Sample records for earthworm avoidance test

  1. The potential of an earthworm avoidance test for evaluation of hazardous waste sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger B. Yeardley Jr.; L. C. Gast; J. M. Lazorchak

    1996-01-01

    An earthworm avoidance test has potential advantages for use in evaluation of hazardous wastes sites. Because organisms often exhibit behavioral responses at lower levels of stress than those that acute toxicity tests are able to detect, avoidance tests could provide increased sensitivity to hazardous chemicals. Avoidance is an ecologically relevant endpoint that neither acute nor sublethal tests measure. Avoidance can

  2. THE POTENTIAL OF AN EARTHWORM AVOIDANCE TEST FOR EVALUATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An earthworm avoidance test has potential advantages for use in evaluation of hazardous wastes sites. Because organisms often exhibit behavioral responses at lower levels of stress than those that acute toxicity tests are able to detect, avoidance tests could provide increased se...

  3. The potential of an earthworm avoidance test for evaluation of hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Yeardley, R.B. Jr.; Gast, L.C. [DynCorp, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lazorchak, J.M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1996-09-01

    An earthworm avoidance test has potential advantages for use in evaluation of hazardous wastes sites. Because organisms often exhibit behavioral responses at lower levels of stress than those that acute toxicity tests are able to detect, avoidance tests could provide increased sensitivity to hazardous chemicals. Avoidance is an ecologically relevant endpoint that neither acute nor sublethal tests measure. Avoidance can potentially indicate sublethal stress in a short period of time, testing is easily done in a soil matrix, and an avoidance test has the potential for specialized applications for soil testing. Dual-control test data established that, in absence of a toxicant, worms did not congregate, but instead distributed themselves fairly randomly with respect to the two sides of the test chambers, that is, they did not display behavior that might be mistaken for avoidance. In tests with artificial soil spiked with reference toxicants and hazardous site soils, worms avoided soils containing various toxic chemicals. Avoidance behavior proved in most cases be a more sensitive indicator of chemical contamination than acute tests. Determination of avoidance was possible in 1 to 2 d, much less than the current duration of acute and sublethal earthworm tests.

  4. Avoidance tests in site-specific risk assessment--influence of soil properties on the avoidance response of Collembola and earthworms.

    PubMed

    Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Römbke, Jörg; Sousa, José Paulo

    2008-05-01

    The ability of organisms to avoid contaminated soils can act as an indicator of toxic potential in a particular soil. Based on the escape response of earthworms and Collembola, avoidance tests with these soil organisms have great potential as early screening tools in site-specific assessment. These tests are becoming more common in soil ecotoxicology, because they are ecologically relevant and have a shorter duration time compared with standardized soil toxicity tests. The avoidance response of soil invertebrates, however, can be influenced by the soil properties (e.g., organic matter content and texture) that affect behavior of the test species in the exposure matrix. Such an influence could mask a possible effect of the contaminant. Therefore, the effects of soil properties on performance of test species in the exposure media should be considered during risk assessment of contaminated soils. Avoidance tests with earthworms (Eisenia andrei) and springtails (Folsomia candida) were performed to identify the influence of both organic matter content and texture on the avoidance response of representative soil organisms. Distinct artificial soils were prepared by modifying quantities of the standard artificial soil components described by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development to achieve different organic matter and texture classes. Several combinations of each factor were tested. Results showed that both properties influenced the avoidance response of organisms, which avoided soils with low organic matter content and fine texture. Springtails were less sensitive to changes in these soil constituents compared with earthworms, indicating springtails can be used for site-specific assessments of contaminated soils with a wider range of respective soil properties. PMID:18419186

  5. Earthworm avoidance of biochar can be mitigated by wetting , William C. Hockaday b

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Earthworm avoidance of biochar can be mitigated by wetting Dong Li a , William C. Hockaday b tests, growth and reproduction tests, and oxidative stress assays with the earthworm Eisenia foetida to assess the potential toxicity of soil amended with biochar produced from apple wood chips. Earthworms

  6. Biochar aging reduces earthworm avoidance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar, a black carbon substance produced by the pyrolysis of organic feedstocks, has been used in many soil improvement strategies ranging from nutrient addition to sequestration of C. Simple toxicity studies and laboratory preference/avoidance assays are recommended but results rarely reported. ...

  7. Toxicity assessment for chlorpyrifos-contaminated soil with three different earthworm test methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shi-ping ZHOU; Chang-qun DUAN; Hui FU; Yu-hui CHEN; Xue-hua WANG; Ze-fen YU

    2007-01-01

    Earthworm toxicity tests are useful tools for terrestrial risk assessment but require a hierarchy of test designs that differ in effect levels (behavior, sublethal, lethal). In this study, the toxicity of chlorpyrifos contaminated soil on earthworms was assessed. In addition to the acute and chronic tests, an avoidance response test was applied. Earthworms were exposed to sublethal and lethal concentration

  8. Assessing cypermethrin-contaminated soil with three different earthworm test methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiping ZHOU; Changqun DUAN; Xuehua WANG; Wong Hang Gi Michelle; Zefen YU; Hui FU

    2008-01-01

    A series of tests (lethal, sublethal, and behavioral) on earthworms were conducted as an eco-assessment of pesticides. In this study, the toxicity of cypermethrin-contaminating soil on adult and juvenile earthworms was assessed. Beside the acute and chronic tests, an avoidance response test was carried out. It was shown that the all-round toxicity from cypermethrin was weak on adult earthworms. Compared

  9. Toxicity of copper and zinc assessed with three different earthworm tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tuomas Lukkari; Marjo Aatsinki; Ari Väisänen; Jari Haimi

    2005-01-01

    At present, standardised earthworm acute toxicity and reproduction tests are used to assess the toxicity of heavy metal contaminated soils. These tests are, however, time-consuming, laborious and costly, and in addition, some sublethal responses may remain overlooked. Avoidance of metal contaminated soils by earthworms may be a useful parameter when assessing ecological risks with a low test effort. The objective

  10. Escape and avoidance learning in the earthworm Eisenia hortensis

    PubMed Central

    Ferrara, Nicole C.; Blaker, Amanda L.; Giddings, Charisa E.

    2014-01-01

    Interest in instrumental learning in earthworms dates back to 1912 when Yerkes concluded that they can learn a spatial discrimination in a T-maze. Rosenkoetter and Boice determined in the 1970s that the “learning” that Yerkes observed was probably chemotaxis and not learning at all. We examined a different form of instrumental learning: the ability to learn both to escape and to avoid an aversive stimulus. Freely moving “master” worms could turn off an aversive white light by increasing their movement; the behavior of yoked controls had no effect on the light. We demonstrate that in as few as 12 trials the behavior of the master worms comes under the control of this contingency. PMID:24498578

  11. Contact tests for pentachlorophenol toxicity to earthworms

    SciTech Connect

    Spontak, D.A. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The standardized contact filter paper test (EEC and OECD) provides an effective screening test for toxicity to earthworms in a laboratory setting. A need exists for a reliable and inexpensive technique for non-laboratory settings where screening is desired, but facilities cannot provide for the acquisition and maintenance of the glass vials required by the standardized test. This study evaluated two modifications of the standardized test using clear polyethylene bags, with and without filter paper, with Eisenia fetida and domesticated surface-feeding earthworms. The tests were conducted according to EEC and OECD guidelines. Results of the modified tests corresponded in dose and effect to the standardized contact filter paper test indicating the usefulness of the modified tests.

  12. Earthworm

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    N/A N/A (None; )

    2004-07-06

    Earthworms like to live underground in the moist soil. Two reasons why they are considered to be annelids are because they have a segmented body and they lack true legs. They have soft bodies and as a result don't have any "armor" to protect them. Earthworms can dry up and die after being out of the soil too long or they can easily be eaten by insects, as in the picture.

  13. Assessing 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)-contaminated soil using three different earthworm test methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Schaefer

    2004-01-01

    Within the scope of a phytoremediation project, the toxicity of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) contaminated soil (and its toxic metabolites) on earthworms was assessed. In addition to the standard acute and reproduction tests (ISO 11268), an avoidance response test was applied. The test methods covered all important ecological relevant endpoints (acute, chronic, behavioral). At a concentration of 1142mg\\/kg, TNT caused significant toxic

  14. Effects of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on the avoidance response, survival, growth and reproduction of earthworms (Eisenia fetida).

    PubMed

    Xie, Xianchuan; Qian, Yan; Wu, Yingxin; Yin, Jun; Zhai, Jianping

    2013-04-01

    The effects of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on avoidance response, survival, growth, and reproduction of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were investigated under laboratory conditions using natural and artificial soils as substrate. Results showed that no significant avoidance response was observed when earthworms were exposed to 0.1-1000 mg/kg of BDE-209 for 48 h. After 28-days exposure, no significant effects on survival and growth of adult earthworms was induced by 0.1-1000 mg/kg of BDE-209 indicating the Lowest Observed Effect Level (LOEL) of BDE-209 on their survival and body weight was more than 1000 mg/kg. Except for a significant decrease in the number of juveniles per hatched cocoon in artificial soils at 1000 mg/kg of BDE-209, no significant effects on reproductive parameters (e.g. cocoon production per earthworms, weight per cocoon and cocoon hatchability) were observed. These results suggest that adult earthworms have a strong tolerance for BDE-209 exposure in soils, but a potential toxicity does exist for earthworm embryos or juveniles. PMID:23312040

  15. Relating results from earthworm toxicity tests to agricultural soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.

    1992-01-01

    The artificial soil tests of the European Economic Community and of the Organization for Economic Cooperation produce data relating earthworm mortality to pesticide concentrations in soil under laboratory conditions. To apply these results to agricultural soils it is necessary to relate these concentrations to amounts of pesticide applied per area. This paper reviews the relevant published literature and suggests a simple relation for regulatory use. Hazards to earthworms from pesticides are suggested to be greatest soon after application, when the pesticides may be concentrated in a soil layer a few millimeters thick. For estimating exposure of earthworms, however, a thicker soil layer should be considered, to account for their movement through soil. During favorable weather conditions, earthworms belonging to species appropriate to the artificial soil test have been reported to confine their activity to a layer about 5 cm. If a 5-cm layer is accepted as relevant for regulatory purposes, then an application of 1 kg/ha would be equivalent to 1-67 ppm (dry) in the artificial soil test.

  16. Behavioural endpoints in earthworm ecotoxicology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maike Schaefer

    2003-01-01

    Background, Aims and Scope  Endpoints in earthworm ecotoxicology scheduled in guidelines are mortality and reproduction rates. However, not only the direct\\u000a influence of pollutants on population parameters but also changes in behaviour such as substrate avoidance can have an important\\u000a impact on soil ecosystems. In practice two different avoidance response tests are applied in earthworm ecotoxicology: (i)\\u000a a six-chamber test system

  17. Differences in toxicity of the insecticide chlorpyrifos to six species of earthworms (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) in standardized soil tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-chun Ma; Jos Bodt

    1993-01-01

    The choice of the earthworm species for use in the laboratory screening of chemicals remains a matter of controversy. The earthworm Eisenia fetida has been specified as a test species in current international standards for testing the acute lethality of chemicals to earthworms (OECD 1984; EEC 1985). E.fetida is a compost-dwelling species convenient for captive breeding. However, its ecological representativeness

  18. Influences of different standardised test methods on biochemical responses in the earthworm Eisenia fetida andrei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Arnaud; M Saint-Denis; J. F Narbonne; P Soler; D Ribera

    2000-01-01

    Studies were carried out to determine the effects on the metabolic activities of earthworms of experimental conditions used in toxicity assays. Earthworms (Eisenia fetida andrei) were maintained under constant environmental conditions, in the absence of toxic agents, using three standard toxicology assay procedures (the artisol, contact filter paper and artificial soil tests) for two periods of time. Two controls were

  19. Linking litter calcium, earthworms and soil properties: a common garden test with 14 tree

    E-print Network

    Chorover, Jon

    LETTER Linking litter calcium, earthworms and soil properties: a common garden test with 14 tree, and associated impacts on the soil heterotrophic community. However, the role that different plant traits play

  20. Effects of field metal-contaminated soils submitted to phytostabilisation and fly ash-aided phytostabilisation on the avoidance behaviour of the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Demuynck, Sylvain; Succiu, Iuliana Rosalia; Grumiaux, Fabien; Douay, Francis; Leprêtre, Alain

    2014-09-01

    The earthworm Eisenia fetida avoidance behaviour test was used to assess the quality recovery of metal-contaminated soils from lands submitted for 10 years to remediation. Soils were from plots located in the surroundings of a former lead smelter plant of Northern France. Metal concentrations in the soils ranged from 93 to 1231, 56 to 1424, 0.3 to 20 and 15 to 45.5mg metal/kg dry soil for Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu, respectively. Several former agricultural plots were treated either by a single phytostabilisation process involving the plantation of a tree mix or by fly ash aided-phytostabilisation. Silico-aluminous or sulfo-calcic ashes used were ploughed up to a 25- to 30-cm soil depth at a rate of 23.3kg/m(2) (i.e., 6 percent W/W). E. fetida was shown to avoid significantly the 10 years ash-treated soils whose habitat function has to be considered as limited. This avoidance would relate to a change of the texture of soils induced by the addition of ashes and consisting in an increased level of fine silts together with a decreased level of clays. By contrast, afforested metal-contaminated soils appeared for E. fetida as more attractive than unplanted ones. Regarding the influence of the metal contamination of the soils on E. fetida, none of the soils tested even the highest contaminated one was significantly avoided by worms. This lack of reaction would result from the low bioavailability of the metals in the soils tested. At the lights of our results and those previously published on both these ashes and these ash-treated soils, the usefulness of these soil treatments is discussed. PMID:24949898

  1. EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE REFERENCE TOXICANTS FOR USE IN THE EARTHWORM TOXICITY TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of the 14-d earthworm toxicity test to aid in the evaluation of the ecological impact of contaminated soils is becoming increasingly widespread. However,the method is in need of further standardization. As part of this continuing process, the choice of reference toxicants...

  2. Evaluation of alternative reference toxicants for use in the earthworm toxicity test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger B. Yeardley; James M. Lazorchak; Michael A. Pence

    1995-01-01

    The use of the 14-d earthworm toxicity test to aid in the evaluation of the ecological impact of contaminated soils is becoming increasingly widespread. However, the method is in need of further standardization. As part of this continuing process, the choice of reference toxicants was evaluated. Reference toxicants were rated in relation to the following criteria: (a) reproducibility, (b) low

  3. Contact and artificial soil tests using earthworms to evaluate the impact of wastes in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, E.F.; Loehr, R.C.; Malecki, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate two methods using earthworms that can be used to estimate the biological impact of organic and inorganic compounds that may be in wastes applied to land for treatment and disposal. The two methods were the contact test and the artificial soil test. The contact test is 48-h test using an adult worm, a small glass vial, and filter paper to which the test chemical or waste is applied. The test is designed to provide close contact between the worm and a chemical, similar to the situation in soils. The method provides a rapid estimate of the relative toxicity of chemicals and industrial wastes.

  4. Acute and chronic toxicity testing of TPH-contaminated soils with the earthworm, Eisenia foetida

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, A.J.; Wicker, L.F.; Nazerias, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Responses of Eisenia foetida to petroleum-contaminated soils are being assessed using a 21-day test described previously. The authors prepared dilutions of two soils, referred to as A and B, using their reference-soil counterparts, collected from near the contaminated sites. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of each soil was measured by latroscan before the dilutions were prepared. References for the A and B soils contained 167 and 1,869 ppm of TPH, respectively. Thus, neither reference soil was pristine. Dilutions of the A soil tested with E. foetida contained from 179 to 305 ppm TPH; dilutions of the B soil contained from 1,875 to 1,950 ppm TPH. E foetida survival was 100% in both dilution series. Mean growth of Eisenia in dilutions of the A soil ranged from 48 to 74 mg dry-weight growth per pair of worms; these values were lower than those in any dilution of the B soil series. Lipid levels of worms in higher concentrations of the A and B soils were similar to one another and to published values, suggesting little inhibition of feeding in either dilution series. Earthworm reproduction was zero in the A series, but moderately high in the B series. Thus, the A soil apparently contained materials other than TPH that inhibited earthworm growth and reproduction. This study shows that (1) TPH at concentrations as high as 1,800 ppm may not always be inhibitor to earthworm growth or reproduction and (2) that earthworm survival, as a test endpoint, is much less sensitive than either growth or reproduction.

  5. Earthworm Information

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This University of California Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program provides several links to articles on earthworms. These describe the earthworm's importance to ecosystems and agriculture.

  6. My saga with earthworms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Furst

    2002-01-01

    Earthworms have been studied as a readily available, easily maintainable and cheap test species to develop toxicity test systems as an alternative to in vivo rodent bioassays. The results obtained, mainly with metals, since the programme was initiated about 15 years ago, are summarized in this review. Metals proved more toxic to rodents than earthworms; the relative order of toxicity

  7. Using earthworm avoidance behaviour to assess the toxicity of formulated herbicides and their active ingredients on natural soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catarina Marques; Ruth Pereira; Fernando Gonçalves

    2009-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope  Soil quality has been threatened by intensive agricultural practises, namely those relying on the application of pesticides,\\u000a such as herbicides. Among the non-target terrestrial organisms exposed to such scenarios, earthworms are key ecological receptors\\u000a widely used in ecotoxicological studies. As such, this work aims to assess the effects of two herbicide active ingredients\\u000a (a.i.)—sulcotrione and penoxsulam—and their

  8. Ecotoxicity of aged uranium in soil using plant, earthworm and microarthropod toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, S C; Stephenson, G L

    2012-01-01

    Discrepancies about probable no effect concentrations (PNEC) for uranium in soils may be because toxicity tests used freshly contaminated soils. This study used 3 soils amended with a range of uranium concentrations 10 years previously. The toxicity tests with northern wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus); earthworm (Eisenia andrei) were not affected below ~1,000 mg U kg(-1), and the soil arthropod Folsomia candida was not affected below ~350 mg U kg(-1). Survival of Orthonychiurus folsomi was diminished 20% (EC(20)) by ~85-130 mg U kg(-1), supporting a PNEC in the range of 100-250 mg U kg(-1) as derived previously. PMID:22033655

  9. Earthworm bioassays: Adopting techniques from aquatic toxicity testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Lanno; L. S. McCarty

    1997-01-01

    Current theories suggest that the effective concentration of soil contaminants is that fraction that resides in the hydrosphere of soil particles; therefore, parallels may be drawn between toxicity testing in soil, sediment and water. Certain practices and concepts used in aquatic toxicity testing may be adapted into soil toxicity testing procedures and increase the general understanding of the toxicity of

  10. Development of a suitable test method for evaluating the toxicity of contaminated soils to earthworms in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, G.L. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Scroggins, R. [Environment Canada, Gloucester, Ontario (Canada). Method Development and Application Section

    1995-12-31

    Environment Canada has embarked on a five year program to develop, standardize, and validate a battery of soil toxicity tests which can be used to assess the relative toxicity of contaminants in soils to terrestrial organisms. These tests must be applicable to soil conditions typically found in Canadian environments and the test species must be representative of the species of soil invertebrates or plants inhabiting soil ecosystems in Canada. One of the toxicity tests being developed is designed to assess the toxicity of contaminated soils to earthworms. Five of the potential test species belong to the Lumbricidae family and include the Canadian worm (Allobophora calignosa/Aporrectodea tuberculate), the European bark worm (Dendrodtilus rubidus (rubida)), the pink soil worm (Eisenia rosea), the red marsh worm (Lumbricus rubellus), and the Canadian night crawler or dew worm (Lumbricus terrestris). The sixth species, the white pot worm (Enchytraeus albidus), belongs to the Enchytraeidae family. Further assessment reduced the number of representative species to three. Most earthworm test methods have been developed to assess the toxicity of chemically-spiked artificial soils to Eisenia fetida or E. andrei. Test methods have also been developed to assess the relative toxicity of contaminated soils from hazardous waste sites. Comparative acute toxicity data for three species of earthworm exposed to a hydrocarbon contamination will be presented. Comparative toxicity data for the same three species of earthworm will also be presented using test procedures and conditions that have been modified to accommodate biological differences among the species of earthworm. Recommendations regarding test design, methods, and conditions optimal for each test species will be summarized and discussed with respect to the precision of test results.

  11. Progress in Earthworm Ecotoxicology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byung-Tae Lee; Kyung-Hee Shin; Ju-Yong Kim; Kyoung-Woong Kim

    Earthworms are regarded as one of the most suitable animals for testing the toxicity of chemicals in soils and have been adopted\\u000a as standard organisms for ecotoxicological testing. In several guidelines concerning earthworm toxicity tests, Eisenia fetida\\/andrei (E. fetida\\/andrei) was chosen because it can be easily cultured in the laboratory and an extensive database on the effects of all classes

  12. Evaluation of alternative reference toxicants for use in the earthworm toxicity test

    SciTech Connect

    Yeardley, R.B. Jr. [DynCorp-TAI, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lazorchak, J.M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Pence, M.A. [Technology Applications, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1995-07-01

    The use of the 14-d earthworm toxicity test to aid in the evaluation of the ecological impact of contaminated soils is becoming increasingly widespread. However, the method is in need of further standardization. As part of this continuing process, the choice of reference toxicants was evaluated. Reference toxicants were rated in relation to the following criteria: (a) reproducibility, (b) low human health hazard, (c) feasibility of measurement, and (d) chemical stability. Potassium chloride (KCl) and ammonium chloride (NH{sub 4}Cl) were evaluated as possible alternatives to the one currently in common use, 2-chloroacetamide. Potassium chloride rated the best for the combination of the four criteria, followed by NH{sub 4}Cl and 2-chloroacetamide. Coefficients of variation (C.V.s) from control charts of six definitive tests were use to measure reproducibility. The best reproducibility (lowest C.V.) was shown by KCl, followed by NH{sub 4}Cl and 2-chloroacetamide. Toxicants ranked KCl < NH{sub 4}Cl {much_lt} 2-chloroacetamide in terms of health hazard; and KCl = NH{sub 4}Cl > 2-chloroacetamide in terms of measurement feasibility. Both 2-chloroacetamide and NH{sub 4}Cl changed in concentration during testing. Evidence is also presented that 2-chloroacetamide degrades rapidly during testing, and that, as dead worms decay, ammonification may be adding another toxicant, ammonia, to tests.

  13. UAV Collision Avoidance Radar - Build and Test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin J. Shannon; Ashoka Halappa; Ian D. Longstaff

    This paper describes an experimental radar and data recording system designed to provide the 'sense and avoid' capability required by UAV's to fly in uncontrolled airspace. The radar incorporates the MIMO technique, forming multiple staring beams giving wide angular protection. Algorithms for detection in clutter, tracking, and miss-distance estimation for this radar have been developed, based on synthesised data only,

  14. Flight Tests Validate Collision-Avoidance System - Duration: 13 minutes.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Flights tests of a smartphone-assisted automatic ground collision avoidance system at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center consistently commanded evasive maneuvers when it sensed that the unmanned ...

  15. Development of a standardized reproduction toxicity test with the earthworm species Eisenia fetida andrei using copper, pentachlorophenol and 2,4-dichloroaniline

    SciTech Connect

    van Gestel, C.A.; van Dis, W.A.; van Breemen, E.M.; Sparenburg, P.M. (National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, BA Bilthoven (Netherland))

    1989-12-01

    This article describes a standardized test method for determining the effect of chemical substances on the reproduction of the earthworm Eisenia fetida andrei. It is based on the existing guidelines for acute toxicity testing with earthworms, and for reasons of standardization the same artificial soil substrate and earthworm species were chosen as prescribed by these guidelines. After being preconditioned for one week in untreated soil, earthworms are exposed to the chemical substances for 3 weeks. The number of cocoons produced is determined, and cocoons are incubated in untreated artificial soil for 5 weeks to assess hatchability. Results are presented from toxicity experiments with pentachlorophenol, copper, and 2,4-dichloroaniline. For these compounds no-effect levels (NEL) for cocoon production were 32, 60-120, and 56 mg.kg-1 dry soil, respectively. Hatching of cocoons was influenced by pentachlorophenol (NEL, 10 mg.kg-1), but not by copper and dichloroaniline. Following exposure, earthworms were incubated in clean soil again to study the possibility of recovery of cocoon production. For copper and dichloroaniline earthworms did recover cocoon production to a level as high as the control level or even higher; in case of pentachlorophenol, cocoon production was still reduced after 3 weeks in clean soil.

  16. Longitudinal in vivo MR imaging of live earthworms.

    PubMed

    Budán, Ferenc; Kovács, Noémi; Engelmann, Péter; Horváth, Ildikó; Veres, Dániel S; Németh, Péter; Szigeti, Krisztián; Máthé, Domokos

    2014-11-01

    Earthworm (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) species are used widely in eco-toxicological tests especially with contaminated soils. These long-term tests are reliable, but a high sample size is needed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can produce fast, robust, sensitive, and longitudinal morphological results using a small sample size. Performing longitudinal in vivo examinations of earthworms using MRI requires the need for anesthetics to completely avoid earthworm's moving. Our goal was to develop a simple and non-invasive method to anesthetize earthworms for in vivo longitudinal imaging studies. We investigated a number of different anesthesia methods and found that propan-2-ol and its vapor was optimal. We used a commercial sequential nanoScan® PET/MRI system (Mediso Ltd, Hungary, Budapest) to explore feasibility of MR imaging in immobilized earthworms. It was possible to visualize via micro MRI the brain, gastrointestinal tract, seminal vesicles, calciferous gland (Morren gland), and main blood vessels of the circulatory system. Our findings show the possibilities to examine changes in morphology using MRI of certain organs using a reversible, long-term immobilization method. PMID:25059556

  17. Comparison of sublethal and lethal criteria for nine different chemicals in standardized toxicity tests using the earthworm Eisenia andrei

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gestel, C.A.; Dirven-Van Breemen, E.M.; Baerselman, R.; Emans, H.J.; Janssen, J.A.; Postuma, R.; Van Vliet, P.J. (National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven, (Netherlands))

    1992-04-01

    In this study, the effects of nine different chemicals on the survival, growth, and reproduction of the earthworm species Eisenia andrei were determined using a recently developed method. Earthworms were exposed for 3 weeks to the test chemicals in an artificial soil substrate. Additional data on the acute toxicity of these chemicals were derived from the literature. For some chemicals, cocoon production was the most sensitive parameter (cadmium, chromium, paraquat, fentin, benomyl, phenmedipham), while for others cocoon hatchability was most sensitive (pentachlorophenol, parathion, carbendazim). In the case of parathion, growth of the worms seemed to be even more sensitive than reproduction. As an overall parameter for the effect on earthworm reproduction, the total number of juveniles produced per worm appeared to be a useful parameter. Differences between (acute) LC50 values and the lowest NOEC value for effects on growth and reproduction were different for each chemical. Difference was greatest for cadmium (a factor of greater than 100) and smallest for fentin, benomyl, and pentachlorophenol (a factor of 5-6).

  18. Comparison of biological and chemical measures of metal bioavailability in field soils: test of a novel simulated earthworm gut extraction.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ben A; Greenberg, Bruce; Stephenson, Gladys L

    2010-10-01

    Bioavailability of metals in soil is a major factor influencing estimates of risk associated with exposure of ecological receptors. Metal concentrations in soil are often compared to ecological screening benchmarks, which are based on total concentrations in soil. Often, the total concentration is not correlated with toxicity. No standardised method exists for determining the bioavailability of metals in soil to ecological receptors. Several surrogate measures of bioavailability were compared to the results of a battery of toxicity tests using copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn)-contaminated soils collected from a former industrial area. A calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) extraction, cyclodextrin (HPCD) extraction, simulated earthworm gut (SEG) test, and earthworm bioaccumulation test were performed using the soils. Extractable metals using the CaCl(2) solution were not correlated with any biological responses of earthworms (Eisenia andrei), collembola (Folsomia candida), northern wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus), or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Concentrations of metals in the HPCD extracts were highly variable and were not adequate for revealing adverse effects. E. andrei tissue concentrations were variable but were predictive of adverse effects to invertebrates. The results of the SEG test correlated with most of the biological endpoints. Bioavailable Cu was correlated with adverse effects to invertebrates and plants using the SEG test. Overall, coefficients of determination associated with the relationships between the biological responses and each measure of bioavailability indicated that those for the SEG test were greater than those for the other surrogate measures of bioavailability. Further validation is required before this test is routinely used to estimate metal bioavailability and toxicity. PMID:20678790

  19. Herbivory of an invasive slug is affected by earthworms and the composition of plant communities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Biodiversity loss and species invasions are among the most important human-induced global changes. Moreover, these two processes are interlinked as ecosystem invasibility is considered to increase with decreasing biodiversity. In temperate grasslands, earthworms serve as important ecosystem engineers making up the majority of soil faunal biomass. Herbivore behaviour has been shown to be affected by earthworms, however it is unclear whether these effects differ with the composition of plant communities. To test this we conducted a mesocosm experiment where we added earthworms (Annelida: Lumbricidae) to planted grassland communities with different plant species composition (3 vs. 12 plant spp.). Plant communities had equal plant densities and ratios of the functional groups grasses, non-leguminous forbs and legumes. Later, Arion vulgaris slugs (formerly known as A. lusitanicus; Gastropoda: Arionidae) were added and allowed to freely choose among the available plant species. This slug species is listed among the 100 worst alien species in Europe. We hypothesized that (i) the food choice of slugs would be altered by earthworms’ specific effects on the growth and nutrient content of plant species, (ii) slug herbivory will be less affected by earthworms in plant communities containing more plant species than in those with fewer plant species because of a more readily utilization of plant resources making the impacts of earthworms less pronounced. Results Slug herbivory was significantly affected by both earthworms and plant species composition. Slugs damaged 60% less leaves when earthworms were present, regardless of the species composition of the plant communities. Percent leaf area consumed by slugs was 40% lower in communities containing 12 plant species; in communities containing only three species earthworms increased slug leaf area consumption. Grasses were generally avoided by slugs. Leaf length and number of tillers was increased in mesocosms containing more plant species but little influenced by earthworms. Overall shoot biomass was decreased, root biomass increased in plant communities with more plant species. Earthworms decreased total shoot biomass in mesocosms with more plant species but did not affect biomass production of individual functional groups. Plant nitrogen concentrations across three focus species were 18% higher when earthworms were present; composition of plant communities did not affect plant quality. Conclusions Given the important role that both herbivores and earthworms play in structuring plant communities the implications of belowground-aboveground linkages should more broadly be considered when investigating global change effects on ecosystems. PMID:23668239

  20. Extrapolation of the laboratory-based OECD earthworm toxicity test to metal-contaminated field sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Spurgeon; S. P. Hopkin

    1995-01-01

    The effects of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc on survival, growth, cocoon production and cocoon viability of the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny) were determined in three experiments. In experiment 1, worms were exposed to single metals in standard artificial soil. For experiment 2, worms were maintained in contaminated soils collected from sites at different distances from a smelting works situated

  1. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF TEN ORGANIC CHEMICALS TO FOUR EARTHWORM SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten organic chemicals were tested for toxicity to four earthworm species: Allolobophora tuberculata, Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugeniae and Perionyx excavatus, using the European Economic Community's (EEC) earthworm artificial soil and contact testing procedure. The phenols were t...

  2. Low Cost Fish Fed for Aquarium Fish: a Test Case Using Earthworms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Chakrabarty; S. K. Das

    A comprehensive trial was undertaken to assess the effect of various types of feed on biomass conversion rate as well as on ovary weight in Kolisa Kholisa, a fish for food and ornamental use. Three groups of Juvenile fishes (3.0±0.015 g; 10.00±0.75 mm) were fed with three different types of feed. The special prepared food (SPF) made with dried earthworm

  3. The influence of different artificial soil types on the acute toxicity of carbendazim to the earthworm Eisenia fetida in laboratory toxicity tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sian R. Ellis; Mark E. Hodson; Philip Wege

    2007-01-01

    Field populations of earthworms have shown a varied response in mortality to the fungicide carbendazim, the toxic reference substance used in agrochemical field trials. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of soil conditions as a potential cause of this variation. Laboratory acute toxicity tests were conducted using a range of artificial soils with varying soil components

  4. Testing a collision avoidance display with high-precision navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peinecke, Niklas; Uijt de Haag, Maarten; Meysel, Frederik; Duan, Pengfei; Küppers, Rene; Beernink, Bram

    2013-06-01

    Recent years have seen a rise in sophisticated navigational positioning techniques. Starting from classical GPS, differential GPS, ground-based augmentation, and raw data submission have opened possibilities for high precision lateral positioning for beyond what was thinkable before. This yields new perspectives for technologies like ACAS/TCAS, by enabling last-minute lateral avoidance as a supplement to the established vertical avoidance maneuvers. Working together with Ohio University's Avionics Department, DLR has developed and tested a set of displays for situational awareness and lateral last-minute avoidance in a collision situation, implementing some state-of-the art ideas in collision avoidance. The displays include the possibility to foresee the hazard zone of a possible intruder and thus avoid that zone early. The displays were integrated into Ohio University's experimental airplane, and a flight experiment was conducted to make a first evaluation of the applicability. The tests were carried out in fall 2012. We will present the principal architecture of the displays and detail the implementation into the flight carrier. Furthermore, we will give first results of the displays' performance.

  5. Earthworm culture, maintenance and species selection in chronic ecotoxicological studies: A critical review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher N. Lowe; Kevin R. Butt

    2007-01-01

    A critical review of earthworm use in chronic ecotoxicological studies is presented. In laboratory studies, species selection has often been based on commercial availability or on field-collected earthworms. The validity of results employing earthworms of either unknown origin or previous exposures must be questioned. Many studies have relied heavily on methodologies adopted from acute testing where earthworm maintenance was not

  6. Teacher's Guide for Earthworms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, Merle S.; And Others

    This teacher's guide on earthworms includes four major sections: (1) introduction, (2) caring for earthworms in the classroom, (3) classroom activities, and (4) the appendix. The introduction includes information concerning grade level, scheduling, materials, obtaining earthworms, field study, classroom clean-up, and records. Caring for earthworms

  7. A comparison of nickel toxicity to pre-exposed earthworms ( Eisenia fetida, oligochaeta) in two different test substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rudolf A. Maleri; Adriaan J. Reinecke; Sophiè A. Reinecke

    2007-01-01

    Earthworms are soil living organisms of high ecological importance. For that reason, earthworms can be considered as feasible biological indicators for many pollutants in soils. Soils are extremely complex and dynamic systems influenced by a number of different abiotic and biological factors determining the effects of potentially toxic substances. To be able to evaluate the toxicity of a single substance

  8. Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Collision Avoidance Maneuver Decisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Markley, F. Landis

    2010-01-01

    When facing a conjunction between space objects, decision makers must chose whether to maneuver for collision avoidance or not. We apply a well-known decision procedure, the sequential probability ratio test, to this problem. We propose two approaches to the problem solution, one based on a frequentist method, and the other on a Bayesian method. The frequentist method does not require any prior knowledge concerning the conjunction, while the Bayesian method assumes knowledge of prior probability densities. Our results show that both methods achieve desired missed detection rates, but the frequentist method's false alarm performance is inferior to the Bayesian method's

  9. Can earthworms survive fire retardants?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Olson, A.

    1996-01-01

    Most common fire retardants are foams or are similar to common agricultural fertilizers, such as ammonium sulfate and ammonium phosphate. Although fire retardants are widely applied to soils, we lack basic information about their toxicities to soil organisms. We measured the toxicity of five fire retardants (Firetrol LCG-R, Firetrol GTS-R, Silv-Ex Foam Concentrate, Phos-chek D-75, and Phos-chek WD-881) to earthworms using the pesticide toxicity test developed for earthworms by the European Economic Community. None was lethal at 1,000 ppm in the soil, which was suggested as a relatively high exposure under normal applications. We concluded that the fire retardants tested are relatively nontoxic to soil organisms compared with other environmental chemicals and that they probably do not reduce earthworm populations when applied under usual firefighting conditions.

  10. Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Spacecraft Collision Avoidance Maneuver Decisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Markley, F. Landis

    2013-01-01

    A document discusses sequential probability ratio tests that explicitly allow decision-makers to incorporate false alarm and missed detection risks, and are potentially less sensitive to modeling errors than a procedure that relies solely on a probability of collision threshold. Recent work on constrained Kalman filtering has suggested an approach to formulating such a test for collision avoidance maneuver decisions: a filter bank with two norm-inequality-constrained epoch-state extended Kalman filters. One filter models the null hypotheses that the miss distance is inside the combined hard body radius at the predicted time of closest approach, and one filter models the alternative hypothesis. The epoch-state filter developed for this method explicitly accounts for any process noise present in the system. The method appears to work well using a realistic example based on an upcoming, highly elliptical orbit formation flying mission.

  11. Earthworms and soil fertility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Syers; J. A. Springett

    1984-01-01

    Summary Earthworms redistribute organic materials within the soil, increase soil penetrability and, und certain conditions, influence ion transport in soils. Root distribution may be modified and microbial activity increased by their burrowing and feeding activities. Earthworms influence the supply of nutrients in several ways. Not only is earthworm tissue and cast material enriched in certain nutrients, relative to the soil

  12. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF CHEMICALS TO EARTHWORMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentration-response (mortality) relationships of four species of earthworms, Eisentia fetida, Allolobophora tuberculata, Eudrilus eugeniae, and Perionyx excavatus are summarized for 62 chemicals and two test protocols. eibull function is used to summarize these data for ea...

  13. The toxic effects of ionic liquids on the activities of acetylcholinesterase and cellulase in earthworms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan-Rui Luo; San-Hu Wang; Mi-Xia Yun; Xiao-Yu Li; Jian-Ji Wang; Zhen-Jun Sun

    2009-01-01

    The earthworm Eisenia foetida was exposed to different concentrations of imidazolium ionic liquids with varying chain lengths according to the method of OECD [OECD, 1984. (The Current Organization of Economic and Cooperative Development Acute Earthworm Toxicity Test) Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, No. 207. Earthworm Acute Toxicity Tests]. The acute and subchronic toxic effects of [C8mim]Br on the activities

  14. Accumulation of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.

    1996-01-01

    Chlorinated benzenes are widespread in the environment. Hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene and all isomers of dichlorobenzenes, trichlorobenzenes, and tetrachlorobenzenes, have been detected in fish, water, and sediments from the Great Lakes. This paper describes a long-term (26 week) experiment relating the concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to 1) the length of exposure, and it describes three 8-week experiments relating concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to 2) their concentration in soil 3) the soil organic matter content and, 4) the degree of chlorination. In the 26-week experiment, the concentration of 1,2,4 - trichlorobenzene in earthworms fluctuated only slightly about a mean of 0.63 ppm (Fig. 1). Although a statistically significant decrease can be demonstrated over the test (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = -0.62 p < 0.05), the decrease was minor. Hexachlorobenzene in earthworms showed a cyclical trend that coincided with replacement of the media, and a slight but statistically significant tendency to increase from about 2 to 3 ppm over the 26 weeks (r = 0.55, p < 0.05). Concentrations of both trichlorobenzene and hexachlorobenzene in earthworms increased as the concentrations in the soil increased (Fig. 2), but leveled off at the highest soil concentrations. The most surprising result of this study was the relatively low concentrations in earthworms compared to those in soils. The average concentration of each of the six isomers of trichlorobenzene and tetrachlorobenzene in earthworms was only about 1 ppm (Table 2); the isomeric structure did not affect accumulation. The concentration of organic matter in soil had a prominent effect on hexachlorobenzene concentrations in earthworms (Fig. 3). Hexachlorobenzene concentrations decreased steadily from 9.3 ppm in earthworms kept in soil without any peat moss added to about 1 ppm in soil containing 16 or 32% organic matter.

  15. Off to the (Earthworm) Races: A Quick and Flexible Lab Experiment for Introductory Zoology Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Switzer, Paul V.; Fritz, Ann H.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a hands-on, investigative lab activity for use in an introductory zoology course. Tests the behavioral hypothesis that substrate texture affects earthworm locomotor ability. Provides background information on earthworm locomotion followed by details of the lab exercise. (NB)

  16. The influence of time on lead toxicity and bioaccumulation determined by the OECD earthworm toxicity test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola A Davies; Mark E Hodson; Stuart Black

    2003-01-01

    Internationally agreed standard protocols for assessing chemical toxicity of contaminants in soil to worms assume that the test soil does not need to equilibrate with the chemical to be tested prior to the addition of the test organisms and that the chemical will exert any toxic effect upon the test organism within 28 days. Three experiments were carried out to

  17. ACAT Ground Collision Avoidance Flight Tests Over - Duration: 2 minutes, 41 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center has concluded flight tests of an Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System (Auto GCAS) under the joint U.S. Air Force/NASA F-16D Automatic Collision Avoidance...

  18. Development of an alternative artificial soil for earthworm toxicity testing in tropical countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cornelis A. M. van Gestel

    2009-01-01

    The standard soil invertebrate toxicity tests developed by OECD and ISO use an artificial soil as the test substrate, which contains sphagnum peat as a component. This type of peat is not widely available. Investigation of possible alternative substrates using locally available materials therefore is vital for performing such ecotoxicity tests, particularly in the tropics. We studied the suitability of

  19. Earthworms lost from pesticides application in potato crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Forrer, Karin; Binder, Claudia R.

    2010-05-01

    Bioturbation from earthworm's activity contributes to soil creep and soil carbon dynamics, and provide enough aeration conditions for agricultural practices all over the world. In developing countries where there is a long term misuse of pesticides for agricultural purposes, lost of these benefits from earthworms activity might already yielded negative effects in the current crop production. Little research has been performed on earthworms avoidance to pesticides in developing countries located in the tropics. Furthermore, the complete avoidance reaction (from attraction to 100% avoidance) from earthworms to most of the pesticides used in potato cultivation in developing countries like Colombia is incomplete as yet. Hence the aim of this study is to assess the lost of earthworm on the soils caused by different concentrations of pesticides and associated agricultural impacts caused by a lost in the soil bioturbation. As a first stage, we have studied earthworm's avoidance to pesticide concentration in a potato agricultural area located in Colombia. Local cultivated Eisenia fetida were exposed to four of the most frequent applied active ingredients in potato crops i.e. carbofuran, mancozeb, methamidophos and chlorpyriphos. Adult earthworm toxicity experiments were carried out in two soils, untreated grasslands under standard (ISO guidelines) and undisturbed conditions, and exposed to six different concentrations of the active ingredients. The results of the avoidance reaction on the standard soils were significant for carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos. For each of the three active ingredients, we found i) overuse of pesticide, ii) applied dose of carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos by the farmers potentially caused 20%, 11% and 9% of earthworms avoidance on the cultivated soils, respectively.

  20. Darwin, Earthworms & Circadian Rhythms: A Fertile Field for Science Fair Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, John T.; Scurti, Paul J.; Furda, Amy M.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses why the study of earthworms has fascinated many scientists, and why earthworms make ideal experimental animals for students to test in the laboratory. Although earthworms may appear to be primitive, they are governed by both circadian and seasonal rhythms, just as more advanced organisms are. They possess an intelligence…

  1. EARTHWORMS AS ECOTOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased interest for earthworm research and the need for soil assessment methods has encouraged the use of earthworms as assessment organisms. Earthworms exhibit many advantages for use in assessing the impact of toxic and hazardous materials on soil systems. Earthworms are kno...

  2. Genotoxicity of two novel pesticides for the earthworm, Eisenia fetida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Zang; Y. Zhong; Y. Luo; Z. M. Kong

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, several studies were conducted to evaluate the genotoxicity of two pesticides, Imidacloprid and RH-5849, for earthworm (Eisenia fetida). Earthworms were exposed in different exposure systems to evaluate their acute toxicity and the genotoxicity of the two pesticides was evaluated by using the method of sperm deformity assessment, micronucleus test of root tip cells in Vicia faba, a

  3. Avoidance tests with Folsomia candida for the assessment of copper contamination in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Boiteau, G; Lynch, D H; Mackinley, P

    2011-04-01

    The feasibility of assessing copper accumulation in agricultural soils using avoidance tests with a Canadian strain of Folsomia candida was investigated under laboratory conditions. The avoidance response to nominal copper sulfate concentrations of 0, 200, 800, 1600 and 3200 mg kg?¹ in OECD soil was inconsistent between trials with the standard plastic cup or a modified Petri dish method requiring less soil. However, combined results from three Petri dish trials decreased variability and provided a 75% avoidance level, close to the 80% criterion proposed for avoidance tests. A Copper avoidance EC??s of 18 mg kg?¹ was obtained using the Petri dish method whether tests were conducted with or without light. While Petri dish tests have potential as a cheap tool to distinguish metal contaminated soils from uncontaminated soils they would be unsuitable for tracking or quantifying changes in metal concentrations. throughout remediation. Advantages and limitations of the method have been presented. PMID:21247679

  4. Portable conduction velocity experiments using earthworms for the college and high school neuroscience teaching laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, Kyle M.; Gage, Gregory J.; Jankovic, Aleksandra; Wilson, W. Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    The earthworm is ideal for studying action potential conduction velocity in a classroom setting, as its simple linear anatomy allows easy axon length measurements and the worm's sparse coding allows single action potentials to be easily identified. The earthworm has two giant fiber systems (lateral and medial) with different conduction velocities that can be easily measured by manipulating electrode placement and the tactile stimulus. Here, we present a portable and robust experimental setup that allows students to perform conduction velocity measurements within a 30-min to 1-h laboratory session. Our improvement over this well-known preparation is the combination of behaviorally relevant tactile stimuli (avoiding electrical stimulation) with the invention of minimal, low-cost, and portable equipment. We tested these experiments during workshops in both a high school and college classroom environment and found positive learning outcomes when we compared pre- and posttests taken by the students. PMID:24585472

  5. Earthworm Effects without Earthworms: Inoculation of Raw Organic Matter with Worm-Worked Substrates Alters Microbial Community Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Aira, Manuel; Domínguez, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Background Earthworms are key organisms in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with soil microorganisms. They enhance decomposition rates through the joint action of direct effects (i.e. effects due to direct earthworm activity such as digestion, burrowing, etc) and indirect effects (i.e. effects derived from earthworm activities such as cast ageing). Here we test whether indirect earthworm effects affect microbial community functioning in the substrate, as when earthworms are present (i. e., direct effects). Methodology/Principal Findings To address these questions we inoculated fresh organic matter (pig manure) with worm-worked substrates (vermicompost) produced by three different earthworm species. Two doses of each vermicompost were used (2.5 and 10%). We hypothesized that the presence of worm-worked material in the fresh organic matter will result in an inoculum of different microorganisms and nutrients. This inoculum should interact with microbial communities in fresh organic matter, thus promoting modifications similar to those found when earthworms are present. Inoculation of worm-worked substrates provoked significant increases in microbial biomass and enzyme activities (?-glucosidase, cellulase, phosphatase and protease). These indirect effects were similar to, although lower than, those obtained in pig manure with earthworms (direct and indirect earthworm effects). In general, the effects were not dose-dependent, suggesting the existence of a threshold at which they were triggered. Conclusion/Significance Our data reveal that the relationships between earthworms and microorganisms are far from being understood, and suggest the existence of several positive feedbacks during earthworm activity as a result of the interactions between direct and indirect effects, since their combination produces stronger modifications to microbial biomass and enzyme activity. PMID:21298016

  6. Disposal of dredged sediments in tropical soils: ecotoxicological effects on earthworms.

    PubMed

    Cesar, Ricardo; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, José Paulo; Colonese, Juan; Bidone, Edison; Castilhos, Zuleica; Egler, Silvia; Polivanov, Helena

    2014-03-01

    The upper limit concentrations of metals established by international legislations for dredged sediment disposal and soil quality do not take into consideration the properties of tropical soils (generally submitted to more intense weathering processes) on metal availability and ecotoxicity. Aiming to perform an evaluation on the suitability of these threshold values in tropical regions, the ecotoxicity of metal-contaminated dredged sediment from the Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) was investigated. Acute and avoidance tests with Eisenia andrei were performed with mixtures of dredged sediment with a ferralsol (0.00, 6.66, 13.12, 19.98, and 33.30 %) and a chernosol (0.00, 6.58, 13.16, 19.74, and 32.90 %). Mercury, lead, nickel, chromium, copper, and zinc concentrations were measured in test mixtures and in tissues of surviving earthworms from the acute tests. While ferralsol test mixtures provoked significant earthworm avoidance response at concentrations ?13.31 %, the chernosol mixtures showed significant avoidance behavior only at the 19.74 % concentration. The acute tests showed higher toxicity in ferralsol mixtures (LC50?=?9.9 %) compared to chernosol mixtures (LC50?=?16.5 %), and biomass increased at the lowest sediment doses in treatments of both test soils. Most probably, the expansive clay minerals present in chernosol contributed to reduce metal availability in chernosol mixtures, and consequently, the ecotoxicity of these treatments. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) for zinc and copper were lower with increasing concentrations of the dredged sediment, indicating the existence of internal regulating processes. Although the BCF for mercury also decreased with the increasing test concentrations, the known no biological function of this metal in the earthworms metabolism lead to suppose that Hg measured was not present in bioaccumulable forms. BCFs estimated for the other metals were generally higher in the highest dredged sediment doses. PMID:24122142

  7. Young Men's Aggressive Tactics to Avoid Condom Use: A Test of a Theoretical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Logan-Greene, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Although research has demonstrated that men's aggression against women and inconsistent condom use are related phenomena, little is known about what factors increase risk for aggression to avoid condom use. The present article tests a theory-based model of condom avoidance through use of sexual aggression. Adult male participants (N = 289) were…

  8. Nutrition Studies with Earthworms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobaga, Leandro

    1980-01-01

    Describes experiments which demonstrate how different diets affect the growth rate of earthworms. Procedures for feeding baby worms are outlined, the analysis of results are discussed, and various modifications of the exercise are provided. (CS)

  9. Earthworms, as ecosystem engineers, influence multiple aspects of a salamander's ecology.

    PubMed

    Ransom, Tami S

    2011-03-01

    Ecosystem engineers create habitat that can be used by other species in multiple ways, such as refugees from predators, places to breed, or areas with increased prey resources. I conducted a series of enclosure experiments to: (1) determine if salamanders use earthworm burrows, and (2) examine the potential influence of earthworm burrow use and indirect effects on salamander intra- and interspecific competition, predator avoidance, and seasonal performance. I found that one species of woodland salamander, Plethodon cinereus, used earthworm burrows 50% of the time when burrows were present. Neither adults nor juveniles of the congeneric P. glutinosus used earthworm burrows. Intraspecific, but not interspecific, competition by P. cinereus affected salamander behavior when earthworms were absent, with P. cinereus found under cover objects >70% of the time when alone or with a P. glutinosus, but only 40% of the time when with another P. cinereus. When earthworms were present, the behavior of P. cinereus was similar across salamander treatments. Earthworms decreased the amount of leaf litter and microinvertebrates, although this did not affect salamander mass. In subsequent experiments using only P. cinereus, the refuge provided by earthworm burrows increased the survival of P. cinereus over the winter and allowed P. cinereus to avoid being consumed by the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis). Because earthworm burrows provide a refuge for P. cinereus during intraspecific encounters, in the presence of a predator and over the winter, they may serve as an important belowground-aboveground linkage in eastern forests where salamanders are common. PMID:20848134

  10. Drought stress in rice ( Oryza sativa L.) is enhanced in the presence of the compacting earthworm Millsonia anomala

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Blouin; Patrick Lavelle; Daniel Laffray

    2007-01-01

    Earthworms increase growth of most plant species through a number of poorly investigated mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that earthworm modifications of soil structure and the resulting changes in water availability to plants explain this positive effect. Addition of endogeic earthworms Millsonia anomala induced a 40% increase in shoot biomass production and a 13% increase in CO2 assimilation rate of

  11. Approach avoidance training in the eating domain: testing the effectiveness across three single session studies.

    PubMed

    Becker, Daniela; Jostmann, Nils B; Wiers, Reinout W; Holland, Rob W

    2015-02-01

    Dual-process models propose that impulsive behavior plays a key role in the development and maintenance of maladaptive eating patterns. Research outside the eating domain suggests that approach avoidance training, a paradigm which aims to modify automatic behavioral dispositions toward critical stimuli, is an effective tool to weaken unhealthy impulses. The present research tested the effectiveness of approach avoidance training in the eating domain. We conducted three single session studies with varying methodologies in a normal-weight female student population (total N?=?258), in which one group was always trained to avoid pictures of unhealthy food and to approach pictures of healthy food or neutral objects. We found no conclusive evidence that approach avoidance training can change participants' implicit and explicit food preferences and eating behavior. We discuss the potential and the limitations of approach avoidance training in the eating domain and provide suggestions for future research avenues. PMID:25447011

  12. DRILLING FLUID CHEMICALS AND EARTHWORM TOXICITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen McCosh; Jonathan Getliff

    Earthworms can be used to assess toxicity in terrestrial systems and the survival rate of the worms, or changes in other parameters such as biomass, can be used to calculate an LC50 value (lethal concentration to 50% of the population) for test chemicals spiked into soil. This type of information can be useful in predicting the likely toxicological effect of

  13. Toxicokinetics of metals in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus exposed to natural polluted soils--relevance of laboratory tests to the field situation.

    PubMed

    Giska, Iwona; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Skip, Borys; Laskowski, Ryszard

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the bioavailability of essential (Zn, Cu) and non-essential metals (Cd, Pb) to the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus exposed to soils originating from a gradient of metal pollution in Southern Poland. Metal uptake and elimination kinetics were determined and related to soils properties. Experimental results were compared with tissue metal concentrations observed in earthworms from the studied transect. Cd and Pb were intensively accumulated by the earthworms, with very slow or no elimination. Their uptake rate constants, based on 0.01 M CaCl2-extractable concentrations in the soils, increased with soil pH. Internal concentrations of Cu and Zn were maintained by the earthworms at a stable level, suggesting efficient regulation of these metals by the animals. The estimated uptake and elimination kinetics parameters enabled fairly accurate prediction of metal concentrations reached within a life span of L. rubellus in nature. PMID:24747106

  14. Math anxiety: Relation with situational test anxiety, performance, physiological arousal, and math avoidance behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Harriss Dew; John P. Galassi; Merna D. Galassi

    1984-01-01

    Investigated the relation of mathematics anxiety to situationally assessed test anxiety, mathematics performance, physiological arousal, and mathematics avoidance behavior in 23 male and 40 female undergraduates. Ss completed the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale, the Mathematics Anxiety Scale, the Anxiety Toward Mathematics Scale, and the Test Anxiety Inventory prior to completing 3 mathematics tasks. During the tasks, heart rate, skin conductance

  15. Assessment of the aversion of hens to different gas atmospheres using an approach-avoidance test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bruce Webster; Daniel L Fletcher

    2004-01-01

    Approach-avoidance tests were conducted to evaluate the responses of laying hens to different gas atmospheres. Twelve hens were trained in a test apparatus consisting of a raised entry chamber connected by a descending chute to a lower chamber into which gas could be injected. Feed was removed from hens overnight before training sessions, and layer feed was presented in the

  16. Earthworm immune responses.

    PubMed

    Jarosz, J; Gli?ski, Z

    1997-01-01

    The knowledge of the immunity in annelids started with the use of earthworms as biomarkers indicating changes caused by environmental pollution. Defence strategies effectively protect earthworms against bacterial infections and parasitic invasion. A natural immunity formed by anatomical and chemical protective barriers prevents damage of the underlying tissues, body fluid losses, and microbial infections of the body cavity. The internal defence mechanisms of annelids involve phagocytosis, nodule formation and encapsulation, blood coagulation and wound repair, and antibacterial immune proteins. The antibacterial activity of coelomic fluid associated with lysozyme-like substances and inducible humoral molecules support haemocytic reactions in the annelid defence system. PMID:9557138

  17. Avoidance test with Eisenia fetida as indicator for the habitat function of soils: Results of a laboratory comparison test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerstin Hund-Rinke; Rudolf Achazi; Jörg Römbke; Dietmar Warnecke

    2003-01-01

    Intention, Goal, Scope, Background. The habitat function of soils is often assessed using the reproduction test withEisenia fetida. As this test is rather labour-intensive, an alternative is needed which is less cost-intensive in terms of duration and workload,\\u000a but gives reasonable results. The avoidance test withE. fetida is a suitable screening test meeting these criteria. However, before a novel test

  18. Fighting Testing ACAT/FRRP: Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology/Fighter Risk Reduction Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoog, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Flight testing Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology/Fighter Risk Reduction Project (ACAT/FRRP). The goal of this project is to develop common modular architecture for all aircraft, and to enable the transition of technology from research to production as soon as possible to begin to reduce the rate of mishaps. The automated Ground Collision Avoidance System (GCAS) system is designed to prevent collision with the ground, by avionics that project the future trajectory over digital terrain, and request an evasion maneuver at the last instance. The flight controls are capable of automatically performing a recovery. The collision avoidance is described in the presentation. Also included in the presentation is a description of the flight test.

