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1

Provisioning Mass by Females of the Maritime Earwig, Anisolabis maritima, is not Adjusted Based on the Number of Young  

PubMed Central

The amount of parental provisioning is thought to reflect the need of offspring. This hypothesis was tested in the case of provisioning food mass to young with controlled clutch size using the maritime earwig, Anisolabis maritima Bonelli (Dermaptera: Anisolabididae). The female provisioned a constant mass of food to the young irrespective of the number of nymphs and the distance of food carrying. In addition, the survival rate of young did not change with adjusted clutch size. This study showed that A. maritima females appear to provide food mass to their nymphs independent of their number. PMID:22239204

Suzuki, Seizi

2011-01-01

2

Progressive provisioning by the females of the earwig, Anisolabis maritima, increases the survival rate of the young.  

PubMed

Provisioning the young is an important form of insect parental care and is believed to improve the survival and growth of the young. Anisolabis maritima Bonelli (Dermaptera: Anisolabididae) is a cosmopolitan species of earwig that shows sub-social behavior in which the females tend clutches of eggs in soil burrows. The defensive and provisioning behaviors of these females were examined in this study. When disturbed, maternal individuals abandoned the nest less than non-maternal individuals. Females brought food to the nest after their eggs hatched, and the survival of the nymphs was increased by provisioning. Even when mothers were removed, providing food to the nymphs increased survival as well as when the nymphs were provisioned by the mother. These results show that A. maritima mothers provision the nymphs and that this provisioning improves their survival. PMID:21062141

Suzuki, Seizi

2010-01-01

3

Progressive Provisioning by the Females of the Earwig, Anisolabis maritima, Increases the Survival Rate of the Young  

PubMed Central

Provisioning the young is an important form of insect parental care and is believed to improve the survival and growth of the young. Anisolabis maritima Bonelli (Dermaptera: Anisolabididae) is a cosmopolitan species of earwig that shows sub-social behavior in which the females tend clutches of eggs in soil burrows. The defensive and provisioning behaviors of these females were examined in this study. When disturbed, maternal individuals abandoned the nest less than non-maternal individuals. Females brought food to the nest after their eggs hatched, and the survival of the nymphs was increased by provisioning. Even when mothers were removed, providing food to the nymphs increased survival as well as when the nymphs were provisioned by the mother. These results show that A. maritima mothers provision the nymphs and that this provisioning improves their survival. PMID:21062141

Suzuki, Seizi

2010-01-01

4

Morphological characterization of the antennal sensilla of t he earwig Anisolabis maritima (Dermaptera: Carcinophoridae) with reference to their probable functions.  

PubMed

The earwig, Anisolabis maritima (Dermaptera: Carcinophoridae), is one of the most significant insects in KSA because, it was recorded in Saudi Arabia as a beneficial predator on eggs and newly hatched larvae of the red palm weevil, Rhyncophorus ferrugineus. We examined the external morphology of the antennal sensilla of males and females of A. maritima using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The filiform antennae of A. maritima were of the conventional type comprising a basal scape, pedicle and a long, thread-like flagellum, which was composed of 12 flagellomeres of males and 16 flagellomeres of females. Six morphologically unique sensillar types were found and described on the antennae of males and females of A. maritima. Of those identified, there were three types of porous trichoid sensilla (long, curved and arcuate), and two types of basiconic sensilla (short and curved), and one type of aporous trichoid sensilla. The shape, external morphology and array of sensilla on the antennae of males and females of A. maritima were similar. PMID:23961038

Al-Dosary, Mona Mohammed

2009-07-01

5

Morphological characterization of the antennal sensilla of t he earwig Anisolabis maritima (Dermaptera: Carcinophoridae) with reference to their probable functions  

