective under different conditions. Therefore it is important to link the spatiotemporal distribution of earthworms to the effective preferential flow patterns. This study is part of the Biopore project, which has as final aim to link spatiotemporal earthworm distribution models with a preferential flow model to obtain an integrated eco-hydrological model. Previous research showed that earthworm presence was the main cause of preferential flow in the study area, the Weiherbach Catchment (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). For this catchment spatiotemporal distribution patterns of earthworms were modelled using soil properties (organic matter content, texture, soil moisture), and topography (slope, elevation) as predictors for earthworm occurrence, abundance and biomass. The results of the spatiotemporal distribution patterns of earthworms are used as indicator for potential spatiotemporal occurrence of preferential flow and are linked to tracer infiltration patterns to obtain information on spatial distribution of effective preferential flow.

van Schaik, Loes; Palm, Juliane; Klaus, Julian; Schröder, Boris; Zehe, Erwin

2010-05-01

424

Metallothionein gene expression differs in earthworm populations with different exposure history.  

PubMed

Metals are persistent pollutants in soils that can harm soil organisms and decrease species diversity. Animals can cope with metal contamination with the help of metallothioneins, small metal-binding proteins involved in homeostasis and detoxification of metals. We studied the expression of metallothionein with qPCR in a small, epigeic earthworm, Dendrobaena octaedra. We compared expression patterns and metal body content in earthworms collected from two sites with different metal contamination histories: Harjavalta, contaminated by a Cu-Ni smelter operational for over 50 years, and Jyväskylä, an uncontaminated site. Earthworms from both sites were also experimentally exposed to different concentrations of Cu (control, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg) or Zn (control, 75, 150 or 300 mg/kg) for 7, 14 or 28 days to determine if there is a time related dose-response in gene expression. Population comparison showed that metallothionein expression was higher in earthworms from the contaminated site. In the exposure experiment, exposure time affected expression, but only in the earthworms from the uncontaminated site, suggesting that there is a delay in the metallothionein response of earthworms in this population. In contrast, earthworms from the contaminated site showed higher and constant levels of metallothionein expression at all exposure concentrations and durations. The constant metallothionein expression in earthworms from the contaminated site suggests that inducibility of metallothionein response could be lost in earthworms with metal exposure history. Adaptation of D. octaedra to metal exposure could explain the differences between the populations and explain the persistence of this species in contaminated forest soils. PMID:25179588

Mustonen, M; Haimi, J; Väisänen, A; Knott, K E

2014-11-01

425

Measuring Experiential Avoidance in Adults: The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To date, general levels of experiential avoidance are primarily measured by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), but it includes items of questionable comprehensibility. The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y), previously validated as a measure of experiential avoidance with children and adolescents, was…

Schmalz, Jonathan E.; Murrell, Amy R.

2010-01-01

426

Soil Chemical Weathering and Nutrient Budgets along an Earthworm Invasion Chronosequence in a Northern Minnesota Forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are investigating the impact of exotic earthworms on the rate of nutrient and ion release from soil chemical weathering along an ~200 m invasion chronosequence in a northern Minnesota sugar maple forest. The earthworms belong to three ecological groups that represent different feeding and burrowing behaviors, all of which were introduced from Europe to the previously earthworm-free Great Lakes Region through fishing and agricultural activities. As earthworms digest and mix the soil, we hypothesize that they significantly alter chemical weathering processes by incorporating mineral surfaces to new geochemical environments in their intestines and at different soil depths. The effect of mixing on soil morphology is dramatic, but biogeochemical changes remain largely unknown and therefore are poorly coupled to the current and potential changes in forest ecosystems under the threat of exotic earthworms. We analyze the activities of short-lived isotopes 137-Cs and 210-Pb along with the inorganic chemistry of soil, water, and leaf litter across an invasion transect and link these measurements to the biomass and species composition of exotic earthworms. Earthworms vertically relocate minerals and organic matter largely within the top ~10 cm, which is reflected in the depth profiles of the short-lived isotopes. Among the inorganic nutrients analyzed, Ca is of particular interest due to sugar maple's aptitude for recycling Ca. Fractional mass loss values (tau) of Ca, relative to the soil's parent material, show an enrichment factor of 14 in the least invaded A horizon soils. However, such a high enrichment factor declines dramatically in the heavily invaded soils, suggesting that earthworm activities contribute to leaching Ca. In contrast, the enrichment factor of Fe increases with greater degrees of earthworm invasion, which is consistent with the extraction chemistry data showing greater quantities of pedogenic crystalline iron oxides and greater mineral specific surface area (presumably due to the crystalline iron oxides) in the heavily invaded soils. Water chemistry of lysimeter samples show a similar trend: the heavily invaded soils show a lower solute concentration of Ca but higher concentrations of Fe. These data indicate that exotic earthworms, while significantly affecting chemical weathering processes in the soils, are seriously altering (1) the budgets of inorganic nutrient in these hardwood forests and (2) the minerals' potential capacity to complex carbon on their surface area. Our ongoing work includes the use of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating which may complement the 137-Cs and 210-Pb data in constraining soil mixing. Additionally, we will incorporate leaf litter chemistry and continue water and earthworm sampling to understand the degree that exotic earthworms contribute to chemical weathering in the Great Lakes hardwood ecosystems.