  19. Cooperative Collision Avoidance Step 1 - Technology Demonstration Flight Test Report. Revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trongale, Nicholas A.

    2006-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Access 5 Project Office sponsored a cooperative collision avoidance flight demonstration program for unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). This flight test was accomplished between September 21st and September 27th 2005 from the Mojave Airport, Mojave, California. The objective of these flights was to collect data for the Access 5 Cooperative Collision Avoidance (CCA) Work Package simulation effort, i.e., to gather data under select conditions to allow validation of the CCA simulation. Subsequent simulation to be verified were: Demonstrate the ability to detect cooperative traffic and provide situational awareness to the ROA pilot; Demonstrate the ability to track the detected cooperative traffic and provide position information to the ROA pilot; Demonstrate the ability to determine collision potential with detected cooperative traffic and provide notification to the ROA pilot; Demonstrate that the CCA subsystem provides information in sufficient time for the ROA pilot to initiate an evasive maneuver to avoid collision; Demonstrate an evasive maneuver that avoids collision with the threat aircraft; and lastly, Demonstrate the ability to assess the adequacy of the maneuver and determine that the collision potential has been avoided. The Scaled Composites, LLC Proteus Optionally Piloted Vehicle (OPV) was chosen as the test platform. Proteus was manned by two on-board pilots but was also capable of being controlled from an Air Vehicle Control Station (AVCS) located on the ground. For this demonstration, Proteus was equipped with cooperative collision sensors and the required hardware and software to place the data on the downlink. Prior to the flight phase, a detailed set of flight test scenarios were developed to address the flight test objectives. Two cooperative collision avoidance sensors were utilized for detecting aircraft in the evaluation: Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System-II (TCAS-II) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B). A single intruder aircraft was used during all the flight testing, a NASA Gulfstream III (G-III). During the course of the testing, six geometrically different near-collision scenarios were evaluated. These six scenarios were each tested using various combinations of sensors and collision avoidance software. Of the 54 planned test points 49 were accomplished successfully. Proteus flew a total of 21.5 hours during the testing and the G-III flew 19.8 hours. The testing fully achieved all flight test objectives. The Flight IPT performed an analysis to determine the accuracy of the simulation model used to predict the location of the host aircraft downstream during an avoidance maneuver. The data collected by this flight program was delivered to the Access 5 Cooperative Collision Avoidance (CCA) Work Package Team who was responsible for reporting on their analysis of this flight data.

  20. Simulation and Flight Test Capability for Testing Prototype Sense and Avoid System Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Charles T.; Stock, Todd M.; Verstynen, Harry A.; Wehner, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and The MITRE Corporation (MITRE) have developed, and successfully demonstrated, an integrated simulation-to-flight capability for evaluating sense and avoid (SAA) system elements. This integrated capability consists of a MITRE developed fast-time computer simulation for evaluating SAA algorithms, and a NASA LaRC surrogate unmanned aircraft system (UAS) equipped to support hardware and software in-the-loop evaluation of SAA system elements (e.g., algorithms, sensors, architecture, communications, autonomous systems), concepts, and procedures. The fast-time computer simulation subjects algorithms to simulated flight encounters/ conditions and generates a fitness report that records strengths, weaknesses, and overall performance. Reviewed algorithms (and their fitness report) are then transferred to NASA LaRC where additional (joint) airworthiness evaluations are performed on the candidate SAA system-element configurations, concepts, and/or procedures of interest; software and hardware components are integrated into the Surrogate UAS research systems; and flight safety and mission planning activities are completed. Onboard the Surrogate UAS, candidate SAA system element configurations, concepts, and/or procedures are subjected to flight evaluations and in-flight performance is monitored. The Surrogate UAS, which can be controlled remotely via generic Ground Station uplink or automatically via onboard systems, operates with a NASA Safety Pilot/Pilot in Command onboard to permit safe operations in mixed airspace with manned aircraft. An end-to-end demonstration of a typical application of the capability was performed in non-exclusionary airspace in October 2011; additional research, development, flight testing, and evaluation efforts using this integrated capability are planned throughout fiscal year 2012 and 2013.

  1. Methods for the assessment of the toxicity of environmental chemicals to earthworms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D DEANROSS

    1983-01-01

    In view of the impending publication of standards for earthworm toxicity testing by the Commission of the European Communities, a review has been made of the recent literature on earthworm toxicology. Relevant studies are reviewed from the standpoints of methods used, reproducibility of results, and ability to extrapolate laboratory results to field situations. Eisenia foetida, a commonly used test species,

  2. Aluminum Bioaccumulation in the Earthworm and Acute Toxicity to the Earthworm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhao Li; Qiu Jiang-ping

    2010-01-01

    Aluminum is a highly cytotoxic metal to plants, but its toxicity and accumulation to invertebrates in neutral soils is still unknown. This study is to determine the acute toxicity and bioaccumulation of aluminum to the earthworm. The ecotoxicity tests were based on the methods of international standardization of organization (ISO) and OECD guideline with some modification. The contents of aluminum

  3. Comparison of heavy-metal uptake by Eisenia foetida with that of other common earthworms. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, E.A.; Edwards, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Earthworms have been used in the field to indicate levels of soil pollution and in the laboratory for the ecotoxicological testing of industrial chemicals. An earthworm bioassay procedure developed at the Waterways Experiment Station (Vicksburg, Mississippi) was modified and evaluated as a method of providing information on heavy-metal bioavailability in contaminated soils and sediments from Europe. Eight soils/sediments containing elevated levels of a least one of the elements Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb were selected as well as a control and a reference soil. Six species of earthworm, including the WES bioassay earthworm E. foetida, and five field species were grown in the soils/sediments for periods of 15, 28 or 56 days. Concentrations of the elements Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Cr and Pb present in the earthworm samples (corrected for the presence of soil-derived metals within the earthworm gut) were compared between earthworm species from the same soil and for each earthworm species from a range of metal contaminated soils/sediments. A close linear relationship between metal uptake by E.foetida and the field species of earthworm emerged and good correlation between total (HNO3/HC104) soil Pb and Cd levels and earthworm tissue concentrations and between DTPA extractable soil Cu and Cc levels and earthworm tissue concentrations was observed.

  4. The effects of rutin on a passive avoidance test in rats.

    PubMed

    Nassiri-Asl, Marjan; Zamansoltani, Farzaneh; Javadi, Amir; Ganjvar, Mohsen

    2010-02-01

    Various synthetic derivatives of natural flavonoids are known to have neuroactive properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of rutin (3, 3', 4', 5, 7-pentahydroxyflavone-3-rhamnoglucoside), a flavonoid that is an important dietary constituent of foods and plant-based beverages, on memory retrieval in rats. To this end, we assessed the effect of rutin on memory retrieval using a step-through passive avoidance task. Rutin (5, 10, and 100mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) one week before the start of training. Three retention tests were performed to assess memory in rats. Rutin (10mg/kg) significantly increased the step-through latency of the passive avoidance response compared to the control in the three retention tests of the passive avoidance paradigm. These results indicate that rutin has a potential role in enhancing memory retrieval. Several mechanisms may contribute to the potential role of rutin in memory enhancement. This result supports the potential beneficial effects of rutin as a dietary supplement on memory retrieval in a passive avoidance task. PMID:19914327

  5. Toxicological responses of the earthworm Eisenia fetida to 18-crown-6 under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Du, Yongtao; Rao, Pinhua; Li, Yinsheng; Qiu, Jiangping; Qiu, Weiguo; Tang, Hao; Potter, Murray A

    2014-10-01

    The earthworm Eisenia fetida was exposed to artificial soil supplemented with 18-crown-6 (1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaoxacyclooctadecane) to investigate its effects on earthworm mortality, growth, avoidance, burrowing behavior and respiration. The results revealed that 18-crown-6 had the potential to negatively affect the behavior of earthworms. The 7-d LC50 was 585 mg kg(-1) soil. Avoidance behavior was the most sensitive endpoint, with a 48-h EC50 of 120 mg kg(-1) soil. Growth, burrow length and respiration showed general decreases with increasing 18-crown-6 concentrations. Behavioral endpoints and respiration may be regarded as sensitive parameters in evaluating the toxicity of this chemical to earthworms. PMID:25100182

  6. Food habits of European badgers ( Meles meles ) along an altitudinal gradient of Mediterranean environments: a field test of the earthworm specialization hypothesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emilio Virgós; Julián G. Mangas; José Antonio Blanco-Aguiar; Germán Garrote; Nuria Almagro; Raquel P. Viso

    2004-01-01

    Food specialization by European badgers (Meles meles) is a largely debated controversy. Data from Mediter- ranean areas indicate small importance of earthworms (Lumbricus spp.) in badger diet and support the idea that badg- ers are generalist predators. Nevertheless, only dry areas have been sampled so far. We studied badger diet in six areas along an elevation gradient with different rainfall

  7. Toxicity of selected organic chemicals to the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. F. Neuhauser; R. C. Loehr; M. R. Malecki; D. L. Milligan; P. R. Durkin

    2009-01-01

    A number of methods recently have been developed to biologically evaluate the impact of man's activities on soil ecosystems. Two test methods, the 2-d contact test and the 14-d artificial soil test, were used to evaluate the impact of six major classes of organic chemicals on the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny). Of the organic chemicals tested, phenols and amines were

  8. Methods using earthworms for the evaluation of potentially toxic materials in soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. F. Neuhauser; R. C. Loehr; M. R. Malecki

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using earthworms to indicate effects of potentially toxic wastes when such wastes are intentionally or accidentally added to soils. Initial work with metals has shown that earthworms exhibit specific growth and reproductive responses. These responses are related to the concentration and solubility of the metal. Of the metals tested,

  9. Development of QSAR's in soil ecotoxicology: Earthworm toxicity and soil sorption of chlorophenols, chlorobenzenes and chloroanilines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CORNELIS A. M. VAN GESTEL; Wei-Chun Ma

    1993-01-01

    Soil adsorption and the toxicity of four chloroanilines for earthworms were investigated in two soil types. The toxicity tests were carried out with two earthworm species, Eisenia andrei and Lumbricus rubellus. LC50 values in mg kg-1 dry soil were recalculated towards molar concentrations in pore water using data from soil adsorption experiments. An attempt has been made to develop Quantitative

  10. Effect of chiral differences of metolachlor and its (S)-isomer on their toxicity to earthworms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongmei; Wen, Yuezhong; Wang, Kaixiong

    2010-11-01

    The effects of (Rac)-metolachlor and (S)-metolachlor on the avoidance behavior, bodyweight change and in vivo enzyme activity of earthworms (Eisenia foetida) were determined and compared in this study. The effects of (Rac)-metolachlor on the enzyme activities of E. foetida and bodyweight were more significant than those of (S)-metolachlor at the same concentrations. In the short term (2 d, 7 d), (S)-metolachlor had faster effects on cellulase and catalase activities of E. foetida. However, in the relatively long term (14 d, 28 d), (Rac)-metolachlor had higher toxic effects on cellulase and catalase activities. The inter-group difference between (Rac)-metolachlor and (S)-metolachlor on E. foetida enzyme activities was the most significant for catalase, and the least significant for cellulase. The test of avoidance behavior shows that earthworms are more sensitive to the stimulation of (Rac)-metolachlor than to that of (S)-metolachlor. The results will help to develop an understanding of the biologically mediated environmental processes of these two herbicides. PMID:20723980

  11. Soil ciliate bioassay for the pore water habitat a missing link between microflora and earthworm testing in soil toxicity assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aline Berthold; Thomas Jakl

    2002-01-01

    Background, Scope and Goal. The chemical, pesticide and biocide legislation of the European Union assembles a variety of bioassays.\\u000a Among the ecotoxicological tests involved, the testing strategy for the aquatic compartment builds up on three tests reflecting\\u000a the main trophic levels (algae,Daphnia, fish). For the soil compartment at least one trophic level for a basic food chain is missing, namely

  12. Improving Generation of Object-Oriented Test Suites by Avoiding Redundant Tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Xie; Darko Marinov; David Notkin

    2004-01-01

    Object-oriented tests consist of sequences of method invocations. Behavior of an invocation depends on the state of the receiver ob- ject and method arguments at the beginning of the invocation. Ex- isting tools for automatic generation of object-oriented test suites, such as Jtest and JCrasher for Java, typically ignore object states. These tools generate redundant tests that exercise the same

  13. Literature-derived bioaccumulation models for earthworms: Development and validation

    SciTech Connect

    Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II; Beauchamp, J.J.; Efroymson, R.A.

    1999-09-01

    Estimation of contaminant concentrations in earthworms is a critical component in many ecological risk assessments. Without site-specific data, literature-derived uptake factors or models are frequently used. Although considerable research has been conducted on contaminant transfer from soil to earthworms, most studies focus on only a single location. External validation of transfer models has not been performed. The authors developed a database of soil and tissue concentrations for nine inorganic and two organic chemicals. Only studies that presented total concentrations in departed earthworms were included. Uptake factors and simple and multiple regression models of natural-log-transformed concentrations of each analyte in soil and earthworms were developed using data from 26 studies. These models were then applied to data from six additional studies. Estimated and observed earthworm concentrations were compared using nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Relative accuracy and quality of different estimation methods were evaluated by calculating the proportional deviation of the estimate from the measured value. With the exception of Cr, significant, single-variable (e.g., soil concentration) regression models were fit for each analyte. Inclusion of soil Ca improved model fits for Cd and Pb. Soil pH only marginally improved model fits. The best general estimates of chemical concentrations in earthworms were generated by simple ln-ln regression models for As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb, Zn, and polychlorinated biphenyls. No method accurately estimated Cr or Ni in earthworms. Although multiple regression models including pH generated better estimates for a few analytes, in general, the predictive utility gained by incorporating environmental variables was marginal.

  14. Flight test of a low-altitude helicopter guidance system with obstacle avoidance capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelenka, Richard E.; Clark, Raymond F.; Branigan, Robert G.

    1995-01-01

    Military aircraft regularly conduct missions that include low-atltitude, near-terrain flight in order to increase covertness and payload effectiveness. Civilian applications include airborne fire fighting, police surveillance, search and rescue, and helicopter emergency medical service. Several fixed-wing aircraft now employ terrain elevation maps and forward-pointed radars to achieve automated terrain following or terrain avoidance flight. Similar systems specialized to helicopters and their flight regime have not received as much attention. A helicopter guidance system relying on digitized terrain elevation maps has been developed that employs airborne navigation, mission requirements, aircraft performance limits, and radar altimeter returns to generate a valley-seeking, low-altitude trajectory between waypoints. The guidance trajectory is symbolically presented to the pilot on a helmet mounted display. This system has been flight tested to 150 ft (45.7 m) above ground level altitude at 80 kts, and is primarily limited by the ability of the pilot to perform manual detection and avoidance of unmapped hazards. In this study, a wide field of view laser radar sensor has been incorporated into this guidance system to assist the pilot in obstacle detection and avoidance, while expanding the system's operational flight envelope. The results from early flight tests of this system are presented. Low-altitude missions to 100 ft (30.5 m) altitude at 80n kts in the presence of unmapped natural and man-made obstacles were demonstrated while the pilot maintained situational awareness and tracking of the guidance trajectory. Further reductions in altitude are expected with continued flight testing.

  15. Methods for the assessment of the toxicity of environmental chemicals to earthworms

    SciTech Connect

    Dean-Ross, D.

    1983-03-01

    In view of the impending publication of standards for earthworm toxicity testing by the Commission of the European Communities, a review has been made of the recent literature on earthworm toxicology. Relevant studies are reviewed from the standpoints of methods used, reproducibility of results, and ability to extrapolate laboratory results to field situations. Eisenia foetida, a commonly used test species, is much less sensitive to agricultural chemicals than other, native earthworms and is of doubtful utility for extrapolating laboratory data to field conditions, but when native soil organisms are used, such extrapolations show good general agreement. Standardization of test conditions and broadening of the data base are encouraged.

  16. Protein Hydrolysates Are Avoided by Herbivores but Not by Omnivores in Two-Choice Preference Tests

    PubMed Central

    Field, Kristin L.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Mennella, Julie A.; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Kimball, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    Background The negative sensory properties of casein hydrolysates (HC) often limit their usage in products intended for human consumption, despite HC being nutritious and having many functional benefits. Recent, but taxonomically limited, evidence suggests that other animals also avoid consuming HC when alternatives exist. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated ingestive responses of five herbivorous species (guinea pig, mountain beaver, gopher, vole, and rabbit) and five omnivorous species (rat, coyote, house mouse, white-footed mouse, and deer mouse; N?=?16–18/species) using solid foods containing 20% HC in a series of two-choice preference tests that used a non-protein, cellulose-based alternative. Individuals were also tested with collagen hydrolysate (gelatin; GE) to determine whether it would induce similar ingestive responses to those induced by HC. Despite HC and GE having very different nutritional and sensory qualities, both hydrolysates produced similar preference score patterns. We found that the herbivores generally avoided the hydrolysates while the omnivores consumed them at similar levels to the cellulose diet or, more rarely, preferred them (HC by the white-footed mouse; GE by the rat). Follow-up preference tests pairing HC and the nutritionally equivalent intact casein (C) were performed on the three mouse species and the guinea pigs. For the mice, mean HC preference scores were lower in the HC v C compared to the HC v Cel tests, indicating that HC's sensory qualities negatively affected its consumption. However, responses were species-specific. For the guinea pigs, repeated exposure to HC or C (4.7-h sessions; N?=?10) were found to increase subsequent HC preference scores in an HC v C preference test, which was interpreted in the light of conservative foraging strategies thought to typify herbivores. Conclusions/Significance This is the first empirical study of dietary niche-related taxonomic differences in ingestive responses to protein hydrolysates using multiple species under comparable conditions. Our results provide a basis for future work in sensory, physiological, and behavioral mechanisms of hydrolysate avoidance and on the potential use of hydrolysates for pest management. PMID:19122811

  17. Effects of anesthetic compounds on responses of earthworms to electrostimulation.

    PubMed

    Podolak-Machowska, Agnieszka; Kostecka, Joanna; Librowski, Tadeusz; Santocki, Michal; Bigaj, Janusz; Plytycz, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Earthworms play an important role in biomedical research, and some surgical procedures require anesthesia. Anesthetic treatments used so far usually induce convulsive body movements connected with extrusion of coelomocyte-containing coelomic fluid that may affect experimental results. Extensive movements connected with the expulsion of coelomic fluid are exploited by immunologists as a method of harvesting immunocompetent coelomocytes from worms subjected to mild electrostimulation (4.5V). The aim of the investigations was to find anesthetic drugs without unintentional coelomocyte depletion. Experiments were performed on adult specimens of Dendrobaena veneta, the coelomocytes of which consist of amoebocytes and riboflavin-storing eleocytes. Earthworm mobility was filmed and extrusion of coelomocytes was quantified by detection of eleocyte-derived riboflavin in immersion fluid. Treatments included earthworms (1) immersed either in physiological saline (controls) or in a solution of one of the tested anesthetic drugs; (2) electrostimulated immediately after anesthesia, and (3) electrostimulated a second time after a 1-hour recovery period. The well-established fish and amphibian anesthetic agent MS-222 induced coelomocyte expulsion. In contrast, solutions of the mammalian local anesthetic drug, prilocaine hydrochloride (0.25-0.5%, 5-10 min) caused temporal earthworm immobilization followed by recovery, thus showing utility as an efficient earthworm anesthetic. PMID:25134346

  18. Comparative Toxicity in Earthworms Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris Exposed to Cadmium Nitrate Using Artificial Soil and Filter Paper Protocols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. C. Fitzpatrick; J. F. Muratti-Ortiz; B. J. Venables; A. J. Goven

    1996-01-01

    Earthworms are ideal soil organisms for use in terrestrial ecotoxicology. As such, several earthworm protocols have been developed for testing toxic potential of chemicals and contaminated soils. Of these, the 48-h filter paper contact (FP) and the 14-d artificial soil exposure (AS) protocols, using mortality (LC50) as the toxic endpoint and Eisenia fetida as the test species, have received the

  19. Use of plant and earthworm bioassays to evaluate remediation of soil from a site contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Meier; Lina W. Chang; M. C. Meckes; M. K. Smith; S. Jacobs; J. Torsella

    1997-01-01

    Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was treated with a pilot-scale, solvent extraction technology. Bioassays in earthworms and plants were used to examine the efficacy of the remediation process for reducing the toxicity of the soil. The earthworm toxicity bioassays were the 14-d survival test and 21-d reproduction test, using Lumbricus terrestris and Eisenia fetida andrei.

  20. Menadione enhances oxyradical formation in earthworm extracts: vulnerability of earthworms to quinone toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Osman; P. J. Den Besten; P. C. M. van Noort

    2003-01-01

    NAD(P)H-cytochrome c reductase activities have been determined in the earthworms, L. rubellus and A. chlorotica, extracts. Menadione (0.35 mM, maximum concentration tested) was found to stimulate the rates of NADPH- and NADH-dependent cytochrome c reduction by three- and twofold, respectively. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibited completely this menadione-mediated stimulation, suggesting that O2? is involved in the redox cycling of menadione. However,

  1. For Better Soil, Let Earthworms Toil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinehart, Rebecca, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This activity involves elementary students in investigating how earthworms affect soil fertility. An introduction discusses topsoil loss and the connections between soil and earthworm ecology. Materials needed and step-by-step procedure are provided. (LZ)

  2. Phi Index: A New Metric to Test the Flush Early and Avoid the Rush Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Samia, Diogo S. M.; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2014-01-01

    Optimal escape theory states that animals should counterbalance the costs and benefits of flight when escaping from a potential predator. However, in apparent contradiction with this well-established optimality model, birds and mammals generally initiate escape soon after beginning to monitor an approaching threat, a phenomena codified as the “Flush Early and Avoid the Rush” (FEAR) hypothesis. Typically, the FEAR hypothesis is tested using correlational statistics and is supported when there is a strong relationship between the distance at which an individual first responds behaviorally to an approaching predator (alert distance, AD), and its flight initiation distance (the distance at which it flees the approaching predator, FID). However, such correlational statistics are both inadequate to analyze relationships constrained by an envelope (such as that in the AD-FID relationship) and are sensitive to outliers with high leverage, which can lead one to erroneous conclusions. To overcome these statistical concerns we develop the phi index (?), a distribution-free metric to evaluate the goodness of fit of a 1?1 relationship in a constraint envelope (the prediction of the FEAR hypothesis). Using both simulation and empirical data, we conclude that ? is superior to traditional correlational analyses because it explicitly tests the FEAR prediction, is robust to outliers, and it controls for the disproportionate influence of observations from large predictor values (caused by the constrained envelope in AD-FID relationship). Importantly, by analyzing the empirical data we corroborate the strong effect that alertness has on flight as stated by the FEAR hypothesis. PMID:25405872

  3. Warming shifts ‘worming': effects of experimental warming on invasive earthworms in northern North America

    PubMed Central

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Stefanski, Artur; Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Rice, Karen; Rich, Roy; Reich, Peter B.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change causes species range shifts and potentially alters biological invasions. The invasion of European earthworm species across northern North America has severe impacts on native ecosystems. Given the long and cold winters in that region that to date supposedly have slowed earthworm invasion, future warming is hypothesized to accelerate earthworm invasions into yet non-invaded regions. Alternatively, warming-induced reductions in soil water content (SWC) can also decrease earthworm performance. We tested these hypotheses in a field warming experiment at two sites in Minnesota, USA by sampling earthworms in closed and open canopy in three temperature treatments in 2010 and 2012. Structural equation modeling revealed that detrimental warming effects on earthworm densities and biomass could indeed be partly explained by warming-induced reductions in SWC. The direction of warming effects depended on the current average SWC: warming had neutral to positive effects at high SWC, whereas the opposite was true at low SWC. Our results suggest that warming limits the invasion of earthworms in northern North America by causing less favorable soil abiotic conditions, unless warming is accompanied by increased and temporally even distributions of rainfall sufficient to offset greater water losses from higher evapotranspiration. PMID:25363633

  4. Warming shifts `worming': effects of experimental warming on invasive earthworms in northern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Stefanski, Artur; Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Rice, Karen; Rich, Roy; Reich, Peter B.

    2014-11-01

    Climate change causes species range shifts and potentially alters biological invasions. The invasion of European earthworm species across northern North America has severe impacts on native ecosystems. Given the long and cold winters in that region that to date supposedly have slowed earthworm invasion, future warming is hypothesized to accelerate earthworm invasions into yet non-invaded regions. Alternatively, warming-induced reductions in soil water content (SWC) can also decrease earthworm performance. We tested these hypotheses in a field warming experiment at two sites in Minnesota, USA by sampling earthworms in closed and open canopy in three temperature treatments in 2010 and 2012. Structural equation modeling revealed that detrimental warming effects on earthworm densities and biomass could indeed be partly explained by warming-induced reductions in SWC. The direction of warming effects depended on the current average SWC: warming had neutral to positive effects at high SWC, whereas the opposite was true at low SWC. Our results suggest that warming limits the invasion of earthworms in northern North America by causing less favorable soil abiotic conditions, unless warming is accompanied by increased and temporally even distributions of rainfall sufficient to offset greater water losses from higher evapotranspiration.

  5. Warming shifts 'worming': effects of experimental warming on invasive earthworms in northern North America.

    PubMed

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Stefanski, Artur; Fisichelli, Nicholas A; Rice, Karen; Rich, Roy; Reich, Peter B

    2014-01-01

    Climate change causes species range shifts and potentially alters biological invasions. The invasion of European earthworm species across northern North America has severe impacts on native ecosystems. Given the long and cold winters in that region that to date supposedly have slowed earthworm invasion, future warming is hypothesized to accelerate earthworm invasions into yet non-invaded regions. Alternatively, warming-induced reductions in soil water content (SWC) can also decrease earthworm performance. We tested these hypotheses in a field warming experiment at two sites in Minnesota, USA by sampling earthworms in closed and open canopy in three temperature treatments in 2010 and 2012. Structural equation modeling revealed that detrimental warming effects on earthworm densities and biomass could indeed be partly explained by warming-induced reductions in SWC. The direction of warming effects depended on the current average SWC: warming had neutral to positive effects at high SWC, whereas the opposite was true at low SWC. Our results suggest that warming limits the invasion of earthworms in northern North America by causing less favorable soil abiotic conditions, unless warming is accompanied by increased and temporally even distributions of rainfall sufficient to offset greater water losses from higher evapotranspiration. PMID:25363633

  6. A hardware in the loop facility for testing multisensor sense and avoid systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Forlenza; G. Fasano; D. Accardo; A. Moccia; A. Rispoli

    2009-01-01

    The Italian Aerospace Research Centre and the Department of Aerospace Engineering at University of Naples have been involved in a project for the development of an obstacle detection and tracking suite for autonomous collision avoidance of unmanned aerial systems. In this framework, a flight prototype of an autonomous obstacle detect sense and avoid system has been designed and realized. It

  7. Avoidant romantic attachment and female orgasm: testing an emotion-regulation hypothesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danielle L. Cohen; Jay Belsky

    2008-01-01

    Recent research indicating that roughly a third of the variation in female orgasmic frequency is heritable leaves a substantial amount of non-heritable variation to be explained. Given that emotion regulation is central to attachment theory and that attachment insecurity in infancy and avoidance in adulthood are not heritable, it was predicted that (higher levels of) avoidance would predict (lower levels

  8. Automated Analysis of Two-Dimensional Positions and Body Lengths of Earthworms (Oligochaeta); MimizuTrack

    PubMed Central

    Yonemura, Seiichiro; Kaneda, Satoshi; Ohashi, Mizue; Ikeno, Hidetoshi

    2014-01-01

    Earthworms are important soil macrofauna inhabiting almost all ecosystems. Their biomass is large and their burrowing and ingestion of soils alters soil physicochemical properties. Because of their large biomass, earthworms are regarded as an indicator of “soil heath”. However, primarily because the difficulties in quantifying their behavior, the extent of their impact on soil material flow dynamics and soil health is poorly understood. Image data, with the aid of image processing tools, are a powerful tool in quantifying the movements of objects. Image data sets are often very large and time-consuming to analyze, especially when continuously recorded and manually processed. We aimed to develop a system to quantify earthworm movement from video recordings. Our newly developed program successfully tracked the two-dimensional positions of three separate parts of the earthworm and simultaneously output the change in its body length. From the output data, we calculated the velocity of the earthworm's movement. Our program processed the image data three times faster than the manual tracking system. To date, there are no existing systems to quantify earthworm activity from continuously recorded image data. The system developed in this study will reduce input time by a factor of three compared with manual data entry and will reduce errors involved in quantifying large data sets. Furthermore, it will provide more reliable measured values, although the program is still a prototype that needs further testing and improvement. Combined with other techniques, such as measuring metabolic gas emissions from earthworm bodies, this program could provide continuous observations of earthworm behavior in response to environmental variables under laboratory conditions. In the future, this standardized method will be applied to other animals, and the quantified earthworm movement will be incorporated into models of soil material flow dynamics or behavior in response to chemical substances present in the soil. PMID:24886977

  9. Testing the role of reward and punishment sensitivity in avoidance behavior: A computational modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Sheynin, Jony; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Beck, Kevin D; Servatius, Richard J; Myers, Catherine E

    2015-04-15

    Exaggerated avoidance behavior is a predominant symptom in all anxiety disorders and its degree often parallels the development and persistence of these conditions. Both human and non-human animal studies suggest that individual differences as well as various contextual cues may impact avoidance behavior. Specifically, we have recently shown that female sex and inhibited temperament, two anxiety vulnerability factors, are associated with greater duration and rate of the avoidance behavior, as demonstrated on a computer-based task closely related to common rodent avoidance paradigms. We have also demonstrated that avoidance is attenuated by the administration of explicit visual signals during "non-threat" periods (i.e., safety signals). Here, we use a reinforcement-learning network model to investigate the underlying mechanisms of these empirical findings, with a special focus on distinct reward and punishment sensitivities. Model simulations suggest that sex and inhibited temperament are associated with specific aspects of these sensitivities. Specifically, differences in relative sensitivity to reward and punishment might underlie the longer avoidance duration demonstrated by females, whereas higher sensitivity to punishment might underlie the higher avoidance rate demonstrated by inhibited individuals. Simulations also suggest that safety signals attenuate avoidance behavior by strengthening the competing approach response. Lastly, several predictions generated by the model suggest that extinction-based cognitive-behavioral therapies might benefit from the use of safety signals, especially if given to individuals with high reward sensitivity and during longer safe periods. Overall, this study is the first to suggest cognitive mechanisms underlying the greater avoidance behavior observed in healthy individuals with different anxiety vulnerabilities. PMID:25639540

  10. Environmental metabolomics: new insights into earthworm ecotoxicity and contaminant bioavailability in soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myrna J. Simpson; Jennifer R. McKelvie

    2009-01-01

    Environmental metabolomics is a growing and emerging sub-discipline of metabolomics. Studies with earthworms have progressed\\u000a from the initial stages of simple contact exposure tests to detailed studies of earthworm responses in soil. Over the past\\u000a decade, a variety of endogenous metabolites have been identified as potential biomarkers of contaminant exposure. Furthermore,\\u000a metabolomic methods have delineated responses from sub-lethal exposure of

  11. MEMS earthworm: a thermally actuated peristaltic linear micromotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Craig; Ellerington, Neil; Hubbard, Ted; Kujath, Marek

    2011-03-01

    This paper examines the design, fabrication and testing of a bio-mimetic MEMS (micro-electro mechanical systems) earthworm motor with external actuators. The motor consists of a passive mobile shuttle with two flexible diamond-shaped segments; each segment is independently squeezed by a pair of stationary chevron-shaped thermal actuators. Applying a specific sequence of squeezes to the earthworm segments, the shuttle can be driven backward or forward. Unlike existing inchworm drives that use clamping and thrusting actuators, the earthworm actuators apply only clamping forces to the shuttle, and lateral thrust is produced by the shuttle's compliant geometry. The earthworm assembly is fabricated using the PolyMUMPs process with planar dimensions of 400 µm width by 800 µm length. The stationary actuators operate within the range of 4-9 V and provide a maximum shuttle range of motion of 350 µm (approximately half its size), a maximum shuttle speed of 17 mm s-1 at 10 kHz, and a maximum dc shuttle force of 80 µN. The shuttle speed was found to vary linearly with both input voltage and input frequency. The shuttle force was found to vary linearly with the actuator voltage.

  12. Avoidance bio-assays may help to test the ecological significance of soil1 Maite Martnez Aldaya1

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    candida, at six rates of dilution in a control,24 unpolluted soil. We compared the results with those-words: Avoidance; Ecotoxicological test; Folsomia candida; Soil pollution; Toxicity8 9 1. Introduction10 11) and the springtail Folsomia candida (ISO16 11267), populations of these soil animals are submitted to increasing

  13. Earthworm contamination by PCBs and heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Diercxsens, P.; de Weck, D.; Borsinger, N.; Rosset, B.; Tarradellas, J.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison is made of soil and earthworm contamination by PCBs and heavy metals between a nature reserve and two sites conditioned by the addition of sewage sludge and compost. The tissues and gut content of the earthworms shows a higher PCB concentration than that of the surrounding soil and also a difference in the fingerprint of some single PCB compounds. Earthworms display a selective accumulation of cadmium and zinc in their tissues and gut content.

  14. Why do fearful facial expressions elicit behavioral approach? Evidence from a combined approach-avoidance implicit association test.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Jennifer L; Marsh, Abigail A

    2015-04-01

    Despite communicating a "negative" emotion, fearful facial expressions predominantly elicit behavioral approach from perceivers. It has been hypothesized that this seemingly paradoxical effect may occur due to fearful expressions' resemblance to vulnerable, infantile faces. However, this hypothesis has not yet been tested. We used a combined approach-avoidance/implicit association test (IAT) to test this hypothesis. Participants completed an approach-avoidance lever task during which they responded to fearful and angry facial expressions as well as neutral infant and adult faces presented in an IAT format. Results demonstrated an implicit association between fearful facial expressions and infant faces and showed that both fearful expressions and infant faces primarily elicit behavioral approach. The dominance of approach responses to both fearful expressions and infant faces decreased as a function of psychopathic personality traits. Results suggest that the prosocial responses to fearful expressions observed in most individuals may stem from their associations with infantile faces. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25603135

  15. Why Do Fearful Facial Expressions Elicit Behavioral Approach? Evidence From a Combined Approach-Avoidance Implicit Association Test

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Jennifer L.; Marsh, Abigail A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite communicating a “negative” emotion, fearful facial expressions predominantly elicit behavioral approach from perceivers. It has been hypothesized that this seemingly paradoxical effect may occur due to fearful expressions’ resemblance to vulnerable, infantile faces. However, this hypothesis has not yet been tested. We used a combined approach-avoidance/implicit association test (IAT) to test this hypothesis. Participants completed an approach-avoidance lever task during which they responded to fearful and angry facial expressions as well as neutral infant and adult faces presented in an IAT format. Results demonstrated an implicit association between fearful facial expressions and infant faces and showed that both fearful expressions and infant faces primarily elicit behavioral approach. The dominance of approach responses to both fearful expressions and infant faces decreased as a function of psychopathic personality traits. Results suggest that the prosocial responses to fearful expressions observed in most individuals may stem from their associations with infantile faces. PMID:25603135

  16. Protein Hydrolysates Are Avoided by Herbivores but Not by Omnivores in Two-Choice Preference Tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristin L. Field; Alexander A. Bachmanov; Julie A. Mennella; Gary K. Beauchamp; Bruce A. Kimball

    2009-01-01

    Background: The negative sensory properties of casein hydrolysates (HC) often limit their usage in products intended for human consumption, despite HC being nutritious and having many functional benefits. Recent, but taxonomically limited, evidence suggests that other animals also avoid consuming HC when alternatives exist. Methodology\\/Principal Findings: We evaluated ingestive responses of five herbivorous species (guinea pig, mountain beaver, gopher, vole,

  17. Acute toxicity of chlorophenols to earthworms using a simple paper contact method and comparison with toxicities to fresh water organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akane Miyazaki; Tsutomu Amano; Hotaka Saito; Yoshio Nakano

    2002-01-01

    An acute toxicity test of chlorophenols on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) was performed using a simple paper contact method proposed by OECD testing guideline no. 207, that were applied as an earthworm toxicity test. The median lethal concentration, EC50, had significant correlation with logPow (1-octanol\\/water partition coefficient) of the chemicals. The toxicity of chlorophenols on E. fetida was compared with toxicities

  18. Bioavailability and influence of (14)C-carbofuran on Eisenia andrei avoidance, growth and reproduction in treated natural tropical soils.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Regina C B; Papini, Solange; de Andréa, Mara M

    2015-04-01

    The bioavailability of carbofuran to the compost worms Eisenia andrei and the influence of its residual amounts on the avoidance, reproduction and growth of this species were studied in two natural tropical soils: a Typic Humaquept (GM) and a Typic Hapludox (LVD), as indicated by the Brazilian environmental authorities for ecotoxicological tests. The worms avoided the soil LVD treated with different doses of carbofuran. The pesticide also affected the production of juvenile specimens in both soils, but cocoon production was reduced only in the GM soil. The earthworms' growth and weight loss were affected by carbofuran (2,2-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1-1-benzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate. CAS number 1563-66-2) only in the LVD and the mortality detected at 56 days of contact with the treated soils was not statistically significant in both of them. Fourteen days after the soil treatment with(14) c-carbofuran, most residues detected in the soils were bound residues (approximately 36% and 30% in the GM and LVD, respectively) and neither mortality nor bioaccumulation was detected in the earthworms, even with absorptions of 13% and 43%, respectively. The LVD soil has lower organic matter content, and the effects of carbofuran on different aspects of the earthworms' life were more pronounced in this soil, most likely due to the higher bioavailability of the pesticide in the soil solution. The results for carbofuran clearly demonstrate that even small quantities of residues do not assure lack of toxicity. They also make evident the necessity of studying the effects of pesticides in natural agricultural soils. Furthermore, as the bound residues and the earthworm contamination are not detected by conventional techniques, they are not taken into account and may be underestimated on environmental risk assessments. PMID:25714458

  19. ORIGINAL PAPER Tree rings detect earthworm invasions and their effects

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    ORIGINAL PAPER Tree rings detect earthworm invasions and their effects in northern Hardwood forests of European earthworms into the forests of northern North America are causing dramatic changes in forest floor on the effects of invasive earthworms are limited because little data exist on the timing and rate of earthworm

  20. How do earthworms affect microfloral and faunal community diversity?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George G. Brown

    1995-01-01

    Much of the work regarding earthworm effects on other organisms has focused on the functional significance of microbial-earthworm interactions, and little is known on the effects of earthworms on microfloral and faunal diversity. Earthworms can affect soil microflora and fauna populations directly and indirectly by three main mechanisms: (1) comminution, burrowing and casting; (2) grazing; (3) dispersal. These activities change

  1. Protein Hydrolysates Are Avoided by Herbivores but Not by Omnivores in Two-Choice Preference Tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristin L. Field; Alexander A. Bachmanov; Julie A. Mennella; Gary K. Beauchamp; Bruce A. Kimball; Daniel Tomé

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundThe negative sensory properties of casein hydrolysates (HC) often limit their usage in products intended for human consumption, despite HC being nutritious and having many functional benefits. Recent, but taxonomically limited, evidence suggests that other animals also avoid consuming HC when alternatives exist.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe evaluated ingestive responses of five herbivorous species (guinea pig, mountain beaver, gopher, vole, and rabbit) and

  2. EARTHWORMS AND THEIR IMPACT ON SLUG CONTROL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increases in the anecic earthworm species, Lumbricus terrestris L., have occurred in western Oregon grass fields due to increases in surface residue since the phase-out of open field burning. The use of earthworm toxic chemicals has been reduced through concerns for other important vertebrate and in...

  3. Earthworm activities and the soil system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Lavelle

    1988-01-01

    Earthworms find in soil the energy, nutrient resources, water and buffered climatic conditions that they need. According to the food resource they exploit and the general environmental conditions, earthworms can be grouped into different functional categories which differ essentially in morphology, size, pigmentation, distribution in the soil profile, ability to dig galleries and produce surface casts, demographic profiles and relationships

  4. Colonization of new habitats by earthworms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Y. Marinissen; Bosch van den F

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a simple model is used to study the dispersal of earthworm populations into new habitats. Simple models do not describe processes accurately, but can help gain insight into the functioning of ecosystems or processes in ecosystems. Using information on reproduction, survival and dispersal at the level of the individual, the velocity of earthworm population expansion was calculated.

  5. COMPARISON OF THREE EARTHWORM BIOASSAY PROCEDURES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES CONTAINING HAZARDOUS WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three different laboratory earthworm protocols for assessing the potential toxicity of environmental samples were evaluated using Eisenia fetida. The 48-h Contact Test (CT) is a short test and may indicate the presence of water-soluble chemicals. The 14-day Soil Test (ST) is best...

  6. Biotic interactions modify the transfer of cesium-137 in a soil-earthworm-plant-snail food web.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Clémentine; Scheifler, Renaud; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Hubert, Philippe; Coeurdassier, Michaël; de Vaufleury, Annette; Badot, Pierre-Marie

    2008-08-01

    The present study investigated the possible influence of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata on the transfer of cesium-137 ((137)Cs) from a contaminated (130 Bq/kg) deciduous forest soil to the lettuce Lactuca sativa and to the snail Cantareus aspersus (formerly Helix aspersa) in two laboratory experiments. In the first experiment, the International Organization for Standardization 15952 test was used to expose snails for five weeks to contaminated soil with or without earthworms. In these conditions, the presence of earthworms caused a two- to threefold increase in (137)Cs concentrations in snails. Transfer was low in earthworms as well as in snails, with transfer factors (TFs) lower than 3.7 x 10(-2). Activity concentrations were higher in earthworms (2.8- 4.8 Bq/kg dry mass) than in snails (<1.5 Bq/kg). In the second experiment, microcosms were used to determine the contribution of soil and lettuce in the accumulation of (137)Cs in snails. Results suggest that the contribution of lettuce and soil is 80 and 20%, respectively. Microcosms also were used to study the influence of earthworms on (137)Cs accumulation in snail tissues in the most ecologically relevant treatment (soil-earthworm-plant-snail food web). In this case, soil-to-plant transfer was high, with a TF of 0.8, and was not significantly modified by earthworms. Conversely, soil-to-snail transfer was lower (TF, approximately 0.1) but was significantly increased in presence of earthworms. Dose rates were determined in the microcosm study with the EDEN (elementary dose evaluation for natural environment) model. Dose rates were lower than 5.5 x 10(-4) mGy/d, far from values considered to have effects on terrestrial organisms (1 mGy/d). PMID:18266477

  7. Approach-Avoidance Motivational Profiles in Early Adolescents to the PACER Fitness Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garn, Alex; Sun, Haichun

    2009-01-01

    The use of fitness testing is a practical means for measuring components of health-related fitness, but there is currently substantial debate over the motivating effects of these tests. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the cross-fertilization of achievement and friendship goal profiles for early adolescents involved in the…

  8. Plant genetic variation mediates an indirect ecological effect between belowground earthworms and aboveground aphids.

    PubMed

    Singh, Akanksha; Braun, Julia; Decker, Emilia; Hans, Sarah; Wagner, Agnes; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Zytynska, Sharon E

    2014-10-21

    BackgroundInteractions between aboveground and belowground terrestrial communities are often mediated by plants, with soil organisms interacting via the roots and aboveground organisms via the shoots and leaves. Many studies now show that plant genetics can drive changes in the structure of both above and belowground communities; however, the role of plant genetic variation in mediating aboveground-belowground interactions is still unclear. We used an earthworm-plant-aphid model system with two aphid species (Aphis fabae and Acyrthosiphon pisum) to test the effect of host-plant (Vicia faba) genetic variation on the indirect interaction between the belowground earthworms (Eisenia veneta) on the aboveground aphid populations.ResultsOur data shows that host-plant variety mediated an indirect ecological effect of earthworms on generalist black bean aphids (A. fabae), with earthworms increasing aphid growth rate in three plant varieties but decreasing it in another variety. We found no effect of earthworms on the second aphid species, the pea aphid (A. pisum), and no effect of competition between the aphid species. Plant biomass was increased when earthworms were present, and decreased when A. pisum was feeding on the plant (mediated by plant variety). Although A. fabae aphids were influenced by the plants and worms, they did not, in turn, alter plant biomass.ConclusionsPrevious work has shown inconsistent effects of earthworms on aphids, but we suggest these differences could be explained by plant genetic variation and variation among aphid species. This study demonstrates that the outcome of belowground-aboveground interactions can be mediated by genetic variation in the host-plant, but depends on the identity of the species involved. PMID:25331082

  9. Helicopter Field Testing of NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) System fully integrated with the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutishauser, David; Epp, Chirold; Robertson, Edward

    2013-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project was chartered to develop and mature to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six an autonomous system combining guidance, navigation and control with real-time terrain sensing and recognition functions for crewed, cargo, and robotic planetary landing vehicles. The ALHAT System must be capable of identifying and avoiding surface hazards to enable a safe and accurate landing to within tens of meters of designated and certified landing sites anywhere on a planetary surface under any lighting conditions. This is accomplished with the core sensing functions of the ALHAT system: Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN), Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA), and Hazard Relative Navigation (HRN). The NASA plan for the ALHAT technology is to perform the TRL6 closed loop demonstration on the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed (VTB). The first Morpheus vehicle was lost in August of 2012 during free-flight testing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), so the decision was made to perform a helicopter test of the integrated ALHAT System with the Morpheus avionics over the ALHAT planetary hazard field at KSC. The KSC helicopter tests included flight profiles approximating planetary approaches, with the entire ALHAT system interfaced with all appropriate Morpheus subsystems and operated in real-time. During these helicopter flights, the ALHAT system imaged the simulated lunar terrain constructed in FY2012 to support ALHAT/Morpheus testing at KSC. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest fidelity testing of a system of this kind to date. During this helicopter testing, two new Morpheus landers were under construction at the Johnson Space Center to support the objective of an integrated ALHAT/Morpheus free-flight demonstration. This paper provides an overview of this helicopter flight test activity, including results and lessons learned, and also provides an overview of recent integrated testing of ALHAT on the second Morpheus vehicle.

  10. Effect of earthworm on growth of late succession plant species in postmining sites under laboratory and field conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alena Roubí?ková; Ond?ej Mudrák; Jan Frouz

    2009-01-01

    Earlier studies of postmining heaps near Sokolov, Czech Republic (0–46 years old) showed that massive changes in plant community\\u000a composition occur around 23 year of succession when the heaps are colonized by the earthworms Lumbricus rubellus (Hoffm.) and Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny). The aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that the introduction of earthworms into a postmining\\u000a soil enhances

  11. Using artificial intelligence for automating testing of a resident space object collision avoidance system on an orbital spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2014-06-01

    Resident space objects (RSOs) pose a significant threat to orbital assets. Due to high relative velocities, even a small RSO can cause significant damage to an object that it strikes. Worse, in many cases a collision may create numerous additional RSOs, if the impacted object shatters apart. These new RSOs will have heterogeneous mass, size and orbital characteristics. Collision avoidance systems (CASs) are used to maneuver spacecraft out of the path of RSOs to prevent these impacts. A RSO CAS must be validated to ensure that it is able to perform effectively given a virtually unlimited number of strike scenarios. This paper presents work on the creation of a testing environment and AI testing routine that can be utilized to perform verification and validation activities for cyber-physical systems. It reviews prior work on automated and autonomous testing. Comparative performance (relative to the performance of a human tester) is discussed.

  12. Effects of non-native earthworms on on below- and aboveground processes in the Mid-Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szlavecz, K. A.; McCormick, M. K.; Xia, L.; Pitz, S.; O'Neill, J.; Bernard, M.; Chang, C.; Whigham, D. F.

    2011-12-01

    Many biotic and abiotic disturbances have shaped the structure of the deciduous forests in the Mid-Atlantic region. One major anthropogenic factor is land use history. Agricultural practices in the past undoubtedly facilitated non-native earthworm colonization and establishment. Today most secondary forests are dominated by European lumbricid earthworms, although native species also occur in some habitats. To investigate how earthworm community composition and abundance affect belowground processes and tree seedling growth we set up a field manipulation experiment at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in Edgewater, MD. A total of 66 experimental plots were set up in successional (70 yrs) and mature (150 yrs) Tulip-poplar-Oak associations. We manipulated earthworm abundance and leaf litter input, and planted seedlings of Tulip poplar, Red maple, Red oak, and American beech. The experiment lasted for two years during which we regularly monitored density, biomass and species composition of earthworm assemblages and measured soil respiration. Soil moisture, temperature and air temperature were also continuously monitored using a wireless sensor network. At harvest, soil bulk density, pH, N pools, C:N ratio, potential N-mineralization rates, and enzyme activity were determined. We used quantitative PCR to assess the community composition of soil fungi. We also determined the extent of mycorrhizal colonization and biomass of roots, shoots and leaves. We conducted likelihood ratio tests for random and fixed effects based on mixed model analyses of variance. Differences between soil depths and among sites and plots accounted for a large portion of the variation in many soil properties. Litter quality affected soil pH and N mineralization. Earthworm densities affected bulk density, inorganic N content, and N mineralization. Both mycorrhizal groups were more abundant in mature than in successional forests. Both ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and arbuscular (AM) fungi were less abundant in the earthworm removal plots. There was a significant positive earthworm effect on the rate and thermal sensitivity of soil respiration. Soil respiration was consistently higher in plots with tulip poplar litter than those with beech litter, indicating a strong influence of plant residue quality. However, the differences were smaller in the second year than in the first one indicating an adaptation of the soil system. Oak and beech seedlings were smaller in high density earthworm plots, while the reverse was true for maple and tulip poplar seedlings. Non-native earthworms affect below- and aboveground processes, however, these effects depend on forest type and land use history. The earthworm effects also appear to be dynamic, as witnessed by a recent invasion of an Asian earthworm species in one of our forest stands.

  13. Comparative toxicity of chemicals to earthworms

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, C.A.; Shirazi, M.A. (Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR (United States)); Neuhauser, E.F. (Niagara Mohawk Power Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States))

    1994-02-01

    The concentration-response (mortality) relationships of four species of earthworms, Eisenia fetida (Savigny), Allolobophora tuberculata (Eisen), Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg), and Perionyx excavatus (Perrier) are summarized for 62 chemicals and two test protocols. A Weibull function is used to summarize these data for each chemical in terms of sensitivity and toxicity, in addition to the LC50. The estimation of the Weibull parameters a and k summarize the entire concentration-response relationship. This technique should be applicable to a variety of testing protocols with different species whenever the goal is summarizing the shape of the concentration-response curves to fully evaluate chemical impact on organisms. In some cases for these data four orders of magnitude separate LC50s of the soil test and the contact test for the same chemical and species. All four species appear to be similar in range of toxicity and tolerance to these chemicals, suggesting that Eisenia fetida and may be representative of these four species and these chemicals.

  14. Comparison of earthworm responses to petroleum hydrocarbon exposure in aged field contaminated soil using traditional ecotoxicity endpoints and 1H NMR-based metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Whitfield Åslund, Melissa; Stephenson, Gladys L; Simpson, André J; Simpson, Myrna J

    2013-11-01

    (1)H NMR metabolomics and conventional ecotoxicity endpoints were used to examine the response of earthworms exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in soil samples collected from a site that was contaminated with crude oil from a pipeline failure in the mid-1990s. The conventional ecotoxicity tests showed that the soils were not acutely toxic to earthworms (average survival ? 90%), but some soil samples impaired reproduction endpoints by >50% compared to the field control soil. Additionally, metabolomics revealed significant relationships between earthworm metabolic profiles (collected after 2 or 14 days of exposure) and soil properties including soil PHC concentration. Further comparisons by partial least squares regression revealed a significant relationship between the earthworm metabolomic data (collected after only 2 or 14 days) and the reproduction endpoints (measured after 63 days). Therefore, metabolomic responses measured after short exposure periods may be predictive of chronic, ecologically relevant toxicity endpoints for earthworms exposed to soil contaminants. PMID:23938450

  15. Effects of transgenic Bt corn litter on the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Zwahlen; A. Hilbeck; R. Howald; W. Nentwig

    2003-01-01

    A 200-day study was carried out to investigate the impact of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn on immature and adult Lumbricus terrestris in the field and in the laboratory. Another objective of this study was to develop test methods that could be used for standard testing of the impact of transgenic plants on different earthworm species in the field and

  16. Nanomaterials: Earthworms lit with quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilley, Richard D.; Cheong, Soshan

    2013-01-01

    Yeast, bacteria and fungi have been used to synthesize a variety of nanocrystals. Now, the metal detoxification process in the gut of an earthworm is exploited to produce biocompatible cadmium telluride quantum dots.