PubMed Central

The earwig, Anisolabis maritima (Dermaptera: Carcinophoridae), is one of the most significant insects in KSA because, it was recorded in Saudi Arabia as a beneficial predator on eggs and newly hatched larvae of the red palm weevil, Rhyncophorus ferrugineus. We examined the external morphology of the antennal sensilla of males and females of A. maritima using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The filiform antennae of A. maritima were of the conventional type comprising a basal scape, pedicle and a long, thread-like flagellum, which was composed of 12 flagellomeres of males and 16 flagellomeres of females. Six morphologically unique sensillar types were found and described on the antennae of males and females of A. maritima. Of those identified, there were three types of porous trichoid sensilla (long, curved and arcuate), and two types of basiconic sensilla (short and curved), and one type of aporous trichoid sensilla. The shape, external morphology and array of sensilla on the antennae of males and females of A. maritima were similar. PMID:23961038

Al-Dosary, Mona Mohammed

2009-01-01

6

Earwigs  

E-print Network

are an occasional problem in homes. They are the ringlegged earwig, Euborellia annulipes (Lucas) (Fig. 1); the riparian earwig, Labidura riparia (Pallas); the linear earwig, Doru lin- eare (Eschscholtz); and the brown-winged earwig, Vostox brunneipennis (Serville...

Mott, Dale; Jackman, John A.

2004-08-06

7

Asymmetric forceps increase fighting success among males of similar size in the maritime earwig  

PubMed Central

Extreme asymmetric morphologies are hypothesized to serve an adaptive function that counteracts sexual selection for symmetry. However direct tests of function for asymmetries are lacking, particularly in the context of animal weapons. The weapon of the maritime earwig, Anisolabis maritima, exhibits sizeable variation in the extent of directional asymmetry within and across body sizes, making it an ideal candidate for investigating the function of asymmetry. In this study, we characterized the extent of weapon asymmetry, characterized the manner in which asymmetric weapons are used in contests, staged dyadic contests between males of different size classes and analyzed the correlates of fighting success. In contests between large males, larger individuals won more fights and emerged as the dominant male. In contests between small males, however, weapon asymmetry was more influential in predicting overall fighting success than body size. This result reveals an advantage of asymmetric weaponry among males that are below the mean size in the population. A forceps manipulation experiment suggests that asymmetry may be an indirect, correlate of a morphologically independent factor that affects fighting ability. PMID:22984320

Munoz, Nicole E.; Zink, Andrew G.

2012-01-01

8

Controlling earwigs P.J. Pellitteri  

E-print Network

Michigan shoreline. But in the years since, earwig infestations have spread fast across Wisconsin. The name Newport, Rhode Island in 1901. Until 1982 European earwig reports in Wisconsin were limited to the Lake. In Wisconsin, pairs of earwigs overwinter by digging 2-3 inches into the soil to hibernate: Sometime during

Balser, Teri C.

9

Entry Number: 1 GL A NEW HONEY BEE THREAT-THE PARASITIZING PHORID FLY APOCEPHALUS BOREALIS  

E-print Network

: Andrew Core Ecology and Systematics Faculty Advisor: Dr. John Hafernik Abstract: Colony Collapse Disorder between multiple selection factors drives evolution in the earwig, Anisolabis maritima. Entry Number: 3 GL their authenticity as a scientist and at times having to face possible rejection from their personal communities, 2

10

Multifunctional weaponry: the chemical defenses of earwigs.  

PubMed

Earwigs protect themselves against predators using pincer-like cerci and/or malodorous exudates secreted from abdominal glands. Little is known about the chemistry of these secretions and their potential functions. However, because earwigs live in aggregations and overwinter in soil, they are exposed to high microbial loads throughout their lifecycle, and we therefore hypothesized that the secretions are used not only to deter predators but also to combat pathogens and parasites in their environment. We analyzed the defensive secretions of the European earwig Forficula auricularia, the short-winged earwig Apterygida media and the woodland earwig Chelidurella guentheri by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The secretions of all three species contained 2-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone and 2-ethyl-1,4-benzoquinone, whereas A. media also produced 2,3-dimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone and 2-ethyl-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone. The latter has not been identified in the exudates of insects before. The composition and/or quantity of these components were species-specific and partially sex-specific. All secretions showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as two entomopathogenic fungi. Furthermore, the secretion of F. auricularia displayed nematicidal activity against Caenorhabditis elegans. Our data support the hypothesis that earwig secretions are multifunctional, serving both to deter predators and sanitize the microenvironment. PMID:24090659

Gasch, Tina; Schott, Matthias; Wehrenfennig, Christoph; Düring, Rolf-Alexander; Vilcinskas, Andreas

2013-12-01

11

Earwig management tool: an IPM decision aid system for augmentation of European earwig populations (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) in pip fruit orchards.  