Resner, K. E.; Yoo, K.; Sebestyen, S. D.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Lyttle, A.; Weinman, B. A.; Blum, A.; Hale, C. M.

2011-12-01

427

Avoiding dangerous climate change  

SciTech Connect

In 2005 the UK Government hosted the Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change conference to take an in-depth look at the scientific issues associated with climate change. This volume presents the most recent findings from the leading international scientists that attended the conference. The topics addressed include critical thresholds and key vulnerabilities of the climate system, impacts on human and natural systems, socioeconomic costs and benefits of emissions pathways, and technological options for meeting different stabilisation levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Contents are: Foreword from Prime Minister Tony Blair; Introduction from Rajendra Pachauri, Chairman of the IPCC; followed by 41 papers arranged in seven sections entitled: Key Vulnerabilities of the Climate System and Critical Thresholds; General Perspectives on Dangerous Impacts; Key Vulnerabilities for Ecosystems and Biodiversity; Socio-Economic Effects; Regional Perspectives; Emission Pathways; and Technological Options. Four papers have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

Hans Joachim Schellnhuber; Wolfgang Cramer; Nebojsa Nakicenovic; Tom Wigley; Gary Yohe (eds.)

2006-02-15

428

Earthworm coelomocytes as nanoscavenger of ZnO NPs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthworms can `biotransform' or `biodegrade' chemical contaminants, rendering them harmless in their bodies, and can bioaccumulate them in their tissues. They `absorb' the dissolved chemicals through their moist `body wall' due to the interstitial water and also ingest by `mouth' while soil passes through the gut. Since the advent of the nanotechnology era, the environmental sink has been continuously receiving engineered nanomaterials as well as their derivatives. Our current understanding of the potential impact of nanomaterials and their natural scavenger is limited. In the present investigation, we studied the cellular uptake of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) by coelomocytes especially by chloragocytes of Eisenia fetida and their role as nanoscavenger. Results from exposure to 100- and 50-nm ZnO NPs indicate that coelomocytes of the earthworm E. fetida show no significant DNA damage at a dose lower than 3 mg/l and have the potential ability to uptake ZnO NPs from the soil ecosystem and transform them into microparticles.

Gupta, Shruti; Kushwah, Tanuja; Yadav, Shweta

2014-05-01

429

Scaling of the hydrostatic skeleton in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris.  

PubMed

The structural and functional consequences of changes in size or scale have been well studied in animals with rigid skeletons, but relatively little is known about scale effects in animals with hydrostatic skeletons. We used glycol methacrylate histology and microscopy to examine the scaling of mechanically important morphological features of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris over an ontogenetic size range from 0.03 to 12.89 g. We found that L. terrestris becomes disproportionately longer and thinner as it grows. This increase in the length to diameter ratio with size means that, when normalized for mass, adult worms gain ~117% mechanical advantage during radial expansion, compared with hatchling worms. We also found that the cross-sectional area of the longitudinal musculature scales as body mass to the ~0.6 power across segments, which is significantly lower than the 0.66 power predicted by isometry. The cross-sectional area of the circular musculature, however, scales as body mass to the ~0.8 power across segments, which is significantly higher than predicted by isometry. By modeling the interaction of muscle cross-sectional area and mechanical advantage, we calculate that the force output generated during both circular and longitudinal muscle contraction scales near isometry. We hypothesize that the allometric scaling of earthworms may reflect changes in soil properties and burrowing mechanics with size. PMID:24871920

Kurth, Jessica A; Kier, William M

2014-06-01

430

Earthworm coelomocytes as nanoscavenger of ZnO NPs.  