  17. Enantioselective bioaccumulation and toxic effects of metalaxyl in earthworm Eisenia foetida.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Diao, Jinling; Liu, Donghui; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2011-05-01

    Knowledge about the enantioselective bioavailability of chiral pesticides in soil invertebrates facilitates more accurate interpretation of their environmental behaviors. In this study, the acute toxicities of R-metalaxyl and rac-metalaxyl to earthworm (Eisenia foetida) were assayed by filter paper contact test. After 48 h of exposure, the calculated LC(50) values for R- and rac-metalaxyl were 0.052 and 0.022 mg cm(-2), respectively, resulting in a two fold difference in toxicity. For uptake experiment, earthworms were exposed in soil at two dose levels (10 and 50 mg kg(dwt)(-1)). The concentrations of two enantiomers in soil and earthworm were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography based on cellulose tri-(3,5-dimethylphenyl-carbamate) chiral stationary phase. The results showed that metalaxyl was taken up by earthworm rapidly, and the bioaccumulation of metalaxyl in earthworm was enantioselective with preferential accumulation of S-enantiomer. In addition, biota to soil accumulation factor (BSAF) used to express the bioaccumulation of metalaxyl enantiomers was investigated, and significant difference was observed between rac-metalaxyl and R-metalaxyl. PMID:21315406

  18. Interference of plant peroxidases with guaiac-based fecal occult blood tests is avoidable.

    PubMed

    Sinatra, M A; St John, D J; Young, G P

    1999-01-01

    Peroxidase-rich fruits and vegetables are reputed to interfere with guaiac-based fecal occult blood tests. We added horseradish peroxidase to fecal samples and tested them with Hemoccult, Hemoccult SENSA(R), and hydrated Hemoccult. Positivity rates with Hemoccult and Hemoccult SENSA decreased rapidly as the time between smearing (preparation) and development increased, whereas they remained high with hydrated Hemoccult. For samples with added blood, positivity rates did not decrease with time. When 61 volunteers were tested on a standard restriction and on a challenge diet high in plant peroxidase, no positive results occurred during standard restriction. During the challenge diet, one volunteer was positive with Hemoccult and Hemoccult SENSA when development was delayed 24 h, and no volunteers were positive when it was delayed 48 h and 72 h. However, with hydrated Hemoccult, positives occurred in 13 of 61 volunteers at 24 h, 8 of 61 at 48 h, and 5 of 61 at 72 h. Thus, peroxidase-rich plant foods do not need to be excluded from the diet with Hemoccult and Hemoccult SENSA if development is delayed for at least 48 h after smearing. A delay of this duration will not solve the problem of plant peroxidase interference with hydrated Hemoccult. PMID:9895348

  19. Biochemical diversity of betaines in earthworms

    SciTech Connect

    Liebeke, Manuel [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)] [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Bundy, Jacob G., E-mail: j.bundy@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-25

    Highlights: ? We develop a method for rapid untargetted analysis of betaines. ? We profile betaines in a comparative study of ten earthworm species. ? Earthworms contain a surprisingly high number of different betaine metabolites. ? Earthworms contain betaines normally seen only in plants or marine animals. -- Abstract: The ability to accumulate osmoprotectant compounds, such as betaines, is an important evolutionary feature in many organisms. This is particularly the case for organisms that live in variable environments, which may have fluctuations in moisture and salinity levels. There is, surprisingly, very little known about betaines in soil invertebrates in general, and there is almost no information about earthworms – a group that are important ‘ecosystem engineers’ and key indicators of soil health. Here, we describe a fast and reliable {sup 1}H–{sup 13}C heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) 2D NMR approach for the metabolic profiling of a series of betaines and related metabolites in tissue extracts, and list {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C chemical shifts for the trimethylammonium signal for 23 such compounds. The analysis of ten different species from three different families (Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae and Glossoscolecidae) showed an unexpected diversity of betaines present in earthworms. In total ten betaines were identified, including hydroxyproline-betaine, proline-betaine, taurine-betaine, GABA-betaine and histidine-betaine, and a further eleven as-yet unassigned putative betaine metabolites detected. The findings clearly indicate a hitherto-unappreciated important role for betaine metabolism in earthworms.

  20. A field test for host fruit odour discrimination and avoidance behaviour for Rhagoletis pomonella flies in the western United States.

    PubMed

    Sim, S B; Mattsson, M; Feder, Jasmine L; Cha, D H; Yee, W L; Goughnour, R B; Linn, C E; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2012-05-01

    Prezygotic isolation due to habitat choice is important to many models of speciation-with-gene-flow. Habitat choice is usually thought to occur through positive preferences of organisms for particular environments. However, avoidance of non-natal environments may also play a role in choice and have repercussions for post-zygotic isolation that preference does not. The recent host shift of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) from downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis, to introduced apple, Malus domestica, in the eastern United States is a model for speciation-with-gene-flow. However, the fly is also present in the western United States where it was likely introduced via infested apples ? 60 years ago. R. pomonella now attacks two additional hawthorns in the west, the native C. douglasii (black hawthorn) and the introduced C. monogyna (English ornamental hawthorn). Flight tunnel tests have shown that western apple-, C. douglasii- and C. monogyna-origin flies all positively orient to fruit volatile blends of their respective natal hosts in flight tunnel assays. Here, we show that these laboratory differences translate to nature through field-trapping studies of flies in the state of Washington. Moreover, western R. pomonella display both positive orientation to their respective natal fruit volatiles and avoidance behaviour (negative orientation) to non-natal volatiles. Our results are consistent with the existence of behaviourally differentiated host races of R. pomonella in the west. In addition, the rapid evolution of avoidance behaviour appears to be a general phenomenon for R. pomonella during host shifts, as the eastern apple and downy hawthorn host races also are antagonized by non-natal fruit volatiles. PMID:22435643

  1. The second wave of earthworm invasion: soil organic matter dynamics from the stable isotope perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C.; Szlavecz, K. A.; Bernard, M.; Pitz, S.

    2013-12-01

    Through transformation of plant litter into soil organic matter (SOM) and translocation of ingested organic material among different soil depths, soil organisms, especially earthworms, are one of the major factors affecting SOM dynamics. In North America temperate soil, historical human activity has lead to invasion of European earthworms into habitats that were previously earthworm-free or inhabited only by native species. By consuming leaf litter and SOM, burrowing, and casting, invasive earthworms have been known for reducing the understory vegetation and leaf litter layer while increasing the thickness of organic soil, causing changes in the soil habitat and the distribution of SOM. Recently, another group of invasive earthworm, namely Amynthas from Asia, has been reported invading habitats already dominated by European species, causing a 'second wave of invasion' where the soil ecosystem, already modified by European species, is going through another transition. The mechanisms through which these functionally (ecologically) different species affect C and N transformation could be better understood by tracing the carbon and nitrogen derived from 13C- and 15N-labeled leaf litter into earthworm tissues and SOM. The objective of this study is to understand how earthworm species that differ ecologically, including the Asian Amynthas, interact with each other and how these interactions affect SOM dynamics. We hypothesized that 1) species feeding on different food resources will have different isotopic signature and their tissue 13C and 15N values will change due to facilitation or interspecific competition on food resources, and 2) the short-term fate of litter-derived carbon differs depending on the presence or absence of different earthworm species. These hypotheses were tested by field sampling and lab mesocosm experiments using 13C and 15N double-enriched Tulip Poplar leaf litter (mean 13C = 124‰, mean 15N = 1667‰) produced from tree saplings growing in an airtight chamber. Stable isotope mass balance calculation is used to estimate the recovery of litter-derived carbon from three pools (earthworm tissue, SOM, remaining litter), the loss of litter-derived carbon through soil respiration, and the contribution of different carbon sources to soil CO2 efflux in different earthworm treatments. Our results show that earthworm species recognized as 'soil feeders' have 13C and 15N values that are 1.2‰ and 3.8‰ higher than those of 'litter feeders', and 15N also differ significantly amount different soil feeders, suggesting different food resource usage even within the same functional group. There are strong species effects on both leaf litter disappearance rate and CO2 efflux rate, both being high when Amynthas earthworms are present. Our results suggest that changing earthworm species composition leads to changing resource use, which alters the fate of organic carbon in the forest floor and soil and could potentially affect long-term SOM dynamics in temperate forests.

  2. Methods using earthworms for the evaluation of potentially toxic materials in soils

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, E.F.; Loehr, R.C.; Malecki, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using earthworms to indicate effects of potentially toxic wastes when such wastes are intentionally or accidentally added to soils. Initial work with metals has shown that earthworms exhibit specific growth and reproductive responses. These responses are related to the concentration and solubility of the metal. Of the metals tested, cadmium was found to be the most toxic, followed by nickel, copper, zinc, and lead. The metal concentration in earthworm tissue and the background manure-metal mixture was measured, permitting the concentration factor to be computed. The concentration factor is the ratio of the metal in the worm tissue to that in the surrounding manure-metal mixture. These and other studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that the methods described in this paper may be used to predict the effect of land-applied or atmospherically deposited residues on the soil biota.

  3. ORIGINAL PAPER Resident plant diversity and introduced earthworms have

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    such as earthworms can also affect invasibility by reducing leaf litter stocks and influencing soil conditions effect via decreased soil moisture. Earthworms also weakened the positive correlation between resident

  4. Copper avoidance and mortality of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) in tests with copper-sulfate-treated water from West Branch Reservoir, Putnam County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldigo, B.P.; Baudanza, T.P.

    2001-01-01

    Copper-avoidance tests and acute-toxicity (mortality) tests on hatchery-reared, young-of- the-year brown trout (salmo trutta) were conducted with water from West Branch Reservoir to assess the avoidance response to copper sulfate treatment, which is used occasionally by New York City Department of Environmental Protection to decrease phytoplankton populations in the reservoir. Avoidance-test results indicate that juvenile brown trout tend to avoid dissolved copper concentrations greater than about 55 ?g/L (micrograms per liter), which is the approximate avoidance-response threshold. The mean net avoidance response of brown trout to dissolved copper concentrations of 70 and 100 ?g/L, and possibly 80 ?g/L, was significantly different (at a = 0.1) from the mean net avoidance response of fish to control (untreated) water and to treated water at most other tested concentrations. Mortality-test results indicate that the 96-hr median lethal concentration (LC50) of dissolved copper was 61.5 ?g/L. All (100 percent) of the brown trout died at a dissolved copper concentration of 85 ?g/L, many died at concentrations of 62 ?g/L and 70 ?g/L, and none died in the control waters (7 ?g/L) or at concentrations of 10, 20, or 45 ?g/L. The estimated concentration of dissolved copper that caused fish mortality (threshold) was 53.5 ?g/L, virtually equivalent to the avoidance-response threshold. Additional factors that could affect the copper-avoidance and mortality response of individual brown trout and their populations in West Branch Reservoir include seasonal variations in certain water-quality parameters, copper-treatment regimes, natural fish distributions during treatment, and increased tolerance due to acclimation. These warrant additional study before the findings from this study can be used to predict the effects that copper sulfate treatments have on resident fish populations in New York City reservoirs.

  5. Bioconversion of solid paper-pulp mill sludge by earthworms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Elvira; M. Goicoechea; L. Sampedro; S. Mato; R. Nogales

    1996-01-01

    Bioconversion of solid paper-pulp mill sludges and primary sewage sludge for 40 days at a ratio of 3:1 dw:dw was studied in containers with and without earthworms (Eisenia andrei). This mixture was a suitable medium for optimum growth and reproduction of the earthworms. Regardless of the presence of earthworms, degradation occurred during the bioconversion period, but the presence of earthworms

  6. Species-Specific Effects of Epigeic Earthworms on Microbial Community Structure during First Stages of Decomposition of Organic Matter

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Brandón, María; Lores, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Background Epigeic earthworms are key organisms in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with microorganisms. The earthworm species and the quality and/or substrate availability are expected to be major factors influencing the outcome of these interactions. Here we tested whether and to what extent the epigeic earthworms Eisenia andrei, Eisenia fetida and Perionyx excavatus, widely used in vermicomposting, are capable of altering the microbiological properties of fresh organic matter in the short-term. We also questioned if the earthworm-induced modifications to the microbial communities are dependent on the type of substrate ingested. Methodology/Principal Findings To address these questions we determined the microbial community structure (phospholipid fatty acid profiles) and microbial activity (basal respiration and microbial growth rates) of three types of animal manure (cow, horse and rabbit) that differed in microbial composition, after being processed by each species of earthworm for one month. No differences were found between earthworm-worked samples with regards to microbial community structure, irrespective of type of manure, which suggests the existence of a bottleneck effect of worm digestion on microbial populations of the original material consumed. Moreover, in mesocosms containing cow manure the presence of E. andrei resulted not only in a decrease in bacterial and fungal biomass, but also in a reduced bacterial growth rate and total microbial activity, while no such reduction was found with E. fetida and P. excavatus. Conclusions/Significance Our results point to the species of earthworm with its associated gut microbiota as a strong determinant of the process shaping the structure of microbial communities in the short-term. This must nonetheless be weighed against the fact that further knowledge is necessary to evaluate whether the changes in the composition of microbiota in response to the earthworm species is accompanied by a change in the microbial community diversity and/or function. PMID:22363763

  7. Design and experimental gait analysis of a multi-segment in-pipe robot inspired by earthworm's peristaltic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Hongbin; Wang, Chenghao; Li, Suyi; Xu, Jian; Wang, K. W.

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports the experimental progress towards developing a multi-segment in-pipe robot inspired by earthworm's body structure and locomotion mechanism. To mimic the alternating contraction and elongation of a single earthworm's segment, a robust, servomotor based actuation mechanism is developed. In each robot segment, servomotor-driven cords and spring steel belts are utilized to imitate the earthworm's longitudinal and circular muscles, respectively. It is shown that the designed segment can contract and relax just like an earthworm's body segment. The axial and radial deformation of a single segment is measured experimentally, which agrees with the theoretical predictions. Then a multisegment earthworm-like robot is fabricated by assembling eight identical segments in series. The locomotion performance of this robot prototype is then extensively tested in order to investigate the correlation between gait design and dynamic locomotion characteristics. Based on the principle of retrograde peristalsis wave, a gait generator is developed for the multi-segment earthworm-like robot, following which gaits of the robot can be constructed. Employing the generated gaits, the 8-segment earthworm-like robot can successfully perform both horizontal locomotion and vertical climb in pipes. By changing gait parameters, i.e., with different gaits, locomotion characteristics including average speed and anchor slippage can be significantly tailored. The proposed actuation method and prototype of the multi-segment in-pipe robot as well as the gait generator provide a bionic realization of earthworm's locomotion with promising potentials in various applications such as pipeline inspection and cleaning.

  8. REGULAR ARTICLE Earthworm effects on plant growth do not necessarily

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    REGULAR ARTICLE Earthworm effects on plant growth do not necessarily decrease with soil fertility + Business Media B.V. 2009 Abstract Earthworms are known to generally increase plant growth. However, because plant-earthworm inter- actions are potentially mediated by soil characteristics the response of plants

  9. Earthworms, Dirt, and Rotten Leaves: An Exploration in Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Molly

    1994-01-01

    This article provides a model for inviting children to "an exploration in ecology" by observing earthworms. It gives reasons to explore earthworms and guides the investigator through a detailed examination of the worms to answer 21 observation questions. Explores the ways in which earthworms interact with their environment. (LZ)

  10. The role of earthworms ( Eisenia fetida ) in influencing bioavailability of heavy metals in soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bei Wen; Xiao-yu Hu; Ying Liu; Wei-sheng Wang; Mu-hua Feng; Xiao-quan Shan

    2004-01-01

    The effects of earthworm ( Eisenia fetida) activity on soil pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), microbial populations, fraction distribution and bioavailability of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd, Co, Ni, and Pb) in five Chinese soils were investigated using pot experiments. A three-step extraction procedure recommended by the European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR; now Standards, Measurements and Testing Programme

  11. Assessing the Impact of Triazine Herbicides on Organophosphate Insecticide Toxicity to the Earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Lydy; S. L. Linck

    2003-01-01

    A standard Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) filter paper test was used to assess the acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos, atrazine, cyanazine, and simazine to the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos was also determined in combination with the three-triazine herbicides. Surprisingly, atrazine and cyanazine caused mortality at concentrations lower than chlorpyrifos. Atrazine and cyanazine also increased the

  12. EVALUATING ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS OF LAND APPLYING COMPOSTED DIAZINON USING EARTHWORM BIOASSAYS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jarrod E. Leland; Donald E. Mullins; Duane F. Berry

    2001-01-01

    Environmental hazards resulting from land application of composted pesticide residue have not been rigorously evaluated. This study was conducted to examine the toxicity of a composted pesticide residue using earthworms (Eisenia foetida Savigny) as a microinvertebrate model in a soil bioassay system. Diazinon, which was used in these experiments as a test pesticide, was removed from simulated rinsate (wastewater) by

  13. Avoid Scams

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to do if you think your email or social networking account has been hacked. Text Message Spam Text message spam is to your cell phone what email spam is to your personal computer. Avoiding Online Scams Ten steps you can take to avoid ...

  14. Assessment of hydraulic conductivity distribution from ERT-monitored tracer tests avoiding the need for petrophysical relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crestani, E.; Camporese, M.; Salandin, P.

    2013-12-01

    Geophysical methods, such as the Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), have been increasingly used in recent years to analyze the erratic behavior of plumes in natural aquifers. In particular, borehole ERT monitoring of saline tracer tests allows to collect 2D time-lapse electrical data in a control plane, related to spatio-temporal variations of salt concentration within the aquifer. The electrical conductivity (EC) field is reconstructed by means of a geophysical inversion on the basis of raw resistance data, while a petrophysical relationship (e.g., Archie's law) is usually needed to map EC data into solute concentrations, thus retrieving the plume evolution. The latter, in turn, is often used to evaluate the hydraulic conductivity (K) distribution by inverse modeling. To avoid the need for an in-situ specific calibration of a petrophysical relationship and the previous knowledge of the concentration spatio-temporal evolution, this study proposes a new approach for retrieving the K distribution from an ERT monitored saline tracer test, based on travel time modeling of transport integrated with the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). The definition of the solute transport in terms of travel times allows to analyze the sequence of changes in electrical conductivity deduced from an ERT survey without converting the electrical data into concentrations. To do this, a specific travel time procedure is applied: the control plane is subdivided in properly spaced sub-control planes and the cumulative distribution function of the travel time in each of them is independently calculated and then assimilated through EnKF, which allows to update the K distribution. Our approach, initially tested in 3D synthetic aquifers, is here applied to the experimental site of Settolo, Valdobbiadene (TV), where a tracer test monitored by ERT has been carried out. The results show that the suggested method seems to be effective in reproducing the erratic distribution of the hydraulic conductivity at the local scale, which control the non-Fickian evolution of plumes in natural aquifers.

  15. A better method for assessing sublethal effects of soils to the earthworm Eisenia foetida

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, M.H. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wicker, L.F.; Stewart, A.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The authors have developed and tested a procedure which allows quantification of growth and reproductive effects of contaminated soils to the earthworm, Eisenia foetida. The procedure monitors isolated pairs of earthworms and generates a higher ratio of data per organism than other commonly used procedures which require larger numbers of earthworms per experimental unit. The procedure also incorporates an accurate technique for measuring adult growth. The method has high sensitivity and is cost-effective. The method was applied to a variety of soil-testing problems to demonstrate its versatility and provide validation. A food-and-substrate trial demonstrated the sensitivity of the method and the need for food supplementation in OECD artificial soil to stimulate earthworm reproduction. A trial to examine a soil bioremediation technology revealed the advantage of measuring both growth and reproduction and highlighted the usefulness of a single integrated measure of these two responses. The method then was applied as a fast-screening method for field soils in a large-scale ecological risk assessment. Finally, a reference toxicant, applied in dilution series, demonstrated that responses of Eisenia foetida to their method are similar to their responses to the OECD artificial soil test. Collectively, results of this study indicate that their procedure can be used both for regulatory and compliance needs within the framework of ecological risk assessment.

  16. Glycosaminoglycans from earthworms (Eisenia andrei)

    PubMed Central

    Im, A-Rang; Park, Youmie; Sim, Joon-Soo; Zhang, Zhenqing; Liu, Zhenling

    2012-01-01

    The whole tissue of the earthworm (Eisenia andrei) was lyophilized and extracted to purify glycosaminoglycans. Fractions, eluting from an anion-exchange column at 1.0 M and 2.0 M NaCl, showed the presence of acidic polysaccharides on agarose gel electrophoresis. Monosaccharide compositional analysis showed that galactose and glucose were most abundant monosaccharides in both fractions. Depolymerization of the polysaccharide mixture with glycosaminoglycandegrading enzymes confirmed the presence of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate in the 2.0 M NaCl fraction. The content of GAGs (uronic acid containing polysaccharide) in the 2.0 M NaCl fraction determined by carbazole assay was 2%. Disaccharide compositional analysis using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analysis after chondroitinase digestion (ABC and ACII), showed that the chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate contained a 4-O-sulfo (76%), 2,4-di-O-sulfo (15%), 6-O-sulfo (6%), and unsulfated (4%) uronic acid linked N-acetylgalactosamine residues. LC-ESI-MS analysis of heparin lyase I/II/III digests demonstrated the presence of N-sulfo (69%), N-sulfo-6-O-sulfo (25%) and 2-O-sulfo-N-sulfo-6-O-sulfo (5%) uronic acid linked N-acetylglucosamine residues. PMID:20013352

  17. Combined effects of copper, desiccation, and frost on the viability of earthworm cocoons

    SciTech Connect

    Holmstrup, M. [National Environmental Research Inst., Silkeborg (Denmark). Dept. of Terrestrial Ecology; Petersen, B.F. [National Environmental Research Inst., Silkeborg (Denmark). Dept. of Terrestrial Ecology]|[Univ. of Aarhus (Denmark); Larsen, M.M. [National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark). Dept. of Marine Ecology and Microbiology

    1998-01-01

    The effects of heavy metal pollution on earthworms have been extensively studied, but no studies have examined how earthworms react if they are simultaneously exposed to metal pollution and climatic stress. This question has been addressed in a laboratory study where cocoons of Aporrectodea caliginosa and Dendrobaena octaedra were initially exposed to copper in aqueous solutions of copper chloride and thereafter exposed to realistic degrees of either desiccation or frost. Earthworm embryos absorbed copper in amounts comparable to concentrations found in various tissues of earthworms from metal-polluted soils. Desiccation and copper exposure in combination had synergistic effects on survival rates for both species. For example, at full saturation, the NOEC (the highest tested concentration with no statistically significant effect) for copper of A. caliginosa was 12 mg/L, whereas at 97% relative humidity it was only 6 mg/L. Frost and copper exposure in combination also showed synergistic effects in some experiments. No cocoons of A. caliginosa exposed to 20 mg copper/L were viable after exposure to {minus}3 C but at 0 C viability was as high as 95%. The same tendency was seen in D. octaedra but not as clearly as in A/. caliginosa. A change of the environmental conditions (moisture, temperature) to increasing severity caused a shift in the statistically derived NOEC toward lower critical values of copper. The involvement of combination effects in ecotoxicological tests could therefore improve risk assessment of soil-polluting compounds.

  18. A Longitudinal Test of the Bi-Directional Relations between Avoidance Coping and PTSD Severity during and after PTSD Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Badour, Christal L.; Blonigen, Daniel M.; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Feldner, Matthew T.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.

    2012-01-01

    Avoidance coping and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) covary. However, relatively little research has examined the bi-directional relation between these constructs among individuals in treatment for PTSD. The current longitudinal study examined the reciprocal associations between avoidance coping and PTSD symptom severity during and after residential PTSD treatment among a sample of 1,073 military veterans (88.9% male; Mage = 52.39 years) with chronic, treatment-resistant PTSD. Greater avoidance coping at intake predicted more severe PTSD symptoms at discharge, and severity of PTSD symptoms at discharge predicted increased avoidance at follow-up. Conversely, PTSD symptom severity at intake was not related to avoidance coping at discharge, and in turn avoidance coping at discharge was not related to PTSD symptom severity at follow-up. These findings offer a number of important clinical implications including evidence suggesting avoidance may predict poorer treatment response among individuals seeking treatment for chronic PTSD, and that greater end-of-treatment PTSD symptom severity may predict increased avoidance following treatment. PMID:22835842

  19. Comparative toxicity in earthworms Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris exposed to cadmium nitrate using artificial soil and filter paper protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Goven, A.J. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States)] [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Muratti-Ortiz, J.F. [City of Denton Water/Wastewater Laboratory, TX (United States)] [City of Denton Water/Wastewater Laboratory, TX (United States); Venables, B.J. [TRAC Laboratories Inc., Denton, TX (United States)] [TRAC Laboratories Inc., Denton, TX (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Earthworms are ideal soil organisms for use in terrestrial ecotoxicology. As such, several earthworm protocols have been developed for testing toxic potential of chemicals and contaminated soils. Of these, the 48-h filter paper contact (FP) and the 14-d artificial soil exposure (AS) protocols, using mortality (LC50) as the toxic endpoint and Eisenia fetida as the test species, have received the most attention, with the latter being adopted by both OECD and EEC in Europe and the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in the United States. Although the FP technique, adopted by EEC, provides for inexpensive reproducible toxicity screening for chemicals (i.e. establishing relative toxicities), it has been criticized for lacking the ecotoxicological relevance of the AS protocol. Choice of earthworm species for laboratory testing also has been controversial. The manure worm, E. fetida, is criticized for not being sufficiently sensitive to chemicals or representative of {open_quotes}typical{close_quotes} earthworms. Lumbricus terrestris and Apporectodea caliginosa have been suggested as more sensitive and ecologically relevant earthworms by Dean-Ross and Martin, respectively. This paper compares the AS and FP protocols in assessing toxicity of cadminum to L. terrestris and E. fetida using LC50s and LC50s. 19 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Testing the nutritional-limitation, predator-avoidance, and storm-avoidance hypotheses for restricted sea otter habitat use in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Nathan L.; Konar, Brenda; Tinker, M. Tim

    2015-01-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) inhabiting the Aleutian Islands have stabilized at low abundance levels following a decline and currently exhibit restricted habitat-utilization patterns. Possible explanations for restricted habitat use by sea otters can be classified into two fundamentally different processes, bottom-up and top-down forcing. Bottom-up hypotheses argue that changes in the availability or nutritional quality of prey resources have led to the selective use of habitats that support the highest quality prey. In contrast, top-down hypotheses argue that increases in predation pressure from killer whales have led to the selective use of habitats that provide the most effective refuge from killer whale predation. A third hypothesis suggests that current restricted habitat use is based on a need for protection from storms. We tested all three hypotheses for restricted habitat use by comparing currently used and historically used sea otter foraging locations for: (1) prey availability and quality, (2) structural habitat complexity, and (3) exposure to prevailing storms. Our findings suggest that current use is based on physical habitat complexity and not on prey availability, prey quality, or protection from storms, providing further evidence for killer whale predation as a cause for restricted sea otter habitat use in the Aleutian Islands.

  1. Testing the nutritional-limitation, predator-avoidance, and storm-avoidance hypotheses for restricted sea otter habitat use in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Nathan L; Konar, Brenda; Tinker, M Tim

    2015-03-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) inhabiting the Aleutian Islands have stabilized at low abundance levels following a decline and currently exhibit restricted habitat-utilization patterns. Possible explanations for restricted habitat use by sea otters can be classified into two fundamentally different processes, bottom-up and top-down forcing. Bottom-up hypotheses argue that changes in the availability or nutritional quality of prey resources have led to the selective use of habitats that support the highest quality prey. In contrast, top-down hypotheses argue that increases in predation pressure from killer whales have led to the selective use of habitats that provide the most effective refuge from killer whale predation. A third hypothesis suggests that current restricted habitat use is based on a need for protection from storms. We tested all three hypotheses for restricted habitat use by comparing currently used and historically used sea otter foraging locations for: (1) prey availability and quality, (2) structural habitat complexity, and (3) exposure to prevailing storms. Our findings suggest that current use is based on physical habitat complexity and not on prey availability, prey quality, or protection from storms, providing further evidence for killer whale predation as a cause for restricted sea otter habitat use in the Aleutian Islands. PMID:25416538

  2. Avoidable Mortality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiram Beltrán-Sánchez

    \\u000a This chapter reviews the most relevant papers related to the concept of avoidable mortality since its origin in the late 1970s.\\u000a However, for the presentation of empirical results, I concentrate on research published after 2005; for earlier years, there\\u000a is a review of the literature by Nolte and McKee covering about 200 articles related to avoidable mortality. I searched PubMed

  3. Allergen avoidance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Euan R. Tovey

    2008-01-01

    The systematic avoidance of indoor allergens by modification of houses, furnishings, or hygiene practices has long been advocated\\u000a to reduce both the incidence of allergic diseases in at-risk infants and exacerbations or symptoms in those previously sensitized\\u000a with such a disease. However, such advocacy is now under challenge, due to both a lack of evidence of clinical efficacy of\\u000a avoidance

  4. POPULATION DYNAMICS OF AMBIENT AND ALTERED EARTHWORM COMMUNITIES IN ROW-CROP AGROECOSYSTEMS IN OHIO, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although earthworms are known to influence agroecosystem processes, there are relatively few long-term studies addressing population dynamics under cropping systems in which earthworm populations were intentionally altered. We assessed earthworm communities from fall 1994 to spr...

  5. Impact of earthworms on the diversity of microarthropods in a vertisol (Martinique)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Impact of earthworms on the diversity of microarthropods in a vertisol (Martinique) G. Loranger communities were correlated with the spatial distribution of the earthworm Polypheretima elongata (Megascolecidae). In patches of high earthworm density (133 individuals m­2 ), microarthropod density

  6. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38 (2006) 16081614 Endogeic earthworms differentially influence bacterial communities

    E-print Network

    Rilli, Matthias C.

    2006-01-01

    Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38 (2006) 1608­1614 Endogeic earthworms differentially influence November 2005 Available online 2 February 2006 Abstract Endogeic earthworm activities can strongly influence soil structure. Although soil microorganisms are thought to be central to earthworm

  7. Transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in soil in the presence of the earthworm Eisenia andrei

    SciTech Connect

    Renoux, A.Y.; Sarrazin, M.; Hawari, J.; Sunahara, G.I.

    2000-06-01

    The ability of the earthworm Eisenia andrei to metabolize 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) was studied in experiments with TNT-spiked soils, dermal contact tests, and with an in vitro assay. Lethality of TNT in a forest sandy soil was first determined. Then TNT at lethal and sublethal concentrations was applied to the same soil and was monitored along with its metabolites in extracts of soil and earthworm tissue for up to 14 d post application. High performance liquid chromatography-ultra violet analyses indicated that TNT was transformed in the presence of E. andrei by a reductive pathway to 2-amino-3,6-dinitrotoluene (2-ADNT), 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT), 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2.4-DANT), and traces of 2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluene (2,6-DANT) in earthworm tissues. This transformation could be explained by either a metabolic mechanism within the earthworm or by the enhancement of an earthworm-associated microbial activity or both. The TNT concentrations decreased from the spiked soils. However, the monoamino-dinitrotoluene (2-ADNT and 4-ADNT) concentrations increased with exposure duration and were dependent on the initial TNT soil concentrations. This was also observed to a lesser extent in the TNT-spiked soils with no earthworms present. The biotransformation of TNT into 2-ADNT, 4-ADNT, and 2,4-DANT and the presence of these metabolites in E. andrei after dermal contact on TNT-spiked filter paper showed that dermal uptake can be a significant exposure route for TNT. In vitro experiments showed that earthworm homogenate could metabolize TNT and form 2-ADNT and 4-ADNT at room temperature and at 37 C. This effect was inhibited by heat inactivation prior to incubation or by incubation at 4 C, suggesting that the biotransformation of TNT in the presence of E. andrei may be enzymatic in nature.

  8. Earthworm symbiont Verminephrobacter eiseniae mediates natural transformation within host egg capsules using type IV pili.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Seana K; Dulla, Glenn F; Go, Ruth A; Stahl, David A; Pinel, Nicolás

    2014-01-01

    The dense microbial communities commonly associated with plants and animals should offer many opportunities for horizontal gene transfer through described mechanisms of DNA exchange including natural transformation (NT). However, studies of the significance of NT have focused primarily on pathogens. The study presented here demonstrates highly efficient DNA exchange by NT in a common symbiont of earthworms. The obligate bacterial symbiont Verminephrobacter eiseniae is a member of a microbial consortium of the earthworm Eisenia fetida that is transmitted into the egg capsules to colonize the embryonic worms. In the study presented here, by testing for transformants under different conditions in culture, we demonstrate that V. eiseniae can incorporate free DNA from the environment, that competency is regulated by environmental factors, and that it is sequence specific. Mutations in the type IV pili of V. eiseniae resulted in loss of DNA uptake, implicating the type IV pilus (TFP) apparatus in DNA uptake. Furthermore, injection of DNA carrying antibiotic-resistance genes into egg capsules resulted in transformants within the capsule, demonstrating the relevance of DNA uptake within the earthworm system. The ability to take up species-specific DNA from the environment may explain the maintenance of the relatively large, intact genome of this long-associated obligate symbiont, and provides a mechanism for acquisition of foreign genes within the earthworm system. PMID:25400622

  9. The influence of earthworms on the mobility of microelements in soil and their availability for plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bityutskii, N. P.; Kaidun, P. I.

    2008-12-01

    The influence of earthworms ( Aporrectodea caliginosa, Lumbricus rubellus, L. terrestris, and Eisenia fetida) on the mobility of microelements and their availability for plants was studied. The contents of water-soluble Fe and Mn compounds extracted from the coprolites were 5-10 times higher than that in the soil (enriched in calcium carbonate and dried) consumed by the earthworms. This digestion-induced effect became higher with the age of the coprolites (up to 9 days) and took place under their alkalization. In the excreta (surface + enteric) of earthworms, the Fe concentration exceeded those of Mn and Zn by many times. Iron and manganese were mostly concentrated (>80% and >60%, respectively) in the organic part of the excrements. In the tests with hydroponics, the excreta were found to be a source of iron compounds available for plants that were similar to Fe2(SO4)3 or Fe-citrate by their physiological effect in the case when the Fe concentration in the excretions was above 0.7 ?M. However, the single application of excreta of different earthworm species into the CaCO3 enriched soil did not significantly affect the plant (cucumber) nutrition. The analysis of the transport of microelements with xylem sap showed that this fact appeared to be due to the absence of an Fe deficit in the cucumber plants because of their high capability for the absorption of weakly soluble iron compounds.

  10. Earthworm symbiont Verminephrobacter eiseniae mediates natural transformation within host egg capsules using type IV pili

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Seana K.; Dulla, Glenn F.; Go, Ruth A.; Stahl, David A.; Pinel, Nicolás

    2014-01-01

    The dense microbial communities commonly associated with plants and animals should offer many opportunities for horizontal gene transfer through described mechanisms of DNA exchange including natural transformation (NT). However, studies of the significance of NT have focused primarily on pathogens. The study presented here demonstrates highly efficient DNA exchange by NT in a common symbiont of earthworms. The obligate bacterial symbiont Verminephrobacter eiseniae is a member of a microbial consortium of the earthworm Eisenia fetida that is transmitted into the egg capsules to colonize the embryonic worms. In the study presented here, by testing for transformants under different conditions in culture, we demonstrate that V. eiseniae can incorporate free DNA from the environment, that competency is regulated by environmental factors, and that it is sequence specific. Mutations in the type IV pili of V. eiseniae resulted in loss of DNA uptake, implicating the type IV pilus (TFP) apparatus in DNA uptake. Furthermore, injection of DNA carrying antibiotic-resistance genes into egg capsules resulted in transformants within the capsule, demonstrating the relevance of DNA uptake within the earthworm system. The ability to take up species-specific DNA from the environment may explain the maintenance of the relatively large, intact genome of this long-associated obligate symbiont, and provides a mechanism for acquisition of foreign genes within the earthworm system. PMID:25400622

  11. Can commonly measurable traits explain differences in metal accumulation and toxicity in earthworm species?

    PubMed

    Qiu, Hao; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Vijver, Martina G

    2014-01-01

    There is no clear consensus in the literature on the metal accumulation pattern and sensitivity of different earthworm species. In the present study, accumulation and toxicity of Cu, Cd, Ni, and Zn in the earthworms Lumbricus rubellus (epigeic), Aporrectodea longa (anecic), and Eisenia fetida (ultra-epigeic) were determined after 28 days exposure in two soils. Metal accumulation and sensitivity were interpreted using the specific traits of different earthworm species. Results showed that for all four metals tested L. rubellus was the most sensitive species, followed by A. longa and E. fetida. At the same exposure concentration, internal concentrations followed the order: L. rubellus > E. fetida > A. longa for Cu and Ni, L. rubellus ? E. fetida ? A. longa for Cd, and L. rubellus > A. longa > E. fetida for Zn. Langmuir isotherms were used to model metal accumulation at both nontoxic and toxic exposure concentrations. The Cu, Cd, and Zn concentrations in E. fetida generally leveled off at high exposure concentrations but not for the other two species. A. longa showed a high capability of regulating internal Ni concentrations. The traits-based approaches suggested that most likely a group of earthworm traits together determined (differences in) metal accumulation and sensitivity. More research is needed in this respect to build up solid relationships between species-specific responses and traits, enabling cross-species extrapolation of accumulation and toxicity data. PMID:24193403

  12. The earthworm and the method of trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. H. Bittner; G. R. Johnson; H. B. Torrey

    1915-01-01

    Studied the behavior of the earthworm, which resembled that of the sow bug, Porcellio, and the leech, Glossosiphonia. The comparisons were made in terms of the freedom with which it bent its body when reacting to light. The study was carried out in 2 series, in which the worms were exposed to light of varying intensities, and the \\

  13. Easy Extraction of Roundworms from Earthworm Hosts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyster, Linda S.; Fried, Bernard

    2000-01-01

    Describes the inexpensive and safe method of using roundworms in the classroom or laboratories. Because parasitic infections are so common, students should learn about worms. Provides statistics on just how many people have a worm infection in the world. Explains how to study living nematodes, and obtain and use earthworms. (Contains 13…

  14. Bioaccumulation of 14 Earthworm Eisenia fetida

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Bioaccumulation of 14 C60 by the Earthworm Eisenia fetida D O N G L I , J O H N D . F O R T N E R), and their bioaccumulationintheearthwormEisenia fetida wascompared. Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) were measured after 24 h in either soil or worm tissue.Overall,therelativelylowextentbutrapidbioaccumulation of C60 in E. fetida

  15. Earthworm survival in oil contaminated soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Safwat H. Shakir Hanna; R. W. Weaver

    2002-01-01

    Earthworms are an important component of the soil biota and their response to oil pollution needs to be better understood. Laboratory investigations were undertaken to determine the concentrations of crude oil in soil that leads to death of Lumbricus terrestris and Eisenia fetida and to determine the propensity of L. terrestris to move away from contaminated soil. Clemville sandy clay

  16. Reproductive potential of the earthworm Eisenia foetida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy Hartenstein; Edward F. Neuhauser; David L. Kaplan

    1979-01-01

    Regression equations are provided for the earthworm Eisenia foetida with respect to age at which 50% of the population became clitellate at 25° C in relation to population density in activated sludge and in horse manure. Regression equations are provided for progeny per cocoon versus weight of cocoon, and weight of cocoon in relation to weight of parent; from these

  17. Estimating Earthworm Populations by Using Formalin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Raw

    1959-01-01

    WHILE investigating the removal of leaves by earthworms from the soil surface of some apple orchards at Wisbech (Cambs.) an estimate of the population of Lumbricus terrestris was needed because it seemed to be the only species present that pulled apple leaves into its burrows. L. terrestris burrows deeply in the light, well-drained soil of the Wisbech area, and a

  18. Investigation of the Memory Impairment in Rats Fed with Oxidized-Cholesterol-Rich Diet Employing Passive Avoidance Test.

    PubMed

    Khorrami, A; Ghanbarzadeh, S; Mahmoudi, J; Nayebi, A M; Maleki-Dizaji, N; Garjani, A

    2014-03-25

    Recent studies have shown that hypercholesterolemia, besides being a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, has also toxic effects on central nervous system. The design of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary cholesterol and oxidized cholesterol on cognitive function.Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups. The animals were fed with three normal, 2% cholesterol-rich, and 2% oxidized cholesterol-rich diets for 14 weeks. Memory impairment was analyzed by passive avoidance test. Coenzyme Q10 content was also measured by a validate RP-HPLC method. Besides, lipid peroxidation in serum and brain tissue was determined by malondialdehyde concentration measurement.The results showed that feeding rats with high oxidized cholesterol diet for 14 weeks significantly impaired the cognitive function compared to the normal (P<0.001) and high cholesterol-fed groups (P<0.01). The memory impairment was positively correlated to the serum level of the oxidized LDL; it was significantly associated with the increased malondialdehyde concentration on the brain tissue of both groups (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively). The total antioxidant level in the serum was also decreased in rats fed with the oxidized cholesterol (P<0.05). Moreover, the brain coenzyme Q10 content was significantly declined in the animals fed with the oxidized cholesterol-rich diet compared to the animals fed with the normal (P<0.01) and cholesterol-rich diets (P<0.05).The results suggested that the high dietary intake of the oxidized-cholesterol might impair the memory that could be correlated to the oxidative stress and declined the coenzyme Q10 content of the brain tissue. PMID:24668576

  19. The bioavailability of chemicals in soil for earthworms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanno, R.; Wells, J.; Conder, J.; Bradham, K.; Basta, N.

    2004-01-01

    The bioavailability of chemicals to earthworms can be modified dramatically by soil physical/chemical characteristics, yet expressing exposure as total chemical concentrations does not address this problem. In order to understand the effects of modifying factors on bioavailability, one must measure and express chemical bioavailability to earthworms in a consistent, logical manner. This can be accomplished by direct biological measures of bioavailability (e.g., bioaccumulation, critical body residues), indirect biological measures of bioavailability (e.g., biomarkers, reproduction), or indirect chemical measures of bioavailability (e.g., chemical or solid-phase extracts of soil). If indirect chemical measures of bioavailability are to be used, they must be correlated with some biological response. Bioavailability can be incorporated into ecological risk assessment during risk analysis, primarily in the estimation of exposure. However, in order to be used in the site-specific ecological risk assessment of chemicals, effects concentrations must be developed from laboratory toxicity tests based on exposure estimates utilizing techniques that measure the bioavailable fraction of chemicals in soil, not total chemical concentrations. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Activity of earthworm in Latosol under simulated acid rain stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-En; Yu, Jiayu; Ouyang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Acid rain is still an issue of environmental concerns. This study investigated the impacts of simulated acid rain (SAR) upon earthworm activity from the Latosol (acidic red soil). Laboratory experiment was performed by leaching the soil columns grown with earthworms (Eisenia fetida) at the SAR pH levels ranged from 2.0 to 6.5 over a 34-day period. Results showed that earthworms tended to escape from the soil and eventually died for the SAR at pH = 2.0 as a result of acid toxicity. The catalase activity in the earthworms decreased with the SAR pH levels, whereas the superoxide dismutases activity in the earthworms showed a fluctuate pattern: decreasing from pH 6.5 to 5.0 and increasing from pH 5.0 to 4.0. Results implied that the growth of earthworms was retarded at the SAR pH ? 3.0. PMID:25351717

  1. [Ecotoxicological effects of chlorotetracycline on earthworm in soil].

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhan-Hua; An, Jing; Xiao, Ming-Yue; Wei, Shu-He; Tai, Pei-Dong; Lu, Ze

    2014-10-01

    Eiseniafoetida was selected to investigate the ecotoxicological effects of chlorotetracycline on the earthworm in soil. The results showed that 1, 10 and 100 mg · kg(-1) chlorotetracycline had no significant effects on earthworm's body mass after a 7-d exposure, but it was significantly inhibited by 10, 100 mg · kg(-1) chlorotetracycline after 21 days. The soluble protein content of earthworm was induced by 1, 10 and 100 mg · kg(-1) chlorotetracycline, and showed a positive response as the con- centration increased. Also, the earthworm treated by 1, 10 and 100 mg · kg(-1) chlorotetracycline induced the increases of SOD, POD and CAT activities to different degrees. The gene expression in earthworm changed significantly after a 28-d exposure. It is suggested that chlorotetracycline had a chronic ecotoxicological effect on earthworm, and the body mass, soluble protein, antioxidant en- zyme and gene expression could be used as the biomarkers to estimate chlorotetracycline toxicity. PMID:25796913

  2. Toxicity of a neonicotinoid insecticide, guadipyr, in earthworm (Eisenia fetida).

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Mu, Xiyan; Qi, Suzhen; Chai, Tingting; Pang, Sen; Yang, Yang; Wang, Chengju; Jiang, Jiazhen

    2015-04-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are new class of pesticides and it is very meaningful to evaluate the toxicity of guadipyr to earthworm (Eisenia fetida). In the present study, effects of guadipyr on reproduction, growth, catalase(CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and DNA damage in earthworm were assessed using an artificial soil medium. Guadipyr showed low toxicity to earthworms and did not elicit an effect on earthworm reproduction or growth in artificial soils at concentrations <100mg/kg. However, after exposure to guadipyr, the activity of SOD and CAT in earthworm increased and then decreased to control level. AChE activity decreased at day 3 at 50 and 100mg/kg and then increased to control level. Our data indicate that guadipyr did not induce DNA damage in earthworms at concentration of <100mg/kg. PMID:25594687

  3. Relation of pH and other soil variables to concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Se in earthworms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Hensler, G.L.; Moore, J.

    1987-01-01

    Various soil treatments (clay, composted peat, superphosphate, sulfur, calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, zinc chloride, selenous acid) were added to experimental field plots to test the effect of different soil variables on the concentrations of 5 elements in earthworms (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Se). Concentrations of the 5 elements were related to 9 soil variables (soil Pb, soil Cu, soil Zn, pH, organic matter, P, K, Mg, and Ca) with linear multiple regression. Lead concentrations in earthworms were positively correlated with soil Pb and soil organic matter, and negatively correlated with soil pH and soil Mg, with an R2 of 64%. Se concentrations were higher in earthworms from plots amended with Se, and Zn concentrations were higher in earthworms from plots amended with Zn. However, none of the other soil variables had important effects on the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd and Se in earthworms. Although some significant statistical relations were demonstrated, the values of r2 of all relations (> 20%) were so low that they had little predictive value.

  4. Interaction of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles with earthworm coelomic fluid and related cytotoxicity in Eisenia andrei.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jin Il; Lee, Woo-Mi; Kim, Shin Woong; An, Youn-Joo

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the interaction of nanoparticles with biological fluid is important for predicting the behavior and toxicity of nanoparticles in living systems. The earthworm Eisenia andrei was exposed to citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (cAgNPs), and the interaction of cAgNPs with earthworm coelomic fluid (ECF), the cytotoxicity of cAgNPs in earthworm coelomocytes was assessed. The neutral red retention assay showed a reduction in lysosomal stability after exposure. The toxicity of silver ions dissolved from cAgNPs in the soil medium was not significant. The aggregation and dissolution of cAgNPs increased in ECF, which contains various electrolytes that alter the properties of nanoparticles, and their subsequent toxicity. Microscopic and dissolution studies demonstrated that the aggregation of cAgNPs rapidly increased, and readily dissolved in ECF. The bioavailability of cAgNPs to earthworms induced lysosomal cytotoxicity. This is the first report to test the interaction and lysosomal cytotoxicity of nanoparticles in earthworm biofluids. PMID:24532537

  5. Dissecting the multi-scale spatial relationship of earthworm assemblages with soil environmental variability.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Juan J; Decaëns, Thibaud; Lavelle, Patrick; Rossi, Jean-Pierre

    2014-12-01

    BackgroundStudying the drivers and determinants of species, population and community spatial patterns is central to ecology. The observed structure of community assemblages is the result of deterministic abiotic (environmental constraints) and biotic factors (positive and negative species interactions), as well as stochastic colonization events (historical contingency). We analyzed the role of multi-scale spatial component of soil environmental variability in structuring earthworm assemblages in a gallery forest from the Colombian ¿Llanos.¿ We aimed to disentangle the spatial scales at which species assemblages are structured and determine whether these scales matched those expressed by soil environmental variables. We also tested the hypothesis of the ¿single tree effect¿ by exploring the spatial relationships between root-related variables and soil nutrient and physical variables in structuring earthworm assemblages. Multivariate ordination techniques and spatially explicit tools were used, namely cross-correlograms, Principal Coordinates of Neighbor Matrices (PCNM) and variation partitioning analyses.ResultsThe relationship between the spatial organization of earthworm assemblages and soil environmental parameters revealed explicitly multi-scale responses. The soil environmental variables that explained nested population structures across the multi-spatial scale gradient differed for earthworms and assemblages at the very-fine- (<10 m) to medium-scale (10¿20 m). The root traits were correlated with areas of high soil nutrient contents at a depth of 0¿5 cm. Information on the scales of PCNM variables was obtained using variogram modeling. Based on the size of the plot, the PCNM variables were arbitrarily allocated to medium (>30 m), fine (10¿20 m) and very fine scales (<10 m). Variation partitioning analysis revealed that the soil environmental variability explained from less than 1% to as much as 48% of the observed earthworm spatial variation.ConclusionsA large proportion of the spatial variation did not depend on the soil environmental variability for certain species. This finding could indicate the influence of contagious biotic interactions, stochastic factors, or unmeasured relevant soil environmental variables. PMID:25476419

  6. Lead accumulations and toxic effects in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in the presence of decabromodiphenyl ether.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Lin; Liu, Kou; Chen, Lei; Lin, Kuangfei; Guo, Jie; Liu, Lili; Cui, Changzheng; Yan, Zenguang

    2014-03-01

    Lead (Pb) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) are the main contaminants at e-waste recycling sites, and their potential toxicological effects on terrestrial organisms have received extensive attention. However, the impact on earthworms of exposure to the two chemicals remains almost unknown. Therefore, indoor incubation tests were performed on control and contaminated soil samples to determine the Pb accumulations and toxic effects by earthworms in the presence of BDE209 for the first time. The results have demonstrated that BDE209 presence can affect Pb bioaccumulation efficiency compared with exposure to Pb alone. The Pb contents in earthworms had a highly positive correlation with the Pb concentrations in soils. For different Pb doses, almost contrary response trends were found for Pb uptake examined separately on day 7 or 28, and dose-effect relationships were clearly observed in the presence of BDE209. After 7 days of exposure, the earthworm bodies receiving 1-mg kg(-1) BDE209 dose showed significantly lower Pb contents (average?=?175.85 mg kg(-1)) and bioaccumulation factor (average?=?0.574) than those receiving non-BDE209 treatments (217.39 mg kg(-1) and 1.209, respectively). As the incubation time extended, the influence of BDE209 presence on Pb uptake gradually declined. Additionally, either single or combined exposure to both chemicals can affect the protein synthesis in earthworms (p?

  7. Root Foraging Influences Plant Growth Responses to Earthworm Foraging

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Erin K.; Cahill, James F.; Bayne, Erin M.

    2014-01-01

    Interactions among the foraging behaviours of co-occurring animal species can impact population and community dynamics; the consequences of interactions between plant and animal foraging behaviours have received less attention. In North American forests, invasions by European earthworms have led to substantial changes in plant community composition. Changes in leaf litter have been identified as a critical indirect mechanism driving earthworm impacts on plants. However, there has been limited examination of the direct effects of earthworm burrowing on plant growth. Here we show a novel second pathway exists, whereby earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) impact plant root foraging. In a mini-rhizotron experiment, roots occurred more frequently in burrows and soil cracks than in the soil matrix. The roots of Achillea millefolium L. preferentially occupied earthworm burrows, where nutrient availability was presumably higher than in cracks due to earthworm excreta. In contrast, the roots of Campanula rotundifolia L. were less likely to occur in burrows. This shift in root behaviour was associated with a 30% decline in the overall biomass of C. rotundifolia when earthworms were present. Our results indicate earthworm impacts on plant foraging can occur indirectly via physical and chemical changes to the soil and directly via root consumption or abrasion and thus may be one factor influencing plant growth and community change following earthworm invasion. More generally, this work demonstrates the potential for interactions to occur between the foraging behaviours of plants and soil animals and emphasizes the importance of integrating behavioural understanding in foraging studies involving plants. PMID:25268503

  8. On the terrestrial toxicity of the fungicide imazalil (enilconazole) to the earthworm species Eisenia foetida.

    PubMed

    Van Leemput, L; Swysen, E; Woestenborghs, R; Michielsen, L; Meuldermans, W; Heykants, J

    1989-12-01

    The toxicity of imazalil (enilconazole), of its sulfate salt, and of a principal environmental transformation product to the earthworm species Eisenia foetida was determined. The 48-hr contact test and the 14-day artificial soil test as described by OECD guideline 207 were carried out. Concentrations of the parent substance in earthworm tissues at the end of the exposure in soil were determined by gas chromatography. The LC50 of imazalil was 12.8 micrograms/cm2 in the contact test and 541 micrograms/g in the artificial soil test. The LC50 values of the sulfate salt were 11.6 micrograms/cm2 and 532 micrograms/g, respectively. The transformation product had a LC50 of 108 micrograms/cm2 in the contact test, and the survival in the soil test exceeded 90%, even at levels of 1000 micrograms/g. Tissue levels of imazalil in surviving worms were always lower than the concentrations in corresponding soil. The LC50 values largely exceeded the levels expected after normal use. Therefore, the fungicide is not considered to be harmful to earthworms in the soil environment. PMID:2612423

  9. Root foraging influences plant growth responses to earthworm foraging.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Erin K; Cahill, James F; Bayne, Erin M

    2014-01-01

    Interactions among the foraging behaviours of co-occurring animal species can impact population and community dynamics; the consequences of interactions between plant and animal foraging behaviours have received less attention. In North American forests, invasions by European earthworms have led to substantial changes in plant community composition. Changes in leaf litter have been identified as a critical indirect mechanism driving earthworm impacts on plants. However, there has been limited examination of the direct effects of earthworm burrowing on plant growth. Here we show a novel second pathway exists, whereby earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) impact plant root foraging. In a mini-rhizotron experiment, roots occurred more frequently in burrows and soil cracks than in the soil matrix. The roots of Achillea millefolium L. preferentially occupied earthworm burrows, where nutrient availability was presumably higher than in cracks due to earthworm excreta. In contrast, the roots of Campanula rotundifolia L. were less likely to occur in burrows. This shift in root behaviour was associated with a 30% decline in the overall biomass of C. rotundifolia when earthworms were present. Our results indicate earthworm impacts on plant foraging can occur indirectly via physical and chemical changes to the soil and directly via root consumption or abrasion and thus may be one factor influencing plant growth and community change following earthworm invasion. More generally, this work demonstrates the potential for interactions to occur between the foraging behaviours of plants and soil animals and emphasizes the importance of integrating behavioural understanding in foraging studies involving plants. PMID:25268503

  10. A field test for host discrimination and avoidance behavior for Rhagoletis pomonella flies in the western United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prezygotic isolation due to habitat choice is important to many models of speciation-with-gene-flow. Habitat choice is usually thought to occur through positive preferences of organisms for particular environments. However, avoidance of non-natal environments may also play a role in choice and have ...

  11. Assessing the impact of organic and inorganic amendments on the toxicity and bioavailability of a metal-contaminated soil to the earthworm Eisenia andrei.

    PubMed

    González, Verónica; Díez-Ortiz, María; Simón, Mariano; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2013-11-01

    Metal-contaminated soil, from the El Arteal mining district (SE Spain), was remediated with organic (6% compost) and inorganic amendments (8% marble sludge) to reduce the mobility of metals and to modify its potential environmental impact. Different measures of metal bioavailability (chemical analysis; survival, growth, reproduction and bioaccumulation in the earthworm Eisenia andrei), were tested in order to evaluate the efficacy of organic and inorganic amendments as immobilizing agents in reducing metal (bio)availability in the contaminated soil. The inorganic amendment reduced water and CaCl2-extractable concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn, while the organic amendment increased these concentrations compared to the untreated soil. The inorganic treatment did not significantly reduce toxicity for the earthworm E. andrei after 28 days exposure. The organic amendment however, made the metal-contaminated soil more toxic to the earthworms, with all earthworms dying in undiluted soil and completely inhibiting reproduction at concentrations higher than 25%. This may be due to increased available metal concentrations and higher electrical conductivity in the compost-amended soil. No effects of organic and inorganic treatments on metal bioaccumulation in the earthworms were found and metal concentrations in the earthworms increased with increasing total soil concentrations. PMID:23677751

  12. Checklist of earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) from Germany.

    PubMed

    Lehmitz, Ricarda; Römbke, Jörg; Jänsch, Stephan; Krück, Stefanie; Beylich, Anneke; Graefe, Ulfert

    2014-01-01

    A checklist of the German earthworm fauna (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) is presented, including published data, data from reports, diploma- and PhD- theses as well as unpublished data from museum collections, research institutions and private persons. Overall, 16,000 datasets were analyzed to produce the first German checklist of Lumbricidae. The checklist comprises 46 earthworm species from 15 genera and provides ecological information, zoogeographical distribution type and information on the species distribution in Germany. Only one species, Lumbricus badensis Michaelsen, 1907, is endemic to Germany, whereas 41% are peregrine. As there are 14 species occurring exclusively in the southern or eastern part of Germany, the species numbers in German regions increase from north to south. PMID:25283656

  13. Effects of historic metal(loid) pollution on earthworm communities.

    PubMed

    Lévêque, Thibaut; Capowiez, Yvan; Schreck, Eva; Mombo, Stéphane; Mazzia, Christophe; Foucault, Yann; Dumat, Camille

    2015-04-01

    The effects of metal(loid)s (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, As and Sb) from atmospheric fallout on earthworm communities were investigated in a fallow meadow located close to a 60-year-old lead recycling factory. We examined abundance and species diversity as well as the ratio of adult-to-juvenile earthworms, along five 140m parallel transects. The influence of soil pollution on the earthworm community at the plot scale was put in context by measuring some physico-chemical soil characteristics (OM content, N content, pH), as well as total and bioavailable metal(loid) concentrations. Earthworms were absent in the highly polluted area (concentration from 30,000 to 5000mgPb·kg(-1) of dried soil), just near the factory (0-30m area). A clear and almost linear relationship was observed between the proportion of juvenile versus mature earthworms and the pollution gradient, with a greater proportion of adults in the most polluted zones (only adult earthworms were observed from 30 to 50m). Apporectodea longa was the main species present just near the smelter (80% of the earthworms were A. longa from 30 to 50m). The earthworm density was found to increase progressively from five individuals·m(-2) at 30m to 135individuals·m(-2) at 140m from the factory. On average, metal(loid) accumulation in earthworm tissues decreased linearly with distance from the factory. The concentration of exchangeable metal(loid)s in earthworm surface casts was higher than that of the overall soil. Finally, our field study clearly demonstrated that metal(loid) pollution has a direct impact on earthworm communities (abundance, diversity and proportion of juveniles) especially when Pb concentrations in soil were higher than 2050mg·kg(-1). PMID:25616191

  14. Removal of mercury from soil with earthworms

    SciTech Connect

    Dorfman, D. [Monmouth Coll., West Long Branch, NJ (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Earthworms can live in soils containing high quantities of mercury, lead, and zinc. The worms (Lumbricus terrestris) concentrate these heavy metals in their tissues. The use of these worms to reduce the quantities of mercury and other heavy metals in soils may be practical. In July, 1993, a preliminary study was made using earthworms and soils with differing amounts of mercury, The quantities were 0.0 grams, 0.5 grams, and 1.0 grams of mercury as mercuric chloride. Earthworms were placed into these soils for two or more weeks, then harvested. The worms were rinsed with deionized water, then dissolved in nitric acid. Each sample was prepared for analysis with the addition of HNO{sub 3}, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, potassium permanganate, and hydrozylamine hydrochloride. A Jerome Instrument gold foil analyzer was used to determine levels of mercury after volatilizing the sample with stannous chloride. Worms exposed to contaminated soils remove 50 to 1,400 times as much mercury as do worms in control soils. In a hypothetical case, a site contaminated with one pound of mercury, 1,000 to 45,000 worms would be required to reduce mercury levels to background levels in the soil (about 250 ppb). After harvesting worms in contaminated soil they could be dried (90% of their weight is water), and the mercury regained by chemical processes. Soil conducive to earthworm survival is required. This includes a well aerated loamy soil, proper pH (7.0), and periodic watering and feeding. There are several methods of harvesting worms, including flooding and electricity. Large numbers of worms can be obtained from commercial growers.

  15. Cadmium Disposition in the Earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Honeycutt; B. L. Roberts; D. S. Roane

    1995-01-01

    The disposition of cadmium was examined in the earthworm Eisenia fetida using two exposure media, filter paper, and artificial soil. Uptake and elimination rates were estimated to be 0.03039 and 0.00895 hr?1, respectively, for 1.25 ?g Cd\\/cm2 filter paper exposure and 0.00512 and 0.00029 hr?1, respectively, for 10 ?g Cd\\/g artificial soil exposure. The distribution of cadmium was examined using

  16. A method for assessing sublethal effects of contaminants in soils to the earthworm, Eisenia foetida

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, M.H. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology; Wicker, L.F.; Stewart, A.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

    1996-03-01

    The authors developed and tested a procedure that allows quantification of the effects of soil contaminants on earthworm (Eisenia foetida) growth and reproduction. The procedure monitors isolated pairs of earthworms and generates a higher ratio of data per organisms than other commonly used procedures. It also incorporates an accurate technique for measuring adult growth, has high sensitivity compared to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 14-d acute toxicity test, and is cost effective. The authors applied the method to a variety of soil-testing problems. A food-and-substrate trial using artificial soil demonstrated the sensitivity of the method and the need for food supplementation to stimulate earthworm reproduction. Application of the procedure to assess efficacy of a soil bioremediation technology revealed the advantage of measuring both growth and reproduction and highlighted the usefulness of a single integrated measure of these two responses. The method also was used as a fast-screening analysis for field soils in a large-scale ecological risk assessment. Finally, a reference toxicant, used in dilution series, demonstrated that responses of E. foetida using the authors` method were similar to their responses in the OECD artificial-soil test method. The results of this study indicate that this procedure can be used both for regulatory and compliance needs within the framework of ecological risk assessment.

  17. Determination of arsenic compounds in earthworms

    SciTech Connect

    Geiszinger, A.; Goessler, W.; Kuehnelt, D.; Kosmus, W. [Karl-Franzens-Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. for Analytical Chemistry] [Karl-Franzens-Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. for Analytical Chemistry; Francesconi, K. [Odense Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Biology] [Odense Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Biology

    1998-08-01

    Earthworms and soil collected from six sites in Styria, Austria, were investigated for total arsenic concentrations by ICP-MS and for arsenic compounds by HPLC-ICP-MS. Total arsenic concentrations ranged from 3.2 to 17.9 mg/kg dry weight in the worms and from 5.0 to 79.7 mg/kg dry weight in the soil samples. There was no strict correlation between the total arsenic concentrations in the worms and soil. Arsenic compounds were extracted from soil and a freeze-dried earthworm sample with a methanol/water mixture (9:1, v/v). The extracts were evaporated to dryness, redissolved in water, and chromatographed on an anion- and a cation-exchange column. Arsenic compounds were identified by comparison of the retention times with known standards. Only traces of arsenic acid could be extracted from the soil with the methanol/water (9:1, v/v) mixture. The major arsenic compounds detected in the extracts of the earthworms were arsenous acid and arsenic acid. Arsenobetaine was present as a minor constituent, and traces of dimethylarsinic acid were also detected. Two dimethylarsinoyltribosides were also identified in the extracts by co-chromatography with standard compounds. This is the first report of the presence of dimethylarsinoylribosides in a terrestrial organism. Two other minor arsenic species were present in the extract, but their retention times did not match with the retention times of the available standards.

  18. Teaching Basic Neurophysiology Using Intact Earthworms

    PubMed Central

    Kladt, Nikolay; Hanslik, Ulrike; Heinzel, Hans-Georg

    2010-01-01

    Introductory neurobiology courses face the problem that practical exercises often require expensive equipment, dissections, and a favorable student-instructor ratio. Furthermore, the duration of an experiment might exceed available time or the level of required expertise is too high to successfully complete the experiment. As a result, neurobiological experiments are commonly replaced by models and simulations, or provide only very basic experiments, such as the frog sciatic nerve preparation, which are often time consuming and tedious. Action potential recordings in giant fibers of intact earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) circumvent many of these problems and result in a nearly 100% success rate. Originally, these experiments were introduced as classroom exercises by Charles Drewes in 1978 using awake, moving earthworms. In 1990, Hans-Georg Heinzel described further experiments using anesthetized earthworms. In this article, we focus on the application of these experiments as teaching tools for basic neurobiology courses. We describe and extend selected experiments, focusing on specific neurobiological principles with experimental protocols optimized for classroom application. Furthermore, we discuss our experience using these experiments in animal physiology and various neurobiology courses at the University of Bonn. PMID:23494516

  19. Biochemical diversity of betaines in earthworms.

    PubMed

    Liebeke, Manuel; Bundy, Jacob G

    2013-01-25

    The ability to accumulate osmoprotectant compounds, such as betaines, is an important evolutionary feature in many organisms. This is particularly the case for organisms that live in variable environments, which may have fluctuations in moisture and salinity levels. There is, surprisingly, very little known about betaines in soil invertebrates in general, and there is almost no information about earthworms - a group that are important 'ecosystem engineers' and key indicators of soil health. Here, we describe a fast and reliable (1)H-(13)C heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) 2D NMR approach for the metabolic profiling of a series of betaines and related metabolites in tissue extracts, and list (1)H and (13)C chemical shifts for the trimethylammonium signal for 23 such compounds. The analysis of ten different species from three different families (Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae and Glossoscolecidae) showed an unexpected diversity of betaines present in earthworms. In total ten betaines were identified, including hydroxyproline-betaine, proline-betaine, taurine-betaine, GABA-betaine and histidine-betaine, and a further eleven as-yet unassigned putative betaine metabolites detected. The findings clearly indicate a hitherto-unappreciated important role for betaine metabolism in earthworms. PMID:23261439

  20. Earthworm excreta attract soil springtails: laboratory experiments on Heteromurus Nitidus (Collembola: Entomobryidae)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Earthworm excreta attract soil springtails: laboratory experiments on Heteromurus Nitidus are often found more abundantly in soils with earthworms than in soils without. Earthworms probably create a favourable environment for microarthropods but few studies have aimed to explain this earthworm effect

  1. Toxicity of coelomic fluid of the earthworm Eisenia foetida to vertebrates but not invertebrates: probable role of sphingomyelin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideshi Kobayashi; Michiko Ohtomi; Yoshiyuki Sekizawa; Naoshi Ohta

    2001-01-01

    The coelomic fluid (CF) of the earthworm Eisenia foetida exhibits a wide variety of biological activities. We found that the CF was not toxic to 42 species, belonging to seven invertebrate phyla, almost all in aquatic adults and larvae exposed to CF. Eleven teleostean species tested died in 0.2–1% CF mostly between 10 and 120 min and the effects were

  2. Production and dissolution rates of earthworm-secreted calcium carbonate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Lambkin; K. H. Gwilliam; C. Layton; M. G. Canti; T. G. Piearce; M. E. Hodson

    Earthworms secrete granules of calcium carbonate. These are potentially important in soil biogeochemical cycles and are routinely recorded in archaeological studies of Quaternary soils. Production rates of calcium carbonate granules by the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L. were determined over 27days in a range of soils with differing chemical properties (pH, organic matter content, water holding capacity, bulk composition, cation exchange

  3. Leaf Litter Disappearance in Earthworm-Invaded Northern

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Leaf Litter Disappearance in Earthworm-Invaded Northern Hardwood Forests: Role of Tree Species and the Chemistry and Diversity of Litter Andrew R. Holdsworth,1,2 * Lee E. Frelich,2 and Peter B. Reich2,3 1 floor mass, yet the interactions between litter composition, invasive earthworm community composition

  4. Design, Fabrication and Performances of a Biomimetic Robotic Earthworm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Menciassi; S. Gorini; G. Pernorio; Liu Weiting; F. Valvo; P. Dario

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the design and development of a microrobot which aims to replicate the locomotion principle of earthworms. By investigating the biological field, the authors developed artificial earthworms by mimicking the structures and locomotion principles of real ones. Prototypes with or without micro-legs (which affect the locomotion performance) have been developed. Each prototype has four modules which can be

  5. Ecosystem Consequences of Exotic Earthworm Invasion of North Temperate Forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick J. Bohlen; Peter M. Groffman; Timothy J. Fahey; Melany C. Fisk; Esteban Suarez; Derek M. Pelletier; Robert T. Fahey

    2004-01-01

    The invasion of north temperate forests by exotic species of earthworms is an important issue that has been overlooked in the study and management of these forests. We initiated research to address the hypothesis that earthworm invasion will have large consequences for nutrient retention and uptake in these ecosystems. In this special feature of Ecosystems, we present five papers describing

  6. The bioavailability of chemicals in soil for earthworms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Lanno; J. Wells; J. Conder; K. Bradham; N. Basta

    2004-01-01

    The bioavailability of chemicals to earthworms can be modified dramatically by soil physical\\/chemical characteristics, yet expressing exposure as total chemical concentrations does not address this problem. In order to understand the effects of modifying factors on bioavailability, one must measure and express chemical bioavailability to earthworms in a consistent, logical manner. This can be accomplished by direct biological measures of

  7. Earthworm effects on movement of water and solutes in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Trojan, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine and model the effects of earthworms on water and solute movement in soil. Microrelief and rainfall effects on water and solute movement were determined in packed buckets inoculated with earthworms (Aporrectodea tuberculata). A solution of Br[sup [minus

  8. Earthworms lost from pesticides application in potato crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenda Garcia-Santos; Karin Forrer; Claudia R. Binder

    2010-01-01

    Bioturbation from earthworm's activity contributes to soil creep and soil carbon dynamics, and provide enough aeration conditions for agricultural practices all over the world. In developing countries where there is a long term misuse of pesticides for agricultural purposes, lost of these benefits from earthworms activity might already yielded negative effects in the current crop production. Little research has been

  9. Bioconcentration and biokinetics of heavy metals in the earthworm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward F. Neuhauser; Zoran V. Cukic; Michael R. Malecki; Raymond C. Loehr; Patrick R. Durkin

    1995-01-01

    This study examines the steady state and non-steady state kinetics of five metals, cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc in earthworms. The steady state kinetics are based on field studies in which worms from contaminated and uncontaminated sites were collected and measurements were made of concentrations in the earthworms and soils. For each of the metals, evidence suggests that bioconcentration

  10. Association of Earthworm-Denitrifier Interactions with Increased Emission of Nitrous Oxide from Soil Mesocosms Amended with Crop Residue? †

    PubMed Central

    Nebert, Lucas D.; Bloem, Jaap; Lubbers, Ingrid M.; van Groenigen, Jan Willem

    2011-01-01

    Earthworm activity is known to increase emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) from arable soils. Earthworm gut, casts, and burrows have exhibited higher denitrification activities than the bulk soil, implicating priming of denitrifying organisms as a possible mechanism for this effect. Furthermore, the earthworm feeding strategy may drive N2O emissions, as it determines access to fresh organic matter for denitrification. Here, we determined whether interactions between earthworm feeding strategy and the soil denitrifier community can predict N2O emissions from the soil. We set up a 90-day mesocosm experiment in which 15N-labeled maize (Zea mays L.) was either mixed in or applied on top of the soil in the presence or absence of the epigeic earthworm Lumbricus rubellus and/or the endogeic earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa. We measured N2O fluxes and tested the bulk soil for denitrification enzyme activity and the abundance of 16S rRNA and denitrifier genes nirS and nosZ through real-time quantitative PCR. Compared to the control, L. rubellus increased denitrification enzyme activity and N2O emissions on days 21 and 90 (day 21, P = 0.034 and P = 0.002, respectively; day 90, P = 0.001 and P = 0.007, respectively), as well as cumulative N2O emissions (76%; P = 0.014). A. caliginosa activity led to a transient increase of N2O emissions on days 8 to 18 of the experiment. Abundance of nosZ was significantly increased (100%) on day 90 in the treatment mixture containing L. rubellus alone. We conclude that L. rubellus increased cumulative N2O emissions by affecting denitrifier community activity via incorporation of fresh residue into the soil and supplying a steady, labile carbon source. PMID:21515716

  11. Evaluation of a remediation process for lead contaminated soil by toxicity bioassays: Plants and earthworms

    SciTech Connect

    Chana, L.W.; Smith, K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Soil from a site contaminated with heavy metals (predominantly lead) was treated using the TERRAMET{reg_sign} lead extraction process. Earthworm acute toxicity and plant seed germination/root elongation (SG/RE) bioassays were used to evaluate the toxicity of the soil before treatment (BT), after treatment (AT) and after treatment, followed by rinsing with water, intended to simulate exposure to rainfall (RT). The results showed BT and RT were not toxic to earthworms in a 14-day exposure while AT showed significant toxicity. The LC{sub 50} values for Eisenia and Lumbricus were 44.04 and 28.83 (as % AT soil/test soil mixture), respectively. The phytotoxicity data indicated that all 3 test soils significantly inhibited lettuce SG/RE in a dose-related manner, with AT being the most phytotoxic. In oats, RT had no effect on SG/RE and AT was more toxic than BT. For the two local-site grass seeds tested (blue grama and sideoat grama), the AT soil was the most phytotoxic followed by BT and RT. The results suggest that the soil after this remediation process exerts significant toxicity on both plant and earthworm, but after a rain-simulating rinse, the toxicity is the same as, or less than, the toxicity before treatment. Further studies are in progress to confirm the assumption that the high salt concentrations generated by acidification during the leaching process, followed by neutralization are responsible for the increased toxicity of unrinsed soil in both plant and earthworm.

  12. Enantioselective acute toxicity effects and bioaccumulation of furalaxyl in the earthworm (Eisenia foetida).

    PubMed

    Qin, Fang; Gao, Yongxin; Guo, Baoyuan; Xu, Peng; Li, Jianzhong; Wang, Huili

    2014-06-01

    The enantioselectivities of individual enantiomers of furalaxyl in acute toxicity and bioaccumulation in the earthworm (Eisenia foetida) were studied. The acute toxicity was tested by filter paper contact test. After 48 h of exposure, the calculated LC50 values of the R-form, rac-form, and S-form were 2.27, 2.08, and 1.22 µg cm(-2), respectively. After 72 h of exposure, the calculated LC50 values were 1.90, 1.54, and 1.00 µg cm(-2), respectively. Therefore, the acute toxicity of furalaxyl enantiomers was enantioselective. During the bioaccumulation experiment, the enantiomer fraction of furalaxyl in earthworm tissue was observed to deviate from 0.50 and maintained a range of 0.55-0.60; in other words, the bioaccumulation of furalaxyl was enantioselective in earthworm tissue with a preferential accumulation of S-furalaxyl. The uptake kinetic of furalaxyl enantiomers fitted the first-order kinetics well and the calculated kinetic parameters were consistent with the low accumulation efficiency. PMID:24771637

  13. Collision Avoidance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Ames Research Center teamed with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to study human performance factors associated with the use of the Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance system (TCAS II) in an operational environment. TCAS is designed to alert pilots of the presence of other aircraft in their vicinity, to identify and track those who could be a threat, and to recommend action to avoid a collision. Ames conducted three laboratory experiments. The first showed that pilots were able to use the TCAS II correctly in the allowable time. The second tested pilots' response to changes in the avoidance advisories, and the third examined pilots' reactions to alternative displays. After a 1989 congressional mandate, the FAA ruled that TCAS would be required on all passenger carrying aircraft (to be phased in completely by 1995).

  14. Enantiomer-specific toxicity and bioaccumulation of alpha-cypermethrin to earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Diao, Jinling; Xu, Peng; Liu, Donghui; Lu, Yule; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2011-09-15

    Alpha-cypermethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid, is highly effective against a wide range of chewing and sucking insects in crops, and it is a racemic mixture of two enantiomers ((+)-1R-cis-?S+(-)-1S-cis-?R). Studies about the toxicity of alpha-cypermethrin to non-target organisms are mainly focused on aquatic organisms, whereas information regarding terrestrial organisms is relatively much less. Very little report about its enantioselective toxicity is known, so the present study tested the enantiomer-specific acute toxicity to earthworm Eisenia fetida. Experiment about bioaccumulation of two enantiomers in soil was conducted, peak-shaped accumulation curves were observed for both enantiomers, and the calculated biota to soil accumulations factor (BSAF) have significant difference between the two enantiomers. It was obvious that earthworm can uptake alpha-cypermethrin enantioselectively, preferentially accumulating (-)-(1S-cis-?R)-enantiomer. Great difference in toxicity to earthworm between two enantiomers was found, and the calculated LC(50) values for (+)-(1R-cis-?S)-, (-)-(1S-cis-?R)-, and rac-alpha-cypermethrin were 49.53, 1663.87 and 165.61 ng/cm(2), respectively. The acute toxicity of alpha-cypermethrin enantiomers was enantioselective. PMID:21724328

  15. First evidence of the P-glycoprotein gene expression and multixenobiotic resistance modulation in earthworm.

    PubMed

    Bošnjak, Ivana; Bielen, Ana; Babi?, Sanja; Sver, Lidija; Popovi?, Natalija Topi?; Strunjak-Perovi?, Ivan?ica; Což-Rakovac, Rozelinda; Klobu?ar, Roberta Sauerborn

    2014-03-01

    Multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) is an important mechanism of cellular efflux mediated by ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters that bind and actively remove toxic substrates from the cell. This study was the first to identify ABC transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1) as a representative of the MXR phenotype in earthworm (Eisenia fetida). The identified partial cDNA sequence of ABCB1 overlapped with ABCB1 homologues of other organisms from 58.5 % to 72.5 %. We also studied the effect of five modulators (verapamil, cyclosporine A, MK571, probenecid, and orthovanadate) on the earthworm's MXR activity by measuring the accumulation of model substrates rhodamine B and rhodamine 123 in whole body tissue of the adult earthworm. MK571, orthovanadate, and verapamil significantly inhibited MXR activity, and rhodamine 123 turned out to better reflect MXR activity in that species than rhodamine B. Our results show that E. fetida can serve well as a test organism for environmental pollutants that inhibit MXR activity. PMID:24622780

  16. A filter circuit board for the Earthworm Seismic Data Acquisition System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jensen, Edward Gray

    2000-01-01

    The Earthworm system is a seismic network data acquisition and processing system used by the Northern California Seismic Network as well as many other seismic networks. The input to the system is comprised of many realtime electronic waveforms fed to a multi-channel digitizer on a PC platform. The digitizer consists of one or more National Instruments Corp. AMUX–64T multiplexer boards attached to an A/D converter board located in the computer. Originally, passive filters were installed on the multiplexers to eliminate electronic noise picked up in cabling. It was later discovered that a small amount of crosstalk occurred between successive channels in the digitizing sequence. Though small, this crosstalk will cause what appear to be small earthquake arrivals at the wrong time on some channels. This can result in erroneous calculation of earthquake arrival times, particularly by automated algorithms. To deal with this problem, an Earthworm filter board was developed to provide the needed filtering while eliminating crosstalk. This report describes the tests performed to find a suitable solution, and the design of the circuit board. Also included are all the details needed to build and install this board in an Earthworm system or any other system using the AMUX–64T board. Available below is the report in PDF format as well as an archive file containing the circuit board manufacturing information.

  17. Reproductive responses of the earthworm (Eisenia fetida) to antiparasitic albendazole exposure.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuhong; Li, Xuemei; Guo, Jianjun; Sun, Zhenjun

    2015-02-01

    Albendazole (ABZ) is a veterinary drug with a high efficiency against helminths. Here reproductive responses of earthworms Eisenia fetida to ABZ exposure (0, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 mg kg(-1) soil dry weight) were investigated for 56 d in chronic reproduction test, and deformed sperm were counted and morphological alterations in the seminal vesicles were qualitatively assessed by light and transmission electron microscopy. Results have showed that cocoon number of earthworms was more sensitive to low concentrations of ABZ than cocoon hatching success and hatching survival, showing a significant dose-related decrease in cocoon number at 3, 6, 9 and 12 mg kg(-1). In short-time exposure of 14 d, the sperm deformity (%) of earthworms increased at 6, 9 and 12 mg kg(-1), and the microstructural alteration in seminal vesicles was also observed at these concentrations, whereas ultrastructural alteration of germ cells, particularly morphology of mitochondria, was observed at 3 mg kg(-1) and above, suggesting the high sensitivity of germ cell ultrastructure to low concentrations of ABZ in short-time exposure. The results can provide important information for prediction of ecologically significant toxic effects. PMID:25462294

  18. Existential Threat or Dissociative Response? Examining Defensive Avoidance of Point-of-Care Testing Devices Through a Terror Management Theory Framework.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Simon; Gallagher, Pamela; Matthews, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Using a terror management theory framework, this study investigated if providing mortality reminders or self-esteem threats would lead participants to exhibit avoidant responses toward a point-of-care testing device for cardiovascular disease risk and if the nature of the device served to diminish the existential threat of cardiovascular disease. One hundred and twelve participants aged 40-55 years completed an experimental questionnaire. Findings indicated that participants were not existentially threatened by established terror management methodologies, potentially because of cross-cultural variability toward such methodologies. Highly positive appraisals of the device also suggest that similar technologies may beneficially affect the uptake of screening behaviors. PMID:24972015

  19. Application of microcosmic system for assessment of insecticide effects on biomarker responses in ecologically different earthworm species.

    PubMed

    Velki, Mirna; Hackenberger, Branimir K; Lon?ari?, Zeljka; Hackenberger, Davorka K

    2014-06-01

    Earthworms from different ecological categories--epigeic Eisenia andrei and Lumbricus rubellus, endogeic Octolasion lacteum and anecic Lumbricus terrestris--were exposed in a microcosmic system to three commonly used insecticides. The effects of the insecticides were evaluated by measuring the following molecular biomarkers-the activities of AChE, CES, CAT, GST and the concentration of GSH. The results showed that environmentally relevant doses of organophosphates dimethoate and pirimiphos-methyl significantly affected the measured biomarkers, whereas pyrethroid deltamethrin did not affect the earthworms at the recommended agricultural dose. Considering the ecological category of earthworms, the results were inhomogeneous and species-specific differences in the biomarker responses were recorded. Since the biomarker responses of the investigated earthworm species were different after exposure to organophosphates in a microcosm compared to the exposure via standardized toxicity tests, two types of species sensitivity should be distinguished-physiological and environmental sensitivity. In addition, the hormetic effect of organophosphates on AChE and CES activities was recorded. The detection of hormesis in a microcosm is of great importance for future environmental research and soil biomonitoring, since in a realistic environment pollutants usually occur at low concentrations that could cause a hormetic effect. The results demonstrate the importance of the application of microcosmic systems in the assessment of the effects of environmental pollutants and the necessity of taking into account the possible differences between physiological and environmental species sensitivity. PMID:24650551

  20. Earthworms Produce phytochelatins in Response to Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Lawlor, Alan J.; Bennett, Mark H.; Morris, Ceri A.; Kille, Peter; Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J.; Bundy, Jacob G.

    2013-01-01

    Phytochelatins are small cysteine-rich non-ribosomal peptides that chelate soft metal and metalloid ions, such as cadmium and arsenic. They are widely produced by plants and microbes; phytochelatin synthase genes are also present in animal species from several different phyla, but there is still little known about whether these genes are functional in animals, and if so, whether they are metal-responsive. We analysed phytochelatin production by direct chemical analysis in Lumbricus rubellus earthworms exposed to arsenic for a 28 day period, and found that arsenic clearly induced phytochelatin production in a dose-dependent manner. It was necessary to measure the phytochelatin metabolite concentrations directly, as there was no upregulation of phytochelatin synthase gene expression after 28 days: phytochelatin synthesis appears not to be transcriptionally regulated in animals. A further untargetted metabolomic analysis also found changes in metabolites associated with the transsulfuration pathway, which channels sulfur flux from methionine for phytochelatin synthesis. There was no evidence of biological transformation of arsenic (e.g. into methylated species) as a result of laboratory arsenic exposure. Finally, we compared wild populations of earthworms sampled from the field, and found that both arsenic-contaminated and cadmium-contaminated mine site worms had elevated phytochelatin concentrations. PMID:24278409

  1. Metals and terrestrial earthworms (Annelida: Oligochaeta)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.

    1981-01-01

    The toxicity of metals to earthworms and the residues of metals found in earthworms are reviewed. Meta 1 concentrations are rarely high enough to be toxic to worms, but copper may reduce populations in orchards heavily treated with fungicides and in soil contaminated with pig wastes. The metals in some industrial sewage sludges may interfere with using sludge in vermiculture. Storage ratios (the concentration of a metal in worms divided by the concentration in soil) tend to be highest in infertile soil and lowest in media rich in organic matter, such as sewage sludge. Cadmium, gold, and selenium are highly concentrated by worms. Lead concentrations in worms may be very high, but are generally lower than concentrations in soil. Body burdens of both copper and zinc seem to be regulated by worms. Because worms are part of the food webs of many wildlife species, and also because they are potentially valuable feed supplements for domestic animals, the possible toxic effects of cadmium and other metals should be studied. Worms can make metals more available to food webs and can redistribute them in soil.

  2. Unearthing the genome of the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus 

    E-print Network

    Elsworth, Benjamin Lloyd

    2013-06-29

    The earthworm has long been of interest to biologists, most notably Charles Darwin, who was the first to reveal their true role as eco-engineers of the soil. However, to fully understand an animal one needs to combine ...

  3. Toxicity of metals to the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. F. Neuhauser; R. C. Loehr; D. L. Milligan; M. R. Malecki

    1985-01-01

    Development of methods to measure the effect of man's residuals on soil ecosystems is desirable. Earthworms, as one of the largest and most easily obtained components of the soil biota, are suitable for evaluating perturbations to soil ecosystems.

  4. Transmission of Nephridial Bacteria of the Earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seana K. Davidson; David A. Stahl

    2006-01-01

    The lumbricid earthworms (annelid family Lumbricidae) harbor gram-negative bacteria in their excretory organs, the nephridia. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing of bacteria associated with the nephridia of several earthworm species has shown that each species of worm harbors a distinct bacterial species and that the bacteria from different species form a monophyletic cluster within the genus Acidovorax, suggesting that there

  5. Characteristics of earthworm casts affecting herbicide sorption and movement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. S. Bolan; S. Baskaran

    1996-01-01

    Various physical and chemical characteristics of earthworm casts collected from a laboratory incubation and a field experiment were examined in relation to their effect on the sorption and the movement of three 14C-labelled ionic herbicides: atrazine, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and metsulforon methyl. The earthworm casts contained higher levels of fine fractions and total and soluble C. This is attributed to the

  6. Using Earthworms to Incorporate Lime into Subsoil to Ameliorate Acidity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Y. Chan

    2003-01-01

    Acid soils threaten agriculture in Australia as well as in many parts of the world by reducing plant productivity. Surface-applied lime (CaCO3) moves into the root zone only slowly but the process can be considerably hastened in the presence of earthworms. In a laboratory experiment, the abilities of three earthworm species in incorporating lime into the subsoil and the mechanisms

  7. Cadmium-binding proteins induced in the earthworm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuo T. Suzuki; Mitsuru Yamamura; Tadahiro Mori

    1980-01-01

    Earthworms,Eisenia foetida, grown in composts of different cadmium concentrations accumulated cadmium in a dose-dependent manner and the cadmium was bound to three different molecular weight cadmium-binding proteins induced in the earthworm. The three proteins were stable to heat treatment and accompanied by a concomitant increase of absorbance at 254 nm and not at 280 nm. Each of the three proteins

  8. 1H NMR Metabolomics: A New Molecular Level Tool for Assessment of Organic Contaminant Bioavailability to Earthworms in Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKelvie, J. R.; Wolfe, D. M.; Celejewski, M. A.; Simpson, A. J.; Simpson, M. J.

    2009-05-01

    At contaminated field sites, the complete removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is rarely achieved since a portion of these compounds remain tightly bound to the soil matrix. The concentration of PAHs in soil typically decreases until a plateau is reached, at which point the remaining contaminant is considered non- bioavailable. Numerous soil extraction techniques, including cyclodextrin extraction, have been developed to estimate contaminant bioavailability. However, these are indirect methods that do not directly measure the response of organisms to chemical exposure in soil. Earthworm metabolomics offers a promising new way to directly evaluate the bioavailability and toxicity of contaminants in soil. Metabolomics involves the measurement of changes in small-molecule metabolites, including sugars and amino acids, in living organisms due to an external stress, such as contaminant exposure. The objective of this study was to compare cyclodextrin extraction of soil (a bioavailability proxy) and 1H NMR metabolomic analysis of aqueous earthworm tissue extracts as indicators of contaminant bioavailability. A 30 day laboratory experiment was conducted using phenanthrene-spiked sphagnum peat soil and the OECD recommended earthworm species for toxicity testing, Eisenia fetida. The initial phenanthrene concentration in the soil was 320 mg/kg. Rapid biodegradation of phenanthrene occurred and concentrations decreased to 16 mg/kg within 15 days. After 15 days, phenanthrene biodegradation slowed and cyclodextrin extraction of the soil suggested that phenanthrene was no longer bioavailable. Multivariate statistical analysis of the 1H NMR spectra for E. fetida tissue extracts indicated that the metabolic profile of phenanthrene exposed earthworms differed from control earthworms throughout the 30 day experiment. This suggests that the residual phenanthrene remaining in the soil after 15 days continued to elicit a metabolic response, even though it was not extractable using cyclodextrin. Hence, while cyclodextrin extraction may serve as a good proxy for microbial bioavailability, our results suggest that it may not serve as a good proxy for earthworm bioavailability. 1H NMR metabolomics therefore offers considerable promise as a novel, molecular-level method to directly monitor earthworm bioavailability of potentially toxic and persistent compounds in the environment.

  9. Gene Expression Analysis of CL-20-induced Reversible Neurotoxicity Reveals GABAA Receptors as Potential Target in the Earthworm Eisenia fetida

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Ping; Guan, Xin; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Liang, Chun; Perkins, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    The earthworm Eisenia fetida is one of the most used species in standardized soil ecotoxicity tests. Endpoints such as survival, growth and reproduction are eco-toxicologically relevant but provide little mechanistic insight into toxicity pathways, especially at the molecular level. Here we applied a toxicogenomic approach to investigate the mode of action underlying the reversible neurotoxicity of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20), a cyclic nitroamine explosives compound. We developed an E. fetida-specific shotgun microarray targeting 15119 unique E. fetida transcripts. Using this array we profiled gene expression in E. fetida in response to exposure to CL-20. Eighteen earthworms were exposed for 6 days to 0.2 ?g/cm2 of CL-20 on filter paper, half of which were allowed to recover in a clean environment for 7 days. Nine vehicle control earthworms were sacrificed at day 6 and 13, separately. Electrophysiological measurements indicated that the conduction velocity of earthworm medial giant nerve fiber decreased significantly after 6-day exposure to CL-20, but was restored after 7 days of recovery. Total RNA was isolated from the four treatment groups including 6-day control, 6-day exposed, 13-day control and 13-day exposed (i.e. 6-day exposure followed by 7-day recovery), and was hybridized to the 15K shot-gun oligo array. Statistical and bioinformatic analyses suggest that CL-20 initiated neurotoxicity by non-competitively blocking the ligand-gated GABAA receptor ion channel, leading to altered expression of genes involved in GABAergic, cholinergic, and Agrin-MuSK pathways. In the recovery phase, expression of affected genes returned to normality, possibly as a result of autophagy and CL-20 dissociation/metabolism. This study provides significant insights into potential mechanisms of CL-20-induced neurotoxicity and the recovery of earthworms from transient neurotoxicity stress. PMID:22191394

  10. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of ethofumesate enantiomers in earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Wang, Yinghuan; Zhang, Yanfeng; Li, Jianzhong; Wang, Huili

    2014-10-01

    Earthworms represent an important food source for many vertebrates and as a result, predators may encounter toxic effects via the food chain from consumption of contaminated worms. Therefore, including an assessment of xenobiotic to worms in risk assessment procedures is advisable. Here we studied the acute toxicity, bioaccumulation and elimination of ethofumesate enantiomers in earthworm, Eisenia fetida, in a soil. A slight difference in toxicity to earthworm between two enantiomers was found, and the calculated LC50 values for (+)-, rac- and (-)-ethofumesate were 4.51, 5.93 and 7.98 ?g/cm(2), respectively, indicating that the acute toxicity of ethofumesate enantiomers was enantioselective. Earthworm can uptake ethofumesate but the bioaccumulation curve did not reach the steady state. In the elimination experiment, the concentrations of ethofumesate in earthworm declined following a first-order decay model with a short half life of 1.8d. The bioaccumulation and elimination of ethofumesate in earthworm were both nonenantioselective. In combination with other studies, a linear relationship between Log BSAFs and Log Kow was observed, and the Log BSAFs increased with increasing Log Kow. But the elimination rate did not show any correlation with the Kow value. PMID:25048902

  11. Fostering assumption-based stress-test thinking in managing groundwater systems: learning to avoid failures due to basic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; El Sawah, Sondoss

    2014-06-01

    Sustainable groundwater resource management can only be achieved if planning processes address the basic dynamics of the groundwater system. Conceptual and distributed groundwater models do not necessarily translate into an understanding of how a plan might operate in reality. Prompted by Australian experiences, `iterative closed-question modelling' has been used to develop a process of iterative dialogue about management options, objectives and knowledge. Simple hypothetical models of basic system dynamics that satisfy agreed assumptions are used to stress-test the ability of a proposed management plan to achieve desired future conditions. Participants learn from models in which a plan succeeds and fails, updating their assumptions, expectations or plan. Their new understanding is tested against further hypothetical models. The models act as intellectual devices that confront users with new scenarios to discuss. This theoretical approach is illustrated using simple one and two-cell groundwater models that convey basic notions of capture and spatial impacts of pumping. Simple extensions can address uncertain climate, managed-aquifer recharge and alternate water sources. Having learnt to address the dynamics captured by these models, participants may be better placed to address local conditions and develop more effective arrangements to achieve management outcomes.

  12. Zaprinast and Rolipram Enhances Spatial and Emotional Memory in the Elevated Plus Maze and Passive Avoidance Tests and Diminishes Exploratory Activity in Naive Mice

    PubMed Central

    Akar, Furuzan; Mutlu, Oguz; Celikyurt, Ipek Komsuoglu; Ulak, Guner; Erden, Faruk; Bektas, Emine; Tanyeri, Pelin

    2014-01-01

    Background Phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors in the central nervous system have been shown to stimulate neuronal functions and increase neurogenesis in Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. Material/Methods The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of zaprinast, a PDE5 inhibitor, and rolipram, a PDE4 inhibitor, on learning and memory in elevated plus maze (EPM) and passive avoidance (PA) tests in naive mice. Male Balb-c mice received short-term treatment with zaprinast (3 and 10 mg/kg) and rolipram (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) before the acquisition trial of the EPM and PA tests. The exploratory activity of the animals was also investigated in the Hughes box test. Results Both zaprinast (10 mg/kg) and rolipram (0.1 mg/kg) significantly decreased second-day latency compared to the control group in the EPM test, while only rolipram (0.1 mg/kg) significantly increased second-day latency in the PA test. Both zaprinast (10 mg/kg) and rolipram (0.1 mg/kg) significantly decreased the number of entries to new areas and time spent in new areas in the Hughes box test. Conclusions Our study revealed that both zaprinast and rolipram enhanced spatial memory in EPM, while rolipram seemed to have more emotional memory-enhancing effects in the PA test compared to zaprinast. Both zaprinast and rolipram diminished exploratory activity in the Hughes box test, which can be attributed to the drugs’ anxiogenic effects. PMID:25057848

  13. Earthworm populations of highly metal-contaminated soils restored by fly ash-aided phytostabilisation.

    PubMed

    Grumiaux, Fabien; Demuynck, Sylvain; Pernin, Céline; Leprêtre, Alain

    2015-03-01

    Highly metal contaminated soils found in the North of France are the result of intense industrial past. These soils are now unfit for the cultivation of agricultural products for human consumption. Solutions have to be found to improve the quality of these soils, and especially to reduce the availability of trace elements (TEs). Phytostabilisation and ash-aided phytostabilisation applied since 2000 to an experimental site located near a former metallurgical site (Metaleurop-Nord) was shown previously as efficacious in reducing TEs mobility in soils. The aim of the study was to check whether this ten years trial had influenced earthworm communities. This experimental site was compared to plots located in the surroundings and differing by the use of soils. Main results are that: (1) whatever the use of soils, earthworm communities are composed of few species with moderate abundance in comparison with communities found in similar habitats outside the TEs-contaminated area, (2) the highest abundance and specific richness (4-5 species) were observed in afforested plots with various tree species, (3) ash amendments in afforested plots did not increase the species richness and modified the communities favoring anecic worms but disfavoring epigeic ones. These findings raised the questions of when and how to perform the addition of ashes firstly, to avoid negative effects on soil fauna and secondly, to keep positive effects on metal immobilization. PMID:25499051

  14. Exotic earthworm invasion increases soil carbon and nitrogen in an old-growth forest in southern

    E-print Network

    Moore, Tim

    varying in their earthworm populations in an old-growth beech­ maple forest at Mont St. Hilaire, southernExotic earthworm invasion increases soil carbon and nitrogen in an old-growth forest in southern

  15. Linker Chains of the Gigantic Hemoglobin of the Earthworm Lumbricus terrestris: Primary Structures of

    E-print Network

    Riggs, Austen

    Linker Chains of the Gigantic Hemoglobin of the Earthworm Lumbricus terrestris: Primary Structures The extracellular hemoglobin (Hb) of the earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris, has four major kinds of globin chains: a

  16. Construction of an electrical device for sampling earthworm populations in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Well-known methods for estimating earthworm population densities range from laborious handsorting through chemical applications to electrical extraction. Of these methods, only the electrical extraction allows for sampling of earthworms without detrimental soil disturbance or contamination. However,...

  17. Acute toxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes, sodium pentachlorophenate, and their complex on earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liujun; Hu, Changwei; Wang, Weili; Ji, Funian; Cui, Yibin; Li, Mei

    2014-05-01

    Laboratory experiments were undertaken to relate biomarker responses to the toxicities of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and sodium pentachlorophenate (PCP-Na), both individually and combined. The acute toxicities of MWCNTs and PCP-Na on earthworm Eisenia fetida were studied through different exposure methods (filter paper contact test, immersion contact test, and artificial soil contact test). Enzyme activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the earthworm E. fetida exposed to MWCNTs and PCP-Na in filter paper contact test, both individually and under combined exposure, were determined. After exposure, PCP-Na induced observable acute toxicity while the MWCNTs induced slight toxicity. Interestingly the earthworms exposed to the mixture of MWCNTs and PCP-Na demonstrated different expression of enzymatic biomarkers from those exposed to MWCNTs or PCP-Na alone. Our results indicated that the toxicity of PCP-Na on E. fetida may be alleviated by the appearance of MWCNTs for all exposure methods except for immersion contact test. PMID:24562180

  18. A method of extracting earthworms from cores of soil with minimum damage to the soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Tisdall; B. M. McKenzie

    1999-01-01

    Lumbricid earthworms have often been shown to increase the growth of plants. The earthworms and plants were generally grown\\u000a together in the same soil, although sometimes earthworms were reluctant to enter the soil. It was not possible to isolate\\u000a the mechanism for the increased growth, as no method was available to extract the earthworms with no damage to the soil

  19. Comparative and combined acute toxicity of butachlor, imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos on earthworm, Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Wang, Yanhua; Zhao, Xueping; Wang, Qiang; Qian, Yongzhong

    2014-04-01

    Various pesticides have become widespread contaminants of soils due to their large applications in agriculture and homes. An earthworm assay was used to assess the acute toxicity of butachlor, imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos with different modes of action. Ecotoxicities of these pesticides were compared for earthworm Eisenia fetida separately and in combination in artificial soil and contact filter paper tests. Imidacloprid was the most toxic for E. fetida with LC?? (lethal concentration 50) values three orders magnitude lower than that of butachlor and chlorpyrifos in both tests. The toxicity of the mixtures was compared to that predicted by the concentration addition (CA) model. According to the CA model, the observed toxicities of all binary mixtures were less than additive. However, for all the mixtures in 14 d artificial soil test, and mixtures of butachlor plus chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid plus chlorpyrifos in 48 h contact filter paper test, the difference in toxicity was less than 30%, hence it was concluded that the mixtures conformed to CA. The combined effects of the pesticides in contact filter paper tests were not consistent with the results in artificial soil toxicity tests, which may be associated with the interaction of soil salts with the pesticides. The CA model provides estimates of mixture toxicity that did not markedly underestimate the measured toxicity, and therefore the CA model is the most suitable to use in ecological risk assessments of the pesticides. PMID:24377448

  20. Influence of temperature on the toxicity of zinc to the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    SciTech Connect

    Spurgeon, D.J.; Tomlin, M.A.; Hopkin, S.P. [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom)

    1997-02-01

    A range of toxicity tests have been proposed to assess the potential hazards of pollutants to earthworms. Of these, the two acute toxicity tests using Eisenia fetida recommended by the OECD and EEC have become routinely used in the risk assessment and regulation of new and existing chemicals. In addition to the acute tests, procedures have also been proposed for measuring the sub-lethal effects of chemicals on parameter such as reproduction and weight change. In both the lethal and sub-lethal toxicity tests developed with worms, attempts have been made to standardise test conditions to allow results from different laboratories to be directly compared. However, variability in exposure conditions and responses are fundamental to determine the effects of pollutants under natural conditions. In the field, conditions such as light, moisture availability, pH, temperature and humidity all fluctuate over time. Such variations affect both the sensitivity and exposure of individuals to toxic chemicals. Hence when evaluating the potential effects of pollutants, it may be important to known how changes in test conditions influence toxicity. This study assessed the effects of different temperatures on the lethal and sub-lethal toxicity of zinc for the earthworm Eisenia fetida. 23 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Earthworm dynamics and soil physical properties in the first three years of no-till management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Johnson-Maynard; K. J. Umiker; S. O. Guy

    2007-01-01

    Earthworms are often referred to as ecosystem engineers due to their ability to alter the soil environment. Since earthworms influence a wide range of critical chemical and physical soil properties it is important to understand how their populations are impacted by soil management. Earthworms were sampled during the spring and summer of 2001, 2002, and 2003 from conventional tillage (CT)

  2. Abstract Earthworms are keystone detritivores that can influence primary producers by changing

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    +Business Media B.V. 2006 #12;Lumbricus terrestris Ã? Keystone species Ã? Minnesota forests Ã? New York forestsAbstract Earthworms are keystone detritivores that can influence primary producers by changing, and assemblage of invading earthworm species. Earthworms reduce the thickness of organic lay- ers, increase

  3. Location-dependency of earthworm response to reduced tillage on sandy soil Monika Joschko a,

    E-print Network

    Timmer, Jens

    Location-dependency of earthworm response to reduced tillage on sandy soil Monika Joschko a for Advanced Studies (FRIAS), Albertstr. 19, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany 1. Introduction Earthworms belong., 2008). In these soils earthworms should therefore be impaired as little as possible by management

  4. Comparisons of metal accumulation and excretion kinetics in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to contaminated

    E-print Network

    Hopkin, Steve

    Comparisons of metal accumulation and excretion kinetics in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed are present at increased concentrations in earthworms inhabiting contami- nated soils (for references see of earthworms to assim- ilate metals has led to this group being recommended for monitoring the spatial

  5. Earthworms (Millsonia anomala, Megascolecidae) do not increase rice growth1 through enhanced nitrogen mineralization.2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Earthworms (Millsonia anomala, Megascolecidae) do not increase rice growth1 through enhanced (LEST), UMR 137, IRD, Bondy, 93143,6 France.7 8 Abstract9 10 Earthworms have been shown to increase in the presence of earthworms (Millsonia anomala,15 Megascolecidae) and demonstrated that enhanced nitrogen

  6. United States Department of Native and Introduced Earthworms fromAgriculture

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    United States Department of Native and Introduced Earthworms fromAgriculture Forest Service. 1993. Native and introduced earthworms from selected chaparral, woodland, and riparian zones Service, U.S. Department of Agricul ture; 20 p. Relatively little is known about the earthworm fauna

  7. INVASION NOTE The wave towards a new steady state: effects of earthworm

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    INVASION NOTE The wave towards a new steady state: effects of earthworm invasion on soil microbial / Accepted: 25 June 2011 Ó Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011 Abstract Earthworms are ecosystem engineers that cause a long cascade of ecological effects when they invade previously earthworm-free forests

  8. The heterogeneity of humus profiles and earthworm communities in a virgin beech forest

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 The heterogeneity of humus profiles and earthworm communities in a virgin beech forest J.F. Ponge and compared with the distribution of earthworm communities, canopy cover, and soil types. Geomorphology with a sandstone stratum near the ground surface was associated with the absence of earthworms and the appearance

  9. Earthworm and enchytraeid activity under different arable farming systems, as exemplified by biogenic structures

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Earthworm and enchytraeid activity under different arable farming systems, as exemplified, earthworms were sampled and biogenic structures were identified and counted in topsoil profiles (0­14 cm of these morphological features provided information about soil compaction, earthworm and enchytraeid activity

  10. Effects of Earthworms on Soil Organic Matter and Nutrient Dynamics at a Landscape Scale over Decades

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Effects of Earthworms on Soil Organic Matter and Nutrient Dynamics at a Landscape Scale over, and severe depletion of soil invertebrate communities, especially earthworms (Decaëns et al. 1994; Lavelle et al. 1994). The contributions of earthworms to soil fertility have been described in several hundreds

  11. EARTHWORM ADDITIONS AFFECT LEACHATE PRODUCTION AND NITROGEN LOSSES IN TYPICAL MIDWESTERN AGROECOSYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Earthworms affect soil structure and the movement of agrochemicals. Yet, there are few field-scale studies that quantify the effect of earthworms on dissolved nitrogen fluxes in agroecosystems. We investigated the influence of biannual deep-burrowing earthworm additions on leachate production and qu...

  12. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 39 (2007) 10141022 Influence of earthworm activity on aggregate-associated carbon and

    E-print Network

    van Kessel, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Soil Biology & Biochemistry 39 (2007) 1014­1022 Influence of earthworm activity on aggregate 18 November 2006 Available online 26 December 2006 Abstract Earthworms are known to be important population densities of the earthworm Aporrectodea rosea in three maize-tomato cropping systems [conventional

  13. Effects of Earthworm Invasion on Plant Species Richness in Northern Hardwood Forests

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Effects of Earthworm Invasion on Plant Species Richness in Northern Hardwood Forests ANDREW R of non-native earthworms (Lumbricus spp.) into a small number of intensively studied stands of northern forests, which plant species are most vulnerable, or with which earthworm species such changes

  14. Influence of ground cover on earthworm communities in an unmanaged beech forest: linear gradient studies

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Influence of ground cover on earthworm communities in an unmanaged beech forest: linear gradient-mail: jean-francois.ponge@wanadoo.fr Running title: Influence of ground cover on earthworm species communities Abstract: Micro-scale changes in earthworm communities and ground cover types were studied along

  15. Large-Scale Effects of Earthworms on Soil Organic Matter and Nutrient Patrick Lavelle,1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Large-Scale Effects of Earthworms on Soil Organic Matter and Nutrient Dynamics Patrick Lavelle,1 and a severe depletion of soil invertebrate communities, especially earthworms (Lavelle et al. 1994). The contribution of earthworms to processes of soil fertility has been described in several hundred papers

  16. EARTHWORMS AND COLLEMBOLA RELATIONSHIPS: EFFECTS2 OF PREDATORY CENTIPEDES AND HUMUS FORMS3

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 EARTHWORMS AND COLLEMBOLA RELATIONSHIPS: EFFECTS2 OF PREDATORY CENTIPEDES AND HUMUS FORMS3 4-495" DOI : 10.1016/j.soilbio.2004.08.011 #12;1 Abstract1 2 Relationships between anecic earthworms, 1835), which is known4 to be attracted to earthworms, were investigated in an 8-week laboratory

  17. Is earthworms' dispersal facilitated by the ecosystem engineering activities of conspecifics?1 Gal Caro1*

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Is earthworms' dispersal facilitated by the ecosystem engineering activities of conspecifics?1 2 of earthworm's galleries on their speed of25 movements during dispersal events in the soil. We quantified, by using X-rays, the dispersal26 behaviour of earthworms in the soil. The observations were conducted

  18. Non-native invasive earthworms as agents of change in northern temperate forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick J. Bohlen; Stefan Scheu; Cindy M. Hale; Mary Ann McLean; Sonja Migge; Peter M. Groffman; Dennis Parkinson

    2004-01-01

    7 Exotic earthworms from Europe and Asia are invading many northern forests in North America that cur- rently lack native earthworms, providing an opportunity to assess the role of this important group of invertebrates in forest ecosystems. Research on earthworm invasions has focused on changes in soil struc- ture and carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling that occur following invasion.

  19. Intensified Weathering Control of Carbon Cycle along an Earthworm Invasion Chronosequence: Preliminary Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Fernandez; K. Yoo; A. K. Aufdenkampe; C. Hale

    2009-01-01

    Though earthworms may appear ubiquitous and native where they are found, this is not true in the Glaciated areas of North America. After the glacial retreat, earthworms were not able to catch up with the northward expansion of forests. Subsequently, these forests in the glaciated areas have developed without native earthworm species over the past six to ten thousand years.

  20. Toxicity of mixtures of ?-cyhalothrin, imidacloprid and cadmium on the earthworm Eisenia fetida by combination index (CI)-isobologram method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhua; Chen, Chen; Qian, Yongzhong; Zhao, Xueping; Wang, Qiang; Kong, Xiangzhen

    2015-01-01

    Contaminants in the environment do not appear singly and usually occur as mixtures. We applied the combination index (CI)-isobologram method which allows computerized quantitation of synergism, additive effect and antagonism to determine the nature of toxicological interactions of two pesticides ?-cyhalothrin, imidacloprid, and heavy metal cadmium towards earthworm Eisenia fetida. In an artificial soil test, ?-cyhalothrin and Cd combination was slightly synergistic at low effect levels which turned into a slight antagonism above f(a) values of 0.6, while the binary mixtures containing imidacloprid exhibited antagonism. The presence of imidacloprid in the ternary mixture also resulted in an antagonistic effect to the earthworms. This behavior became more antagonistic in the ternary mixture in filter paper tests. PMID:25450940

  1. Use of plant and earthworm bioassays to evaluate remediation of soil from a site contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, J.R.; Chang, L.W.; Meckes, M.C.; Smith, M.K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Jacobs, S. [DynCorp, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Torsella, J. [Oak Ridge Inst. of Science and Education, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was treated with a pilot-scale, solvent extraction technology. Bioassays in earthworms and plants were used to examine the efficacy of the remediation process for reducing the toxicity of the soil. The earthworm toxicity bioassays were the 14-d survival test and 21-d reproduction test, using Lumbricus terrestris and Eisenia fetida andrei. The plant bioassays included phytotoxicity tests for seed germination and root elongation in lettuce and oats, and a genotoxicity test (anaphase aberrations) in Allium cepa (common onion). Although the PCB content of the soil was reduced by 99% (below the remediation goal), toxicity to earthworm reproduction remained essentially unchanged following remediation. Furthermore, phytotoxicity and genotoxicity were higher for the remediated soil compared to the untreated soil. The toxicity remaining after treatment appeared to be due to residual solvent introduced during the remediation process, and/or to heavy metals or other inorganic contaminants not removed by the treatment. Mixture studies involving isopropanol and known toxicants indicated possible synergistic effects of the extraction solvent and soil contaminants. The toxicity in plants was essentially eliminated by a postremediation, water-rinsing step. These results demonstrate a need for including toxicity measurements in the evaluation of technologies used in hazardous waste site remediations, and illustrate the potential value of such measurements for making modifications to remediation processes.