PubMed

Earthworms can 'biotransform' or 'biodegrade' chemical contaminants, rendering them harmless in their bodies, and can bioaccumulate them in their tissues. They 'absorb' the dissolved chemicals through their moist 'body wall' due to the interstitial water and also ingest by 'mouth' while soil passes through the gut. Since the advent of the nanotechnology era, the environmental sink has been continuously receiving engineered nanomaterials as well as their derivatives. Our current understanding of the potential impact of nanomaterials and their natural scavenger is limited. In the present investigation, we studied the cellular uptake of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) by coelomocytes especially by chloragocytes of Eisenia fetida and their role as nanoscavenger. Results from exposure to 100- and 50-nm ZnO NPs indicate that coelomocytes of the earthworm E. fetida show no significant DNA damage at a dose lower than 3 mg/l and have the potential ability to uptake ZnO NPs from the soil ecosystem and transform them into microparticles. PMID:24959107

Gupta, Shruti; Kushwah, Tanuja; Yadav, Shweta

2014-01-01

431

Biosynthesis of luminescent quantum dots in an earthworm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synthesis of designer solid-state materials by living organisms is an emerging field in bio-nanotechnology. Key examples include the use of engineered viruses as templates for cobalt oxide (Co3O4) particles, superparamagnetic cobalt-platinum alloy nanowires and gold-cobalt oxide nanowires for photovoltaic and battery-related applications. Here, we show that the earthworm's metal detoxification pathway can be exploited to produce luminescent, water-soluble semiconductor cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots that emit in the green region of the visible spectrum when excited in the ultraviolet region. Standard wild-type Lumbricus rubellus earthworms were exposed to soil spiked with CdCl2 and Na2TeO3 salts for 11 days. Luminescent quantum dots were isolated from chloragogenous tissues surrounding the gut of the worm, and were successfully used in live-cell imaging. The addition of polyethylene glycol on the surface of the quantum dots allowed for non-targeted, fluid-phase uptake by macrophage cells.

Stürzenbaum, S. R.; Höckner, M.; Panneerselvam, A.; Levitt, J.; Bouillard, J.-S.; Taniguchi, S.; Dailey, L.-A.; Khanbeigi, R. Ahmad; Rosca, E. V.; Thanou, M.; Suhling, K.; Zayats, A. V.; Green, M.

2013-01-01

432

The binding interactions of imidacloprid with earthworm fibrinolytic enzyme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, several studies were conducted to elucidate the binding mechanism of earthworm fibrinolytic enzyme (EFE) with imidocloprid (IMI) by using theoretical calculation, fluorescence, UV-vis, circular dichroism spectroscopy and an enzymatic inhibition assay. The spectral data showed that the binding interactions existed between IMI and EFE. The binding constants, binding site, thermodynamic parameters and binding forces were analyzed in detail. The results indicate a single class of binding sites for IMI in EFE and that this binding interaction is a spontaneous process with the estimated enthalpy and entropy changes being 2.195 kJ mol-1 and 94.480 J mol-1 K-1, respectively. A single class of binding site existed for IMI in EFE. The tertiary or secondary structure of EFE was partly destroyed by IMI. The visualized binding details were also exhibited by the theoretical calculation and the results indicated that the interaction between IMI and Phe (Tyr, or Trp) or EFE occurred. Combining the experimental data with the theoretical calculation data, we showed that the binding forces between IMI and EFE were mainly hydrophobic force accompanied by hydrogen binding, and ?-? stacking. In addition, IMI did not obviously influence the activity of EFE. In a word, the above analysis offered insights into the binding mechanism of IMI with EFE and could provide some important information for the molecular toxicity of IMI for earthworms.

Wang, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Chen, Tao

2014-08-01

433

Earthworm coelomocytes as nanoscavenger of ZnO NPs  

PubMed Central

Earthworms can ‘biotransform’ or ‘biodegrade’ chemical contaminants, rendering them harmless in their bodies, and can bioaccumulate them in their tissues. They ‘absorb’ the dissolved chemicals through their moist ‘body wall’ due to the interstitial water and also ingest by ‘mouth’ while soil passes through the gut. Since the advent of the nanotechnology era, the environmental sink has been continuously receiving engineered nanomaterials as well as their derivatives. Our current understanding of the potential impact of nanomaterials and their natural scavenger is limited. In the present investigation, we studied the cellular uptake of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) by coelomocytes especially by chloragocytes of Eisenia fetida and their role as nanoscavenger. Results from exposure to 100- and 50-nm ZnO NPs indicate that coelomocytes of the earthworm E. fetida show no significant DNA damage at a dose lower than 3 mg/l and have the potential ability to uptake ZnO NPs from the soil ecosystem and transform them into microparticles. PMID:24959107

2014-01-01

434

Preventing avoidable asthma deaths.  