  2. A new and sensitive method for measuring in vivo and in vitro cytotoxicity in earthworm coelomocytes by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jin Il; Kim, Shin Woong; An, Youn-Joo

    2014-10-01

    This study describes a new and sensitive method for measuring the in vivo and in vitro cytotoxicity of 2 earthworm species, Eisenia andrei and Perionyx excavatus, exposed to copper. Specifically, we measured the number of coelomocyte cells that were affected by copper following in vivo and in vitro exposure by flow cytometry, after calcein acetoxymethyl ester (calcein-AM) staining. We found that the coelomocyte viability of both earthworm species was noticeably reduced in the in vivo cytotoxicity test at concentrations of 100mg/kg copper in dry soil. However, pathological symptoms, such as mucous secretion and bleeding, swelling, thinning, and fragmentation, and burrowing symptoms were not evident following exposure to copper levels of <400mg/kg dry soil. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that calcein-AM is a more sensitive test of earthworm coelomocyte cytotoxicity compared to the traditional individual level toxicity test. Therefore, this test could be used to detect low levels of metal contamination in soils. PMID:25127522

  3. Comparative toxicity of pentachlorophenol to three earthworm species in artificial soil

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, D.; Lanno, R.P.; Farwell, A.; Dixon, D.G. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    1994-12-31

    Although methods for standardized toxicity tests with earthworms exist, many of the test parameters and conditions have not been validated in actual tests and with different species of worms. This study evaluated the toxicity of pentachlorophenol (PCP) to three species of earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris, Eisenia fetida, and Eudrilus eugeniae using various methods of data analysis and body residues. Tests were conducted in artificial soil for a period of 28 days or until an Acute Lethality Threshold (ALT) was reached. An intensive temporal sampling regime was applied to generate sufficient data for the accurate estimation of ALTs using both LC50/time and time-to-death/soil concentration methods of data analysis. L. terrestris was tested at 15 C, E. eugeniae at 24 C, and E. fetida at both temperatures. Total body residues of PCP were measured by GC following cryogenic separation of the lipid fraction of the worm. ALTs were significantly different between E. fetida and the two larger species of worms. No effect of temperature on the ALT for E. fetida was observed, although the time taken to reach the ALT increased at the lower temperature. The relationship of PCP residues at mortality will be discussed in terms of the effects of species, body size and temperature. Limitations of the artificial soil based upon growth curves of worms will also be examined.

  4. Biochemical responses of the earthworm Eisenia fetida andrei exposed to contaminated artificial soil: effects of benzo(a)pyrene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Saint-Denis; J. F Narbonne; C Arnaud; E Thybaud; D Ribera

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the effects of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), at different concentrations and exposure times on the biochemical responses of the earthworm Eisenia fetida andrei to (1) elucidate the mechanisms of action of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and (2) explore the potential for using these responses as biomarkers for monitoring PAH-contaminated soils or for use in sublethal assays for chemical testing in

  5. The influence of soil characteristics on the toxicity of four chemicals to the earthworm Eisenia fetida andrei (Oligochaeta)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. M. van Gestel; W. A. Dis

    1988-01-01

    The acute toxicity of Cd (chloride), chloroacetamide, 3,4-dichloroaniline and pentachlorophenol to the earthworm Eisenia fetida andrei was determined using the OECD (1984) artificial soil and contact testing procedures. To investigate the influence of two soil characteristics (pH and organic-matter content), the toxicity of the chemicals was also determined in two natural sandy soils. It is concluded that the filter-paper contact

  6. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of reduced TNT metabolites in the earthworm Eisenia andrei exposed to amended forest soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard Lachance; Agnès Y. Renoux; Manon Sarrazin; Jalal Hawari; Geoffrey I. Sunahara

    2004-01-01

    Soils contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and TNT primary reduction products have been found to be toxic to certain soil invertebrates, such as earthworms. The mechanism of toxicity of TNT and of its by-products is still not known. To ascertain if one of the TNT reduction products underlies TNT toxicity, we tested the toxicity and bioaccumulation of TNT reduction products. 2-Amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene

  7. Fate and Uptake of Pharmaceuticals in Soil–Earthworm Systems

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals present a potential threat to soil organisms, yet our understanding of their fate and uptake in soil systems is limited. This study therefore investigated the fate and uptake of 14C-labeled carbamazepine, diclofenac, fluoxetine, and orlistat in soil–earthworm systems. Sorption coefficients increased in the order of carbamazepine < diclofenac < fluoxetine < orlistat. Dissipation of 14C varied by compound, and for orlistat, there was evidence of formation of nonextractable residues. Uptake of 14C was seen for all compounds. Depuration studies showed complete elimination of 14C for carbamazepine and fluoxetine treatments and partial elimination for orlistat and diclofenac, with greater than 30% of the 14C remaining in the tissue at the end of the experiment. Pore-water-based bioconcentration factors (BCFs), based on uptake and elimination of 14C, increased in the order carbamazepine < diclofenac < fluoxetine and orlistat. Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography–Fourier transform mass spectrometry indicated that the observed uptake in the fluoxetine and carbamazepine treatments was due to the parent compounds but that diclofenac was degraded in the test system so uptake was due to unidentifiable transformation products. Comparison of our data with outputs of quantitative structure?activity relationships for estimating BCFs in worms showed that these models tend to overestimate pharmaceutical BCFs so new models are needed. PMID:24762061

  8. The role of sublethal effects in evaluating earthworm responses to soil contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Wilborn, D.; Bollman, M.; Linder, G. [ManTech Environmental Technology, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Frequently, standard test methods rely upon relatively straightforward, easily interpreted endpoints to evaluate biological effects, like growth inhibition, gross morbidity or death. In soil contamination evaluations, for example, earthworm toxicity tests are routinely completed in order to consider adverse biological effects associated with exposures to soil samples in the laboratory or field. Here, the toxicity endpoint measured in the standard test using Eisenia foetida is death; however, if chronic effects are more appropriate to the questions being asked within a risk assessment context, then alternative test endpoints must be developed and standardized. Prior evaluations have relied upon sublethal endpoints, most frequently behavioral and morphological observations, for evaluating chronic effects associated with contaminant exposures. The authors applied these behavioral and morphological endpoints in analyzing potential chronic effects in earthworms exposed to heavy metal-contaminated soils in both the laboratory and field. In using a relatively standard set of these sublethal endpoints the authors found that these endpoints could be used to evaluate chronic effects associated with soil exposures, but that selection of the specific end-points had to be adequately standardized and that observer bias had to be adequately characterized in order for these measures of chronic effects to be unequivocally applied within an ecological risk assessment.

  9. Assessment of soil stabilization by chemical extraction and bioaccumulation using earthworm, Eisenia fetida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byung-Tae; Abd Aziz, Azilah; Han, Heop Jo; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2014-05-01

    Soil stabilization does not remove heavy metals from contaminated soil, but lowers their exposures to ecosystem. Thus, it should be evaluated by measuring the fractions of heavy metals which are mobile and/or bioavailable in soils. The study compared several chemical extractions which intended to quantify the mobile or bioaccessible fractions with uptake and bioaccumulation by earthworm, Eisenia fetida. Soil samples were taken from the abandoned mine area contaminated with As, Cd, Cu, Pb and/or Zn. To stabilize heavy metals, the soils were amended with limestone and steel slag at 5% and 2% (w/w), respectively. All chemical extractions and earthworm tests were applied to both the contaminated and the stabilized soils with triplicates. The chemical extractions consisted of six single extractions which were 0.01M CaCl2 (unbufferred), EDTA or DTPA (chelating), TCLP (acidic), Mehlich 3 (mixture), and aqua regia (peudo-total). Sequential extractions were also applied to fractionate heavy metals in soils. In earthworm tests, worms were exposed to the soils for uptake of heavy metals. After 28 days of exposure to soils, worms were transferred to clean soils for elimination. During the tests, three worms were randomly collected at proper sampling events. Worms were rinsed with DI water and placed on moist filter paper for 48 h for depuration. Filter paper was renewed at 24 h to prevent coprophagy. The worms were killed with liquid nitrogen, dried in the oven, and digested with aqua regia for ICP-MS analysis. In addition to the bioaccumulation, several toxicity endpoints were observed such as burrowing time, mortality, cocoon production, and body weight changes. Toxicokinetics was applied to determine the uptake and elimination heavy metals by the earthworms. Bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was estimated using total metal concentrations and body burdens. Pearson correlation and simple linear regression were applied to evaluate the relationship between metal fractions by single extractions or sequential extractions with bioaccumulations. Finally, we discussed the advantages or disadvantages of simple chemical extractions which are commonly used to estimate the efficacy of stabilization.

  10. Bioaccumulation and single and joint toxicities of penta-BDE and cadmium to earthworms ( Eisenia fetida ) exposed to spiked soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ShuZhen Zhu; Man Liu; ShengYan Tian; LingYan Zhu

    2010-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of penta-BDE (DE-71) in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and the induced toxicities on the growth and reproduction of earthworms were investigated. All the major congeners in DE-71\\u000a could be bioaccumulated in earthworms and the concentration found in earthworms correlated to the spiked concentration in\\u000a soil. DE-71 might inhibit the growth and reproduction of cocoons and juveniles of earthworms. The toxicities

  11. How to reduce false positive results when undertaking in vitro genotoxicity testing and thus avoid unnecessary follow-up animal tests: Report of an ECVAM Workshop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Kirkland; Stefan Pfuhler; David Tweats; Marilyn Aardema; Raffaella Corvi; Firouz Darroudi; Azeddine Elhajouji; Hansruedi Glatt; Paul Hastwell; Makoto Hayashi; Peter Kasper; Stephan Kirchner; Anthony Lynch; Daniel Marzin; Daniela Maurici; Jean-Roc Meunier; Lutz Müller; Gerhard Nohynek; James Parry; Elizabeth Parry; Veronique Thybaud; Ray Tice; Jan van Benthem; Philippe Vanparys; Paul White

    2007-01-01

    Workshop participants agreed that genotoxicity tests in mammalian cells in vitro produce a remarkably high and unacceptable occurrence of irrelevant positive results (e.g. when compared with rodent carcinogenicity). As reported in several recent reviews, the rate of irrelevant positives (i.e. low specificity) for some studies using in vitro methods (when compared to this “gold standard”) means that an increased number

  12. Influence of intracerebral administration of NO agents in dorsal hippocampus (CA1) on cannabinoid state-dependent memory in the step-down passive avoidance test.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Piri, Morteza; Jamali-Raeufy, Nida; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza

    2010-06-16

    In the present study, the effects of nitric oxide agents on WIN55, 212-2 induced state-dependent memory of passive avoidance task were examined in mice. One-trial step-down paradigm was used for the assessment of memory retention in adult male NMRI mice. Post-training intra-CA1 administration of CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists, WIN55, 212-2 (0.25, 0.5 and 1 microg/mouse), dose-dependently decreased memory retrieval. The memory impairment induced by post-training administration of WIN55, 212-2 (1 microg/mouse) was restored by pre-test administration of the same dose of the drug (1 microg/mouse, intra-CA1), showing the WIN55, 212-2 state-dependent memory. Single intra-CA1 administration of L-arginine (0.3, 1 and 3 microg/mouse) or L-NAME (0.3, 1 and 3 microg/mouse), 5 min pre-test could not alter memory retrieval. On the other hand, in the animals in which retrieval was impaired due to post-training administration of WIN55, 212-2 (1 microg/mouse), pre-test intra-CA1 administration of l-arginine (1 and 3 microg/mouse), but not L-NAME (0.3, 1 and 3 microg/mouse) 24h after training restored memory retrieval. Also, in the animals which received both post-training (1 microg/mouse) and pre-test injections of WIN55, 212-2 (1 microg/mouse), the injection of L-NAME (3 microg/mouse, intra-CA1), 2 min before pre-test administration decreased retrieval. Furthermore, in the animals under the influence of post-training administration of WIN55, 212-2 (1 microg/mouse), pre-test co-administration of non-effective doses of WIN55, 212-2 (0.25 microg/mouse) and L-arginine (0.3 and 1 microg/mouse), increased the restoration of memory by pre-test WIN55, 212-2. These findings may demonstrate the involvement of NO in state-dependent memory induced by intra-CA1 administration of WIN55, 212-2. PMID:20227432

  13. Comparative toxicity and biochemical responses of certain pesticides to the mature earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Mosleh, Yahia Y; Ismail, Saad M M; Ahmed, Mohamed T; Ahmed, Yousery M

    2003-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the toxicity of aldicarb, cypermethrin, profenofos, chlorfluazuron, atrazine, and metalaxyl toward mature Aporrectodea caliginosa earthworms. The effects of the LC(25) values of these pesticides on the growth rate in relation to glucose, soluble protein, and activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), acid phosphatase (AcP), and alkaline phosphatase (AIP) were also studied. The results showed that aldicarb was the most toxic of the tested pesticides, followed in order by cypermethrin, profenofos, chlorfluazuron, atrazine, and metalaxyl. A reduction in growth rate was observed in all pesticide-treated worms, which was accompanied by a decrease in soluble protein and an increase in transaminases and phosphatases. Relationships between growth rate, protein content, transaminases, and phosphatases provided strong evidence for the involvement of pesticidal contamination in the biochemical changes in earthworms, which can be used as a bioindicator of soil contamination by pesticides. PMID:14502587

  14. Recombinant Protein Production of Earthworm Lumbrokinase for Potential Antithrombotic Application

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kevin Yueju; Wang, Nan; Liu, Dehu

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms have been used as a traditional medicine in China, Japan, and other Far East countries for thousands of years. Oral administration of dry earthworm powder is considered as a potent and effective supplement for supporting healthy blood circulation. Lumbrokinases are a group of enzymes that were isolated and purified from different species of earthworms. These enzymes are recognized as fibrinolytic agents that can be used to treat various conditions associated with thrombosis. Many lumbrokinase (LK) genes have been cloned and characterized. Advances in genetic technology have provided the ability to produce recombinant LK and have made it feasible to purify a single lumbrokinase enzyme for potential antithrombotic application. In this review, we focus on expression systems that can be used for lumbrokinase production. In particular, the advantages of using a transgenic plant system to produce edible lumbrokinase are described. PMID:24416067

  15. Recombinant protein production of earthworm lumbrokinase for potential antithrombotic application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kevin Yueju; Tull, Lauren; Cooper, Edwin; Wang, Nan; Liu, Dehu

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms have been used as a traditional medicine in China, Japan, and other Far East countries for thousands of years. Oral administration of dry earthworm powder is considered as a potent and effective supplement for supporting healthy blood circulation. Lumbrokinases are a group of enzymes that were isolated and purified from different species of earthworms. These enzymes are recognized as fibrinolytic agents that can be used to treat various conditions associated with thrombosis. Many lumbrokinase (LK) genes have been cloned and characterized. Advances in genetic technology have provided the ability to produce recombinant LK and have made it feasible to purify a single lumbrokinase enzyme for potential antithrombotic application. In this review, we focus on expression systems that can be used for lumbrokinase production. In particular, the advantages of using a transgenic plant system to produce edible lumbrokinase are described. PMID:24416067

  16. Impact of Parthenium weeds on earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae) during vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Rajiv, P; Rajeshwari, Sivaraj; Rajendran, Venckatesh

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of Parthenium-mediated compost on Eudrilus eugeniae during the process of vermicomposting. Nine different concentrations of Parthenium hysterophorus and cow dung mixtures were used to assess toxicity. The earthworms' growth, fecundity and antioxidant enzyme levels were analysed every 15 days. The antioxidant activities of enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)], considered as biomarkers, indicate the biochemical and oxidative stresses due to the toxin from Parthenium weeds. The earthworms' growth, biomass gain, cocoon production and antioxidant enzymes were in a low level in a high concentration of P. hysterophorus (without cow dung). The results clearly indicated that appropriate mixing of P. hysterophorus quantity is an essential factor for the survival of earthworms without causing any harm. PMID:24938809

  17. Combined effects of oxytetracycline and Pb on earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Gao, Minling; Zhou, Qian; Song, Wenhua; Ma, Xiaojun

    2014-03-01

    Combined effects of oxytetracycline (OTC) and Pb on lysosomal membrane stability and coelomocyte apoptosis of earthworm were studied in the paper. Compared with control, the lysosomal membrane stability decreased and coelomocyte apoptosis increased in the treatments of single OTC and Pb contamination. As for compound pollution, combined effect of (5 mg/kg OTC+50 mg/kg Pb) treatment on earthworm lysosomal was synergistic (except 28 d). However, it was antagonistic at higher concentration of (10 mg/kg OTC+50 mg/kg Pb) and (20 mg/kg OTC+50 mg/kg Pb) treatment. In addition, coelomocyte apoptosis of earthworm decreased significantly compared with single OTC, indicating an antagonistic reaction. And joint toxicity of OTC and Pb decreased significantly with the increasing OTC concentration. PMID:24607684

  18. Solid phase microextraction of organic pollutants from natural and artificial soils and comparison with bioaccumulation in earthworms.

    PubMed

    Bielská, Lucie; Šmídová, Klára; Hofman, Jakub

    2014-02-01

    The presented study investigates the use of passive sampling, i.e. solid phase microextraction with polydimethylsiloxane fibers (PDMS-SPME), to assess the bioavailability of fiver neutral organic chemicals (phenanthrene, pyrene, lindane, p,p'-DDT, and PCB 153) spiked to natural and artificial soils after different aging times. Contaminant bioavailability was assessed by comparing PDMS concentrations with results from a 10 day bioaccumulation test with earthworms (Eisenia fetida). The hypotheses tested were (i) organic carbon (OC) normalization, which is commonly used to account for sorption and bioavailability of hydrophobic organic chemicals in soil risk assessment, has limitations due to differences in sorptive properties of OC and aging processes (i.e. sequestration and biodegradation) and (ii) PDMS-SPME provides a more reliable measure of soil contaminant bioavailability than OC normalized soil concentrations. The above stated hypotheses were confirmed since the results showed that: (i) the PDMS/soil organic carbon partition ratio (R) accounting for the role that OC plays in partitioning significantly differed between soils and aging times and (ii) the correlation with earthworm concentrations was better using porewater concentrations derived from PDMS concentrations than when organic normalized soil concentrations were used. Capsule: Sorption of organic compounds measured by SPME method and their bioavailability to earthworms cannot be reliably predicted using OC content. PMID:24433790

  19. Genotoxic effects of glyphosate or paraquat on earthworm coelomocytes.

    PubMed

    Muangphra, Ptumporn; Kwankua, Wimon; Gooneratne, Ravi

    2014-06-01

    The potential genotoxicity (nuclear anomalies, damage to single-strand DNA) and pinocytic adherence activity of two (glyphosate-based and paraquat-based) commercial herbicides to earthworm coelomocytes (immune cells in the coelomic cavity) were assessed. Coelomocytes were extracted from earthworms (Pheretima peguana) exposed to concentrations earthworms exposed to glyphosate at 25 × 10(-1) (10(-3) LC50) and paraquat at 39 × 10(-5) (10(-4) LC50) ?g cm(-2) filter paper. In earthworms exposed to glyphosate, no differences in tail DNA%, tail length, and tail moment of coelomocytes were detected. In contrast, for paraquat at 10(-1) LC50 concentration, there were significant (P < 0.05) differences between tail DNA % and tail length, and at LC50 concentration, tail moment was also significantly different when compared with controls. A decline in pinocytic adherence activity in coelomocytes occurred on exposure to glyphosate or paraquat at 10(-3) LC50 concentration. This study showed that, at concentrations well below field application rates, paraquat induces both clastogenic and aneugenic effects on earthworm coelomocytes whereas glyphosate causes only aneugenic effects and therefore does not pose a risk of gene mutation in this earthworm. PMID:22644885

  20. Enantioseletive bioaccumulation of tebuconazole in earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dingyi; Li, Jianzhong; Zhang, Yanfeng; Wang, Huili; Guo, Baoyuan; Zheng, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Methods of extraction and determination of tebuconazole enantiomers in earthworm (Eisenia fetida) were developed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Both CE and HPLC have excellent resolution and recovery. The linearity ranges were 2.9-102.4 mg/kg and 3.0-99.6 mg/kg for (+)-R-tebuconazole and (-)-S-tebuconazole respectively in CE, and from 0.56 to 1000 mg/kg for both enantiomers in HPLC. Enantioselective bioaccumulation in earthworms from soil was investigated under laboratory condition at concentrations of 10 and 50 mg/kg dw in soil. The uptake kinetics of (+)-R-tebuconazole fitted the first-order kinetics well with r2 0.97 and 0.94 under 10 and 50 mg/kg dw exposure condition, respectively, while (-)-S-tebuconazole with r2 0.75 and 0.22 did not show the same. Bioaccumulation of tebuconazole in earthworm tissues was enantioselective with a preferential accumulation of (+)-R-tebuconazole. The (+)-R-tebuconazole might also have biomagnifying effect potential in earthworm food chain with biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) of 1.64 kg OC/kg lip in 10 mg/kg dw exposure group and 2.61 kg OC/kg lip in 50 mg/kg dw exposure group from soil to earthworm after 36 days. Although (-)-S-tebuconazole shares the same physicochemical properties with (+)-R-tebuconazole, it did not biomagnify. BSAFs of (-)-S-tebuconazole were 0.50 kg OC/kg lip (10 mg/kg dw tebuconazole exposure) and 0.28 kg OC/kg lip (50 mg/kg dw tebuconazole exposure) after 36 days, which was possibly owing to biotransformation or metabolism in earthworm tissues. PMID:23534218

  1. Bioavailability of nonextractable (bound) pesticide residues to earthworms.

    PubMed

    Gevao, B; Mordaunt, C; Semple, K T; Piearce, T G; Jones, K C

    2001-02-01

    There is an ongoing debate regarding whether nonextractable (bound) pesticide residues in soils are occluded or may remain bioavailable in the long term in the environment. This study investigated the release of 14C-labeled residues, which were previously nonextractable after exhaustive extraction with organic solvents in soils, and their uptake by earthworms (Aporrectodea longa). After a 100-day incubation of soils treated with 14C-labeled atrazine, isoproturon, and dicamba and exhaustive Soxhlet extractions with methanol and dichloromethane, nonextracted 14C-labeled residues remaining in the soils were 18, 70, and 67%, respectively. Adding clean soil in the ratio of 7:1 increased the volumes of these extracted soils. After earthworms had lived in these previously extracted soils for 28 days, 0.02-0.2% of previously bound 14C activity was absorbed into the earthworm tissue. Uptake by earthworms was found to be 2-10 times higher in soils containing freshly introduced 14C-labeled pesticides as compared to soils containing nonextractable 14C-labeled residues. The differential bioavailability observed between freshly introduced 14C-labeled pesticides and those previously nonextractable may be related to the ease of transfer of the 14C activity into the solution phase. By the end of the 28-day incubation period, 3, 23, and 24% of previously nonextractable 14C-labeled isoproturon, dicamba, and atrazine residues, respectively, were extracted by solvents or mineralized to 14CO2. The amounts of 14C activity released were not significantly different in the presence or in the absence of earthworms in soils containing previously nonextractable residues. However, the formation of bound residues was 2, 2, and 4 times lower for freshly introduced 14C-labeled isoproturon, dicamba, and atrazine, respectively, suggesting that the presence of earthworms retarded bound residue formation. PMID:11351720

  2. Bioaccumulation of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) in earthworms in the presence of lead (Pb).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Lin; Liu, Kou; Chen, Lei; Lin, Kuangfei; Chen, Yongsheng; Yan, Zenguang

    2014-07-01

    BDE209 (decabromodiphenyl ether) and lead (Pb) are the main contaminants at e-waste recycling sites, and their potential toxicological effects on terrestrial organisms have received extensive attention. However, the impact on earthworms of exposure to the two chemicals remains almost unknown. Therefore, indoor incubation tests were performed on control and contaminated soil samples to determine the uptake and transformation of BDE209 in the presence of Pb for the first time. The results have demonstrated that Pb addition can affect BDE209 bioaccumulation efficiency compared with exposure to BDE209 alone. For a low BDE209 concentration (1mgkg(-1)), Pb addition barely affected the uptake of BDE209, whereas for a high BDE209 concentration (100mgkg(-1)), Pb addition elicited a complex response. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation indicated that a higher level of Pb (250 and 500mgkg(-1)) facilitated the uptake of BDE209 through the skin. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis showed that the peak of BDE209 accumulation usually appeared in the joint exposure groups involving 10 or 100mgkg(-1) BDE209 and 250mgkg(-1) Pb, and the average bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was 0.53, which is more than 1.2 times that of single exposure to BDE209 (average=0.44). Also, the earthworms eliminated more BDE209 after 21d, and the biodegradation products were mainly BDE206 and BDE208. Furthermore, Pb addition can affect the transformation efficiency of BDE209 in earthworms, and several lower bromodiphenyl ethers can be detected. The results of these observations have provided a basic understanding of the potential ecotoxicological effects of joint PBDE and heavy metal exposure on terrestrial invertebrates. PMID:24556543

  3. Screening of actinomycetes from earthworm castings for their antimicrobial activity and industrial enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vijay; Bharti, Alpana; Negi, Yogesh Kumar; Gusain, Omprakash; Pandey, Piyush; Bisht, Gajraj Singh

    2012-01-01

    Actinomycetes from earthworm castings were isolated and screened for their antimicrobial activity and industrial enzymes. A total of 48 isolates were obtained from 12 samples of earthworm castings. Highest numbers of isolates were recovered from forest site (58.33 %) as compared to grassland (25%) and agricultural land (16.66%). The growth patterns, mycelial coloration of abundance actinomycetes were documented. The dominant genera Identified by cultural, morphological and physiological characteristics were Streptomyces (60.41%) followed by Streptosporangium (10.41%),Saccharopolyspora (6.25%) and Nocardia (6.25%). Besides these, other genera like Micromonospora, Actinomadura, Microbispora, Planobispora and Nocardiopsis were also recovered but in low frequency. Among the 48 isolates, 52.08% were found active against one or more test organisms. Out of 25 active isolates 16% showed activity against bacterial, human fungal as well as phytopathogens. Among 48 isolates 38, 32, 21, 20, 16 and 14 produced enzyme amylase, caseinase, cellulase, gelatinase, xylanase and lipase respectively while 10 isolates produced all the enzymes. More interestingly 2, 3, and 1 isolates produced amylase, xylanase and lipase at 45°C respectively. In the view of its antimicrobial activity as well as enzyme production capability the genus Streptomyces was dominant. The isolate EWC 7(2) was most promising on the basis of its interesting antimicrobial activity and was identified as Streptomyces rochei. The results of these findings have increased the scope of finding industrially important actinomycetes from earthworm castings and these organisms could be promising sources for industrially important molecules or enzymes. PMID:24031819

  4. Accumulation of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, W.N. [Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD (United States)] [Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Chlorinated benzenes are widespread in the environment. Hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene and all isomers of dichlorobenzenes, trichlorobenzenes, and tetrachlorobenzenes, have been detected in fish, water, and sediments from the Great Lakes. They probably entered the water as leachates from chemical waste dumps and as effluents from manufacturing. Hexachlorobenzene and pentachlorobenzene are commonly present in Herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs from the Great Lakes, and some of the isomers of trichlorobenzene and tetrachlorobenzene are occasionally detected at low concentrations. Hexachlorobenzene, which was formerly used as a fungicide, has been the most thoroughly studied chlorinated benzene, and has been detected in many species. Its use as a fungicide in the United States was canceled in 1984. Since about 1975 hexachlorobenzene has been formed mainly in the production of chlorinated solvents. It is highly persistent in the environment and some species are poisoned by hexachlorobenzene at very low chronic dietary exposures. As little as 1 ppm in the diet of mink (Mustela vison) reduced the birth weights of young, and 5 ppm in the diet of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) caused slight liver damage. This paper describes a long-term (26 wk) experiment relating the concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to length of exposure and three 8 wk experiments relating concentration to the concentration in soil the soil organic matter content, and the degree of chlorination. 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. A multi-biomarker risk assessment of the impact of brominated flame retardant-decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) on the antioxidant system of earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Kou; Chen, Lin; Chen, Lei; Lin, Kuangfei; Fu, Rongbing

    2014-07-01

    Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) is the major contaminant at e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs), and its potential toxicological effects on terrestrial organisms have received extensive attention. However, the impacts of BDE209 on the antioxidant defense system in terrestrial organisms remain vague. Therefore, indoor incubation tests were performed systematically on control and contaminated soil samples to determine the effects of BDE209 on the antioxidant system of earthworm Eisenia fetida. The results showed that compared to the controls, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in all treated groups were elevated significantly after 21 and 28 days exposure; catalase (CAT) activities were much higher in all tests during the entire exposure period; peroxidase (POD) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) activities generally decreased and indicated contrary response trend; the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) after exposure to low level of BDE209 (1 mg kg(-1)) was induced, whereas at 10 and 100 mg kg(-1) concentrations it showed suppression status; electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra suggested that hydroxyl radicals (OH) in earthworms were significantly induced by BDE209; the changes in malondialdehyde (MDA) contents suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) might lead to cellular lipid peroxidation in earthworms. The results of these observations suggested that severe oxidative stress occurred in E. fetida, and it may play an important role in inducing the BDE209 toxicity to earthworms. PMID:25016100

  6. {sup 32}P-postlabeling determination of DNA adducts in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris exposed to PAH-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, P. [Laval Univ. Research Center, Quebec (Canada)]|[Ministere de l`Environnement et de la Faune du Quebec (Canada); El Adlouni, C.; Mukhopadhyay, M.J.; Nadeau, D.; Poirier, G.G. [Laval Univ. Research Center, Quebec (Canada); Viel, G. [CreaLab., Quebec (Canada)

    1995-05-01

    The importance of the search for reliable biomarkers of DNA damage in environmental health assessment is well recognized by the scientific community and regulatory agencies. Among the major biomarkers of DNA damage is the measurement of DNA adducts in target cells or tissues. Up to now, DNA adduct determinations have been directed mostly toward human exposure to toxic substances from the workplace and environment. Moreover, techniques for measuring DNA adducts, and in particular the {sup 32}P-postlabelling technique, presented also the possibility of determining DNA adduct levels in endogenous animal populations exposed to polluted environments as early warning monitors of ecotoxicity. Soil contamination is becoming a major environmental issue. Therefore, numerous contaminated sites must now be remediated to protect human health and to permit new uses of these sites as agricultural, residential, or industrial areas. Fulfillment of this task requires standardized and sensitive bioassays to carry out site evaluations and to establish scientifically defensible soil quality criteria. To that effect, the earthworm appears to be one of the best organisms for use in soil toxicity evaluation. Earthworms are probably the most relevant soil species, representing 60 to 80% of the total animal biomass in soil. Present soil bioassays focus mostly on plant species with end points like seed germination, root elongation, seedling growth and seedling emergence, and on acute toxicity evaluation (re: LC 50) on the earthworm Eisenia fetida. As yet, a standardized soil invertebrate test for teratogenic or mutagenic end points has not been developed. In this paper, we report the feasibility of DNA adduct determination by {sup 32}P-postlabelling in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris as a way to detect the presence of genotoxic substances in soils. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Heavy metal concentrations in earthworms from soil amended with sewage sludge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Chaney, R.L.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    Metal concentrations in soil may be elevated considerably when metal-laden sewage sludge is spread on land. Metals in earthworms (Lumbricidae) from agricultural fields amended with sewage sludge and from experimental plots were examined to determine if earthworms are important in transferring metals in soil to wildlife. Earthworms from four sites amended with sludge contained significantly (P . < 0.05) more Cd (12 times), Cu (2.4 times), Zn (2.0 times), and Pb (1.2 times) than did earthworms from control sites, but the concentrations detected varied greatly and depended on the particular sludge application. Generally, Cd and Zn were concentrated by earthworms relative to soil, and Cu, Pb, and Ni were not concentrated. Concentrations of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb in earthworms were correlated (P < 0.05) with those in soil. The ratio of the concentration of metals in earthworms to the concentration of metals in soil tended to be lower in contaminated soil than in clean soil. Concentrations of Cd as high as 100 ppm (dry wt) were detected in earthworms from soil containing only 2 ppm Cd. These concentrations are considered hazardous to wildlife that eat worms. Liming soil decreased Cd concentrations in earthworms slightly (P < 0.05) but had no discernible effect on concentrations of the other metals studied. High Zn concentrations in soil substantially reduced Cd concentrations in earthworms.

  8. Heavy metal concentrations in earthworms from soil amended with sewage slude

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, W.N. (United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Laurel, MD); Chaney, R.L.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1982-07-01

    Metal concentrations in soil may be elevated considerably when metal-laden sewage sludge is spread on land. Metals in earthworms (Lumbricidae) from agicultural fields amended with sewage sludge and from experimental plots were examined to determine if earthworms are important in transferring metals in soil to wildlife. Earthworms from four sites amended with sludge contained significantly (P<0.05) more Cd (12 times), Cu (2.4 times), Zn (2.0 times), and Pb (1.2 times) than did earthworms from control sites, but the concentrations detected varied greatly and depended on the particular sludge application. Generally, Cd and Zn were concentrated by earthworms relative to soil, and Cu, Pb, and Ni were not concentrated. Concentrations of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb in earthworms were correlated (P<0.05) with those in soil. The ratio of the concentration of metals in earthworms to the concentration of metals in soil tended to be lower in contaminated soil than in clean soil. Concentrations of Cd as high as 100 ppm (dry wt) were detected in earthworms from soil containing only 2 ppm Cd. These concentrations are considered hazardous to wildlife that eat worms. Liming soil decreased Cd concentrations in earthworms slightly (P<0.05) but had no discernible effect on concentrations of the other metals studied. High Zn concentrations in soil substantially reduced Cd concentrations in earthworms.

  9. Aqueous and lipid nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomic profiles of the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa show potential as an indicator species for environmental metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jeffrey N; Samuelsson, Linda; Bernardi, Giuliana; Gooneratne, Ravi; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2014-10-01

    The common pasture earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa has often been neglected in environmental metabolomics in favor of species easily bred in the laboratory. The present study assigns aqueous metabolites in A. caliginosa using high-resolution 1- and 2-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In total, 51 aqueous metabolites were identified, including typical amino acids (alanine, leucine, asparagine, phenylalanine), sugars (maltose, glucose), the dominant earthworm-specific 2-hexyl-5-ethyl-furansulfonate, and several previously unreported metabolites (oxoglutarate, putrescine). Examining the lesser-known earthworm lipid metabolome showed various lipid fatty acyl chains, cholesterol, and phosphatidylcholine. To briefly test if the NMR metabolomic techniques could differentiate A. caliginosa from different sites, earthworms were collected from 2 adjacent farms. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis detected metabolomic differences, suggesting the worms from the 2 sites differed in their energy metabolism, as indicated by altered levels of alanine, glutamine, glutamate, malate, fumarate, and lipids. Evidence of greater utilization of lipid energy reserves and onset of protein catabolism was also present. While the precise cause of the metabolomic differences could not be determined, the results show the potential of this species for further environmental metabolomic studies. PMID:24995628

  10. Assessing the ecotoxicological effects of long-term contaminated mine soils on plants and earthworms: relevance of soil (total and available) and body concentrations.

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, Concepción; Esteban, Elvira; Sánchez-Pardo, Beatriz; Fernández, María Dolores

    2014-09-01

    The interactions and relevance of the soil (total and available) concentrations, accumulation, and acute toxicity of several essential and non-essential trace elements were investigated to determine their importance in environmental soil assessment. Three plant species (T. aestivum, R. sativum, and V. sativa) and E. fetida were simultaneously exposed for 21 days to long-term contaminated soils collected from the surroundings of an abandoned pyrite mine. The soils presented different levels of As and metals, mainly Zn and Cu, and were tested at different soil concentrations [12.5, 25, 50, and 100% of contaminated soil/soil (w/w)] to increase the range of total and available soil concentrations necessary for the study. The total concentrations in the soils (of both As and metals) were better predictors of earthworm uptake than were the available concentrations. In plants, the accumulation of metals was related to the available concentrations of Zn and Cu, which could indicate that plants and earthworms accumulate elements from different pools of soil contaminants. Moreover, Zn and Cu, which are essential elements, showed controlled uptake at low concentrations. The external metal concentrations predicted earthworm mortality, whereas in plants, the effects on growth were correlated to the As and metal contents in the plants. In general, the bioaccumulation factors were lower at higher exposure levels, which implies the existence of auto-regulation in the uptake of both essential and non-essential elements by plants and earthworms. PMID:24875255

  11. The Earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae)of Wyoming, USA, Revisited.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This survey of the earthworms from 22 of the 23 counties of Wyoming recorded 13 species of terrestrial Oligochaeta, all members of the family Lumbricidae. One of these species, Aporrectodea limicola, is reported for the first time from the state. Current nomenclature is applied to historical records...

  12. Impact of biochar on earthworm populations: A review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the overwhelming importance of earthworm activity in the soil system, there are a limited number of studies that have examined the impact resulting from biochar addition to soil. Biochar is part of the black carbon continuum of chemo-thermal converted biomass. This review summarizes existing...

  13. ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL DETECTION OF SUBLETHAL NEUROTOXIC EFFECTS IN INTACT EARTHWORMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nervous system of earthworms is a logical site for studying the deleterious effects of many toxic substances because neural functions are often more sensitive to disruption than other physiological processes. However, the sublethal effects of toxicants on neural and behaviora...

  14. The diversity of digestive systems in tropical geophagous earthworms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Lattaud; S Locati; P Mora; C Rouland; P Lavelle

    1998-01-01

    Some of the enzymes found in the gut contents of endogeic geophagous earthworms are produced by ingested microflora. This study compares the origin and activities of glucosidic enzymes present in the gut contents of adult Polypheretima elongata from Sainte Anne (Martinique), Pontoscolex corethrurus from Palma Sola, Veracruz (Mexico) and Millsonia anomala from Lamto (Côte d'Ivoire). Substrates characteristic of plant material

  15. Mechanisms of stabilization of earthworm casts and artificial casts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Y. Marinissen; A. R. Dexter

    1990-01-01

    Fresh casts were collected from the earthworm species Aporrectodea caliginosa, and artificial casts were also made. The casts were subjected to ageing, drying-rewetting, and sterilization by hexanol vapour. Clay dispersion was determined, as a measure of the lack of stability of the casts. Two soils were used, the topsoil of a recently reclaimed polder soil in the Netherlands and the

  16. Earthworm Population Studies : a Comparison of Sampling Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Raw

    1960-01-01

    SVENDSEN1 showed that the estimate of an earthworm population obtained by hand sorting soil samples was much greater than that by the prevalent method of bringing worms to the soil surface with potassium permanganate solution, and so emphasized that, although laborious, hand sorting was more accurate for population studies. The accuracy of estimates by hand sorting has not been studied

  17. TOXICITY OF METALS TO THE EARTHWORM 'EISENIA FETIDA'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development of methods to measure the effect of man's residuals on soil ecosystems is desirable. Earthworms, as one of the largest and most easily obtained components of the soil biota, are suitable for evaluating perturbations to soil ecosystems. The impact of five metals (Cd, C...

  18. Microbial activity and nutrient dynamics in earthworm casts (Lumbricidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Scheu

    1987-01-01

    Microbial respiration, microbial biomass and nutrient requirements of the microflora (C, N, P) were studied in the food substrate (soil taken from the upper 3 cm of the mineral soil of a beech wood on limestone), the burrow walls and the casts of the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny). The passage of the soil through the gut caused an increase in

  19. EARTHWORMS OF THE WESTERN UNITED STATES. PART 1. LUMBRICIDAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The earthworm fauna of the western United States is an amalgam of native and introduced elements. While the native species are mostly members of the family Megascolecidae, and closely related to those of Australia and Southeast Asia, the introduced species are, at least in the No...

  20. Carbon-Mineral Interactions along an Earthworm Invasion Gradient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Lyttle; K. Yoo; A. K. Aufdenkampe; C. Hale; S. D. Sebestyen

    2010-01-01

    We broadly agree that the interactions of organic matter and minerals contribute to soils' capacity to store carbon. Such interactions may be controlled by the processes that determine the availability of organic matter and minerals and their physical contacts. One of these processes is bioturbation, and earthworms are the best known organisms that physically mix soils. We are studying carbon

  1. Treatment Planning Constraints to Avoid Xerostomia in Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy: An Independent Test of QUANTEC Criteria Using a Prospectively Collected Dataset

    SciTech Connect

    Moiseenko, Vitali, E-mail: vmoiseenko@bccancer.bc.ca [Department of Medical Physics, Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Wu, Jonn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Hovan, Allan [Department of Oral Oncology, Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Saleh, Ziad; Apte, Aditya; Deasy, Joseph O. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Harrow, Stephen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Rabuka, Carman; Muggli, Adam [Department of Oral Oncology, Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Thompson, Anna [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: The severe reduction of salivary function (xerostomia) is a common complication after radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer. Consequently, guidelines to ensure adequate function based on parotid gland tolerance dose-volume parameters have been suggested by the QUANTEC group and by Ortholan et al. We perform a validation test of these guidelines against a prospectively collected dataset and compared with a previously published dataset. Methods and Materials: Whole-mouth stimulated salivary flow data from 66 head-and-neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy at the British Columbia Cancer Agency (BCCA) were measured, and treatment planning data were abstracted. Flow measurements were collected from 50 patients at 3 months, and 60 patients at 12-month follow-up. Previously published data from a second institution, Washington University in St. Louis (WUSTL), were used for comparison. A logistic model was used to describe the incidence of Grade 4 xerostomia as a function of the mean dose of the spared parotid gland. The rate of correctly predicting the lack of xerostomia (negative predictive value [NPV]) was computed for both the QUANTEC constraints and Ortholan et al. recommendation to constrain the total volume of both glands receiving more than 40 Gy to less than 33%. Results: Both datasets showed a rate of xerostomia of less than 20% when the mean dose to the least-irradiated parotid gland is kept to less than 20 Gy. Logistic model parameters for the incidence of xerostomia at 12 months after therapy, based on the least-irradiated gland, were D{sub 50} = 32.4 Gy and and {gamma} = 0.97. NPVs for QUANTEC guideline were 94% (BCCA data), and 90% (WUSTL data). For Ortholan et al. guideline NPVs were 85% (BCCA) and 86% (WUSTL). Conclusion: These data confirm that the QUANTEC guideline effectively avoids xerostomia, and this is somewhat more effective than constraints on the volume receiving more than 40 Gy.

  2. Ternary toxicological interactions of insecticides, herbicides, and a heavy metal on the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhua; Chen, Chen; Qian, Yongzhong; Zhao, Xueping; Wang, Qiang

    2015-03-01

    The combined toxicities of five insecticides (chlorpyrifos, avermectin, imidacloprid, ?-cyhalothrin, and phoxim), two herbicides (atrazine and butachlor), and a heavy metal (cadmium) have been examined using the acute toxicity test on the earthworm. With a concentration of 2.75 mg/kg being lethal for 50% of the organisms, imidacloprid exhibited the highest acute toxicity toward the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Toxicological interactions of these chemicals in ternary mixtures were studied using the combination-index (CI) equation method. Twenty-one ternary mixtures exhibited various interactive effects, in which 11 combinations showed synergistic effects, four led to dual synergistic/additive behaviors, one exhibited an additive effect, and five showed increasing antagonism within the entire range of effects. The CI method was compared with the classical models of concentration addition and independent action, and it was found that the CI method could accurately predict combined toxicity of the chemicals studied. The predicted synergism in the majority of the mixtures, especially at low-effect levels, might have implications in the real terrestrial environment. PMID:25463238

  3. Effects of PAHs and dioxins on the earthworm Eisenia andrei: a multivariate approach for biomarker interpretation.

    PubMed

    Sforzini, Susanna; Moore, Michael N; Boeri, Marta; Bencivenga, Mauro; Viarengo, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a battery of biomarkers was utilised to evaluate the stress syndrome induced in the earthworm Eisenia andrei by exposure to environmentally realistic concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD) in OECD soil. The set of tests was then employed to assess the toxicity of field soils contaminated with organic xenobiotic compounds (such as PAHs, dioxins and PCBs). The results highlighted an impairment of immune and metabolic functions and genotoxic damage in worms exposed also to lower bioavailable concentrations of toxic chemicals. Multivariate analysis of biomarker data showed that all different contaminated soils had a detrimental effect on the earthworms. A separation between temporal and concentration factors was also evident for B[a]P and TCDD treatments; and field contaminated soils were further differentiated reflecting a diverse contamination. Multivariate analysis also demonstrated that lysosomal membrane stability can be considered a prognostic indicator for worm health status. PMID:25305466

  4. Urban soil biomonitoring by beetle and earthworm populations

    SciTech Connect

    Janossy, L.; Bitto, A. [ELTE Univ., Budapest (Hungary)

    1995-12-31

    Two macro invertebrate groups were chosen for biomonitoring environmental changes. The beetle population was pitfall trapped (five month in 1994) at five downtown sites (parks) of Budapest and in a hilly original woodland as a control site 33km NW of Budapest. Earthworms were collected by using formol solution. Five heavy metals were measured (Pb, Co, Hg, Zn, Cu) in the upper soil layer at the same sampling sites. Pb, Hg, Zn and Cu was over the tolerable limit in a park near the railway, extreme high Pb (530 mg/kg dry soil) and Zn content was measured in one park. Roads are also salted in wintertime. The number of beetle species in the downtown parks varied 10 to 22 (226--462 specimen). Near to the edge of the city up to 45 beetle species were found in a park with 1,027 specimen. In the woodland area 52 beetle species with 1,061 specimen were found. Less dominance and higher specific diversity showed the direction from downtown to woodland. Only 2 or 3 cosmopolitan earthworm species existed in downtown parks with 30--35 specimen/m{sup 2}, in the control woodland area 7 mostly endemic earthworm species were found with 74 specimens/m{sup 2}. But earthworm biomass was higher in three well fertilized parks (43--157 g/m{sup 2}), than in the original woodland (25-g/m{sup 2}). The beetle populations seem to be good tools for biomonitoring. Earthworms are susceptible to environmental changes but they also strongly depend on the leaf litter and the organic matter of the soil. The change in the animal populations is the result of summarized environmental impacts in such a big city like Budapest.

  5. Accumulation of heavy metals in the earthworm Eisenia foetida

    SciTech Connect

    Hartenstein, R. (State Univ. of New York, Syracuse); Neuhauser, E.F.; Collier, J.

    1980-01-01

    Conversion of waste-activated sludge into egesta by the earthworm Eisenia foetida resulted in neither an increase nor decrease of 0.1 N HCl-extractable cadmium, copper, nickel, lead, or zinc. The addition of 2500 ppM copper as copper sulfate to activated sludge caused 100% mortality whthin 1 week, though feeding upon nonamended activated sludges with up to 1500 ppM copper over several months was innocuous. Amendment of sludge with 10, 50, and 100 ppM Cd as CdSO/sub 4/ resulted in 3.90-, 2.04-, and 1.44-fold concentrations in the earthworm over the quantities present in the sludge, with a range of 118 to 170 ppM being found on exposure to the highest level for periods of 1 to 5 weeks at 25/sup 0/C. In field trials with nonamended sludge, however, containing 12 to 27 ppM Cd, biweekly sampling for 28 weeks revealed accumulations in E. foetida ranging from 8 to 46 ppM; control earthworms not exposed to culture media with easily measurable Cd levels contained 0.3 to 2 ppM Cd. Upwards to about 50 ppM Ni, 325 ppM Pb, and 250 ppM Zn accumulated from sludges amended with ionic soluble forms of these metals. In the field, where these metals ranged from 2 to 46, 1 to 53, and 68 to 210 ppM, respectively, an upper concentration of about 50 ppM Ni, 55 ppM Pb, and 250 ppM Zn were found in the earthworm. Distinctions were made between accumulable and concentratable and a discussion is provided to show that each of the most problematic heavy metals, Cd, Zn, Ni, Pb, and Cu, may accumulate or concentrate in the earthworm.

  6. Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swihart, Donald E.; Skoog, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    This document represents two views of the Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). One viewgraph presentation reviews the development and system design of Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). Two types of ACAT exist: Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance (AGCAS) and Automatic Air Collision Avoidance (AACAS). The AGCAS Uses Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) for mapping functions, and uses Navigation data to place aircraft on map. It then scans DTED in front of and around aircraft and uses future aircraft trajectory (5g) to provide automatic flyup maneuver when required. The AACAS uses data link to determine position and closing rate. It contains several canned maneuvers to avoid collision. Automatic maneuvers can occur at last instant and both aircraft maneuver when using data link. The system can use sensor in place of data link. The second viewgraph presentation reviews the development of a flight test and an evaluation of the test. A review of the operation and comparison of the AGCAS and a pilot's performance are given. The same review is given for the AACAS is given.

  7. Effect of Earthworm Feeding Guilds on Ingested Dissimilatory Nitrate Reducers and Denitrifiers in the Alimentary Canal of the Earthworm ? †

    PubMed Central

    Depkat-Jakob, Peter S.; Hilgarth, Maik; Horn, Marcus A.; Drake, Harold L.

    2010-01-01

    The earthworm gut is an anoxic nitrous oxide (N2O)-emitting microzone in aerated soils. In situ conditions of the gut might stimulate ingested nitrate-reducing soil bacteria linked to this emission. The objective of this study was to determine if dissimilatory nitrate reducers and denitrifiers in the alimentary canal were affected by feeding guilds (epigeic [Lumbricus rubellus], anecic [Lumbricus terrestris], and endogeic [Aporrectodea caliginosa]). Genes and gene transcripts of narG (encodes a subunit of nitrate reductase and targets both dissimilatory nitrate reducers and denitrifiers) and nosZ (encodes a subunit of N2O reductase and targets denitrifiers) were detected in guts and soils. Gut-derived sequences were similar to those of cultured and uncultured soil bacteria and to soil-derived sequences obtained in this study. Gut-derived narG sequences and narG terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) were affiliated mainly with Gram-positive organisms (Actinobacteria). The majority of gut- and uppermost-soil-derived narG transcripts were affiliated with Mycobacterium (Actinobacteria). In contrast, narG sequences indicative of Gram-negative organisms (Proteobacteria) were dominant in mineral soil. Most nosZ sequences and nosZ TRFs were affiliated with Bradyrhizobium (Alphaproteobacteria) and uncultured soil bacteria. TRF profiles indicated that nosZ transcripts were more affected by earthworm feeding guilds than were nosZ genes, whereas narG transcripts were less affected by earthworm feeding guilds than were narG genes. narG and nosZ transcripts were different and less diverse in the earthworm gut than in mineral soil. The collective results indicate that dissimilatory nitrate reducers and denitrifiers in the earthworm gut are soil derived and that ingested narG- and nosZ-containing taxa were not uniformly stimulated in the guts of worms from different feeding guilds. PMID:20656855

  8. Method for determining toxicologically relevant cadmium residues in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason M. Conder; Lisa D. Seals; Roman P. Lanno

    2002-01-01

    We investigated a method to isolate toxicologically relevant Cd in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed in a 14-d Cd bioaccumulation study. A procedure involving acid insoluble ash (AIA) content was combined with homogenization and centrifugation techniques to divide total earthworm Cd burdens into supernatant (metallothionein-bound), pellet (toxicologically active), and soil-associated Cd fractions. Whereas the supernatant fraction of the earthworm digests increased

  9. Earthworm and belowground competition effects on plant productivity in a plant diversity gradient.

    PubMed

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Milcu, Alexandru; Nitschke, Norma; Sabais, Alexander C W; Scherber, Christoph; Scheu, Stefan

    2009-08-01

    Diversity is one major factor driving plant productivity in temperate grasslands. Although decomposers like earthworms are known to affect plant productivity, interacting effects of plant diversity and earthworms on plant productivity have been neglected in field studies. We investigated in the field the effects of earthworms on plant productivity, their interaction with plant species and functional group richness, and their effects on belowground plant competition. In the framework of the Jena Experiment we determined plant community productivity (in 2004 and 2007) and performance of two phytometer plant species [Centaurea jacea (herb) and Lolium perenne (grass); in 2007 and 2008] in a plant species (from one to 16) and functional group richness gradient (from one to four). We sampled earthworm subplots and subplots with decreased earthworm density and reduced aboveground competition of phytometer plants by removing the shoot biomass of the resident plant community. Earthworms increased total plant community productivity (+11%), legume shoot biomass (+35%) and shoot biomass of the phytometer C. jacea (+21%). Further, phytometer performance decreased, i.e. belowground competition increased, with increasing plant species and functional group richness. Although single plant functional groups benefited from higher earthworm numbers, the effects did not vary with plant species and functional group richness. The present study indicates that earthworms indeed affect the productivity of semi-natural grasslands irrespective of the diversity of the plant community. Belowground competition increased with increasing plant species diversity. However, belowground competition was modified by earthworms as reflected by increased productivity of the phytometer C. jacea. Moreover, particularly legumes benefited from earthworm presence. Considering also previous studies, we suggest that earthworms and legumes form a loose mutualistic relationship affecting essential ecosystem functions in temperate grasslands, in particular decomposition and plant productivity. Further, earthworms likely alter competitive interactions among plants and the structure of plant communities by beneficially affecting certain plant functional groups. PMID:19526252

  10. Accumulation of methylmercury in the earthworm, Eisenia foetida, and its effect on regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, W.N.; Cromartie, E.; Moment, G.B.

    1985-08-01

    Earthworms provide an appropriate model for evaluating the environmental hazards of metals in soil, and they are also excellent organisms for studying the process of regeneration. Two studies have found that concentrations of mercury in earthworms were higher than those in the soil where they lived. This study investigates the accumulation of methylmercury in the earthworm, Eisenia foetida (Savigny), and its effect on regeneration after excision of the caudal end.

  11. Gene expression analysis of CL-20-induced reversible neurotoxicity reveals GABA(A) receptors as potential targets in the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ping; Guan, Xin; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Liang, Chun; Perkins, Edward J

    2012-01-17

    The earthworm Eisenia fetida is one of the most used species in standardized soil ecotoxicity tests. End points such as survival, growth, and reproduction are eco-toxicologically relevant but provide little mechanistic insight into toxicity pathways, especially at the molecular level. Here we apply a toxicogenomic approach to investigate the mode of action underlying the reversible neurotoxicity of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20), a cyclic nitroamine explosives compound. We developed an E. fetida-specific shotgun microarray targeting 15119 unique E. fetida transcripts. Using this array we profiled gene expression in E. fetida in response to exposure to CL-20. Eighteen earthworms were exposed for 6 days to 0.2 ?g/cm(2) of CL-20 on filter paper, half of which were allowed to recover in a clean environment for 7 days. Nine vehicle control earthworms were sacrificed at days 6 and 13, separately. Electrophysiological measurements indicated that the conduction velocity of earthworm medial giant nerve fiber decreased significantly after 6-day exposure to CL-20, but was restored after 7 days of recovery. Total RNA was isolated from the four treatment groups including 6-day control, 6-day exposed, 13-day control, and 13-day exposed (i.e., 6-day exposure followed by 7-day recovery), and was hybridized to the 15K shotgun oligo array. Statistical and bioinformatic analyses suggest that CL-20 initiated neurotoxicity by noncompetitively blocking the ligand-gated GABA(A) receptor ion channel, leading to altered expression of genes involved in GABAergic, cholinergic, and Agrin-MuSK pathways. In the recovery phase, expression of affected genes returned to normality, possibly as a result of autophagy and CL-20 dissociation/metabolism. This study provides significant insights into potential mechanisms of CL-20-induced neurotoxicity and the recovery of earthworms from transient neurotoxicity stress. PMID:22191394

  12. Susceptibility of epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida to agricultural application of six insecticides.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R Das; Chakravorty, P P; Kaviraj, A

    2011-07-01

    Ecotoxicological risks of agricultural application of six insecticides to soil organisms were evaluated by acute toxicity tests under laboratory condition following OECD guidelines using the epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida as the test organism. The organochlorine insecticide endosulfan (LC(50) - 0.002 mg kg(-1)) and the carbamate insecticides aldicarb (LC(50) - 9.42 mg kg(-1)) and carbaryl (LC(50) - 14.81 mg kg(-1)) were found ecologically most dangerous because LC(50) values of these insecticides were lower than the respective recommended agricultural dose (RAD). Although E. fetida was found highly susceptible to the pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin (LC(50) - 0.054 mg kg(-1)), the value was higher than its RAD. The organophosphate insecticides chlorpyrifos (LC(50) - 28.58 mg kg(-1)), and monocrotophos (LC(50) - 39.75 mg kg(-1)) were found less toxic and ecologically safe because the LC(50) values were much higher than their respective RAD. PMID:21489602

  13. Received 28 Apr 2013 | Accepted 9 Sep 2013 | Published 15 Oct 2013 Earthworms facilitate carbon sequestration through

    E-print Network

    Neher, Deborah A.

    carbon sequestration through unequal amplification of carbon stabilization compared with mineralization carbon would entirely reflect the earthworms' contribution to net carbon sequestration. We show how two widespread earthworm invaders affect net carbon sequestration through impacts on the balance of carbon

  14. Mobilizing Communities to Implement Tested and Effective Programs to Help Youth Avoid Risky Behaviors: The Communities That Care Approach. Research Brief. Publication #2011-25

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, J. David; Catalano, Richard F.; Kuklinski, Margaret R.

    2011-01-01

    Communities across the country have a vested interest in making sure that young people develop into healthy productive citizens and avoid behaviors that can jeopardize their own health and well-being and threaten the well-being of their families and neighborhoods as well. Substance abuse and delinquency are prime examples of behaviors that get in…

  15. Pattern Avoidability with Involution

    E-print Network

    Bischoff, Bastian; 10.4204/EPTCS.63.10

    2011-01-01

    An infinte word w avoids a pattern p with the involution t if there is no substitution for the variables in p and no involution t such that the resulting word is a factor of w. We investigate the avoidance of patterns with respect to the size of the alphabet. For example, it is shown that the pattern a t(a) a can be avoided over three letters but not two letters, whereas it is well known that a a a is avoidable over two letters.

  16. Recent advances in the Lesser Antilles observatoriesRecent advances in the Lesser Antilles observatories Part 1 : Seismic Data Acquisition Design based on EarthWorm andPart 1 : Seismic Data Acquisition Design based on EarthWorm and

    E-print Network

    Beauducel, François

    observatories Part 1 : Seismic Data Acquisition Design based on EarthWorm andPart 1 : Seismic Data Acquisition Design based on EarthWorm and SeisComPSeisComP Jean-Marie SAUREL (2,1), Frédéric RANDRIAMORA (3 observatories community : EarthWorm and SeisComP. The first is renowned for its ability to process real time

  17. In situ localization and substrate specificity of earthworm protease-II and protease-III-1 from Eisenia fetida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Zhao; Rong Xiao; Jian He; Rong Pan; Rong Fan; Cheng Wu; Xiang Liu; Ying Liu; Rong-Qiao He

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the function in fibrinolysis of earthworm proteases has been studied. In our experiments, earthworm protease-II (EfP-II) and earthworm protease-III-1 (EfP-III-1) were isolated and purified from Eisenia fetida. As shown by the assay of sections of the earthworm on fibrin plates, the enzymic activity was mainly detected around the clitellum. In the presence of anti-EfP-II or anti-EfP-III-1 serum, the immunological

  18. Earthworm Is a Versatile and Sustainable Biocatalyst for Organic Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Zhi; Chen, Yan-Li; Yuan, Yi; Song, Jian; Yang, Da-Cheng; Xue, Yang; He, Yan-Hong

    2014-01-01

    A crude extract of earthworms was used as an eco-friendly, environmentally benign, and easily accessible biocatalyst for various organic synthesis including the asymmetric direct aldol and Mannich reactions, Henry and Biginelli reactions, direct three-component aza-Diels-Alder reactions for the synthesis of isoquinuclidines, and domino reactions for the synthesis of coumarins. Most of these reactions have never before seen in nature, and moderate to good enantioselectivities in aldol and Mannich reactions were obtained with this earthworm catalyst. The products can be obtained in preparatively useful yields, and the procedure does not require any additional cofactors or special equipment. This work provides an example of a practical way to use sustainable catalysts from nature. PMID:25148527

  19. Using Flow Cytometry to Measure Phagocytic Uptake in Earthworms

    PubMed Central

    Fuller-Espie, Sheryl L.

    2010-01-01

    This laboratory module familiarizes students with flow cytometry while acquiring quantitative reasoning skills during data analysis. Leukocytes, also known as coelomocytes (including hyaline and granular amoebocytes, and chloragocytes), from Eisenia hortensis (earthworms) are isolated from the coelomic cavity and used for phagocytosis of fluorescent Escherichia coli. Students learn how to set up in vitro cellular assays and become familiar with theoretical principles of flow cytometry. Histograms based on fluorescence and scatter properties combined with gating options permit students to restrict their analyses to particular subsets of coelomocytes when measuring phagocytosis, a fundamentally important innate immune mechanism used in earthworms. Statistical analysis of data is included in laboratory reports which serve as the primary assessment instrument. PMID:23653715

  20. Earthworm-Mycorrhiza Interactions Can Affect the Diversity, Structure and Functioning of Establishing Model Grassland Communities

    PubMed Central

    Zaller, Johann G.; Heigl, Florian; Grabmaier, Andrea; Lichtenegger, Claudia; Piller, Katja; Allabashi, Roza; Frank, Thomas; Drapela, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Both earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important ecosystem engineers co-occurring in temperate grasslands. However, their combined impacts during grassland establishment are poorly understood and have never been studied. We used large mesocosms to study the effects of different functional groups of earthworms (i.e., vertically burrowing anecics vs. horizontally burrowing endogeics) and a mix of four AMF taxa on the establishment, diversity and productivity of plant communities after a simulated seed rain of 18 grassland species comprising grasses, non-leguminous forbs and legumes. Moreover, effects of earthworms and/or AMF on water infiltration and leaching of ammonium, nitrate and phosphate were determined after a simulated extreme rainfall event (40 l m?2). AMF colonisation of all three plant functional groups was altered by earthworms. Seedling emergence and diversity was reduced by anecic earthworms, however only when AMF were present. Plant density was decreased in AMF-free mesocosms when both anecic and endogeic earthworms were active; with AMF also anecics reduced plant density. Plant shoot and root biomass was only affected by earthworms in AMF-free mesocosms: shoot biomass increased due to the activity of either anecics or endogeics; root biomass increased only when anecics were active. Water infiltration increased when earthworms were present in the mesocosms but remained unaffected by AMF. Ammonium leaching was increased only when anecics or a mixed earthworm community was active but was unaffected by AMF; nitrate and phosphate leaching was neither affected by earthworms nor AMF. Ammonium leaching decreased with increasing plant density, nitrate leaching decreased with increasing plant diversity and density. In order to understand the underlying processes of these interactions further investigations possibly under field conditions using more diverse belowground communities are required. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that belowground-aboveground linkages involving earthworms and AMF are important mediators of the diversity, structure and functioning of plant communities. PMID:22216236

  1. Impacts of elevated CO2 and O3 on aspen leaf litter chemistry and earthworm and springtail productivity

    E-print Network

    Impacts of elevated CO2 and O3 on aspen leaf litter chemistry and earthworm and springtail dioxide Collembola Decomposition Earthworm Growth Leaf litter Ozone Soil a b s t r a c t Human alteration and ozone on aspen (Populus tremuloides) leaf litter chemistry, earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) individual

  2. Managing Earthworm Castings (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) in Turfgrass using a Natural By-Product of Tea Oil (Camellia sp.) Manufacture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Earthworm casts are a problem on golf courses and sport fields when they disrupt the playability, aesthetics, and maintenance of playing surfaces. Abundant earthworms alongside airport runways can increase bird strike risk. Currently no pesticides are labeled for earthworms in the United States. W...

  3. Allometric estimation of earthworm ash-free dry mass from diameters and lengths of select megascolecid and lumbricid species

    E-print Network

    Tiegs, Scott

    Allometric estimation of earthworm ash-free dry mass from diameters and lengths of select-free dry mass allometric equations for seven earthworm species from the families Megascolecidae the two earthworm families, significant differences in slopes of length­biomass regressions existed among

  4. The development of genetically inherited resistance to zinc in laboratory-selected generations of the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    E-print Network

    Hopkin, Steve

    of the earthworm Eisenia fetida D.J. Spurgeon a, *, S.P. Hopkin b a Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Monks Wood. # 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Earthworm; Zinc; Selection; Resistance-history characteristics of the F1 and F2 progeny of Orchesella cincta from contaminated sites. For earthworms, indirect

  5. Neutral red retention by lysosomes from earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) coelomocytes: A simple biomarker of exposure to soil copper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claus Svendsen

    1996-01-01

    A simple subcellular histochemical staining technique employing the lysosomal probe neutral red has been developed for use with the epiendogeic earthworm Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister. Coelomocytes extracted from the coelomic cavity of earthworms into an isotonic earthworm Ringer solution were allowed to adhere to a microscope slide for 30 s before the application of a neutral red dye. This red dye

  6. Effect of organic manure and the endogeic earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus (Oligochaeta: Glossoscolecidae) on soil fertility and bean

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Effect of organic manure and the endogeic earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus (Oligochaeta) and the inoculation of the endogeic earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus on pod production of Vigna unguiculata of earthworms at a density of 80 sub-adults m­2 did not significantly affect either pod production or soil

  7. Elemental and mineralogical changes in soils due to bioturbation along an earthworm invasion chronosequence in Northern Minnesota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn Resner; Kyungsoo Yoo; Cindy Hale; Anthony Aufdenkampe; Alex Blum; Stephen Sebestyen

    2011-01-01

    Minnesota forested soils have evolved without the presence of earthworms since the last glacial retreat. When exotic earthworms arrive, enhanced soil bioturbation often results in dramatic morphological and chemical changes in soils with negative implications for the forests’ sustainability. However, the impacts of earthworm invasion on geochemical processes in soils are not well understood. This study attempts to quantify the

  8. Toxicity testing of trinitrotoluene-contaminated soil composts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Honeycutt; V. A. McFarland; A. S. Jarvis

    1997-01-01

    The Mutatox{trademark} assay and earthworm acute toxicity test were employed to evaluate the efficacy of composting in reducing the toxicity of TNT-contaminated soils. The Mutatox assay is a proprietary bacterial bioluminescence test that determines the mutagenic potential of sample extracts. The earthworm acute toxicity test was chosen because it exposes the organisms to the unaltered contaminant\\/solid matrix. Rockeye soil, a

  9. Earthworms and Their Use in Eco(toxico)logical Modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willie J. G. M. Peijnenburg; Martina G. Vijver

    \\u000a A healthy terrestrial food web is essential for the sustainable use of soils. Earthworms are key species within terrestrial\\u000a food webs and perform a number of essential functionalities like decomposition of organic litter, tillage and aeration of\\u000a the soil, and enhancement of microbial activity. Chemicals may impact the functions of the soil by directly affecting one\\u000a or more of these

  10. The effects of scopolamine and the nootropic drug phenotropil on rat brain neurotransmitter receptors during testing of the conditioned passive avoidance task

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. Yu. Firstova; D. A. Abaimov; I. G. Kapitsa; T. A. Voronina; G. I. Kovalev

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effects of administration of the new nootropic drug phenotropil (N-carbamoylmethyl-4-phenyl-2-pyrrolidone) at a dose of 100 mg\\/kg on the quantitative characteristics of dopamine (DA), serotonin\\u000a (5-HT), glutamate (NMDA), GABA-A (BDZ), and acetylcholine (nACh) receptors in rats using the conditioned passive avoidance\\u000a task (PAT) under normal conditions and during scopolamine-induced amnesia ex vivo. We found that the cholinolytic drug

  11. Earthworm-produced calcite granules: A new terrestrial palaeothermometer?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versteegh, Emma A. A.; Black, Stuart; Canti, Matthew G.; Hodson, Mark E.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we show for the first time that calcite granules, produced by the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris, and commonly recorded at sites of archaeological interest, accurately reflect temperature and soil water ?18O values. Earthworms were cultivated in an orthogonal combination of two different (granule-free) soils moistened by three types of mineral water and kept at three temperatures (10, 16 and 20 °C) for an acclimatisation period of three weeks followed by transfer to identical treatments and cultivation for a further four weeks. Earthworm-secreted calcite granules were collected from the second set of soils. ?18O values were determined on individual calcite granules (?18Oc) and the soil solution (?18Ow). The ?18Oc values reflect soil solution ?18Ow values and temperature, but are consistently enriched by 1.51 (± 0.12)‰ in comparison to equilibrium in synthetic carbonates. The data fit the equation 1000 ln ? = [20.21 ± 0.92] (103 T-1) - [38.58 ± 3.18] (R2 = 0.95; n = 96; p < 0.0005). As the granules are abundant in modern soils, buried soils and archaeological contexts, and can be dated using U-Th disequilibria, the developed palaeotemperature relationship has enormous potential for application to Holocene and Pleistocene time intervals.

  12. In vitro nanoparticle toxicity to rat alveolar cells and coelomocytes from the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus.

    PubMed

    van der Ploeg, Merel J C; van den Berg, Johannes H J; Bhattacharjee, Sourav; de Haan, Laura H J; Ershov, Dmitry S; Fokkink, Remco G; Zuilhof, Han; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; van den Brink, Nico W

    2014-02-01

    Sensitivity of immune cells (coelomocytes) of Lumbricus rubellus earthworms was investigated for exposure to selected nanoparticles, in order to obtain further insight in mechanisms of effects observed after in vivo C60 exposure. In the in vivo study, tissue damage appeared to occur without accompanying increased immune responses. Coelomocytes exposed in vitro to C60 showed no decrease of their cellular viability, but demonstrated a decrease in gene expression of the cytokine-like protein CCF-1, indicating immunosuppression. Experiments with NR8383 rat macrophage cells and tri-block copolymer nanoparticles were used to compare sensitivity and to demonstrate the usefulness of coelomocytes as a test system for nano-immunotoxicity, respectively. Overall, the results imply that sensitivity towards nanoparticles differs between cell types and nanoparticles. Moreover, this study indicates that injuries in absence of an immune response, observed after in vivo C60 exposure in our earlier work, are caused by immunosuppression rather than coelomocyte mortality. PMID:23102209

  13. Bioaccumulation of 14C60 by the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Fortner, John D; Johnson, David R; Chen, Chun; Li, Qilin; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2010-12-01

    Carbon fullerenes, including buckminsterfullerene (C(60)), are increasingly available for numerous applications, thus increasing the likelihood of environmental release. This calls for information about their bioavailability and bioaccumulation potential. In this study, (14)C-labeled C(60) and (14)C-phenanthrene (positive control) were added separately to soils of varying composition and organic carbon content (OC), and their bioaccumulation in the earthworm Eisenia fetida was compared. Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) were measured after 24 h depuration in soils with high C(60) dosages (60, 100, and 300 mg-C(60) kg(-1) dry soil), which exceed the soil sorption capacity, as well as in soils with a low C(60) dose (0.25 mg kg(-1)) conducive to a high fraction of sorbed molecular C(60). The BSAF value for the low-dose soil (0.427) was 1 order of magnitude lower than for less hydrophobic phenanthrene (7.93), inconsistent with the equilibrium partition theory that suggests that BSAF should be constant and independent of the K(OW) value of the chemical. Apparently, the large molecular size of C(60) hinders uptake and bioaccumulation. Lower BSAF values (0.065-0.13) were measured for high-dose soils, indicating that C(60) bioaccumulates more readily when a higher fraction of molecular C(60) (rather than larger precipitates) is available. For the high-dose tests (heterogeneous C(60) system), soil OC content did not significantly affect the extent of C(60) bioaccumulation after 28 d of incubation, although higher OC content resulted in faster initial bioaccumulation. For low-dose soils, C(60) BSAF decreased with increasing soil OC, as commonly reported for hydrophobic chemicals due to partitioning into soil OC. There was no detectable transformation of (14)C(60) in either soil or worm tissue. Overall, the relatively low extent but rapid bioaccumulation of C(60) in E. fetida suggests the need for further studies on the potential for trophic transfer and biomagnification. PMID:21049992

  14. Why are earthWorms important? Only a few decades ago, the predominating

    E-print Network

    Kaye, Jason P.

    . Earthworms increase porosity by two mechanisms: (1) by creating permanent burrows, and (2) by improving soil crops, climate, soil, and living organisms play important roles in sustaining our agriculture. Earthworms are among the most visible of soil organisms and have received considerable attention. They play

  15. Abstract This study addressed differences between Dip-locardia spp. (a native North American earthworm) and

    E-print Network

    Blair, John

    Abstract This study addressed differences between Dip- locardia spp. (a native North American undis- turbed soils, native North American earthworms persist (James 1990), and the ecology, comparatively little is known about the influences of European earthworm taxa on processes in undisturbed native

  16. Earthworms and radionuclides, with experimental investigations on the uptake and exchangeability of radiocaesium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Brown; J. N. B. Bell

    1995-01-01

    The potential influence of earthworm activity on the mobility of radionuclides in soils and their subsequent availability for uptake by plants and transfer to higher trophic levels is briefly reviewed. The accumulation of caesium by the earthworm Aporrectodea longa from soil and from plant litter was investigated in laboratory experiments, as was the effect of reworking (through burrowing and ingestion)

  17. Effects of nine insecticides on the numbers and biomass of earthworms in pasture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. TrIoMPsoN

    1971-01-01

    Summary The effects of nine insecticides on the numbers and biomass of earthworms were studied three weeks after plots in pasture were treated. Dursban, BAYER 37289 and DDT had very little effect, but Dasanit, carbofuran and Stauffer N-2596 drastically lessened numbers and biomass of earthworms sampled with formalin solution. BUX, endrin and carbaryl did not lessen numbers by more than

  18. Microorganism-earthworm Integrated Biological Treatment Process - a Sewage Treatment Option for Rural Settlements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    XING Meiyan; YANG Jian

    Condensed abstract: The microorganism-earthworm integrated biological treatment process was an option for decentralized wastewater treatment, especially for rural settlements. The experimental results show that when the hydraulic retention time of the anaerobic reactor varies from 6h to 9h and the hydraulic loading of the earthworm reactor varies from 2 to 3 m 3 \\/(m 2 ·d), the removal efficiencies were

  19. Portable Conduction Velocity Experiments Using Earthworms for the College and High School Neuroscience Teaching Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Kyle M.; Gage, Gregory J.; Jankovic, Aleksandra; Wilson, W. Jeffrey; Marzullo, Timothy C.

    2014-01-01

    The earthworm is ideal for studying action potential conduction velocity in a classroom setting, as its simple linear anatomy allows easy axon length measurements and the worm's sparse coding allows single action potentials to be easily identified. The earthworm has two giant fiber systems (lateral and medial) with different conduction…

  20. Earthworm Populations and Association with Soil Parameters in Organic and Conventional Ley Pastures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Bithell; L. H. Booth; S. D. Wratten; V. J. Heppelthwaite

    2005-01-01

    Earthworm density, age structure, species composition and biomass, and soil biological, chemical and physical parameters (n = 24) were compared between pairs (n = 6) of organic and conventional ley pastures on mixed cropping farms in New Zealand. No differences in population density or biomass of the earthworm species Aporrectodea caliginosa, A. trapezoides, Lumbricus rubellus or Octolasion cyaneum were detected

  1. A new ultrasound protocol for extrusion of coelomocyte cells from the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Hendawi; S Sauvé; M Ashour; P Brousseau; Michel Fournier

    2004-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that earthworms could be used as a sentinel species for soil ecotoxicity evaluation. In this aspect, phagocytosis by coelomocytes was shown to be a sensitive biomarker of exposure to xenobiotics. In this paper, we introduce a simple method for ultrasound extrusion of earthworm coelomocytes that generates a high cell yield, does not interfere with phagocytic competence,

  2. The role of earthworms for assessment of sustainability and as bioindicators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurizio G. Paoletti

    1999-01-01

    Earthworms, which inhabit soils and litter layers in most landscapes, can offer an important tool to evaluate different environmental transformations and impacts. Agricultural landscapes, urban and industrialized habitats have some earthworms that represent interesting indicators to monitor different contaminations, to assess different farming practices and different landscape structures and transformations. Species number, abundance and biomass can give easily measurable elements.

  3. Interactions of earthworms with Atrazine-degrading bacteria in an agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Kersanté, Anne; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Soulas, Guy; Binet, Françoise

    2006-08-01

    In the last 10 years, accelerated mineralization of Atrazine (2-chloro-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) has been evidenced in agricultural soils repeatedly treated with this herbicide. Here, we report on the interaction between earthworms, considered as soil engineers, and the Atrazine-degrading community. The impact of earthworm macrofauna on Atrazine mineralization was assessed in representative soil microsites of earthworm activities (gut contents, casts, burrow linings). Soil with or without earthworms, namely the anecic species Lumbricus terrestris and the endogenic species Aporrectodea caliginosa, was either inoculated or not inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. ADP, an Atrazine-degrading strain, and was either treated or not treated with Atrazine. The structure of the bacterial community, the Atrazine-degrading activity and the abundance of atzA, B and C sequences in soil microsites were investigated. Atrazine mineralization was found to be reduced in representative soil microsites of earthworm activities. Earthworms significantly affected the structure of soil bacterial communities. They also reduced the size of the inoculated population of Pseudomonas sp. ADP, thereby contributing to the diminution of the Atrazine-degrading genetic potential in representative soil microsites of earthworm activities. This study illustrates the regulation produced by the earthworms on functional bacterial communities involved in the fate of organic pollutants in soils. PMID:16867138

  4. Mercury, cadmium and lead concentrations in different ecophysiological groups of earthworms in forest soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregor Ernst; Stefan Zimmermann; Peter Christie; Beat Frey

    2008-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd and Pb by eight ecophysiologically distinct earthworm species was studied in 27 polluted and uncontaminated forest soils. Lowest tissue concentrations of Hg and Cd occurred in epigeic Lumbricus rubellus and highest in endogeic Octolasion cyaneum. Soils dominated by Dendrodrilus rubidus possess a high potential of risk of Pb biomagnification for secondary predators. Bioconcentration factors (soil–earthworm) followed

  5. Earthworms enhance soil health and may also assist in improving biological insect pest suppression in pecans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior research indicated that earthworms may serve as phoretic hosts to entomopathogenic nematodes. Therefore, we hypothesized that biocontrol efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes could be enhanced in the presence of earthworms based on increased nematode dispersal through the soil. We also hypo...

  6. Effects of treatment with sodium fluoride and subsequent starvation on fluoride content of earthworms

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    The two experiments described here originated during a long-term investigation into the occurrence and movement of pollutant fluoride in a terrestrial ecosystem. Moles (Talpa europaea) whose diet consist largely of various species of earthworm Lumbricidae, are one of the species under investigation. Bone fluoride in moles was found to be higher, on average, than in foxes or small rodents. Moles probably acquire fluoride from their earthworm diet. Earthworms do not have any readily identifiable tissue in which to store large amounts of fluoride but, for their size, they have a considerable amount of soil in their gut, up oto 20% of their dry weight. Preliminary measurements of fluoride in whole earthworms suggested that observed levels could probably be accounted for by fluoride bound in the mineral part of contained soil and released during preparatory ashing. Two experiments to investigate this situation are described; here their aims were: to expose earthworms kept in soil to different concentrations of sodium fluoride; to measure resulting fluoride in earthworms when soil was removed from their gut by starvation for varying periods of time; and to compare amounts of fluoride in whole starved earthworms with those in starved earthworms from which remaining soil had also been physically removed by dissection and washing.

  7. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of chlorophenols in earthworms, in relation to bioavailability in soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. van Gestel; W. C. Ma

    1988-01-01

    The acute toxicity of five chlorophenols for two earthworm species was determined in two sandy soils differing in organic matter content and the results were compared with adsorption data. Adsorption increased with increasing organic matter content of the soils, but for tetra- and pentachlorophenol was also influenced by soil pH. Earthworm toxicity was significantly higher in the soil with a

  8. The effects of metal contamination on earthworm populations around a smelting works: quantifying species effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Spurgeon; Stephen P. Hopkin

    1996-01-01

    The effects of metal contaminants on the population density and species composition of earthworms were studied at 22 sites around a primary smelting works situated at Avonmouth, southwest England. All worms were absent from six sites within 1 km of the factory and numbers were also reduced significantly at an additional four sites 2 km from the plant. Total earthworm

  9. Earthworm effects on selected physical and chemical properties of soil aggregates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Zhang; S. Schrader

    1993-01-01

    Some physical and chemical properties of 1-to 2-mm aggregates obtained from casts and the burrow-wall material of the earthworm species Lumbricus terrestris, Aporrectodea longa, and Aporrectodea caliginosa were determined in order to show the effects of earthworms on the stabilization of soil aggregates. The results were compared with those of the natural soil from the Ap horizon of a Parabraunerde

  10. Regulation of soil structure by geophagous earthworm activities in humid savannas of Côte d'Ivoire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Blanchart; P. Lavelle; E. Braudeau; Y. Le Bissonnais; C. Valentin

    1997-01-01

    The role of endogeic earthworms in the maintenance of the structure of an African savanna soil has been investigated in a 28-month field experiment. Changes of aggregate size distribution, porosity and aggregate stability were analysed in undisturbed soil monoliths from which earthworms had been removed and which had then been submitted to four treatments: (1) recolonization by natural savanna fauna

  11. Earthworms as phoretic hosts for Steinernema carpocapsae and Beauveria bassiana: Implications for enhanced biological control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior research indicated that earthworms may serve as phoretic hosts to entomopathogenic nematodes. Therefore, we hypothesized that biocontrol efficacy of nematodes could be enhanced in the presence of earthworms based on increased nematode dispersal through the soil. We also hypothesized that ear...

  12. Phagocytosis in earthworms: An environmentally acceptable endpoint to assess immunotoxic potential of contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Giggleman, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Goven, A.J. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Venables, B.J. [TRAC Labs., Inc., Denton, TX (United States); Callahan, C.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Phagocytosis, a host-defense mechanism phylogenetically conserved throughout the animal kingdom, by earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) coelomocytes has potential as a surrogate for vertebrates to be used as an environmentally acceptable endpoint to assess sublethal immunotoxic risks of contaminated soils to environmental (eg. higher wildlife) and public health. Coelomocytes can be exposed in vivo to complex contaminated parent soils by placing earthworms in situ at hazardous waste sites (HWS) or into soil samples and their dilutions with artificial soil (AS) in the laboratory, or in vitro to soil extracts and their fractionations. Here the authors report on phagocytosis by coelomocytes in earthworms exposed to pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated soils from a wood treatment HWS, PCP-spiked AS and PCP treated filter paper (FP). HWS soil was diluted to 25% with AS to a sublethal concentration (ca. 125 mg kg{sup {minus}1}) and earthworms exposed for 14d at 10 C under light conditions. AS was spiked at ca. 125 mg kg{sup {minus}1} PCP and earthworms were similarly exposed. Controls for both consisted of earthworms exposed to 100% AS. Earthworms were exposed to FP treated with a sublethal PCP concentration (15 {micro}g cm{sup {minus}2}) at 10 C under dark conditions for 96H. Controls were similarly exposed without PCP. Phagocytosis by coelomocytes in earthworms exposed to HWS soil, spiked AS and treated FP was suppressed 37, 41 and 29%, respectively. Results are discussed in terms of PCP body burdens and exposure protocols.

  13. Resistance to arsenic-toxicity in a population of the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline J Langdon; Trevor G Piearce; Stuart Black; Kirk T Semple

    1999-01-01

    Specimens of the earthworms Lumbricus terrestris L. and L. rubellus Hoffmeister from an uncontaminated site rapidly deteriorated in condition when kept in spoil rich in metal contaminants and arsenic. The site from which the spoil was collected supports several earthworm species, L. rubellus being dominant. Native L. rubellus survived for 12 weeks in spoil in the laboratory. L.rubellus collected from

  14. Age-specific immunocompetence of the earthworm Eisenia andrei: exposure to methylmercury chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sébastien Sauvé; Michel Fournier

    2005-01-01

    Little information with regard to the sensitivity of the immune system of earthworms to toxicants is currently available. To that effect, we evaluated the yield of coelomocyte immune cells and their phagocytosis potential for four different stages of development of the earthworm Eisenia andrei both for in vitro and in vivo exposure. Cell viability was similar among size classes; extruded

  15. USING THE EARTHWORM, EISENIA FETIDA, TO ASSESS THE ECOTOXICITY OF WASTE FOUNDRY SANDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Earthworms are often used to monitor the toxicity of contaminated soils. In this experiment, the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, was utilized to assess the ecotoxicity of waste foundry sands. Each year the U.S. foundry industry generates several million tons of waste sand that is no longer useful to pr...

  16. Mutualism between common earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) and giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) varies between Ohio and Illinois

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed caching of giant ragweed by common earthworm has been found to contribute to giant ragweed recruitment success in Ohio (OH) by protecting the seeds from postdispersal predation at a depth in the earthworm midden that is also suitable for germination. The objective of this study was to quantify ...

  17. A field screening method using earthworms (Eisenia foetida andrei) to evaluate contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Wilborn, D.C.; Bollman, M.A.; Gillett, C.S.; Ott, S.L.; Linder, G.L. [Takena Ecological Services, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1997-09-01

    An on-site biological assessment for soil toxicity was performed using a lumbricid earthworm, Eisenia foetida andrei, at the Milltown Reservoir Superfund Site on the Clark Fork River near Missoula, MT. The assessment provided an opportunity to evaluate test containers and methodologies. Sixty-four field test stations, each consisting of three test containers of site soil, a control container of artificial soil, and a container to house soil moisture and temperature recording devices, were used. Laboratory tests were conducted on soil samples from selected field stations. The test containers were constructed from sections of polyvinyl chloride pipe and were found to be suitable in preventing escape of test organisms and damage by animals. The site soils had levels of arsenic, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc higher than those in surrounding watersheds. Combined mortality for exposure to the site soil was similar in both the laboratory and field tests. Combined sublethal responses to the site soil were also similar in both laboratory and field tests. Artificial soil controls in both field and laboratory tests resulted in combined mortality rates of 1% or less. The methodologies employed proved successful in maintaining an adequate soil moisture level and allowed for measurement of soil temperature.

  18. Earthworm survival and behavior results from a Clark Fork River Superfund site: Grant-Kohrs Ranch N.H.S., Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, B.R.; Nimmo, D.R.; Chapman, P.L. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Concentrations of heavy metals in sediments and soils deposited along the floodplain of the Clark Fork River, within the boundaries of the Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site, have exceeded those typically found in uncontaminated soils. Upstream mining activities along the Clark Fork River in the Deer Lodge Valley, Montana, have produced substantial quantities of mine waste which have been deposited throughout the watershed. Releases and re-releases of these contaminated substances continue to occur, and appear to be preventing the germination and establishment of critical riparian plant species and depressing soil microbe activity. Slickens, bare spots devoid of all vegetation, occur frequently in the floodplain along the Clark Fork River. This research investigates the toxicity of slicken soils using a series of earthworm (Eisenia foetida andrei) survival and behavior tests. In dilution tests, earthworm survival was reduced significantly in as little as 12.5% slicken soil. Results from earthworm behavior tests currently being conducted using non-lethal slicken soil dilutions will also be presented.

  19. Earthworm responses to different reclamation processes in post opencast mining lands during succession.

    PubMed

    Hlava, Jakub; Hlavová, Anna; Hakl, Josef; Fér, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    This study provides earthworm population data obtained from localities with a substantial anthropogenic impact spoils. The spoil heaps were reclaimed at the end of an opencast brown coal mining period. We studied spoils reclaimed by the two most commonly used reclamation processes: forestry and agricultural. The results show the significance of the locality age and the utilized reclamation process and treatment and their effect on earthworm communities. Our data indicate that apart from soil physical and chemical properties, the reclamation process itself may also induce viability and distribution of earthworm communities. Under standardized soil properties, the changes in earthworm populations during the succession were larger within the agricultural reclamation process as opposed to the forestry reclamation process for earthworm ecological groups and individual species. PMID:25380717

  20. Fluoride accumulation in different earthworm species near an industrial emission source in southern Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, J.; Ottow, J.C.G. (Justus-Liebig Univ., Giessen (Germany))

    1991-10-01

    The information on fluorides (F)-pollution of soil invertebrates is sparse and only a few recent publications deal with F accumulation in some taxonomic groups of soil fauna. Earthworms in particular become the focus of soil-soil fauna interactions in F-polluted sites, even more so since a significant relationship between soil pollution and F load in earthworms was observed. Earthworms coat their burrowings and this may be a mechanism of F-dissemination and subsoil contamination. Evidence is growing that fluorides pass through food chains. Earthworms as the preferred prey of a wide range of animals are therefore in the center of interest as a possible way of F-bioaccumulation in higher trophic levels. For a risk assessment of F-pollution and pathways of F through organisms and ecosystems, detailed knowledge of F-accumulation in soil fauna, and in earthworms in particular is required.

  1. Metal content of earthworms in sludge-amended soils: uptake and loss

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, E.F.; Malecki, M.R.; Cukic, Z.V.

    1985-11-01

    The widespread practice of landspreading of sludge has raised concern about increasing concentrations of potentially toxic metals in soils, with the possibility of these metals adversely impacting terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Earthworms, as one of the largest components of the soil biota, are useful indicators of potentially toxic soil metal concentrations. The study describes the metal content of five metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in one earthworm species, Allolobophora tuberculata, as a function of varying soil metal concentrations in the same soil type and the ability of the earthworms to bioconcentrate the five metals. The rate of uptake of the five metals in earthworms with initially low concentrations of metals placed in a soil with high metal concentrations was evaluated for a 112 day period. The rate of loss of the five metals in earthworms with initially high metal concentrations placed in soil with low metal concentrations was also examined.

  2. Impact of age of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantation on earthworm communities of West Tripura (India).

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, P S; Bhattacharjee, Subhalaxmi; Dey, Animesh; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila; Bhattacharya, Dipto

    2013-01-01

    A comparative analysis of earthworm communities was carried out in the rubber plantations (Hevea brasiliensis) of different age groups in West Tripura to understand the impact of such exotic and monoculture plantation in biodiversity conservation. Earthworm communities were studied on monthly basis over a period of one year (2006-2007) in the 3, 10, 14, 20 and 25 year-old plantations. Among twelve earthworm species collected from the studied sites, six species belonged to Octochaetidae [Eutyphoeus assomensis Stephenson, Eutyphoeus comillahnus Michaelsen, Lennogaster chittagongensis (Stephensen), Octochaetona beatrix Gates, Dichogaster offinis Michaelsen, Lennogaster yeicus (Stephensen)], two species each to Megascolecidae [Metaphire houlleti (Perrier), Konchurio sp. 1] and Moniligastridae [Drowida nepalensis Michaelsen, Drawida papillifer papillifer Stephenson], one species each to Glossoscolecidae [Pontoscolex corethrurus (Muller)] and Ocnerodrilidae [Gordiodrilus elegans Beddard]. Exotic species P corethrurus, M. houlleti and native peregrine species like D. nepolensis and D. papillifer papillifer were distributed in all the age groups of plantation, while other species showed restricted distribution. P. corethrurus contributed more than 60% biomass and 70% density of earthworm communities in rubber plantation. With aging of rubber plantations both the densities and biomasses of earthworms increased. High contents of polyphenol, flavonoid and lignin in the litters of 3 and 10 year-old-rubber plantations through their effects on food intake, probably resulted to low biomass values of earthworms in those age groups of plantation. With further increase in the age of plantations beyond 10 years, polyphenol, flavonoid and lignin contents decreased. Accordingly the biomass of earthworms increased with increase in the age of plantation. Soil moisture increased with increase in the age of plantation and there was a good positive correlation between soil moisture and earthworm biomass (p < 0.01). Density, biomass and dominance of earthworms increased while species diversity, species richness and species evenness of earthworm community were decreased with increase in the age of rubber plantation. PMID:24006808

  3. Avoiding Household Burns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vehicle Safety En Español Injury Prevention Avoiding Household Burns On average, in the U.S., someone dies in ... minutes. There were 40,000 hospitalizations related to burn injury, including 30,000 at hospital burn centers. " ...

  4. Avoiding Computer Viruses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Joyce; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The threat of computer sabotage is a real concern to business teachers and others responsible for academic computer facilities. Teachers can minimize the possibility. Eight suggestions for avoiding computer viruses are given. (JOW)

  5. Avoided Crossing and Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekii, T.; Shibahashi, H.

    2013-12-01

    We examine avoided crossing of stellar pulsations in the nonlinear regime, where synchronization may occur, based on a simple model of weakly coupled van der Pol oscillators with close frequencies. For this simple case, avoided crossing is unaffected in the sense that there is a frequency difference between the symmetric and antisymmetric modes, but as a result of synchronization, unlike the linear oscillations case, the system can vibrate in only one of the modes.

  6. Food Buyer Avoidance Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela Alreck; Robert B. Settle

    1999-01-01

    A consumer's survey of self-reported eating behavior identified six food consumer types-Snack Eaters, Three Meals, Chief Cook, Lunch and Dinner, Pre-Made Food, and Brown Baggersand four avoidance groups-Healthy-Eaters, Cardio-Conscions, Weight-Watchers and Mood-Minders. While these four groups cut across demographic categories, the six consumer types were significantly related to demographic segments. Food ingredient avoidance proved to be an important issue tor

  7. Potential impacts of invasive European earthworms and soil moisture on herbaceous species richness within the Ojibwa Red Lake Reservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thayer, C.; Top, S. M.; Filley, T. R.; Jourdain, J.; Zurn-Birkhimer, S.; Kroeger, T.; Welle, P.; Jenkins, M.; Johnson, A.; Gemscholars

    2010-12-01

    Throughout many northern North American forests invasive earthworms have caused significant ecological alteration to soil structure and chemistry, fine root distributions, duff and litter layer thickness, and soil moisture. Additionally, this phenomenon has been implicated in shifts in herbaceous-layer vegetation. Over the past 4 years, we have established research plots in forests on the Ojibwa Red Lake Reservation (Minnesota) to study the impact of exotic earthworms on forest ecosystem structure and functions. To examine herbaceous-layer response to potential gradients in earthworm abundance and soil moisture, we conducted surveys of herbaceous-layer species cover, earthworm abundance, and soil moisture across six plot dispersed along a previously identified gradient of earthworm activity. Our initial results have shown that the earthworms abundance is positively related to soil moisture (R2 = 0.76, P = 0.023). Herbaceous species richness displayed a strong negative relationship to soil moisture (R2 = 0.91, P < 0.001) and a weak negative relationship to earthworm abundance (R2 =0.51, P = 0.113). On average, the number of earthworms is increasing and the sites with more earthworms typically have less leaf litter. Additional work is needed to determine if earthworms are influencing site moisture conditions, or if moisture availability is a driver of earthworm abundance.

  8. Utilizing thin-film solid-phase extraction to assess the effect of organic carbon amendments on the bioavailability of DDT and dieldrin to earthworms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrade, Natasha A.; Centofanti, Tiziana; McConnell, Laura L.; Hapeman, Cathleen J.; Torrents, Alba; Anh, Nguyen; Beyer, W. Nelson; Chaney, Rufus L.; Novak, Jeffrey M.; Anderson, Marya O.; Cantrell, Keri B.

    2014-01-01

    Improved approaches are needed to assess bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds in contaminated soils. Performance of thin-film solid-phase extraction (TF-SPE) using vials coated with ethylene vinyl acetate was compared to earthworm bioassay (Lumbricus terrestris). A DDT and dieldrin contaminated soil was amended with four organic carbon materials to assess the change in bioavailability. Addition of organic carbon significantly lowered bioavailability for all compounds except for 4,4?-DDT. Equilibrium concentrations of compounds in the polymer were correlated with uptake by earthworms after 48d exposure (R2 = 0.97; p 40yr of aging. Results show that TF-SPE can be useful in examining potential risks associated with contaminated soils and to test effectiveness of remediation efforts.

  9. Avoiding Cross-Contact

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Other Symptoms Diagnosis & Testing Proven Methods Skin Prick Tests Blood Tests Oral Food ... Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Other Symptoms Diagnosis & Testing Proven Methods Skin Prick Tests Blood Tests Oral Food ...

  10. Integration of Weather Avoidance and Traffic Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Wilson, Sara R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic convective weather avoidance concept that compensates for weather motion uncertainties; the integration of this weather avoidance concept into a prototype 4-D trajectory-based Airborne Separation Assurance System (ASAS) application; and test results from a batch (non-piloted) simulation of the integrated application with high traffic densities and a dynamic convective weather model. The weather model can simulate a number of pseudo-random hazardous weather patterns, such as slow- or fast-moving cells and opening or closing weather gaps, and also allows for modeling of onboard weather radar limitations in range and azimuth. The weather avoidance concept employs nested "core" and "avoid" polygons around convective weather cells, and the simulations assess the effectiveness of various avoid polygon sizes in the presence of different weather patterns, using traffic scenarios representing approximately two times the current traffic density in en-route airspace. Results from the simulation experiment show that the weather avoidance concept is effective over a wide range of weather patterns and cell speeds. Avoid polygons that are only 2-3 miles larger than their core polygons are sufficient to account for weather uncertainties in almost all cases, and traffic separation performance does not appear to degrade with the addition of weather polygon avoidance. Additional "lessons learned" from the batch simulation study are discussed in the paper, along with insights for improving the weather avoidance concept. Introduction

  11. Reactive Collision Avoidance Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharf, Daniel; Acikmese, Behcet; Ploen, Scott; Hadaegh, Fred

    2010-01-01

    The reactive collision avoidance (RCA) algorithm allows a spacecraft to find a fuel-optimal trajectory for avoiding an arbitrary number of colliding spacecraft in real time while accounting for acceleration limits. In addition to spacecraft, the technology can be used for vehicles that can accelerate in any direction, such as helicopters and submersibles. In contrast to existing, passive algorithms that simultaneously design trajectories for a cluster of vehicles working to achieve a common goal, RCA is implemented onboard spacecraft only when an imminent collision is detected, and then plans a collision avoidance maneuver for only that host vehicle, thus preventing a collision in an off-nominal situation for which passive algorithms cannot. An example scenario for such a situation might be when a spacecraft in the cluster is approaching another one, but enters safe mode and begins to drift. Functionally, the RCA detects colliding spacecraft, plans an evasion trajectory by solving the Evasion Trajectory Problem (ETP), and then recovers after the collision is avoided. A direct optimization approach was used to develop the algorithm so it can run in real time. In this innovation, a parameterized class of avoidance trajectories is specified, and then the optimal trajectory is found by searching over the parameters. The class of trajectories is selected as bang-off-bang as motivated by optimal control theory. That is, an avoiding spacecraft first applies full acceleration in a constant direction, then coasts, and finally applies full acceleration to stop. The parameter optimization problem can be solved offline and stored as a look-up table of values. Using a look-up table allows the algorithm to run in real time. Given a colliding spacecraft, the properties of the collision geometry serve as indices of the look-up table that gives the optimal trajectory. For multiple colliding spacecraft, the set of trajectories that avoid all spacecraft is rapidly searched on-line. The optimal avoidance trajectory is implemented as a receding-horizon model predictive control law. Therefore, at each time step, the optimal avoidance trajectory is found and the first time step of its acceleration is applied. At the next time step of the control computer, the problem is re-solved and the new first time step is again applied. This continual updating allows the RCA algorithm to adapt to a colliding spacecraft that is making erratic course changes.

  12. Abandoned coal mining sites: using ecotoxicological tests to support an industrial organic sludge amendment.

    PubMed

    Chiochetta, Claudete G; Radetski, Marilice R; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Tischer, Vinícius; Tiepo, Erasmo N; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2013-11-01

    The different stages involved in coal mining-related activities result in a degraded landscape and sites associated with large amounts of dumped waste material. Remediation of these contaminated soils can be carried out by application of industrial organic sludge if the concerns regarding the potential negative environmental impacts of this experimental practice are properly addressed. In this context, the objective of this study was to use ecotoxicological tests to determine the quantity of organic industrial sludge that is required as a soil amendment to restore soil production while avoiding environmental impact. Chemical analysis of the solids (industrial sludge and soil) and their leachates was carried out as well as a battery of ecotoxicity tests on enzymes (hydrolytic activity), bacteria, algae, daphnids, earthworms, and higher plants, according to standardized methodologies. Solid and leachate samples of coal-contaminated soil were more toxic than those of industrial sludge towards enzyme activity, bacteria, algae, daphnids, and earthworms. In the case of the higher plants (lettuce, corn, wild cabbage, and Surinam cherry) the industrial sludge was more toxic than the coal-contaminated soil, and a soil/sludge mixture (66:34% dry weight basis) had a stimulatory effect on the Surinam cherry biomass. The ecotoxicological assessment of the coal-contaminated soil remediation using sludge as an amendment is very important to determine application rates that could promote a stimulatory effect on agronomic species without negatively affecting the environment. PMID:23114837

  13. Capacitor Test, Evaluation. and Modeling Within NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program. "Why Ceramic Capacitors Fracture During Manual Soldering and How to Avoid Failures"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Presentation discusses: (1) Why Multi-Layer Ceramic Capacitors(MLCCs) crack during manual soldering? Workmanship and parts issues. (2) Do existing qualification requirements assure crack-free soldering? MIL-spec Thermal Shock (TS) testing. MIL-spec Resistance to Soldering Heat (RSH) test. (3) What test can assure reliable soldering? Mechanical characteristics of ceramics. Comparison of three TS techniques: LND, TSD, and IWT. (4) Simulation of TS conditions.

  14. Clostridiaceae and Enterobacteriaceae as active fermenters in earthworm gut content

    PubMed Central

    Wüst, Pia K; Horn, Marcus A; Drake, Harold L

    2011-01-01

    The earthworm gut provides ideal in situ conditions for ingested heterotrophic soil bacteria capable of anaerobiosis. High amounts of mucus- and plant-derived saccharides such as glucose are abundant in the earthworm alimentary canal, and high concentrations of molecular hydrogen (H2) and organic acids in the alimentary canal are indicative of ongoing fermentations. Thus, the central objective of this study was to resolve potential links between fermentations and active fermenters in gut content of the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-based stable isotope probing, with [13C]glucose as a model substrate. Glucose consumption in anoxic gut content microcosms was rapid and yielded soluble organic compounds (acetate, butyrate, formate, lactate, propionate, succinate and ethanol) and gases (carbon dioxide and H2), products indicative of diverse fermentations in the alimentary canal. Clostridiaceae and Enterobacteriaceae were users of glucose-derived carbon. On the basis of the detection of 16S rRNA, active phyla in gut contents included Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, Tenericutes and Verrucomicrobia, taxa common to soils. On the basis of a 16S rRNA gene similarity cutoff of 87.5%, 82 families were detected, 17 of which were novel family-level groups. These findings (a) show the large diversity of soil taxa that might be active during gut passage, (b) show that Clostridiaceae and Enterobacteriaceae (fermentative subsets of these taxa) are selectively stimulated by glucose and might therefore be capable of consuming mucus- and plant-derived saccharides during gut passage and (c) indicate that ingested obligate anaerobes and facultative aerobes from soil can concomitantly metabolize the same source of carbon. PMID:20613788

  15. The Impact of Invasive Earthworm Activity on Biopolymer Character of ýDecayed Litter ý

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filley, T.; Crow, S.; Johnston, C.; McCormick, M.; Szlavecz, K.

    2007-12-01

    Over the last 400-500 years invasive European earthworm populations have ýmoved steadily into North American forests either previously devoid of ýearthworms or that contained their own native populations. This has profound ýimpacts upon litter decay and soil organic matter dynamics. To determine the ýimpact of earthworm activity on the biopolymer and stable isotope chemistry of ýlitter residues and the nature of organic carbon moved to the soil profile we ýanalyzed tulip poplar leaves from a multi-year addition experiment in open ýsurface decay litter and litter bag decay experiments, as well as the associated ýsoils among forest plots that varied in non-native earthworm density and ýbiomass. The chemical alteration of biopolymers was tracked with FTIR ýspectroscopy, 13C-TMAH thermochemolysis, alkaline CuO extraction, and stable ýisotope mass spectrometry. Earthworm activity resulted in residues and soil ýparticulate organic matter depleted in cuticular aliphatic components and ýpolyphenols but highly enriched in ether-linked lignin with respect to initial litter ýmaterial. Decay in low earthworm abundance plots, as well as all experiments ýwith earthworm-excluding litter bags, resulted in enrichment in cutin aliphatics ýand only minor increases in ether linked lignin phenols which was also reflected ýin the soils below the amendments. Additionally, the stable carbon and nitrogen ýisotope composition of tulip poplar residues became isotopically distinct. The ýresults from litter bag decays were only reflective of the chemistry at sites with ývery low earthworm abundances. ý

  16. Effects of heavy metals on the litter consumption by the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus in field soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hobbelen, P.H.F.; Koolhaas, J.E.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Aim of this study was to determine effects of heavy metals on litter consumption by the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus in National Park the "Brabantsche Biesbosch", the Netherlands. Adult L. rubellus were collected from 12 polluted and from one unpolluted field site. Earthworms collected at the unpolluted site were kept in their native soil and in soil from each of the 12 Biesbosch sites. Earthworms collected in the Biesbosch were kept in their native soils. Non-polluted poplar (Populus sp.) litter was offered as a food source and litter consumption and earthworm biomass were determined after 54 days. Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations were determined in soil, pore water and 0.01 M CaCl2 extracts of the soil and in earthworms. In spite of low available metal concentrations in the polluted soils, Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations in L. rubellus were increased. The litter consumption rate per biomass was positively related to internal Cd and Zn concentrations of earthworms collected from the Biesbosch and kept in native soil. A possible explanation is an increased demand for energy, needed for the regulation and detoxification of heavy metals. Litter consumption per biomass of earthworms from the reference site and kept in the polluted Biesbosch soils, was not related to any of the determined soil characteristics and metal concentrations. ?? 2005 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Earthworm populations as related to woodcock habitat usage in Central Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, J.W.; Krohn, W.B.; Hordan, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    Lumbricid earthworms were sampled 'on two central Maine study areas between late April and early September, 1974, to relate earthworm abundance to use of feeding covers by American woodcock(Philoheli minor). On sampling days, occurring at 2 to 3 week intervals, a formalin solution was applied to thirty O.25m areas in heavjly, commonly, and rarely used woodcock covers (5 samples/type of feedjngcover/study area). The extent of cover usage was based on use of vegetation by 51 radio-equipped woodcock, 1970-73 (605 woodcockdays). A total of 2,546 earthworms of nine species was collected; species and age compositions of collected lumbricids were similar on both study areas. Similarly. number and biomass (dry weight) of earthworms extracted did not differ significantly between study areas. However. the number and biomass of sampled earthworms were directly and significantly related to the intensity to which woodcock used covers. Those diurnal covers most heavily used by woodcock sustained the highest lumbricid populations, ostensibly because these covers provided earthworms with preferred foods (i.e., leaf litters) and optimum soil moisture-temperature conditions. In terms of earthworms and woodcock supported per unit area, management of second-growth hardwoods appears more efficient than attempting to alter coniferous or mixed forests.

  18. Concentration of cadmium in Coturnix quail fed earthworms

    SciTech Connect

    Stoewsand, G.S.; Bache, C.A.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Lisk, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Earthworms (Lumbriscus terrestris), collected from soils in southern Ontario, Canada, that had no previous history of cadmium application, contained 3 ppm cadmium. They were fed to Coturnix quail as 60% dry weight of their diet for 63 d to examine the extent of deposition of native cadmium. Cadmium in kidney, liver, and excreta was greatly elevated above that of birds fed a control diet without worms. No increase in the level of cadmium in eggs was found. The factors affecting the association of cadmium in soils and worms and their assimilation and possible toxic effects in foraging birds are discussed.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) depress allogeneic natural cytotoxicity by earthworm coelomocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, M.M.; Cooper, E.L. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Lab. of Comparative Immunology; Eyambe, G.S.; Goven, A.J.; Fitzpatrick, L.C. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Venables, B.J. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences]|[TRAC Labs., Denton, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Coelomocytes of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris caused significant spontaneous allogeneic cytotoxicity in a 24-h trypan blue assay, but not in an assay using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Allogeneic cytotoxicity assays using cells from worms exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) suggest that PCBs can suppress a natural killing (NK-like) reaction. The implications of this work are twofold: understanding the evolution of natural killing (NK-like) activity and providing preliminary information on how spontaneous killing, a component of cellular immunity, may be compromised by pollutants.

  20. [Reaction of microorganisms to the digestive fluid of the earthworms].