PubMed

The UK has one of the highest death rates in Europe from asthma, with more than 20 people dying from the disease each week. Across the UK there is a five-fold variation in the number of hospital admissions for asthma almost certainly explained in part by variations in delivery, uptake and organisation of care. Deaths from asthma are frequently avoidable the findings from the National Review of Asthma Deaths have confirmed. A total of 276 cases were considered by the confidential enquiry panels and 195 confirmed as asthma deaths. Major avoidable factors were judged to be present in 60% of cases. Key findings from the report include: Almost half the patients (45%) died without seeking medical help or before help could be provided; 10% died within 28 days of discharge from hospital; 21% had attended A&E with asthma in the previous year; and only 23% had a personal asthma action plan. Over-prescription of short-acting bronchodilators and under-prescription of preventer inhalers was common. Every general practice should have a designated, named clinical lead for asthma services. Patients with asthma should be referred to a specialist asthma service if they have required more than two courses of systemic corticosteroids, oral or injected, in the previous 12 months or management using BTS steps 4 or 5 to achieve control. Any patient admitted to hospital or attending A&E with asthma should be reviewed, and control optimised, within a week of discharge. All asthma patients should have a written personal asthma action plan and should have a structured review by a healthcare professional with training. in asthma at least annually. PMID:25588282

Griffiths, Chris; Levy, Mark L

2014-09-01

435

Cadmium effect on the structure of supra- and subpharyngeal ganglia and the neurosecretory processes in earthworm Dendrobaena veneta (Rosa).  

PubMed

Cadmium effects on the supra- and subpharyngeal ganglia, neurosecretion and RNA content in the neurosecretory cells were tested in earthworms Dendrobaena veneta exposed to 10 and 50 mg Cd kg(-1) in soil after 20 days of the experiment. Accumulation of cadmium in the ganglia of nervous system was also measured using AAS method. Cadmium was accumulated in the nervous system. The accumulated amount was proportional to Cd soil concentration and the exposure time. A considerable fall in neurosecretion and RNA content in the neurosecretory cells and neurosecretion in the neuropile (the axons) of both tested ganglia was induced by 50 mg Cd kg(-1). It seemed that neurosecretion synthesis and its axonal transport could be suppressed. Cadmium caused degenerative changes as vacuolization of the neurosecretory cells and neuropile in both tested ganglia. PMID:12860099

Siekierska, Ewa

2003-01-01

436

Interactions between plant species and earthworm casts in a calcareous grassland under elevated CO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

The authors tested the hypothesis that the spatial proximity of a plant species to nutrient-rich earthworm casts (e.g., 100% more ammonium and 30% more phosphate than in adjacent soil) is an important determinant of a plant`s responsiveness to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2}. In 1995 the authors mapped the location of both earthworm surface casts and plants in each of 16 1.2-m{sup 2} plots in a species-rich calcareous grassland in northwestern Switzerland. Eight plots have been maintained under current ambient CO{sub 2} concentrations and eight have been maintained at elevated CO{sub 2} since March 1994. In addition, total ramet production of each species, as a measure of performance, and cumulative cast production at each location (cell) were recorded at peak community biomass in 1995. Plant species within functional groups differed markedly in their degree of association with casts; however, after two growing seasons elevated CO{sub 2} had no effect on plant species or functional group associations with casts. No statistically significant relationship could be demonstrated between plant-species response to elevated CO{sub 2} and the degree of association with casts within any of the functional groups. However, a positive relationship was observed between the mean response of graminoid species to elevated CO{sub 2} and their mean degree of association with surface casts at ambient CO{sub 2}.

Zaller, J.G.; Arnone, J.A. III [Univ. Basel (Switzerland). Botanisches Inst.

1999-04-01

437

Time pressure undermines performance more under avoidance than approach motivation.  