    PubMed

    Khomiakov, N V; Kharin, S A; Nechita?lo, T Iu; Golyshin, P N; Kurakov, A V; Byzov, B A; Zviagintsev, D G

    2007-01-01

    The reaction of soil bacteria and fungi to the digestive fluid of the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa was studied. The fluid was obtained by centrifugation of the native enzymes of the digestive tract. The inhibition of growth of certain bacteria, spores, and fungal hyphae under the effect of extracts from the anterior and middle sections of the digestive tract of A. caliginosa was discovered for the first time. In bacteria, microcolony formation was inhibited as early as 20-30 s after the application of the gut extracts, which may indicate the nonenzymatic nature of the effect. The digestive fluid exhibited the same microbicidal activity whether the earthworms were feeding on soil or sterile sand. This indicates that the microbicidal agents are formed within the earthworm's body, rather than by soil microorganisms. The effect of the digestive fluid from the anterior and middle divisions is selective in relation to different microorganisms. Of 42 strains of soil bacteria, seven were susceptible to the microbicidal action of the fluid (Alcaligenes.faecalis 345-1, Microbacterium sp. 423-1, Arthrobacter sp. 430-1, Bacillus megaterium 401-1, B. megaterium 413-1, Kluyvera ascorbata 301-1, Pseudomonas reactans 387-2). The remaining bacteria did not die in the digestive fluid. Of 13 micromycetes, the digestive fluid inhibited spore germination in Aspergillus terreus and Paecilomyces lilacinus and the growth of hyphae in Trichoderma harzianum and Penicillium decumbens. The digestive fluid stimulated spore germination in Alternaria alternata and the growth of hyphae in Penicillium chrysogenum. The reaction of the remaining micromycetes was neutral. The gut fluid from the posterior division of the abdominal tract did not possess microbicidal activity. No relation was found between the reaction of microorganisms to the effects of the digestive fluid and the taxonomic position of the microorganisms. The effects revealed are similar to those shown earlier for millipedes and wood lice in the following parameters: quick action of the digestive fluid on microorganisms, and the selectivity of the action on microorganisms revealed at the strain level. The selective effect of the digestive gut fluid of the earthworms on soil microorganisms is important for animal feeding, maintaining the homeostasis of the gut microbial community, and the formation of microbial communities in soils. PMID:17410875

  1. Metallothionein gene expression differs in earthworm populations with different exposure history.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, M; Haimi, J; Väisänen, A; Knott, K E

    2014-11-01

    Metals are persistent pollutants in soils that can harm soil organisms and decrease species diversity. Animals can cope with metal contamination with the help of metallothioneins, small metal-binding proteins involved in homeostasis and detoxification of metals. We studied the expression of metallothionein with qPCR in a small, epigeic earthworm, Dendrobaena octaedra. We compared expression patterns and metal body content in earthworms collected from two sites with different metal contamination histories: Harjavalta, contaminated by a Cu-Ni smelter operational for over 50 years, and Jyväskylä, an uncontaminated site. Earthworms from both sites were also experimentally exposed to different concentrations of Cu (control, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg) or Zn (control, 75, 150 or 300 mg/kg) for 7, 14 or 28 days to determine if there is a time related dose-response in gene expression. Population comparison showed that metallothionein expression was higher in earthworms from the contaminated site. In the exposure experiment, exposure time affected expression, but only in the earthworms from the uncontaminated site, suggesting that there is a delay in the metallothionein response of earthworms in this population. In contrast, earthworms from the contaminated site showed higher and constant levels of metallothionein expression at all exposure concentrations and durations. The constant metallothionein expression in earthworms from the contaminated site suggests that inducibility of metallothionein response could be lost in earthworms with metal exposure history. Adaptation of D. octaedra to metal exposure could explain the differences between the populations and explain the persistence of this species in contaminated forest soils. PMID:25179588

  2. Journal of Chemical Ecology, Vol. 28, No. 11, November 2002 (C 2002) A COMPLEX, CROSS-TAXON, CHEMICAL RELEASER OF

    E-print Network

    Rohr, Jason

    from salamanders (undis- turbed, distressed, and injured P. cinereus) and snakes (unfed, earthworm fed (unfed or earthworm-fed) and tested against a water control, the combinations elicited avoidance. When

  3. Effects of aging and mixed nonaqueous-phase liquid sources in soil systems on earthworm bioaccumulation, microbial degradation, sequestration, and aqueous desorption of pyrene.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Elijah J; Tang, Jixin; Weber, Walter J

    2011-04-01

    The effects of loading and aging pyrene in soils in the presence of four environmentally common nonaqueous-phase liquids (NAPLs) (hexadecane, 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane [HMN], toluene, and dimethyl phthalate [DMP]) on its subsequent desorption from those soils, earthworm accumulation, biodegradation, and extractability were tested by using two dissimilar soils. The presence of each of the four NAPLs increased fractions and rates of pyrene desorption, and hexadecane slowed the effects of aging on these same parameters. Loading with hexadecane and HMN caused earthworm accumulation of pyrene to decrease. These results contrast with generally observed faster desorption rates resulting from NAPL addition, suggesting that additional factors (e.g., association of pyrene with NAPL phases and NAPL toxicities to earthworms) may impact bioaccumulation. The presence of HMN and toluene increased pyrene biodegradation, whereas hexadecane and DMP had the opposite effects. These results correlate with changes in the extractability of pyrene from the soils. After aging and biodegradation, hexadecane and DMP substantially increased pyrene residues extractable by methanol and decreased nonextractable fractions, whereas HMN and toluene had the opposite effects. PMID:21309023

  4. Soil Chemical Weathering and Nutrient Budgets along an Earthworm Invasion Chronosequence in a Northern Minnesota Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resner, K. E.; Yoo, K.; Sebestyen, S. D.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Lyttle, A.; Weinman, B. A.; Blum, A.; Hale, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    We are investigating the impact of exotic earthworms on the rate of nutrient and ion release from soil chemical weathering along an ~200 m invasion chronosequence in a northern Minnesota sugar maple forest. The earthworms belong to three ecological groups that represent different feeding and burrowing behaviors, all of which were introduced from Europe to the previously earthworm-free Great Lakes Region through fishing and agricultural activities. As earthworms digest and mix the soil, we hypothesize that they significantly alter chemical weathering processes by incorporating mineral surfaces to new geochemical environments in their intestines and at different soil depths. The effect of mixing on soil morphology is dramatic, but biogeochemical changes remain largely unknown and therefore are poorly coupled to the current and potential changes in forest ecosystems under the threat of exotic earthworms. We analyze the activities of short-lived isotopes 137-Cs and 210-Pb along with the inorganic chemistry of soil, water, and leaf litter across an invasion transect and link these measurements to the biomass and species composition of exotic earthworms. Earthworms vertically relocate minerals and organic matter largely within the top ~10 cm, which is reflected in the depth profiles of the short-lived isotopes. Among the inorganic nutrients analyzed, Ca is of particular interest due to sugar maple's aptitude for recycling Ca. Fractional mass loss values (tau) of Ca, relative to the soil's parent material, show an enrichment factor of 14 in the least invaded A horizon soils. However, such a high enrichment factor declines dramatically in the heavily invaded soils, suggesting that earthworm activities contribute to leaching Ca. In contrast, the enrichment factor of Fe increases with greater degrees of earthworm invasion, which is consistent with the extraction chemistry data showing greater quantities of pedogenic crystalline iron oxides and greater mineral specific surface area (presumably due to the crystalline iron oxides) in the heavily invaded soils. Water chemistry of lysimeter samples show a similar trend: the heavily invaded soils show a lower solute concentration of Ca but higher concentrations of Fe. These data indicate that exotic earthworms, while significantly affecting chemical weathering processes in the soils, are seriously altering (1) the budgets of inorganic nutrient in these hardwood forests and (2) the minerals' potential capacity to complex carbon on their surface area. Our ongoing work includes the use of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating which may complement the 137-Cs and 210-Pb data in constraining soil mixing. Additionally, we will incorporate leaf litter chemistry and continue water and earthworm sampling to understand the degree that exotic earthworms contribute to chemical weathering in the Great Lakes hardwood ecosystems.

  5. Psychological Treatments to Avoid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Timothy C.

    2010-01-01

    Certain psychological treatments should be avoided, and a list of such treatments would provide valuable guidance for counselors, as well as potential clients. It is well established that some therapies are potentially dangerous, and some fringe therapies are highly unlikely to help clients beyond a placebo effect. This article provides an…

  6. Avoiding the Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Avoiding the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Children ... should still get the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. H1N1 Flu: Who Should Be Vaccinated First The Centers for ...

  7. Plants to Avoid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of poisonous plants is extremely important for home owners, gardeners, farmers, hunters, hikers, and the rest of the general public. Among the most important plants to avoid in the Delta Region are poison ivy, bull nettle, eastern black nightshade, Queen Ann’s lace, jimsonweed, and trumpe...

  8. Avoiding the "M" Word.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinger, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of roundtable discussions by top business officers about how higher education can capitalize on strategic alliances. Describes how, by working with one another and with corporate partners, colleges and universities can avoid closing their doors or merging with stronger institutions. (EV)

  9. Avoiding medical emergencies.

    PubMed

    Omar, Y

    2013-03-01

    Medical emergencies can occur at any time in any location. This article and associated presentation at the forthcoming British Dental Conference Exhibition provide key advice on avoiding medical emergencies in dental practice; including advice on risk assessing all patients, understanding the importance of a checklist, and using a National Early Warning Score (NEWS). PMID:23470404

  10. Earthworm coelomocytes as nanoscavenger of ZnO NPs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Earthworms can ‘biotransform’ or ‘biodegrade’ chemical contaminants, rendering them harmless in their bodies, and can bioaccumulate them in their tissues. They ‘absorb’ the dissolved chemicals through their moist ‘body wall’ due to the interstitial water and also ingest by ‘mouth’ while soil passes through the gut. Since the advent of the nanotechnology era, the environmental sink has been continuously receiving engineered nanomaterials as well as their derivatives. Our current understanding of the potential impact of nanomaterials and their natural scavenger is limited. In the present investigation, we studied the cellular uptake of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) by coelomocytes especially by chloragocytes of Eisenia fetida and their role as nanoscavenger. Results from exposure to 100- and 50-nm ZnO NPs indicate that coelomocytes of the earthworm E. fetida show no significant DNA damage at a dose lower than 3 mg/l and have the potential ability to uptake ZnO NPs from the soil ecosystem and transform them into microparticles. PMID:24959107

  11. Scaling of the hydrostatic skeleton in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Jessica A; Kier, William M

    2014-06-01

    The structural and functional consequences of changes in size or scale have been well studied in animals with rigid skeletons, but relatively little is known about scale effects in animals with hydrostatic skeletons. We used glycol methacrylate histology and microscopy to examine the scaling of mechanically important morphological features of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris over an ontogenetic size range from 0.03 to 12.89 g. We found that L. terrestris becomes disproportionately longer and thinner as it grows. This increase in the length to diameter ratio with size means that, when normalized for mass, adult worms gain ~117% mechanical advantage during radial expansion, compared with hatchling worms. We also found that the cross-sectional area of the longitudinal musculature scales as body mass to the ~0.6 power across segments, which is significantly lower than the 0.66 power predicted by isometry. The cross-sectional area of the circular musculature, however, scales as body mass to the ~0.8 power across segments, which is significantly higher than predicted by isometry. By modeling the interaction of muscle cross-sectional area and mechanical advantage, we calculate that the force output generated during both circular and longitudinal muscle contraction scales near isometry. We hypothesize that the allometric scaling of earthworms may reflect changes in soil properties and burrowing mechanics with size. PMID:24871920

  12. The binding interactions of imidacloprid with earthworm fibrinolytic enzyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Chen, Tao

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, several studies were conducted to elucidate the binding mechanism of earthworm fibrinolytic enzyme (EFE) with imidocloprid (IMI) by using theoretical calculation, fluorescence, UV-vis, circular dichroism spectroscopy and an enzymatic inhibition assay. The spectral data showed that the binding interactions existed between IMI and EFE. The binding constants, binding site, thermodynamic parameters and binding forces were analyzed in detail. The results indicate a single class of binding sites for IMI in EFE and that this binding interaction is a spontaneous process with the estimated enthalpy and entropy changes being 2.195 kJ mol-1 and 94.480 J mol-1 K-1, respectively. A single class of binding site existed for IMI in EFE. The tertiary or secondary structure of EFE was partly destroyed by IMI. The visualized binding details were also exhibited by the theoretical calculation and the results indicated that the interaction between IMI and Phe (Tyr, or Trp) or EFE occurred. Combining the experimental data with the theoretical calculation data, we showed that the binding forces between IMI and EFE were mainly hydrophobic force accompanied by hydrogen binding, and ?-? stacking. In addition, IMI did not obviously influence the activity of EFE. In a word, the above analysis offered insights into the binding mechanism of IMI with EFE and could provide some important information for the molecular toxicity of IMI for earthworms.

  13. Earthworm coelomocytes as nanoscavenger of ZnO NPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Shruti; Kushwah, Tanuja; Yadav, Shweta

    2014-05-01

    Earthworms can `biotransform' or `biodegrade' chemical contaminants, rendering them harmless in their bodies, and can bioaccumulate them in their tissues. They `absorb' the dissolved chemicals through their moist `body wall' due to the interstitial water and also ingest by `mouth' while soil passes through the gut. Since the advent of the nanotechnology era, the environmental sink has been continuously receiving engineered nanomaterials as well as their derivatives. Our current understanding of the potential impact of nanomaterials and their natural scavenger is limited. In the present investigation, we studied the cellular uptake of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) by coelomocytes especially by chloragocytes of Eisenia fetida and their role as nanoscavenger. Results from exposure to 100- and 50-nm ZnO NPs indicate that coelomocytes of the earthworm E. fetida show no significant DNA damage at a dose lower than 3 mg/l and have the potential ability to uptake ZnO NPs from the soil ecosystem and transform them into microparticles.

  14. Interactions between plant species and earthworm casts in a calcareous grassland under elevated CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Zaller, J.G.; Arnone, J.A. III [Univ. Basel (Switzerland). Botanisches Inst.

    1999-04-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that the spatial proximity of a plant species to nutrient-rich earthworm casts (e.g., 100% more ammonium and 30% more phosphate than in adjacent soil) is an important determinant of a plant`s responsiveness to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2}. In 1995 the authors mapped the location of both earthworm surface casts and plants in each of 16 1.2-m{sup 2} plots in a species-rich calcareous grassland in northwestern Switzerland. Eight plots have been maintained under current ambient CO{sub 2} concentrations and eight have been maintained at elevated CO{sub 2} since March 1994. In addition, total ramet production of each species, as a measure of performance, and cumulative cast production at each location (cell) were recorded at peak community biomass in 1995. Plant species within functional groups differed markedly in their degree of association with casts; however, after two growing seasons elevated CO{sub 2} had no effect on plant species or functional group associations with casts. No statistically significant relationship could be demonstrated between plant-species response to elevated CO{sub 2} and the degree of association with casts within any of the functional groups. However, a positive relationship was observed between the mean response of graminoid species to elevated CO{sub 2} and their mean degree of association with surface casts at ambient CO{sub 2}.

  15. The Perceived-Threat Behavioral Approach Test (PT-BAT): Measuring Avoidance in High-, Mid-, and Low-Spider-Fearful Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Andy; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    One hundred twenty female participants, with varying levels of spider fear were asked to complete an automated 8-step perceived-threat behavioral approach test (PT-BAT). The steps involved asking the participants if they were willing to put their hand into a number of opaque jars with an incrementally increasing risk of contact with a spider (none…

  16. FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIONS ARE ESTABLISHED BETWEEN GIANT NERVE FIBERS IN GRAFTED EARTHWORMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Giant fiber interconnections were examined in successful grafts between two posterior portions of earthworms (Eisenia foetida). Electrophysiological and histological results indicated that cell-specific interanimal connections were formed between the medial giant fibers (MGF) in ...

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of cDNA encoding fibrinolytic enzyme-3 from earthworm Eisenia foetida.

    PubMed

    Dong, Guo-Qing; Yuan, Xiao-Ling; Shan, Ya-Jun; Zhao, Zhen-Hu; Chen, Jia-Pei; Cong, Yu-Wen

    2004-04-01

    The earthworm fibrinolytic enzyme-3 (EFE-3, GenBank accession No: AY438622), from the earthworm Eisenia foetida, is a component of earthworm fibrinolytic enzymes. In this study, cDNA encoding the EFE-3 was cloned by RT-PCR. The cDNA contained an open reading frame of 741 nucleotides, which encoded a deduced protein of 247 amino acid residues, including signal sequences. EFE-3 showed a high degree of homology to earthworm (Lumbricus rebullus) proteases F-III-1, F-III-2, and bovine trypsin. The recombinant EFE-3 was expressed in E. coli as inclusion bodies, and the gene encoding the native form of EFE-3 was expressed in COS-7 cells in the medium. Both the refolding product of inclusion bodies and the secreted protease could dissolve the artificial fibrin plate. PMID:15253157

  18. Inhibition effect of glyphosate on the acute and subacute toxicity of cadmium to earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chui-Fan; Wang, Yu-Jun; Sun, Rui-Juan; Liu, Cun; Fan, Guang-Ping; Qin, Wen-Xiu; Li, Cheng-Cheng; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2014-10-01

    The acute and subacute toxicities of cadmium (Cd) to earthworm Eisenia fetida in the presence and absence of glyphosate were studied. Although Cd is highly toxic to E. fetida, the presence of glyphosate markedly reduced the acute toxicity of Cd to earthworm; both the mortality rate of the earthworms and the accumulation of Cd decreased with the increase of the glyphosate/Cd molar ratio. The subcellular distribution of Cd in E. fetida tissues showed that internal Cd was dominant in the intact cells fraction and the heat-stable proteins fraction. The presence of glyphosate reduced the concentration of Cd in all fractions, especially the intact cells. During a longer period of exposure, the weight loss of earthworm and the total Cd absorption was alleviated by glyphosate. Thus, the herbicide glyphosate can reduce the toxicity and bioavailability of Cd in the soil ecosystems at both short- and long-term exposures. PMID:25043609

  19. Glyphosate herbicide affects belowground interactions between earthworms and symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi in a model ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Zaller, Johann G.; Heigl, Florian; Ruess, Liliane; Grabmaier, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Herbicides containing glyphosate are widely used in agriculture and private gardens, however, surprisingly little is known on potential side effects on non-target soil organisms. In a greenhouse experiment with white clover we investigated, to what extent a globally-used glyphosate herbicide affects interactions between essential soil organisms such as earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We found that herbicides significantly decreased root mycorrhization, soil AMF spore biomass, vesicles and propagules. Herbicide application and earthworms increased soil hyphal biomass and tended to reduce soil water infiltration after a simulated heavy rainfall. Herbicide application in interaction with AMF led to slightly heavier but less active earthworms. Leaching of glyphosate after a simulated rainfall was substantial and altered by earthworms and AMF. These sizeable changes provide impetus for more general attention to side-effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on key soil organisms and their associated ecosystem services. PMID:25005713

  20. METAL CONTENT OF EARTHWORMS IN SLUDGE AMENDED SOILS: UPTAKE AND LOSS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The widespread practice of landspreading of sludge has raised concern about increasing concentrations of potentially toxic metals in soils, with the possibility of these metals adversely impacting terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Earthworms, as one of the largest components of...

  1. Toxicological responses of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) exposed to metal-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kai; Liu, ZhengTao; Li, YaJie; Cui, YiBin; Li, Mei

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicological responses of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) induced by field-contaminated, metal-polluted soils. Biochemical responses and DNA damage of earthworm exposed to two multi-metal-contaminated soils in a steel industry park and a natural reference soil in Zijin Mountain for 2, 7, 14, and 28 days were studied. Results showed that three enzyme activities, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and cellulase, in earthworm in metal-contaminated soils were significantly different from those of the reference soil. Cellulase and AChE were more sensitive than SOD to soil contamination. The Olive tail moment of the comet assay after 2-day exposure increased 56.5 and 552.0 % in two contaminated soils, respectively, compared to the reference soil. Our findings show that cellulase and DNA damage levels can be used as potential biomarkers for exposure of earthworm to metal-polluted soils. PMID:23589267

  2. Mercury, cadmium and lead concentrations in different ecophysiological groups of earthworms in forest soils.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Gregor; Zimmermann, Stefan; Christie, Peter; Frey, Beat

    2008-12-01

    Bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd and Pb by eight ecophysiologically distinct earthworm species was studied in 27 polluted and uncontaminated forest soils. Lowest tissue concentrations of Hg and Cd occurred in epigeic Lumbricus rubellus and highest in endogeic Octolasion cyaneum. Soils dominated by Dendrodrilus rubidus possess a high potential of risk of Pb biomagnification for secondary predators. Bioconcentration factors (soil-earthworm) followed the sequence ranked Cd>Hg>Pb. Ordination plots of redundancy analysis were used to compare HM concentrations in earthworm tissues with soil, leaf litter and root concentrations and with soil pH and CEC. Different ecological categories of earthworms are exposed to Hg, Cd and Pb in the topsoil by atmospheric deposition and accumulate them in their bodies. Species differences in HM concentrations largely reflect differences in food selectivity and niche separation. PMID:18400348

  3. Verminephrobacter eiseniae type IV pili and flagella are required to colonize earthworm nephridia

    PubMed Central

    Dulla, Glenn F J; Go, Ruth A; Stahl, David A; Davidson, Seana K

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial symbiont Verminephrobacter eiseniae colonizes nephridia, the excretory organs, of the lumbricid earthworm Eisenia fetida. E. fetida transfers V. eisenia into the egg capsule albumin during capsule formation and V. eiseniae cells migrate into the earthworm nephridia during embryogenesis, where they bind and persist. In order to characterize the mechanistic basis of selective tissue colonization, methods for site-directed mutagenesis and colonization competence were developed and used to evaluate the consequences of individual gene disruptions. Using these newly developed tools, two distinct modes of bacterial motility were shown to be required for V. eiseniae colonization of nascent earthworm nephridia. Flagella and type IV pili mutants lacked motility in culture and were not able to colonize embryonic earthworms, indicating that both twitching and flagellar motility are required for entrance into the nephridia. PMID:22170422

  4. Glyphosate herbicide affects belowground interactions between earthworms and symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi in a model ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Zaller, Johann G; Heigl, Florian; Ruess, Liliane; Grabmaier, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Herbicides containing glyphosate are widely used in agriculture and private gardens, however, surprisingly little is known on potential side effects on non-target soil organisms. In a greenhouse experiment with white clover we investigated, to what extent a globally-used glyphosate herbicide affects interactions between essential soil organisms such as earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We found that herbicides significantly decreased root mycorrhization, soil AMF spore biomass, vesicles and propagules. Herbicide application and earthworms increased soil hyphal biomass and tended to reduce soil water infiltration after a simulated heavy rainfall. Herbicide application in interaction with AMF led to slightly heavier but less active earthworms. Leaching of glyphosate after a simulated rainfall was substantial and altered by earthworms and AMF. These sizeable changes provide impetus for more general attention to side-effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on key soil organisms and their associated ecosystem services. PMID:25005713

  5. Glyphosate herbicide affects belowground interactions between earthworms and symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi in a model ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaller, Johann G.; Heigl, Florian; Ruess, Liliane; Grabmaier, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    Herbicides containing glyphosate are widely used in agriculture and private gardens, however, surprisingly little is known on potential side effects on non-target soil organisms. In a greenhouse experiment with white clover we investigated, to what extent a globally-used glyphosate herbicide affects interactions between essential soil organisms such as earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We found that herbicides significantly decreased root mycorrhization, soil AMF spore biomass, vesicles and propagules. Herbicide application and earthworms increased soil hyphal biomass and tended to reduce soil water infiltration after a simulated heavy rainfall. Herbicide application in interaction with AMF led to slightly heavier but less active earthworms. Leaching of glyphosate after a simulated rainfall was substantial and altered by earthworms and AMF. These sizeable changes provide impetus for more general attention to side-effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on key soil organisms and their associated ecosystem services.

  6. Taxonomic composition and physiological and biochemical properties of bacteria in the digestive tracts of earthworms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byzov, B. A.; Tikhonov, V. V.; Nechitailo, T. Yu.; Demin, V. V.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2015-03-01

    Several hundred bacterial strains belonging to different taxa were isolated and identified from the digestive tracts of soil and compost earthworms. Some physiological and biochemical properties of the bacteria were characterized. The majority of intestinal bacteria in the earthworms were found to be facultative anaerobes. The intestinal isolates as compared to the soil ones had elevated activity of proteases and dehydrogenases. In addition, bacteria associated with earthworms' intestines are capable of growth on humic acids as a sole carbon source. Humic acid stimulated the growth of the intestinal bacteria to a greater extent than those of the soil ones. In the digestive tracts, polyphenol oxidase activity was found. Along with the data on the taxonomic separation of the intestinal bacteria, the features described testified to the presence of a group of bacteria in the earthworms intestines that is functionally characteristic and is different from the soil bacteria.

  7. NON-INVASIVE ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL MONITORING: A SENSITIVE METHOD FOR DETECTING SUBLETHAL NEUROTOXICITY IN EARTHWORMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Earthworms were exposed, by external surface contact, to three chemical pollutants: dieldrin (a known neurotoxicant), dimethyl phthalate and fluorene (a possible neurotoxicant). After 48 h of exposure, LC50 values were determined and compared with concentrations required for subl...

  8. Collision Avoidance System Synchronization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. Jaycox

    1968-01-01

    The collision avoidance synchronization system provides a method by which over 1000 aircraft can be accommodated in a 250-mile radius. Information is exchanged at a data rate of once every 3 seconds. Master-time synchronization permits one-way ranging between aircraft with an rms range error of less than 120 feet (36.6 meters) when both use the same master. A maximum error

  9. Reactive Collision Avoidance for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Doppler Radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Viquerat; Lachlan Blackhall; Alistair Reid; Salah Sukkarieh; Graham Brooker

    2007-01-01

    Summary. Research into reactive collision avoidance for unmanned aerial vehicles has been conducted on unmanned terrestrial and mini aerial vehicles utilising active Doppler radar obstacle detection sensors. Flight tests conducted by flying a mini UAV at an obstacle have confirmed that a simple reactive collision avoidance al- gorithm enables aerial vehicles to autonomously avoid obstacles. This builds upon simulation work

  10. Avoiding Television Advertising: Some Explanations from Time Allocation Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOS I. ROJAS-M NDEZ; GARY DAVIES

    2005-01-01

    Time allocation theory holds that individuals allocate their discretionary time purposively, depending upon their time orientation: to the past, present, or future. We use this perspective to understand more about why individuals avoid watching TV advertisements. We test a model of avoidance where time orientation influences attitude to advertising and avoidance with survey data from two different societies. Past-oriented people

  11. Earthworm humic matter produces auxin-like effects on Daucus carota cell growth and nitrate metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Muscolo; F. Bovalo; F. Gionfriddo; S. Nardi

    1999-01-01

    While earthworms are known to improve plant growth by improving the structure of the soil, recent work has suggested that earthworms also produced humic substances endowed with hormone-like activity. Suspensions of Daucus carota (carrot) cells were treated with auxin derivatives (2,4-D=2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, IAA=indole-3-acetic acid and NAA=1-naphthylacetic acid) and a humic substance of low molecular weight (HEf), obtained from the faeces

  12. Earthworm additions increased short-term nitrogen availability and leaching in two grain-crop agroecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Subler; Christina M. Baranski; Clive A. Edwards

    1997-01-01

    Earthworms were added to enclosures in two agroecosystems to determine their influence on soil nitrogen availability and microbial activity, and to quantify their effect on the leaching of water and nitrogen through the surface soil. The two agroecosystems were a corn-soybean rotation with chisel-plow-disk tillage following corn (CS), and a corn-soybean-wheat-vetch rotation with ridge-tillage (CSW). In both agroecosystems, earthworm additions

  13. Bioaccumulation of Total Mercury and Monomethylmercury in the Earthworm Eisenia Fetida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis T. Burton; Steven D. Turley; Daniel J. Fisher; Donald J. Green; Tommy R. Shedd

    2006-01-01

    Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for inorganic mercury in earthworms are usually < 1; however, factors up to ?10 have been reported.\\u000a Little information is available concerning the bioaccumulation of organic mercury in earthworms from actual contaminated soils\\u000a and thus there has been uncertainty in the risk characterization phase of ecological risk assessments of mercury-contaminated\\u000a sites. This study was initiated to determine

  14. Assessing the Role of Earthworms in Biocontrol of Soil-Borne Plant Fungal Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mukesh K. Meghvansi; Lokendra Singh; Ravi B. Srivastava; Ajit Varma

    \\u000a Earthworms are integral part of belowground communities, which are actively involved in redesigning the structure of the soil\\u000a environment. In recent decades, several researches have shown the potential of application of vermicompost in controlling\\u000a soil-borne plant fungal diseases. However, complexity of earthworm interactions with various abiotic and biotic components\\u000a of the soil has posed a real challenge before the scientists

  15. Organochlorine pesticide residues in woodcock, soils and earthworms in Louisiana, 1965

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLane, M.A.R.; Stickel, L.F.; Newsom, J.D.

    1971-01-01

    Woodcock (Philohela minor), earthworms, and soil samples were collected from January-March 1965, from fields in southeastern Louisiana approximately 3 years after discontinuance of areal treatments with heptachlor in this region. Heptachlor epoxide residues in woodcock averaged 0.42 ppm (dry weight), conspicuously lower than in 1961 and 1962. Residues of DDE in woodcock averaged 3.62 pprn, higher than in birds taken in the same area in 1961-62. Earthworms and soils contained traces of several organochlorine pesticides.

  16. Effects of high copper concentrations on soil invertebrates (earthworms and oribatid mites)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno Streit

    1984-01-01

    Data in the literature on the toxicity and uptake of copper by soil invertebrates are contradictory. Copper toxicity and bioaccumulation studies were therefore performed using earthworms and oribatid mites. Field-simulating experiments in soil-filled plastic containers showed that earthworms try to escape moderately toxic situations and that they are much more sensitive than oribatid mites to temporary high Cu2+ concentrations in

  17. Lethal critical body residues as measures of Cd, Pb, and Zn bioavailability and toxicity in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason M. Conder; Roman P. Lanno

    2003-01-01

    Background. Earthworm heavy metal concentrations (critical body residues, CBRs) may be the most relevant measures of heavy\\u000a metal bioavailability in soils and may be linkable to toxic effects in order to better assess soil ecotoxicity. However, as\\u000a earthworms possess physiological mechanisms to secrete and\\/or sequester absorbed metals as toxicologically inactive forms,\\u000a total earthworm metal concentrations may not relate well with

  18. Lethal critical body residues as measures of Cd, Pb, and Zn bioavailability and toxicity in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason M. Conder; Roman P. Lanno

    2003-01-01

    Background  Earthworm heavy metal concentrations (critical body residues, CBRs) may be the most relevant measures of heavy metal bioavailability\\u000a in soils and may be linkable to toxic effects in order to better assess soil ecotoxicity. However, as earthworms possess physiological\\u000a mechanisms to secrete and\\/or sequester absorbed metals as toxicologically inactive forms, total earthworm metal concentrations\\u000a may not relate well with toxicity.

  19. Earthworms Dilong: Ancient, Inexpensive, Noncontroversial Models May Help Clarify Approaches to Integrated Medicine Emphasizing Neuroimmune Systems

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Edwin L.; Balamurugan, Mariappan; Huang, Chih-Yang; Tsao, Clara R.; Heredia, Jesus; Tommaseo-Ponzetta, Mila; Paoletti, Maurizio G.

    2012-01-01

    Earthworms have provided ancient cultures with food and sources of medicinal cures. Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and practices in Japan, Vietnam, and Korea have focused first on earthworms as sources of food. Gradually fostering an approach to potential beneficial healing properties, there are renewed efforts through bioprospecting and evidence-based research to understand by means of rigorous investigations the mechanisms of action whether earthworms are used as food and/or as sources of potential medicinal products. Focusing on earthworms grew by serendipity from an extensive analysis of the earthworm's innate immune system. Their immune systems are replete with leukocytes and humoral products that exert credible health benefits. Their emerging functions with respect to evolution of innate immunity have long been superseded by their well-known ecological role in soil conservation. Earthworms as inexpensive, noncontroversial animal models (without ethical concerns) are not vectors of disease do not harbor parasites that threaten humans nor are they annoying pests. By recognizing their numerous ecological, environmental, and biomedical roles, substantiated by inexpensive and more comprehensive investigations, we will become more aware of their undiscovered beneficial properties. PMID:22888362

  20. Invasive earthworms interact with abiotic conditions to influence the invasion of common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica).

    PubMed

    Roth, Alexander M; Whitfeld, Timothy J S; Lodge, Alexandra G; Eisenhauer, Nico; Frelich, Lee E; Reich, Peter B

    2014-12-01

    Common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica L.) is one of the most abundant and ecologically harmful non-native plants in forests of the Upper Midwest United States. At the same time, European earthworms are invading previously glaciated areas in this region, with largely anecdotal evidence suggesting they compound the negative effects of buckthorn and influence the invasibility of these forests. Germination and seedling establishment are important control points for colonization by any species, and manipulation of the conditions influencing these life history stages may provide insight into why invasive species are successful in some environments and not others. Using a greenhouse microcosm experiment, we examined the effects of important biotic and abiotic factors on the germination and seedling establishment of common buckthorn. We manipulated light levels, leaf litter depth and earthworm presence to investigate the independent and interactive effects of these treatments on buckthorn establishment. We found that light and leaf litter depth were significant predictors of buckthorn germination but that the presence of earthworms was the most important factor; earthworms interacted with light and leaf litter to increase the number and biomass of buckthorn across all treatments. Path analysis suggested both direct and moisture-mediated indirect mechanisms controlled these processes. The results suggest that the action of earthworms may provide a pathway through which buckthorn invades forests of the Upper Midwest United States. Hence, researchers and managers should consider co-invasion of plants and earthworms when investigating invasibility and creating preemptive or post-invasion management plans. PMID:25481818

  1. Self-Assemblage and Quorum in the Earthworm Eisenia fetida (Oligochaete, Lumbricidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zirbes, Lara; Brostaux, Yves; Mescher, Mark; Jason, Maxime; Haubruge, Eric; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    Despite their ubiquity and ecological significance in temperate ecosystems, the behavioural ecology of earthworms is not well described. This study examines the mechanisms that govern aggregation behaviour specially the tendency of individuals to leave or join groups in the compost earthworm Eisenia fetida, a species with considerable economic importance, especially in waste management applications. Through behavioural assays combined with mathematical modelling, we provide the first evidence of self-assembled social structures in earthworms and describe key mechanisms involved in cluster formation. We found that the probability of an individual joining a group increased with group size, while the probability of leaving decreased. Moreover, attraction to groups located at a distance was observed, suggesting a role for volatile cues in cluster formation. The size of earthworm clusters appears to be a key factor determining the stability of the group. These findings enhance our understanding of intra-specific interactions in earthworms and have potential implications for extraction and collection of earthworms in vermicomposting processes. PMID:22396774

  2. Enantioselective toxicity, bioaccumulation and degradation of the chiral insecticide fipronil in earthworms (Eisenia feotida).

    PubMed

    Qu, Han; Wang, Peng; Ma, Rui-xue; Qiu, Xing-xu; Xu, Peng; Zhou, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Dong-hui

    2014-07-01

    The enantioselective acute toxicity to earthworms of racemic fipronil and its individual enantiomers was studied. R-(-)-fipronil was approximately 1.5 times more toxic than the racemate and approximately 2 times more toxic than S-(+)-fipronil after 72 and 96 h of exposure, respectively. Assays of fipronil enantiomer bioaccumulation and degradation in earthworms were conducted. The bio-concentration factors (BCFs) were slightly different between the two enantiomers. The enantiomeric fraction (EF) values in earthworms in the bioaccumulation period were approximately 0.5, which indicated there was no enantioselective bioaccumulation. In contrast, the degradation of fipronil in earthworms was enantioselective: the t1/2 values for R- and S-fipronil were 3.3 and 2.5 days, respectively, in natural soil, and 2.1 and 1.4 days, respectively, in artificial soil. The results of soil analyses showed that the degradation of fipronil was not enantioselective, which suggested that the enantioselectivity of fipronil in earthworms results from the organism's metabolism. The study also demonstrated that the presence of earthworms could accelerate the degradation of fipronil in soil. PMID:24742550

  3. Influence of plant-earthworm interactions on SOM chemistry and p,p'-DDE bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, Jason W; Slizovskiy, Ilya B; Petriello, Michael C; Butler, Kelly L

    2011-05-01

    Laboratory experiments assessed how bioaccumulation of weathered p,p'-DDE from soil and humic acid (HA) chemistry are affected by interactions between the plants Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo and ssp. ovifera and the earthworms Eisenia fetida, Lumbricus terrestris, and Apporectodea caliginosa. Total organochlorine phytoextraction by ssp. pepo increased at least 25% in the presence of any of the earthworm species (relative to plants grown in isolation). Uptake of the compound by ssp. ovifera was unaffected by earthworms. Plants influenced earthworm bioaccumulation as well. When combined with pepo, p,p'-DDE levels in E. fetida decreased by 50%, whereas, in the presence of ovifera, bioconcentration by L. terrestris increased by more than 2-fold. Spectral analysis indicated a decrease in hydrophobicity of HA in each of the soils in which both pepo and earthworms were present. However, HA chemistry from ovifera treatments was largely unaffected by earthworms. Risk assessments of contaminated soils should account for species interactions, and SOM chemistry may be a useful indictor of pollutant bioaccumulation. PMID:21421253

  4. Earthworms dilong: ancient, inexpensive, noncontroversial models may help clarify approaches to integrated medicine emphasizing neuroimmune systems.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Edwin L; Balamurugan, Mariappan; Huang, Chih-Yang; Tsao, Clara R; Heredia, Jesus; Tommaseo-Ponzetta, Mila; Paoletti, Maurizio G

    2012-01-01

    Earthworms have provided ancient cultures with food and sources of medicinal cures. Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and practices in Japan, Vietnam, and Korea have focused first on earthworms as sources of food. Gradually fostering an approach to potential beneficial healing properties, there are renewed efforts through bioprospecting and evidence-based research to understand by means of rigorous investigations the mechanisms of action whether earthworms are used as food and/or as sources of potential medicinal products. Focusing on earthworms grew by serendipity from an extensive analysis of the earthworm's innate immune system. Their immune systems are replete with leukocytes and humoral products that exert credible health benefits. Their emerging functions with respect to evolution of innate immunity have long been superseded by their well-known ecological role in soil conservation. Earthworms as inexpensive, noncontroversial animal models (without ethical concerns) are not vectors of disease do not harbor parasites that threaten humans nor are they annoying pests. By recognizing their numerous ecological, environmental, and biomedical roles, substantiated by inexpensive and more comprehensive investigations, we will become more aware of their undiscovered beneficial properties. PMID:22888362

  5. Soil geochemistry and digestive solubilization control mercury bioaccumulation in the earthworm Pheretima guillemi.

    PubMed

    Dang, Fei; Zhao, Jie; Greenfield, Ben K; Zhong, Huan; Wang, Yujun; Yang, Zhousheng; Zhou, Dongmei

    2015-07-15

    Mercury presents a potential risk to soil organisms, yet our understanding of mercury bioaccumulation in soil dwelling organisms is limited. The influence of soil geochemistry and digestive processes on both methylmercury (MeHg) and total mercury (THg) bioavailability to earthworms (Pheretima guillemi) was evaluated in this study. Earthworms were exposed to six mercury-contaminated soils with geochemically contrasting properties for 36 days, and digestive fluid was concurrently collected to solubilize soil-associated mercury. Bioaccumulation factors were 7.5-31.0 and 0.2-0.6 for MeHg and THg, respectively, and MeHg accounted for 17-58% of THg in earthworm. THg and MeHg measured in soils and earthworms were negatively associated with soil total organic carbon (TOC). Earthworm THg and MeHg also increased with increasing soil pH. The proportion of MeHg and THg released into the digestive fluid (digestive solubilizable mercury, DSM) was 8.3-18.1% and 0.4-1.3%, respectively. The greater solubilization of MeHg by digestive fluid than CaCl2, together with a biokinetic model-based estimate of dietary MeHg uptake, indicated the importance of soil ingestion for MeHg bioaccumulation in earthworms. PMID:25781374

  6. Persistence in earthworms and potential hazards to birds of soil applied DDT, dieldrin, and heptachlor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Gish, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    (1) DDT, dieldrin, and heptachlor were each applied to separate replicate plots in a hay field at 0.6, 2.2, or 9.0 kg/ha. For 11 yr thereafter, soil and earthworms were analysed for residues. (2) The average ratios of residues in earthworms (dry weight) to residues in soil (dry weight) were: total DDT, 5; dieldrin, 8; and heptachlor epoxide, 10. The average time for the initial residues in soil to be reduced by 50% were: total DDT, 3.2 yr; dieldrin, 5.1 yr; and heptachlor epoxide, 3.2 yr. The corresponding times for residues in earthworms were: total DDT, 3.2 yr; dieldrin, 2.6 yr; and heptachlor epoxide, 3.0 yr. (3) DDE was most persistent, and in plots treated at 9.0 kg/ha its concentration remained constant at about 0.4 ppm in soil and about 7 ppm in earthworms. (4) When applied at 9.0 kg/ha, DDT accumulated in earthworms to concentrations (32 ppm) which laboratory studies have shown to be hazardous to some sensitive bird species. When heptachlor was applied at 2.2 or 9.0 kg/ha, heptachlor epoxide in earthworms reached concentrations (8 ppm) potentially hazardous to woodcock. Dieldrin remained at potentially hazardous concentrations (8 ppm) for 3 yr in plots treated with 2.2 kg/ha and for 11 yr in plots treated with 9.0 kg/ha.

  7. The “deduction” approach: A non-invasive method for estimating secondary production of earthworm communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksen-Hamel, Nikita S.; Whalen, Joann K.

    2009-05-01

    Secondary production is an important parameter for the study of population dynamics and energy flow through animal communities. Secondary production of earthworm communities has been determined with the size-frequency and instantaneous growth rate methods, whereby earthworm populations are repeatedly sampled at regular intervals and the change in biomass of cohorts or individuals between sampling dates is determined. The major disadvantage of repeated sampling is that it disturbs the soil and permanently removes earthworms from the study area. The " deduction" approach is a theoretical model that partitions individuals into defined pools and makes assumptions about the growth, recruitment and mortality of each pool. In 2004 and 2005, earthworms were added to undisturbed field enclosures and the " deduction" approach was used to estimate secondary production of the indigenous and added earthworm populations during the crop growing period (17-18 weeks) in each year. Secondary production estimates made by the " deduction" approach were similar to estimates from direct earthworm sampling in temperate agroecosystems. The "deduction" approach is an indirect method that estimates population dynamics and secondary production, and is appropriate for manipulation experiments where removal of organisms and physical disturbance of the habitat by repeated sampling could bias results.

  8. New methodology for determining chronic effects on the earthworm, Eisenia foetida

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, N.A. [Springborn Labs., Inc., Wareham, MA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The study design incorporates the exposure of two generations of earthworms, Eisenia foetida, and includes the sensitive developmental stage following emergence from the cocoon. Adult earthworms (F{sub 0} generation) were exposed to nominal concentrations of 16, 31, 63, 125 and 250 mg A.I. copper sulfate/kg in composted cattle manure for 14 days. Cocoons were collected six times throughout the F{sub 0} generation exposure. Upon collection, individual cocoons were weighed and transferred to separate aliquots of treated and untreated exposure manure and were allowed to hatch. Hatched F{sub 1} earthworms were allowed to mature for 21 days before being counted and individually weighed. Parameters monitored and statistically analyzed were: F{sub 0} burrowing time at initiation, F{sub 0} survival following 7 and 14 days of exposure, cocoon production, cocoon weight, cocoon viability, number and weight of F{sub 1} earthworms at 21 days post-hatch. The following endpoints clearly demonstrated chronic effects in at least the highest exposure concentration: cocoon production, mean cocoon weight, sum of cocoon weights, cocoon viability, number and weight of surviving earthworms (F{sub 1}) at 21 days post-hatch, mean and total earthworm (F{sub 1}) biomass at 21 days post-hatch. Although the acute LC50 of copper sulfate to Eisenia foetida was previously determined to be 1,100 {+-} 380 mg copper sulfate/kg, this methodology indicates that chronic toxicity effects can be observed at substantially lower concentrations.

  9. Effects of biochar and the geophagous earthworm Metaphire guillelmi on fate of (14)C-catechol in an agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Shan, Jun; Wang, Yongfeng; Gu, Jianqiang; Zhou, Wenqiang; Ji, Rong; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2014-07-01

    Both biochar and earthworms can exert influence on behaviors of soil-borne monomeric phenols in soil; however, little was known about the combined effects of biochar and earthworm activities on fate of these chemicals in soil. Using (14)C-catechol as a representative, the mineralization, transformation and residue distribution of phenolic humus monomer in soil amended with different amounts of biochar (0%, 0.05%, 0.5%, and 5%) without/with the geophagous earthworm Metaphire guillelmi were investigated. The results showed biochar at amendment rate <0.5% did not affect (14)C-catechol mineralization, whereas 5% biochar amendment significantly inhibited the mineralization. Earthworms did not affect the mineralization of (14)C-catechol in soil amended with <0.5% biochar, but significantly enhanced the mineralization in 5% biochar amended soil when they were present in soil for 9 d. When earthworms were removed from the soil, the mineralization of (14)C-catechol was significantly lower than that of in earthworm-free soil indicating that (14)C-catecholic residues were stabilized during their passage through earthworm gut. The assimilation of (14)C by earthworms was low (1.2%), and was significantly enhanced by biochar amendment, which was attributed to the release of biochar-associated (14)C-catecholic residues during gut passage of earthworm. PMID:24875877

  10. Involvement of dopamine D1/D2 receptors on harmane-induced amnesia in the step-down passive avoidance test.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Piri, Morteza; Nouri, Maryam; Farzin, Davood; Nayer-Nouri, Touraj; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza

    2010-05-25

    Ingestion of harmane and other alkaloids derived from plant Peganum harmala has been shown to elicit profound behavioural and toxic effects in humans, including hallucinations, excitation, feelings of elation, and euphoria. These alkaloids in the high doses can cause a toxic syndrome characterized by tremors and convulsions. Harmane has also been shown to act on a variety of receptor systems in the mammalian brain, including those for serotonin, dopamine and benzodiazepines. In animals, it has been reported to affect short and long term memory. In the present study, effects of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists on the harmane (HA)-induced amnesia and exploratory behaviors were examined in mice. One-trial step-down and hole-board paradigms were used for the assessment of memory retention and exploratory behaviors in adult male NMRI mice respectively. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of HA (5 and 10 mg/kg) immediately after training decreased memory consolidation, while had no effect on anxiety-like behavior. Memory retrieval was not altered by 15- or 30 min pre-testing administration of the D1 (SCH23390, 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) or D2 (sulpiride 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) receptor antagonists, respectively. In contrast, SCH23390 (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) or sulpiride (25 and 50 mg/kg) pre-test administration fully reversed HA-induced impairment of memory consolidation. Finally, neither D1 nor D2 receptor blockade affected exploratory behaviors in the hole-board paradigm. Altogether, these findings strongly suggest an involvement of D1 and D2 receptors modulation in the HA-induced impairment of memory consolidation. PMID:20188725

  11. Avoidance of hydrolyzed casein by mice

    PubMed Central

    Field, Kristin L.; Kimball, Bruce A.; Mennella, Julie A.; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    When casein, a milk protein, is hydrolyzed, it renders human foods that contain it (e.g., hypoallergenic infant formula, cheeses) distasteful to many people. This rejection of hydrolyzed casein (HC)-containing foods has recently been found to also occur in a non-human species (deer, Odocoileus spp.). Identifying other animals that avoid HC would facilitate understanding how and why HC-containing food is often rejected. This study determined whether HC-containing food is avoided by Mus musculus and whether consumption patterns were sensitive to testing conditions, specifically food form (powder, pellet or dough) and food access (ad libitum or 1.5 h/day following 6 h of food deprivation). Diets were offered in two-choice tests that paired an HC-containing food with an intact casein-containing alternative at seven protein concentrations (0%–50% w/w). Five experimental groups were tested under different combinations of food form and food access. Three groups (ad lib/powder, ad lib/pellet, and 1.5 h/pellet) avoided the HC diet starting at the 30% protein level. At the 40% and 50% protein levels, all groups showed strong avoidance of HC. Although testing conditions influenced total caloric intake and body weight gain, avoidance of HC at the highest concentrations was robust to the manipulations in experimental conditions. Our study suggests that mice may be a useful model for understanding the mechanisms of HC rejection. PMID:17900635

  12. Acute toxicity of virgin and used engine oil enriched with copper nano particles in the earthworm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodabandeh, M.; Koohi, M. K.; Roshani, A.; Shahroziyan, E.; Badri, B.; Pourfallah, A.; Shams, Gh; Hobbenaghi, R.; Sadeghi-Hashjin, G.

    2011-07-01

    In spite of development of nanotechnology and creation of new opportunities for industry, new applications and products initiated by this technology may cause harmful effects on human health and environment. Unfortunately, there is no sufficient information on the harmful effects caused by application of some nano materials; the current knowledge in this field is limited solely to the nano particles but not the final products. Nano cupper particles, as one of the common materials produced in industrial scale is widely used as additives into engine oil to reduce friction and improve lubrication. However, the difference between the effects of virgin and used conventional engine oil (CEO) and the engine oil containing cupper nano particles (NEO) on the environment is not known. Earthworm, as a one of the species which could live and survive in different sorts of earth and has a certain role in protecting the soil structure and fertility, was used in this experiment. In accordance with the recommended method of OECD.1984, Filter Paper test in 24 and 48 h based on 8 concentrations in the range of 3×10-3 - 24×10-3 ml/cm2 and Artificial Soil test in 7 and 14 days based on 7 concentrations in the range of 0.1 mg/kg - 100 g/kg were carried out to study earthworms in terms of lifetime (LC50), morphology and pathology. It was shown that the 48 h LC50 for virgin CEO, virgin NEO, used CEO(8000 km) and used NEO (8000 km) were 6×10-3, 23×10-3, 24×10-3 and 16×10-3 ml/cm2 respectively. Furthermore, 14-day LC50 in artificial soil for all cases were above 100 g/kg. It is concluded that virgin CEO is more toxic than virgin NEO. Meanwhile, the CEO shows significant reduction in toxicity after consumption and the used NEO shows more toxicity in comparison to virgin product. It seems that more investigations on the effects of final products specifically after consumption is necessary because the products after consumption have the most contact with environment and subsequently human health.

  13. Toxicity testing of trinitrotoluene-contaminated soil composts

    SciTech Connect

    Honeycutt, M.E. [TNRCC TARA, Austin, TX (United States); McFarland, V.A.; Jarvis, A.S. [USAEWES, Vicksburg, MS (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The Mutatox{trademark} assay and earthworm acute toxicity test were employed to evaluate the efficacy of composting in reducing the toxicity of TNT-contaminated soils. The Mutatox assay is a proprietary bacterial bioluminescence test that determines the mutagenic potential of sample extracts. The earthworm acute toxicity test was chosen because it exposes the organisms to the unaltered contaminant/solid matrix. Rockeye soil, a TNT-contaminated soil collected from a military installation, was composted using two methods. This yielded five samples, Rockeye, Compost A composting. Soil extracts were prepared for Mutatox using the sonification method. Ten serial dilution samples were tested soils/artificial soil were tested in the earthworm toxicity test. In the Rockeye soil samples, a toxic response was shown in both test methods. Mutatox indicated no toxicity in Composts A and B after composting but did not show a positive mutagenic response in the lower serial dilutions. The LC50s for Compost A and B after composting in the earthworm toxicity test were 35.3% and 100%, respectively. Using Mutatox and the earthworm toxicity test together provides a sensitive means of monitoring the effectiveness of various composting techniques for remediating TNT-contaminated soils.

  14. Earthworms newly from Mongolia (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae, Eisenia)

    PubMed Central

    Blakemore, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new megadrile earthworms from the steppes, the first species wholly from Outer Mongolia, are ascribed to the partially parthenogenetic Eisenia nordenskioldi (Eisen, 1879) species-complex. Taxonomic justification of sympatric Eisenia nordenskioldi mongol and Eisenia nordenskioldi onon ssp. n. are supported by mtDNA COI barcodes. The unreliability of molecular differentiation based on voucher names compared to definitive types is again demonstrated, as pertains to the ultimate Eisenia andrei Bouché, 1972 synonym of the Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826) sibling species-complex composed of more than a dozen prior names. Similar species described from Northeast China [formerly Manchuria] and North Korea are briefly considered, albeit they are intermittently held in synonymy of cosmopolitan Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826) along with many other taxa including some exotic lumbricids initially found in India. Japanese and North American lumbricids are also mentioned. Distributions are discussed and an annotated checklist of all nine Siberian/sub-arctic Eisenia nordenskioldi ssp. is appended. PMID:23798894

  15. A novel fibrinolytic enzyme extracted from the earthworm, Lumbricus rubellus.

    PubMed

    Mihara, H; Sumi, H; Yoneta, T; Mizumoto, H; Ikeda, R; Seiki, M; Maruyama, M

    1991-01-01

    A strong fibrinolytic enzyme was readily obtained in saline extracts of the earthworm, Lumbricus rubellus. It hydrolyzed not only plasminogen-rich fibrin plates, but also plasminogen-free fibrin plates. The average fibrinolytic activity was about 100 CU (plasmin units) or 250 IU (urokinase units)/g wet weight. The molecular weight and isoelectric point were about 20,000 and 3.4, respectively. The enzyme was heat-stable and displayed a very broad optimal pH range. DFP and SBTI strongly inhibited the enzyme, but the anti-plasmin agent, t-AMCHA, exerted little effect under the same conditions. Purification of the enzyme was performed and three partially purified fractions were obtained. These three fractions were further subdivided. The first fraction (F-I) was divided into three fractions (F-I-0, F-I-1, and F-I-2), which exhibited similar biochemical characteristics. The second fraction (F-II) could not be subdivided. The third fraction (F-III) was divided into two fractions (F-III-1 and F-III-2). Based on results for their enzymatic activities against various substrates, the fraction I enzymes are thought to represent a chymotrypsin-like enzyme and the fraction III enzymes to represent a trypsin-like enzyme. The fraction II enzyme appears to be neither a trypsin- or chymotrypsin-like enzyme nor an elastase. The amino acid compositions of the six enzymes were estimated. Compared with other serine enzymes, these enzymes contained very abundant asparagine or aspartic acid, and there was very little proline or lysine. From the above data, these enzymes are regarded as novel fibrinolytic enzymes, and we name them collectively as Lumbrokinase from the generic name of the earthworm. PMID:1960890

  16. Modelling spatiotemporal distribution patterns of earthworms in order to indicate hydrological soil processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palm, Juliane; Klaus, Julian; van Schaik, Loes; Zehe, Erwin; Schröder, Boris

    2010-05-01

    Soils provide central ecosystem functions in recycling nutrients, detoxifying harmful chemicals as well as regulating microclimate and local hydrological processes. The internal regulation of these functions and therefore the development of healthy and fertile soils mainly depend on the functional diversity of plants and animals. Soil organisms drive essential processes such as litter decomposition, nutrient cycling, water dynamics, and soil structure formation. Disturbances by different soil management practices (e.g., soil tillage, fertilization, pesticide application) affect the distribution and abundance of soil organisms and hence influence regulating processes. The strong relationship between environmental conditions and soil organisms gives us the opportunity to link spatiotemporal distribution patterns of indicator species with the potential provision of essential soil processes on different scales. Earthworms are key organisms for soil function and affect, among other things, water dynamics and solute transport in soils. Through their burrowing activity, earthworms increase the number of macropores by building semi-permanent burrow systems. In the unsaturated zone, earthworm burrows act as preferential flow pathways and affect water infiltration, surface-, subsurface- and matrix flow as well as the transport of water and solutes into deeper soil layers. Thereby different ecological earthworm types have different importance. Deep burrowing anecic earthworm species (e.g., Lumbricus terrestris) affect the vertical flow and thus increase the risk of potential contamination of ground water with agrochemicals. In contrast, horizontal burrowing endogeic (e.g., Aporrectodea caliginosa) and epigeic species (e.g., Lumbricus rubellus) increase water conductivity and the diffuse distribution of water and solutes in the upper soil layers. The question which processes are more relevant is pivotal for soil management and risk assessment. Thus, finding relevant environmental predictors which explain the distribution and dynamics of different ecological earthworm types can help us to understand where or when these processes are relevant in the landscape. Therefore, we develop species distribution models which are a useful tool to predict spatiotemporal distributions of earthworm occurrence and abundance under changing environmental conditions. On field scale, geostatistical distribution maps have shown that the spatial distribution of earthworms depends on soil parameters such as food supply, soil moisture, bulk density but with different patterns for earthworm stages (adult, juvenile) and ecological types (anecic, endogeic, epigeic). On landscape scales, earthworm distribution seems to be strongly controlled by management/disturbance-related factors. Our study shows different modelling approaches for predicting distribution patterns of earthworms in the Weiherbach area, an agricultural site in Kraichtal (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). We carried out field studies on arable fields differing in soil management practices (conventional, conservational), soil properties (organic matter content, texture, soil moisture), and topography (slope, elevation) in order to identify predictors for earthworm occurrence, abundance and biomass. Our earthworm distribution models consider all ecological groups as well as different life stages, accounting for the fact that the activity of juveniles is sometimes different from those of adults. Within our BIOPORE-project it is our final goal to couple our distribution models with population dynamic models and a preferential flow model to an integrated ecohydrological model to analyse feedbacks between earthworm engineering and transport characteristics affecting the functioning of (agro-) ecosystems.

  17. Gut-Associated Denitrification and In Vivo Emission of Nitrous Oxide by the Earthworm Families Megascolecidae and Lumbricidae in New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pia K. Wust; Marcus A. Horn; Gemma Henderson; Peter H. Janssen; Bernd H. A. Rehm; Harold L. Drake

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have documented the capacity of European earthworms belonging to the family Lumbri- cidae to emit the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O), an activity attributed primarily to the activation of ingested soil denitrifiers. To extend the information base to earthworms in the Southern Hemisphere, four species of earthworms in New Zealand were examined for gut-associated denitrification. Lumbricus rubellus and

  18. Impact of a changed inundation regime caused by climate change and floodplain rehabilitation on population viability of earthworms in a lower River Rhine floodplain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivo Thonon; Chris Klok

    2007-01-01

    River floodplains are dynamic and fertile ecosystems where soil invertebrates such as earthworms can reach high population densities. Earthworms are an important food source for a wide range of organisms including species under conservation such as badgers. Flooding, however, reduces earthworm numbers. Populations recover from cocoons that survive floods. If the period between two floods is too short such that

  19. Doan Thu et al. published in European Journal of Soil Biology The earthworm species Metaphire posthuma modulates the effect of organic

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Doan Thu et al. published in European Journal of Soil Biology 1 The earthworm species Metaphire of the endogeic earthworm Metaphire posthuma. This experiment was carried out for 15 months with a maize in soils amended with compost and vermicompost. Earthworms negatively influenced soil microbial properties

  20. Influence of exotic earthworm invasion on soil organic matter, microbial biomass and denitrification potential in forest soils of the northeastern United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy E Burtelow; Patrick J Bohlen; Peter M Groffman

    1998-01-01

    Formerly glaciated regions of the northeastern United States have few native earthworm species and the region is dominated by exotic earthworms from Europe and Asia. Earthworms of the Asian Megascolecid genus Amynthas, common in many forests of the southeastern US, are invading new habitats in north of their reported range in the northeastern US. At the Cary Arboretum in Millbrook,

  1. A new method to measure allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) concentrations in mustard -1 Comparison of AITC and commercial mustard solutions as earthworm extractants2

    E-print Network

    of AITC and commercial mustard solutions as earthworm extractants2 3 C. Pelosia, *, F. Chironb , F. Dubsc mustard solutions had the same earthworm extracting efficiency30 hal-00981416,version1-23Apr2014 #12;3 Abstract31 Earthworms are target organisms both for scientists studying the biological component32 of soils

  2. TOPRAK SOLUCANLARININ FARKLI BAKIAÇILARINDAN B ?R MODEL ORGAN ?ZMA OLARAK DE ?ERLEND ?R?LMES ? EVALUATION OF EARTHWORMS AS A MODEL ORGANISM FROM D IFFERENT PERSPECTIVES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahu Karademir; Stephen Otieno Akech; Talgat Sailov; Murat Karakol; Duran Sakalli; Irem Uzonur

    Earthworms are at the basis of terrestrial food cha ins. Understanding different mechanisms in these organisms is therefore essential for predi ction of potential food-chain effects of soil contamination. Models with different aspects such a s regeneration of these organisms, uptake of chemicals from soil into earthworms and genotoxi city evaluations are needed to support risk assessment methods. Earthworm toxicity

  3. Simple biotoxicity tests for evaluation of carbonaceous soil additives: establishment and reproducibility of four test procedures.

    PubMed

    Busch, Daniela; Kammann, Claudia; Grünhage, Ludger; Müller, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Biochar derived from pyrolysis has received much attention recently as a soil additive to sequester carbon and increase soil fertility. Hydrochar, a brown, coal-like substance produced via hydrothermal carbonization, has also been suggested as a beneficial soil additive. However, before soil application, both types of char need to be tested for potential toxic effects. The aim of this study was to develop simple, inexpensive, and easy-to-apply test procedures to identify negative effects of chars but not to provide false-negative results. The following tests, based partly on ISO norm biotoxicity test procedures, were chosen: (i) cress germination test for gaseous phytotoxic emissions; (ii) barley germination and growth test; (iii) salad germination test; and (iv) earthworm avoidance test for toxic substances. Test reproducibility was ensured by carrying out each test procedure three times with the same biochar. Several modifications were necessary to adapt the tests for biochars/hydrochars. The tested biochar did not induce negative effects in any of the tests. In contrast, the beet-root chip hydrochar showed negative effects in all tests. In an extension to the regular procedure, a regrowth of the harvested barley shoots without further nutrient additions yielded positive results for the hydrochar, which initially had negative effects. This implies that the harmful substance(s) must have been degraded or they were water soluble and leached. Tests with a biochar and hydrochar showed that the proposed modified quick-check test procedures provide a fast assessment of risks and effects of char application to soils within a short period of time (<2 wk). PMID:22751044

  4. Avoiding dangerous climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Hans Joachim Schellnhuber; Wolfgang Cramer; Nebojsa Nakicenovic; Tom Wigley; Gary Yohe (eds.)

    2006-02-15

    In 2005 the UK Government hosted the Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change conference to take an in-depth look at the scientific issues associated with climate change. This volume presents the most recent findings from the leading international scientists that attended the conference. The topics addressed include critical thresholds and key vulnerabilities of the climate system, impacts on human and natural systems, socioeconomic costs and benefits of emissions pathways, and technological options for meeting different stabilisation levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Contents are: Foreword from Prime Minister Tony Blair; Introduction from Rajendra Pachauri, Chairman of the IPCC; followed by 41 papers arranged in seven sections entitled: Key Vulnerabilities of the Climate System and Critical Thresholds; General Perspectives on Dangerous Impacts; Key Vulnerabilities for Ecosystems and Biodiversity; Socio-Economic Effects; Regional Perspectives; Emission Pathways; and Technological Options. Four papers have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

  5. Obstacle avoidance and path planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Cameron

    1994-01-01

    Outlines the state-of-the-art in obstacle avoidance and path planning for industrial robots that is practical on the current generation of computer hardware. Describes practical vehicle planners and planning for manipulators. Summarizes that obstacle avoidance and path planning are techniques with differing goals. Sonar is the standard method of obstacle avoidance systems which is largely limited by the reliability of the

  6. Short Communication AVOIDANCE, WEIGHT LOSS, AND COCOON PRODUCTION ASSESSMENT FOR

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    as well as by soil ingestion, exposure scenarios in addition to food ingestion have to be considered consumption of near-surface soil [4­11]. Earthworms are also essential for terrestrial food webs, so administered through food at 1,000 mg/kg [21]. Because earthworms can take up contaminants through skin contact

  7. Time pressure undermines performance more under avoidance than approach motivation.

    PubMed

    Roskes, Marieke; Elliot, Andrew J; Nijstad, Bernard A; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2013-06-01

    Four experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that performance is particularly undermined by time pressure when people are avoidance motivated. The results supported this hypothesis across three different types of tasks, including those well suited and those ill suited to the type of information processing evoked by avoidance motivation. We did not find evidence that stress-related emotions were responsible for the observed effect. Avoidance motivation is certainly necessary and valuable in the self-regulation of everyday behavior. However, our results suggest that given its nature and implications, it seems best that avoidance motivation is avoided in situations that involve (time) pressure. PMID:23554176

  8. Effects of acclimation temperature on enzymatic capacities and mitochondrial membranes from the body wall of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. L crockett; B. E Dougherty; A. N McNamer

    2001-01-01

    Many ectotherms respond to low temperature by adjusting capacities of enzymes from energy metabolism, restructuring membrane phospholipids and modulating membrane fluidity. Although much is known about the temperature biology of earthworms, it is not known to what extent earthworms employ compensatory changes in enzymatic capacities and membrane physical properties after exposure to low temperature. We examined activities of enzymes from

  9. Different behavioral patterns of the earthworms Octolasion tyrtaeum and Diplocardia spp. in tallgrass prairie soils: potential influences on plant growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mac A. Callaham Jr; John M. Blair; Paul F. Hendrix

    2001-01-01

    This study addressed differences between Diplocardia spp. (a native North American earthworm) and Octolasion tyrtaeum (an introduced European species), with respect to behavior, influence on soil microbial biomass, and plant uptake of N in tallgrass prairie soils. We manipulated earthworms in PVC-encased soil cores (20 cm diameter) over a 45-day period under field conditions. Treatments included: (1) control with no

  10. Genetic structure of invasive earthworms Dendrobaena octaedra in the boreal forest of Alberta: insights into introduction mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ERIN K. CAMERON; ERIN M. BAYNE; DAVID W. COLTMAN

    2008-01-01

    Population genetic studies can help to determine whether invasive species are established via single vs. multiple introduction events and also to distinguish among various colonization scenarios. We used this approach to investigate the introduction of Dendrobaena octaedra, a non-native earthworm species, to the boreal forest of northern Alberta. The spread of non-native earthworms in forested systems is not well understood,

  11. The influence of earthworms (Lumbricidae) on the nitrogen dynamics in the soil litter system of a deciduous forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Scheu

    1987-01-01

    The influence of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny) and Lumbricus castaneus (Savigny)) on the rate of nitrogen net mineralization of the soil was studied in the laboratory and in the field. The additional mineralization of nitrogen cause by the burrowing activity of the substrat feeding earthworm A. caliginosa (NL)was directly correlated to the biomass of the lumbricids independently of their number.

  12. Extrusion of earthworm coelomocytes: comparison of the cell populations recovered from the species Lumbricus terrestris, Eisenia fetida and Octolasion tyrtaeum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Diogène; M. Dufour; G. G. Poirier; D. Nadeau

    1997-01-01

    Summary Coelomocytes were extruded from three earthworm species: Lumbricus terrestris, Eisenia fetida and Octolasion tyrtaeum. Featuring a simple low-vacuum holding device, the proposed methodology allows the recovery of cells with minimum risk of contamination by faecal material. The viability of O. tyrtaeum coelomocytes was highly reproducible (average 93%), with an average yield of 0.92 x 106 viable cells per earthworm.

  13. Soil moisture and temperature interact to affect growth, survivorship, fecundity, and fitness in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lance Presley; Tom C. McElroy; Walter J. Diehl

    1996-01-01

    Life history and fitness characters of the earthworm Eisenia fetida were measured for all combinations of three soil moistures (2, 3, 4 ml H2O\\/g peat moss) and four soil temperatures (15, 20, 25, 28°C). Maximal growth early in ontogeny, fecundity (cocoons per week per earthworm), and fitness (fecundity × survivorship) occurred in high moistures and moderate temperatures. After reproductive maturity,

  14. Role of earthworms in nitrogen cycling during the cropping phase of shifting agriculture (Jhum) in north-east India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tunira Bhadauria; P. S. Ramakrishnan

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the role of earthworms in the N cycle in a shifting agriculture system under a 5- and a 15-year Jhum system fallow period intervening between two croppings on the same site. Earthworms participated in the N cycle through worm cast egestion, mucus production, and dead tissue decomposition. Soil N was initially depleted by volatilization during slash and burn

  15. Acceleration of cellulose and organic matter decomposition as a result of earthworms effect on soil microbial community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evgenia Blagodatskaya; Nikita Khomyakov; Sergey Blagodatsky; Olga Myachina; Boris Byzov; Yakov Kuzyakov

    2010-01-01

    The biotic activity of earthworms alters soil carbon turnover 1) indirectly by the disturbance of soil structure which increases the availability of organic matter; or 2) directly changing the structure of soil microbial community which is mainly in the dormant state in undisturbed soil. The activation of soil microorganisms by earthworms can strongly change the turnover of native soil organic

  16. POPULATION DYNAMICS OF AMBIENT AND ALTERED EARTHWORM COMMUNITIES IN ROW-CROP AGROECOSYSTEMS IN THE MIDWESTERN U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although earthworms affect agroecosystem processes, few studies have addressed population dynamics when earthworms are intentionally introduced. Therefore, handsorting and formalin extraction were used semi-annually from fall 1994 to fall 1997 to measure populations in ambient and addition plots in ...

  17. A Feeding Induced Switch from a Variable to a Homogenous State of the Earthworm Gut Microbiota within a Host Population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Knut Rudi; Kristin Ødegård; Tine Therese Løkken; Robert Wilson; Ching-Hong Yang

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundThe distribution pattern of the earthworm gut microbiota at the host population level is of fundamental importance to understand host-microbiota interactions. Our current understanding of these interactions is very limited. Since feeding represents a main perturbation of the gut microbiota, we determined the effect of a single dose of feed on the microbiota associated with an earthworm population in a

  18. Assessment of earthworm burrowing efficiency in compacted soil with a combination of morphological and soil physical measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Joschko; H. Diestel; O. Larink

    1989-01-01

    Column experiments were carried out to quantify the effect of earthworms on compacted soil. The earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) were able to burrow into soil which was artificially compacted to a pore volume as low as 40%; they may also penetrate an artificial “plough pan” deep in the soil. The effect of the burrowing activity of Lumbricus terrestris was quantified by

  19. An overview of some tillage impacts on earthworm population abundance and diversity — implications for functioning in soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Y Chan

    2001-01-01

    Conflicting reports in the literature on the effects of tillage on earthworms are reviewed in the light of their roles in agro-ecosystem functioning. Tillage can change the abundance (by 2–9 times) as well as the composition (diversity) of earthworm populations. The actual impact is dependent on soil factors, climatic conditions and the tillage operations but hitherto this information was seldom

  20. Toxicity of Neatex (industrial detergent) and Norust CR 486 (corrosion inhibitors) to earthworms (Aporrectodea longa) in naturally spiked soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ecological effects of indiscriminate disposal of industrial chemicals into soils of the Niger Delta environment of Nigeria were assessed using earthworms in spiked natural soil in the laboratory. Populations of indigenous epigeic adult earthworms, Aporrectodea longa, were exposed to varying concentrations of two chemicals (industrial detergent and corrosion inhibitor) in natural soil to determine the acute toxicity of the chemicals.

  1. DNA damage in earthworms from highly contaminated soils: Assessing resistance to arsenic toxicity by use of the Comet assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Button; Gawen R. T. Jenkin; Karen J. Bowman; Chris F. Harrington; Tim S. Brewer; George D. D. Jones; Michael J. Watts

    2010-01-01

    Earthworms native to the former mine site of Devon Great Consols (DGC), UK reside in soils highly contaminated with arsenic (As). These earthworms are considered to have developed a resistance to As toxicity. The mechanisms underlying this resistance however, remain unclear. In the present study, non-resistant, commercially sourced Lumbricus terrestris were exposed to a typical DGC soil in laboratory mesocosms.

  2. A survey of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, As, and Se in earthworms and soil from diverse sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Cromartie, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    Earthworms and soils were collected from 20 diverse sites in Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, and were analyzed for Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, As, and Se. Correlation coefficients relating Iconcentrations of the elements in earthworms to concentrations in soil were low (-0.20earthworms. The maximum concentrations of Pb (2100 ppm), Zn (1600 ppm), Cd (23 ppm) and Se (7.6 ppm) detected in earthworms were in the range reported to be toxic to animals fed diets containing these elements; however, even in the absence of any environmental contamination, some species of earthworms may contain high concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Se. Earthworms of the genus Eisenoides, for example, were exceptional in their ability to concentrate Pb. When earthworms are used as indicators of environmental contamination, it is important to identify the species, to report the soil characteristics, and to collect similar earthworms from very similar but uncontaminated soil.

  3. Carbon–mineral interactions along an earthworm invasion gradient at a Sugar Maple Forest in Northern Minnesota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy Lyttle; Kyungsoo Yoo; Cindy Hale; Anthony Aufdenkampe; Stephen Sebestyen

    2011-01-01

    The interactions of organic matter and minerals contribute to the capacity of soils to store C. Such interactions may be controlled by the processes that determine the availability of organic matter and minerals, and their physical contacts. One of these processes is bioturbation, and earthworms are the best known organisms that physically mix soils. Earthworms are not native species to

  4. Value contamination avoidance devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Endicott, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    Mechanical redesign methods were used to minimize contamination damage of conventional fluid components and a contamination separator device was developed for long term reusable space vehicles. These were incorporated into an existing 50.8 mm poppet valve and tested for damage tolerance in a full size open loop flow system with gaseous and liquid nitrogen. Cyclic and steady flow conditions were tested with particles of 125 to 420 micrometers aluminum oxide dispersed in the test fluids. Nonflow life tests (100,000 cycles) were made with two valve configurations in gaseous hydrogen. The redesigned valve had an acceptable cycle life and improved tolerance to contamination damage when the primary sealing surfaces were coated with thin coatings of hard plastic (Teflon S and Kynar). Analytical studies and flow testing were completed of four different versions of the separator. overall separation efficiencies in the 55-90% range were measured with these non-optimum configurations.

  5. Impact of Native and Invasive Earthworm Activity on Forest Soil Organic Matter Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Top, Sara; Filley, Timothy

    2010-05-01

    Many northern North American forests are experiencing the introduction of exotic European lumbricid species earthworms with documented losses in litter layers, expansion of A-horizons, loss of the organic horizon, changes in fine root density, and shifts in microbial populations as a result. Some of these forests were previously devoid of these ecosystem engineers. We compare the soil isotope and molecular chemistry from two free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) forest experiments (aspen FACE at Rhinelander, Wisconsin and sweet gum FACE at Oak Ridge National Lab, Tennessee) that lie within the zones of earthworm invasion. These sites exhibit differences in amounts of exotic and native species as well as endogeic (predominantly mineral soil dwelling) and epigeic (litter and organic matter horizon dwelling) types. We investigated the impact of earthworm activity by tracking the relative abundance and stable carbon isotope compositions of lignin and substituted fatty acids extracted from isolated earthworms and their fecal pellets and from host soils. Additionally, 15N-labeled additions to the soil provide additional methods for tracking earthworm impacts. Indications of root vs leaf input to earthworm casts and fecal matter were derived from differences in the chemical composition of cutin, suberin, and lignin. The isotopically depleted CO2 used in FACE and the resulting isotopically depleted plant organic matter afford an excellent opportunity to assess biopolymer-specific turnover dynamics. We find that endogeic species are proportionately more responsible for fine root cycling while some epigeic species are responsible for microaggregation of foliar cutin. CSIA of fecal pellet lignin and SFA indicate how these biopolymer pools can be derived from variable sources, roots, background soil, foliar tissue within one earthworm. Additionally, CSIA indicates the distinct roles that different earthworm types have in "aging" surface soil biopolymer pools through encapsulation and upward transport of deeper soil carbon, and "freshening" deeper soil biopolymer pools through downward transport of surface carbon to deeper layers. Although, endogeic species burrow down below 30 cm in these systems, comparison of 13C and 15N in soil layers and fecal matter indicate their greatest impact is restricted to the upper 5 cm. As earthworm species abundance and activity are not is steady state in these forests, the role of these important invertebrates should be more considered when assessing the ability of forest soils to accumulate new plant input.

  6. Testing Honey Bees' Avoidance of Predators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Jesse Wade; Nieh, James C.; Goodale, Eben

    2012-01-01

    Many high school science students do not encounter opportunities for authentic science inquiry in their formal coursework. Ecological field studies can provide such opportunities. The purpose of this project was to teach students about the process of science by designing and conducting experiments on whether and how honey bees (Apis mellifera)…

  7. The Mechanics and Energetics of Soil Bioturbation by Plant Roots and Earthworms - Plastic Deformation Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Siul; Or, Dani; Schymanski, Stanislaus

    2014-05-01

    Soil structure plays a critical factor in the agricultural, hydrological and ecological functions of soils. These services are adversely impacted by soil compaction, a damage that could last for many years until functional structure is restored. An important class of soil structural restoration processes are related to biomechanical activity associated with burrowing of earthworms and root proliferation in impacted soil volumes. We study details of the mechanical processes and energetics associated with quantifying the rates and mechanical energy required for soil structural restoration. We first consider plastic cavity expansion to describe earthworm and plant root radial expansion under various conditions. We then use cone penetration models as analogues to wedging induced by root tip growth and worm locomotion. The associated mechanical stresses and strains determine the mechanical energy associated with bioturbation for different hydration conditions and root/earthworm geometries. Results illustrate a reduction in strain energy with increasing water content and trade-offs between pressure and energy investment for various root and earthworm geometries. The study provides the basic building blocks for estimating rates of soil structural alteration, the associated energetic requirements (soil carbon, plant assimilates) needed to sustain structure regeneration by earthworms and roots, and highlights potential mechanical cut-offs for such activities.

  8. Edaphic factors affecting the toxicity and accumulation of arsenate in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

    SciTech Connect

    Meharg, A.A.; Shore, R.F.; Broadgate, K. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology, Huntingdon (United Kingdom)

    1998-06-01

    The toxicity and accumulation of arsenate was determined in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris in soil from different layers of a forest profile. Toxicity increased fourfold between 2 and 10 d. Edaphic factors (pH, soil organic matter, and depth in soil profile) also affected toxicity with a three fold decrease in the concentration that causes 50% mortality with increasing depth in soil. In a 4-d exposure study, there was no evidence of arsenic bioconcentration in earthworm tissue, although bioaccumulation was occurring. There was a considerable difference in tissue residues between living and dead earthworms, with dead worms having higher concentrations. This difference was dependent on both soil arsenate concentration and on soil type. Over a wide range of soil arsenate concentrations, earthworm arsenic residues are homeostatically maintained in living worms, but this homeostasis breaks down during death. Alternatively, equilibration with soil residues may occur via accumulation after death. In long-term accumulation studies in soils dosed with a sublethal arsenate concentration, bioconcentration of arsenate did not occur until day 12, after which earthworm concentrations rose steadily above the soil concentration, with residues in worms three fold higher than soil concentrations by the termination of the study. This bioconcentration only occurred in depurated worms over the time period of the study. Initially, depurated worms had lower arsenic concentrations than undepurated until tissue concentrations were equivalent to the soil concentration. Once tissue concentration was greater than soil concentration, depurated worms had higher arsenic residues than undepurated.

  9. Stimulating effect of earthworm excreta on the mineralization of nitrogen compounds in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bityutskii, N. P.; Solov'eva, A. N.; Lukina, E. I.; Oleinik, A. S.; Zavgorodnyaya, Yu. A.; Demin, V. V.; Byzov, B. A.

    2007-04-01

    The effect of excreta of earthworm species Aporrectodea caliginosa and Eisenia fetida on the mineralization of nitrogen compounds in soils has been studied. A single application of excreta obtained from three earthworms in one day increased the formation of nitrate nitrogen compounds in the soil by 10 50%. The application of ammonium nitrogen (in the form of NH4Cl) in amounts equivalent to the ammonium nitrogen content in the daily excreta of three earthworms had the same effect on the mineralization of nitrogen compounds. The effect of earthworm excreta, as well as the effect of ammonium nitrogen, on the nitrification process was an order of magnitude higher than their contribution to the formation of nitrates due to the oxidation of the introduced ammonium. Hence, ammonium—an important component of the earthworm excreta—can exert a stimulating effect on nitrification processes in the soil and produce long-term cumulative effects that are much more significant than the direct effect of this nitrogen compound.

  10. Biomarker responses in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) to soils contaminated with di-n-butyl phthalates.

    PubMed

    Du, Li; Li, Guangde; Liu, Mingming; Li, Yanqiang; Yin, Suzhen; Zhao, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalates (DBP) are recognized as ubiquitous contaminants in soil and adversely impact the health of organisms. Changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and levels of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were used as biomarkers to evaluate the impact of DBP on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) after exposure to DBP for 28 days. DBP was added to artificial soil in the amounts of 0, 5, 10, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) of soil. Earthworm tissues exposed to each treatment were collected on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day of the treatment. We found that superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels were significantly inhibited in the 100 mg kg(-1) treatment group on day 28. After 21 days of treatment, GST activity in 10-50 mg kg(-1) treatment groups was markedly stimulated compared to the control group. MDA content in treatment groups was higher than in the control group throughout the exposure time, suggesting that DBP may lead to lipid peroxidation (LPO) in cells. GSH content increased in the treatment group that received 50 mg kg(-1) DBP from 7 days of exposure to 28 days. These results suggest that DBP induces serious oxidative damage on earthworms and induce the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in earthworms. However, DBP concentration in current agricultural soil in China will not constitute any threat to the earthworm or other animals in the soil. PMID:25328097

  11. Earthworm genomes, genes and proteins: the (re)discovery of Darwin's worms

    PubMed Central

    Stürzenbaum, S.R.; Andre, J.; Kille, P.; Morgan, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Small incremental biological change, winnowed by natural selection over geological time scales to produce large consequences, was Darwin's singular insight that revolutionized the life sciences. His publications after 1859, including the ‘earthworm book’, were all written to amplify and support the evolutionary theory presented in the Origin. Darwin was unable to provide a physical basis for the inheritance of favoured traits because of the absence of genetic knowledge that much later led to the ‘modern synthesis’. Mistaken though he was in advocating systemic ‘gemmules’ as agents of inheritance, Darwin was perceptive in seeking to underpin his core vision with concrete factors that both determine the nature of a trait in one generation and convey it to subsequent generations. This brief review evaluates the molecular genetic literature on earthworms published during the last decade, and casts light on the specific aspects of earthworm evolutionary biology that more or less engaged Darwin: (i) biogeography, (ii) species diversity, (iii) local adaptations and (iv) sensitivity. We predict that the current understanding will deepen with the announcement of a draft earthworm genome in Darwin's bicentenary year, 2009. Subsequently, the earthworm may be elevated from the status of a soil sentinel to that elusive entity, an ecologically relevant genetic model organism. PMID:19129111

  12. Beneficial Effect of Verminephrobacter Nephridial Symbionts on the Fitness of the Earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata? †

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Marie B.; Holmstrup, Martin; Lomstein, Bente A.; Damgaard, Christian; Schramm, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Almost all lumbricid earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) harbor species-specific Verminephrobacter (Betaproteobacteria) symbionts in their nephridia (excretory organs). The function of the symbiosis, and whether the symbionts have a beneficial effect on their earthworm host, is unknown; however, the symbionts have been hypothesized to enhance nitrogen retention in earthworms. The effect of Verminephrobacter on the life history traits of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen) was investigated by comparing the growth, development, and fecundity of worms with and without symbionts given high (cow dung)- and low (straw)-nutrient diets. There were no differences in worm growth or the number of cocoons produced by symbiotic and aposymbiotic worms. Worms with Verminephrobacter symbionts reached sexual maturity earlier and had higher cocoon hatching success than worms cured of their symbionts when grown on the low-nutrient diet. Thus, Verminephrobacter nephridial symbionts do have a beneficial effect on their earthworm host. Cocoons with and without symbionts did not significantly differ in total organic carbon, total nitrogen, or total hydrolyzable amino acid content, which strongly questions the hypothesized role of the symbionts in nitrogen recycling for the host. PMID:20511426

  13. Cellular biomarkers for measuring toxicity of xenobiotics: Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on earthworm Lumbricus terrestris coelomocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Goven, A.J.; Fitzpatrick, L.C. (Univ. of North Texas, Denton (United States)); Eyambe, G.S. (Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock (United States)); Venables, B.J. (TRAC Labs., Denton, TX (United States)); Cooper, E.L. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

    1993-05-01

    Acute toxicity in earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) was assayed immediately after 5-d filter paper exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclor 1254, using coelomocyte viability, total extruded cell counts (ECC), differential cell counts (DCC), and formation of erythrocyte (ER) and secretory rosettes (SR) with, and phagocytosis of, antigenic rabbit red blood cells (RRBC). Chronic toxicity was assayed using rates by which earthworms replaced viable immunoactive coelomocytes, removed noninvasively immediately after exposure, over an 18-week depuration period. All cytological parameters, except ECC, were acutely affected immediately after exposure, when tissue concentrations were ([anti X] [plus minus] SE) 91.2 [plus minus] 8.19 [mu]g PCB per gram dry mass. Replacement of viable immunoactive coelomocytes occurred within six weeks in unexposed control earthworms. Exposed earthworms showed significant alteration in viability, ECC, DCC, ER, and SR formation, and phagocytosis at 6 and 12 weeks when PCB tissue concentrations were 41 [plus minus] 0.31 and 30.2 [plus minus] 0.88 [mu]g/g dry mass, respectively. Replacement of extruded coelomocytes with normal DCC of viable immunocompetent cells was not observed until week 18, when PCB had decreased to 15.7 [plus minus] 0.83 [mu]g/g dry mass. Low inherent natural variability in coelomocyte viability, ECC, DCC, rosette formation, and phagocytosis, and their sensitivity to sublethal PCB body burdens, indicated that earthworm coelomocytes have potential as nonmammalian biomarkers for assaying acute and chronic sublethal toxicity of xenobiotics.

  14. Metabolism and bioaccumulation of nitroaromatic munitions by-products in earthworms and plants

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, T.V.; Chang, L.W.; Smith, M.K.; Daniel, F.B. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Wiechman, B. [Pathology Associates, Inc., West Chester, OH (United States); Reddy, G. [USABRDL, Fort Detrick, MD (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Previously the authors have used earthworm and plant bioassays to evaluate the toxicity of nitroaromatic ammunition by-products. In the present study, they investigated the uptake, metabolism and possible bioaccumulation of these compounds in earthworms and plants. Earthworms were maintained on artificial soil supplemented with {sup 14}[C] trinitrobenzene (TNB). The authors also studied the translocation, metabolism and bioaccumulation of {sup 14}[C] 1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB) by germinating oat and lettuce seeds planted on artificial soil. Acetone extracts of tissue and gut contents of earthworms exposed to TNB for different intervals contained only a small fraction of the original radioactivity, which did not increase with time. The radioactivity extracted from earthworms co-eluted with 1,3-dinitroaniline (DNAN) on HPLC and the amount of radioactivity decreased with time. In the DNB plant studies, five day old oat seedlings accumulated 17% of {sup 14}[C] radioactivity. HPLC of acetone extracts revealed unidentified radioactive peaks but DNB radioactivity was not detected. The radioactivity from butanol extracts of both oats and lettuce coeluted with aniline and 3-nitroaniline and the radioactivity increased with time. These results suggest that oats and lettuce bioaccumulate DNB metabolites, which might result in the transfer of toxicants to herbivores.

  15. CAT altitude avoidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B. L. (inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for indicating the altitude of the tropopause or of an inversion layer wherein clear air turbulence (CAT) may occur, and the likely severity of any such CAT, includes directing a passive microwave radiometer on the aircraft at different angles with respect to the horizon. The microwave radiation measured at a frequency of about 55 GHz represents the temperature of the air at an ""average'' range of about 3 kilometers, so that the sine of the angle of the radiometer times 3 kilometers equals the approximate altitude of the air whose temperature is measured. A plot of altitude (with respect to the aircraft) versus temperature of the air at that altitude, can indicate when an inversion layer is present and can indicate the altitude of the tropopause or of such an inversion layer. The plot can also indicate the severity of any CAT in an inversion layer. If CAT has been detected in the general area, then the aircraft can be flown at an altitude to avoid the tropopause or inversion layer.

  16. Remediation of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soil by using a combination of ryegrass, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and earthworms.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan-Fei; Lu, Mang; Peng, Fang; Wan, Yun; Liao, Min-Hong

    2014-07-01

    In this work, a laboratory experiment was performed to investigate the influences of inoculation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus caledoniun L. and/or epigeic earthworms (Eisenia foetida) on phytoremediation of a PCB-contaminated soil by ryegrass grown for 180d. Planting ryegrass, ryegrass inoculated with earthworms, ryegrass inoculated with AMF, and ryegrass co-inoculated with AMF and earthworms decreased significantly initial soil PCB contents by 58.4%, 62.6%, 74.3%, and 79.5%, respectively. Inoculation with AMF and/or earthworms increased the yield of plants, and the accumulation of PCBs in ryegrass. However, PCB uptake by ryegrass accounted for a negligible portion of soil PCB removal. The number of soil PCB-degrading populations increased when ryegrass was inoculated with AMF and/or earthworms. The data show that fungal inoculation may significantly increase the remedial potential of ryegrass for soil contaminated with PCBs. PMID:24457052

  17. Neutral red retention by lysosomes from earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) coelomocytes: A simple biomarker of exposure to soil copper

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, J.M.; Svendsen, C. [NERC, Huntingdon (United Kingdom). Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology

    1996-10-01

    A simple subcellular histochemical staining technique employing the lysosomal probe neutral red has been developed for use with the epiendogeic earthworm Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister. Coelomocytes extracted from the coelomic cavity of earthworms into an isotonic earthworm Ringer solution were allowed to adhere to a microscope slide for 30 s before the application of a neutral red dye. This red dye was rapidly accumulated within the lysosomes. Observation of the loss of this dye from these lysosomes into the surrounding cytosol has enabled the quantification of the degree of lysosomal damage caused to earthworms with exposure to an increasing range of soil copper concentrations, in both laboratory and mesocosm studies. This simple in vitro biomarker has potential for the rapid assessment of the toxic effects to earthworms from soils contaminated with heavy metals and metalloids.

  18. Mutual impacts of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and earthworms (Eisenia fetida) on the bioavailability of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in soil.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuyan; Fang, Shuhong; Zhu, Lingyan; Liu, Li; Liu, Zhengtao; Zhang, Yahui

    2014-01-01

    Wheat and earthworms were exposed individually and together to soils contaminated with 11 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Wheat accumulated PFASs from soil with root concentration factors and bioconcentration factors that decreased as the number of perfluorinated carbons in the molecule increased. Earthworms accumulated PFASs from soil with biota-to-soil accumulation factors that increased with the number of carbons. Translocation factors (TF) of perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) in wheat peaked at perfluorohexanoic acid and decreased significantly as the number of carbons increased or decreased. Perfluorohexane sulfonate produced the greatest TF of the three perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs) examined. Wheat increased the bioaccumulation of all 11 PFASs in earthworms and earthworms increased the bioaccumulation in wheat of PFCAs containing seven or less perfluorinated carbons, decreased bioaccumulation of PFCAs with more than seven carbons, and decreased bioaccumulation of PFSAs. In general, the co-presence of wheat and earthworms enhanced the bioavailability of PFASs in soil. PMID:24158108

  19. Proposed annex to the ASTM Standard Guide E1676-95, bioaccumulation testing utilizing Eisenia foetida

    SciTech Connect

    Roper, J. [ASCI Corp., Vicksburg, MS (United States); Simmers, J.; Lee, C.; Tatem, H. [USACE Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A detailed description of the method developed at the Waterways Experiment Station (WES) to determine sediment toxicity utilizing the earthworm, Eisenia foetida. This method has been used successfully in evaluating the target contaminants; metals, PAHs, and PCBs. This procedure is currently a proposed annex to the ASTM Standard Guide E1676-95: Conducting a Laboratory Soil Toxicity Test With The Lumbricid Earthworm, Eisenia foetida.

  20. Signal Molecules Mediate the Impact of the Earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa on Growth, Development and Defence of the Plant Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Puga-Freitas, Ruben; Barot, Sébastien; Taconnat, Ludivine; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Blouin, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Earthworms have generally a positive impact on plant growth, which is often attributed to a trophic mechanism: namely, earthworms increase the release of mineral nutrients from soil litter and organic matter. An alternative hypothesis has been proposed since the discovery of a signal molecule (Indole Acetic Acid) in earthworm faeces. In this study, we used methodologies developed in plant science to gain information on ecological mechanisms involved in plant-earthworm interaction, by looking at plant response to earthworm presence at a molecular level. First, we looked at plant overall response to earthworm faeces in an in vitro device where only signal molecules could have an effect on plant growth; we observed that earthworms were inducing positive or negative effects on different plant species. Then, using an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant with an impaired auxin transport, we demonstrated the potential of earthworms to stimulate root growth and to revert the dwarf mutant phenotype. Finally, we performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana in the presence and absence of earthworms; we found that genes modulated in the presence of earthworms are known to respond to biotic and abiotic stresses, or to the application of exogenous hormones. A comparison of our results with other studies found in databases revealed strong analogies with systemic resistance, induced by signal molecules emitted by Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and/or elicitors emitted by non-virulent pathogens. Signal molecules such as auxin and ethylene, which are considered as major in plant-microorganisms interactions, can also be of prior importance to explain plant-macroinvertebrates interactions. This could imply revisiting ecological theories which generally stress on the role of trophic relationships. PMID:23226498

  1. [Organic waste treatment by earthworm vermicomposting and larvae bioconversion: review and perspective].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-jian; Liu, Meng; Zhu, Jun

    2013-05-01

    There is a growing attention on the environmental pollution and loss of potential regeneration of resources due to the poor handling of organic wastes, while earthworm vermicomposting and larvae bioconversion are well-known as two promising biotechnologies for sustainable wastes treatments, where earthworms or housefly larvae are employed to convert the organic wastes into humus like material, together with value-added worm product. Taken earthworm ( Eisenia foetida) and housefly larvae ( Musca domestica) as model species, this work illustrates fundamental definition and principle, operational process, technical mechanism, main factors, and bio-chemical features of organisms of these two technologies. Integrated with the physical and biochemical mechanisms, processes of biomass conversion, intestinal digestion, enzyme degradation and microflora decomposition are comprehensively reviewed on waste treatments with purposes of waste reduction, value-addition, and stabilization. PMID:23914515

  2. Long-term persistence of dieldrin, DDT, and heptachlor epoxide in earthworms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Earthworms can accumulate persistent soilborne insecticides and are an important source of contamination of terrestrail wildlife. We treated experimental plots once with dieldrin, DDT, or heptachlor, and measured changes in insecticide concentrations in earthworms over a 20-year period. We estimated 'half-times,' defined as the time for a concentration in earthworms to be reduced by half. Deldrin had a half-time of 5.4 years. DDE, the metabolite of DDT most important to wildlife, increased until the third year and then decreased with a half-time of 5.7 years. Heptachlor epoxide, the metabolite of hepatachlor most important to wildlife, increased until the second year and then decreased with a half-time of 4.3 years. The declining parts of the curves of all three compounds fit exponential decay equations reasonably well. The estimates persistence are relevant to insecticides at low or moderate concentrations in relatively undistrubed soils in temperate climates.

  3. AVOIDANCE BEHAVIOR OF MALLARDS AND NORTHERN BOBWHITE EXPOSED TO CARBOFURAN-CONTAMINATED FOOD AND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Food avoidance experiments could contribute to assessments of animals' behavioral responses to environmental toxicants. ood avoidance tests with mallards (Anas platyrhynchos L.) and northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus L.) as the test species were patterned after avian 5-d diet...

  4. Avoiding character collisions in games

    E-print Network

    Calderon, Manuel

    1999-01-01

    geometric paths to avoid collision with static obstacles and trajectory planning determines how fast each robot must move along its geometric path to avoid collision with other moving robots" [12]. Shin and Zheng [12] suggest modifying the robot... on how to prioritize which robots to move first. This is not as important as how to move the robots so that they do not collide and they still reach their destination. To avoid cofiisions between two robots, Shin and Zheng [12] suggest delaying one...

  5. Balkanized Research in Ecological Engineering Revealed by a Bibliometric Analysis of Earthworms and Ecosystem Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blouin, Manuel; Sery, Nicolas; Cluzeau, Daniel; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Bédécarrats, Alain

    2013-08-01

    Energy crisis, climate changes, and biodiversity losses have reinforced the drive for more ecologically-based approaches for environmental management. Such approaches are characterized by the use of organisms rather than energy-consuming technologies. Although earthworms are believed to be potentially useful organisms for managing ecosystem services, there is actually no quantification of such a trend in literature. This bibliometric analysis aimed to measure the evolution of the association of "earthworms" and other terms such as ecosystem services (primary production, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, soil structure, and pollution remediation), "ecological engineering" or "biodiversity," to assess their convergence or divergence through time. In this aim, we calculated the similarity index, an indicator of the paradigmatic proximity defined in applied epistemology, for each year between 1900 and 2009. We documented the scientific fields and the geographical origins of the studies, as well as the land uses, and compare these characteristics with a 25 years old review on earthworm management. The association of earthworm related keywords with ecosystem services related keywords was increasing with time, reflecting the growing interest in earthworm use in biodiversity and ecosystem services management. Conversely, no significant increase in the association between earthworms and disciplines such as ecological engineering or restoration ecology was observed. This demonstrated that general ecologically-based approaches have yet to emerge and that there is little exchange of knowledge, methods or concepts among balkanized application realms. Nevertheless, there is a strong need for crossing the frontiers between fields of application and for developing an umbrella discipline to provide a framework for the use of organisms to manage ecosystem services.

  6. Avoidance of Phycomyces in a controlled environment.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, P W; Matus, I J; Berg, H C

    1987-01-01

    The sporangiophore of the fungus Phycomyces bends away from nearby objects without ever touching them. It has been thought that these objects act as aerodynamic obstacles that damp random winds, thereby generating asymmetric distributions of a growth-promoting gas emitted by the growth zone. In the interest of testing this hypothesis, we studied avoidance in an environmental chamber in which convection was suppressed by a shallow thermal gradient. We also controlled pressure, temperature, and relative humidity of the air, electrostatic charge, and ambient light. A protocol was established that yielded avoidance rates constant from sporangiophore to sporangiophore to within +/- 10%. We found that avoidance occurred at normal rates in the complete absence of random winds. The rates were smaller at 100% than at lower values of relative humidity, but not by much. Remarkably, at a distance as great as 0.5 mm, avoidance from a 30-micron diam glass fiber (aligned parallel to the sporangiophore) was about the same as that from a planar glass sheet. However, the rate for the fiber fell more rapidly with distance. The rate for the sheet remained nearly constant out to approximately 4 mm. We conclude that avoidance depends either on adsorption by the barrier of a growth-inhibiting substance or emission by the barrier of a growth-promoting substance; it cannot occur by passive reflection. Models that can explain these effects are analyzed in the Appendix. PMID:3567313

  7. Disorientation-avoidant and Despair-avoidant Cultures

    E-print Network

    Sullivan, Daniel Luc

    2013-08-31

    ________________________________ Christian S. Crandall ________________________________ John M. Janzen Date Defended: June 26, 2013 ii The Dissertation Committee for Daniel Luc Sullivan certifies that this is the approved version of the following dissertation...: Disorientation-Avoidant and Despair-Avoidant Cultures ________________________________ Chairperson Mark J. Landau Date approved: June 26, 2013 iii Abstract Cultural-existential psychology draws on the insights and methods...

  8. Rock phosphate solubilizing and cellulolytic actinomycete isolates of earthworm casts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mba, Caroline C.

    1994-03-01

    Four microbial isolates, OP2, OP3, OP6, and OP7, of earthworm casts of Pontoscolex corethrurus were found to be acid tolerant actinomycetes and efficient rock phosphate (RP) solubilizers that could grow fast on NH4Cl-enriched or N-free carboxymethyl cellulose or glucose as sole carbon source. CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose) induced production of extracellular cellulase enzyme and the production of reducing sugar in all the isolates. RP solubilizing power was observed to be inversely related to glucose consumption. The most efficient RP solubilizer was found to consume the least glucose. Growth was faster on cellulose than on glucose media. N-free CMC induced greater glucose production than NH4Cl-enriched CMC medium. Both CMC and glucose media were acidified by all the isolates, however, RP solubilizing power decreased with acidification. Solubilization power was greatest with isolate OP7, which also produced the greatest amount of reducing sugar per gram CMC. Both RP solubilizing power and the cellulolytic efficiency varied among isolates. A minimum of 631 µg P/0.1 g RP and a maximum of 951.4 µg P/0.1 g RP was recorded.

  9. Snakes mimic earthworms: propulsion using rectilinear travelling waves

    PubMed Central

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Bridges, Jacob; Hu, David L.

    2013-01-01

    In rectilinear locomotion, snakes propel themselves using unidirectional travelling waves of muscular contraction, in a style similar to earthworms. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we film rectilinear locomotion of three species of snakes, including red-tailed boa constrictors, Dumeril's boas and Gaboon vipers. The kinematics of a snake's extension–contraction travelling wave are characterized by wave frequency, amplitude and speed. We find wave frequency increases with increasing body size, an opposite trend than that for legged animals. We predict body speed with 73–97% accuracy using a mathematical model of a one-dimensional n-linked crawler that uses friction as the dominant propulsive force. We apply our model to show snakes have optimal wave frequencies: higher values increase Froude number causing the snake to slip; smaller values decrease thrust and so body speed. Other choices of kinematic variables, such as wave amplitude, are suboptimal and appear to be limited by anatomical constraints. Our model also shows that local body lifting increases a snake's speed by 31 per cent, demonstrating that rectilinear locomotion benefits from vertical motion similar to walking. PMID:23635494

  10. Purification and characterization of a novel earthworm DNase.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiqiang; Yang, Qi; Yu, Baofeng; Xie, Qiu; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Xiuwei; Guan, Zhen; Li, Guannan; Han, Xu; Niu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    A new deoxyribonuclease (DNase), referred to as EWDNase, was isolated from earthworm tissues. The purification protocol included acetone precipitation, chromatography on CM-Sepharose, and gel electrophoresis. The overall purification was 73-fold with a recovery rate of 2.3% and a final specific activity of 2039 U/mg. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis suggested a molecular mass of 30 kD for EWDNase, with an isoelectric point of approximately 7.0. Maximum activity was detected at a pH of 5.6 and a temperature of 40°C. Addition of Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) ions promoted enzyme activity strongly, while Zn(2+) and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) acted as inhibitors. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) analysis indicated that there was no known matching sequence. The properties of EWDNase were sufficiently different from previously reported enzymes to suggest that it is a new enzyme requiring further confirmation and characterization. PMID:24841139

  11. Neurotropic and neuroprotective activities of the earthworm peptide Lumbricusin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Hong; Lee, Ik Hwan; Nam, Seung Taek; Hong, Ji; Zhang, Peng; Hwang, Jae Sam; Seok, Heon; Choi, Hyemin; Lee, Dong Gun; Kim, Jae Il; Kim, Ho

    2014-06-01

    We recently isolated a polypeptide from the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris that is structurally similar to defensin, a well-known antibacterial peptide. An 11-mer antibacterial peptide (NH2-RNRRWCIDQQA), designated Lumbricusin, was synthesized based on the amino acid sequence of the isolated polypeptide. Since we previously reported that CopA3, a dung beetle peptide, enhanced neuronal cell proliferation, we here examined whether Lumbricusin exerted neurotropic and/or neuroprotective effects. Lumbricusin treatment induced a time-dependent increase (?51%) in the proliferation of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Lumbricusin also significantly inhibited the apoptosis and decreased viability induced by treatment with 6-hydroxy dopamine, a Parkinson's disease-mimicking agent. Immunoblot analyses revealed that Lumbricusin treatment increased ubiquitination of p27(Kip1) protein, a negative regulator of cell-cycle progression, in SH-SY5Y cells, and markedly promoted its degradation. Notably, adenoviral-mediated over-expression of p27(Kip1) significantly blocked the antiapoptotic effect of Lumbricusin in 6-hydroxy dopamine-treated SH-SY5Y cells. These results suggest that promotion of p27(Kip1) degradation may be the main mechanism underlying the neuroprotective and neurotropic effects of Lumbricusin. PMID:24796676

  12. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of earthworm fibrinolytic enzyme component A from Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Tang, Y; Zhang, J; Gui, L; Wu, C; Fan, R; Chang, W; Liang, D

    2000-12-01

    Earthworm fibrinolytic enzyme component A, a protein which functions both as a direct fibrinolytic enzyme and a plasminogen activator, was purified from the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Diffraction-quality single crystals of the protein were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique with ammonium sulfate as a precipitant. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 40.6, b = 127.5, c = 129.2 A and three molecules per asymmetric unit. The data set reached a resolution of 1.95 A. PMID:11092938

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of an Amynthas earthworm, Amynthas aspergillus (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangliang; Jiang, Jibao; Dong, Yan; Qiu, Jiangping

    2014-10-20

    Abstract We have determined the mitochondrial genome of the first Amynthas earthworm, Amynthas aspergillus (Perrier, 1872), which is a natural medical resource in Chinese traditional medicine. Its mitogenome is 15,115?bp in length containing 37 genes with the same contents and order as other sequenced earthworms. All genes are encoded by the same strand, all 13 PCGs use ATG as start codon. The content of A + T is 63.04% for A. aspergillus (33.41% A, 29.63% T, 14.56% G and 22.41% C). The complete mitochondrial genomes of A. aspergillus would be useful for the reconstruction of Oligochaeta polygenetic relationships. PMID:25329289

  14. Gene expression of TLR homologues identified by genome-wide screening of the earthworm Dendrobaena veneta.

    PubMed

    Fjøsne, Trine F; Stenseth, Else-Berit; Myromslien, Frøydis; Rudi, Knut

    2015-02-01

    TLRs represent one of the most important components of innate immunity. Currently, these receptors have been extensively studied in vertebrates and insects, but our knowledge for annelids is very limited. Therefore, the aim of our study was to identify earthworm TLR homologs by genome-wide screening, and to determine the expression of candidate genes as a response to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Using a combination of deep pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR we found six candidate genes, for which all were expressed in Dentrobaena veneta. Two of the candidates showed significant response to bacterial exposure. In conclusion, TLRs seem to have a role in earthworm immunology. PMID:24574024

  15. Toxicity assessment of 45 pesticides to the epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhua; Wu, Shenggan; Chen, Liping; Wu, Changxing; Yu, Ruixian; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Xueping

    2012-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate comparative toxicity of 45 pesticides, including insecticides, acaricides, fungicides, and herbicides, toward the epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida. Results from a 48-h filter paper contact test indicated that clothianidin, fenpyroximate, and pyridaben were supertoxic to E. fetida with LC(50) values ranging from 0.28 (0.24-0.35) to 0.72 (0.60-0.94) ?g cm(-2), followed by carbaryl, pyridaphenthion, azoxystrobin, cyproconazole, and picoxystrobin with LC(50) values ranging from 2.72 (2.22-0.3.19) to 8.48 (7.38-10.21) ?g cm(-2), while the other pesticides ranged from being relatively nontoxic to very toxic to the worms. When tested in artificial soil for 14 d, clothianidin and picoxystrobin showed the highest intrinsic toxicity against E. fetida, and their LC(50) values were 6.06 (5.60-6.77) and 7.22 (5.29-8.68) mg kg(-1), respectively, followed by fenpyroximate with an LC(50) of 75.52 (68.21-86.57) mgkg(-1). However, the herbicides fluoroglycofen, paraquat, and pyraflufen-ethyl exhibited the lowest toxicities with LC(50) values>1000 mg kg(-1). In contrast, the other pesticides exhibited relatively low toxicities with LC(50) values ranging from 133.5 (124.5-150.5) to 895.2 (754.2-1198.0) mg kg(-1). The data presented in this paper provided useful information for evaluating the potential risk of these chemicals to soil invertebrates. PMID:22459421

  16. Rapid bioassessment methods for assessing the toxicity of terrestrial waste sites at the Savannah River Site using the earthworm, Eisenia foetida

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center; Sydow, S.N. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Studies were conducted to assess the feasibility of using the earthworm, Eisenia foetida, to evaluate the toxicity of contaminated soils at the Savannah River Site. Survival was assessed in several uncontaminated soils, including sandy loams and clayey loams, as well as in soils contaminated with coal fines, ash, diesel fuel, and heavy metals. In addition, behavior responses, changes in biomass, and bioaccumulation of heavy metals were assessed as sublethal indicators of toxicity. The results indicate excellent survival of Eisenia foetida in uncontaminated sandy and clayey soils. No amendment of these uncontaminated soils or addition of food was necessary to sustain the worms for the 14-day test period. In contaminated soils, no significant mortality was observed, except in soils which have very low pH (< 3). However, sublethal responses were observed in earthworms exposed to several of the contaminated soils. These responses included worms clumping on the surface of the soil, worms clumping between the sides of the test container and the soil, increased burrowing times, reductions in biomass, and elevated concentrations of heavy metals in worm tissue.

  17. Obstacle avoidance with ultrasonic sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHANN BORENSTEIN; YORAM KOREN

    1988-01-01

    A mobile robot system, capable of performing various tasks for the physically disabled, has been developed. To avoid collision with unexpected obstacles, the mobile robot uses ultrasonic range finders for detection and mapping. The obstacle avoidance strategy used for this robot is described. Since this strategy depends heavily on the performance of the ultrasonic range finders, these sensors and the

  18. Collision Avoidance Radar for UAV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young K Kwag; Min S Choi; Chul H Jung; Kwang Y Hwang

    2006-01-01

    A critical sensor characteristic for obstacle awareness and avoidance for UAV is assessed with the compliance of the equivalent level of safety regulation. Based on the assessment of the obstacle awareness and collision avoidance sensor, the small-sized, light-weighted radar sensor is proposed for the suitable candidate in meeting with the system requirement as well as operational requirement of smart unmanned

  19. Avoided cost standard under PURPA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Cole; I. Holmlund; S. A. Smith; T. A. Williams

    1983-01-01

    The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) (P.L. 95-617) was passed to encourage electricity conservation through a variety of regulatory and rate reforms. Information is provided on the controversy surrounding the avoided cost standard established under PURPA. Promulgated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Committee (FERC) in February 1980, the avoided cost standard sets a minimum rate for utilities purchasing power

  20. Uptake and retention of radio-caesium in earthworms cultured in soil contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, K; Takahashi, T; Nguyen, P; Kubota, Y; Gamou, S; Sakurai, S; Takahashi, S

    2015-01-01

    To understand the effects of radionuclides on non-human biota and the environment, it is essential to study the intake and metabolism of radio-isotopes in earthworms which are among the most important soil organisms, and Eisenia fetida, which were used in this study, are known to be sufficiently sensitive to chemicals and representative of common earthworms. In this study, we assessed the concentration ratios, uptake and retention, absorbed dose rate, and distribution of radio-caesium in earthworms. The concentration ratios of (137)Cs (i.e., the concentrations of radio-caesium in earthworms relative to those in dry soil) were higher early in the culturing period and decreased gradually over the experimental period. (137)Cs taken up by E. fetida was cleared rapidly after the worms were cultured in radio-caesium-free soil, suggesting that the metabolism of radio-caesium in earthworms is very rapid. Autoradiography demonstrated that the concentration of radio-caesium within the digestive tract was as high as that in the soil, while radio-caesium in the body tissue was lower than radio-caesium in the soil and was almost uniformly distributed among earthworm tissues. The highest absorbed dose rate of total exposure to radio-caesium ((137)Cs + (134)Cs) was calculated to be 1.9 × 10(3) (?Gy/day) in the earthworms. PMID:25464049