PubMed

Four experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that performance is particularly undermined by time pressure when people are avoidance motivated. The results supported this hypothesis across three different types of tasks, including those well suited and those ill suited to the type of information processing evoked by avoidance motivation. We did not find evidence that stress-related emotions were responsible for the observed effect. Avoidance motivation is certainly necessary and valuable in the self-regulation of everyday behavior. However, our results suggest that given its nature and implications, it seems best that avoidance motivation is avoided in situations that involve (time) pressure. PMID:23554176

Roskes, Marieke; Elliot, Andrew J; Nijstad, Bernard A; De Dreu, Carsten K W

2013-06-01

438

Incorporation of strontium in earthworm-secreted calcium carbonate granules produced in strontium-amended and strontium-bearing soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the incorporation of Sr into biomineralized calcium carbonate granules secreted by the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris. Experiments were conducted using an agricultural soil amended with Sr(NO3)2 to give concentrations in the range 50-500 mg kg-1 Sr and a naturally Sr-rich, Celestine-bearing soil containing up to 11 000 mg kg-1 Sr. Granule production rates were in the range 0.26-2.3 mgCaCO3 earthworm-1 day-1; they showed no relationship with soil or soil solution Sr concentration but decreased with decreasing pH. Strong relationships exist (r2 ? 0.8, p ? 0.01) between the Sr concentrations and Sr/Ca ratios of the granules and those of the soil, soil solution and earthworms. The highest bulk Sr concentration we recorded in the calcium carbonate granules was 5.1 wt.% Sr whilst electron microprobe analysis recorded spot concentrations of up to 4.3 wt.% Sr. X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicate that the majority of the calcium carbonate is present as Sr-bearing calcite with trace amounts of Sr-bearing vaterite also being present. The granules produced in the Sr-amended soils concentrated Sr relative to Ca from the bulk soil and the earthworms. This suggests that earthworm secreted calcium carbonate may be significant in the cycling of 90Sr released into soils via nuclear accidents or leakage from nuclear waste storage facilities.

Brinza, Loredana; Quinn, Paul D.; Schofield, Paul F.; Mosselmans, J. Frederick W.; Hodson, Mark E.

2013-07-01

439

FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIONS ARE ESTABLISHED BETWEEN GIANT NERVE FIBERS IN GRAFTED EARTHWORMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Giant fiber interconnections were examined in successful grafts between two posterior portions of earthworms (Eisenia foetida). Electrophysiological and histological results indicated that cell-specific interanimal connections were formed between the medial giant fibers (MGF) in ...

440

Glyphosate herbicide affects belowground interactions between earthworms and symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi in a model ecosystem.  

PubMed

Herbicides containing glyphosate are widely used in agriculture and private gardens, however, surprisingly little is known on potential side effects on non-target soil organisms. In a greenhouse experiment with white clover we investigated, to what extent a globally-used glyphosate herbicide affects interactions between essential soil organisms such as earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We found that herbicides significantly decreased root mycorrhization, soil AMF spore biomass, vesicles and propagules. Herbicide application and earthworms increased soil hyphal biomass and tended to reduce soil water infiltration after a simulated heavy rainfall. Herbicide application in interaction with AMF led to slightly heavier but less active earthworms. Leaching of glyphosate after a simulated rainfall was substantial and altered by earthworms and AMF. These sizeable changes provide impetus for more general attention to side-effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on key soil organisms and their associated ecosystem services. PMID:25005713

Zaller, Johann G; Heigl, Florian; Ruess, Liliane; Grabmaier, Andrea

2014-01-01

441

Inhibition effect of glyphosate on the acute and subacute toxicity of cadmium to earthworm Eisenia fetida.  

PubMed

The acute and subacute toxicities of cadmium (Cd) to earthworm Eisenia fetida in the presence and absence of glyphosate were studied. Although Cd is highly toxic to E. fetida, the presence of glyphosate markedly reduced the acute toxicity of Cd to earthworm; both the mortality rate of the earthworms and the accumulation of Cd decreased with the increase of the glyphosate/Cd molar ratio. The subcellular distribution of Cd in E. fetida tissues showed that internal Cd was dominant in the intact cells fraction and the heat-stable proteins fraction. The presence of glyphosate reduced the concentration of Cd in all fractions, especially the intact cells. During a longer period of exposure, the weight loss of earthworm and the total Cd absorption was alleviated by glyphosate. Thus, the herbicide glyphosate can reduce the toxicity and bioavailability of Cd in the soil ecosy