PubMed

A key element of integrated pest management (IPM) is the suppression of potential pest outbreaks by beneficial arthropods. The European earwig, Forficula auricularia L., is an important natural enemy of a wide range of insect pests in pip fruit orchards. However, earwig population sizes vary greatly from location to location, illustrating their sensitivity to biotic and abiotic factors, especially human interventions relating to orchard management. In order to help growers sparing and augmenting earwig populations in their pip fruit orchards, we developed a software tool that integrates a sophisticated earwig phenology model with management recommendations. The program is based on a day degree model for earwigs which is fed by temperature data collected by the pcfruit research centre. In addition, a pesticide database with known side effects of a wide range of products on the different life stages of earwigs is integrated in the system. The output gives the current status of the earwig population and management recommendations for activities critical for their survival. Hence, by consultation of this user-friendly software fruit growers can predict the earwig development in the field at any time, and organize the timing of orchard management actions taking into account the presence of (sensitive) life stages of the earwig life cycle. Doing so, negative effects specific orchard management actions, such as badly timed spray applications and soil tillage, can be avoided. PMID:23885434

Beliën, T; Moerkens, R; Leirs, H; Peusens, G

2012-01-01

12

New mid-Cretaceous earwigs in amber from Myanmar (Dermaptera)  

E-print Network

”, meaning “ear” and “insect”: Berenbaum, 2007, 2009). Naturally, such a story is patently false and although earwigs have purportedly and on rare occasion been found to crawl into Novitates Paleoentomologicae2 No. 6 the opening of the ear for warmth (e... to some crops as they will feed on foliage as well as small arthropods and such feeding can be detrimental to seedlings or soft-fleshed fruits (e.g., Bower, 1992; Alford, 2007). In fact, earwigs can be quite beneficial. For ex- ample, the common...

Engel, Michael S.; Grimaldi, David A.

2014-01-29

13

Transitional fossil earwigs - a missing link in Dermaptera evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Dermaptera belongs to a group of winged insects of uncertain relationship within Polyneoptera, which has expanded anal region and adds numerous anal veins in the hind wing. Evolutional history and origin of Dermaptera have been in contention. RESULTS: In this paper, we report two new fossil earwigs in a new family of Bellodermatidae fam. nov. The fossils were

Jingxia Zhao; Yunyun Zhao; Chungkun Shih; Dong Ren; Yongjie Wang

2010-01-01

14

Management strategies in apple orchards influence earwig community.  

PubMed

Our aim was to assess whether different apple orchard management strategies (low-input, organic, Integrated Pest Management (IPM)) would have an effect on earwigs, which are important natural enemies of apple pests. These commercial orchards were as well compared to abandoned orchards. The density of Forficula auricularia and Forficula pubescens was studied for three years in 74 orchards around Avignon. The pesticide usage, some orchard characteristics and two small-scale landscape parameters were characterized. Pesticide use was significantly different between low-input, organic and IPM orchards with particularly significant differences in the number of insecticide applications (2.2, 4.9 and 9.2 respectively). Pesticide use had a much stronger impact on earwig community than other characteristics. F. auricularia density was significantly lower in IPM orchards (0.47 individuals per tree) compared to organic, low-input and abandoned orchards (3.1, 4.5 and 1.6 individuals per tree, respectively). F. pubescens was almost absent from IPM orchards and its abundance was higher in abandoned or low-input orchards compared to organic orchards (1.5 and 2.8 vs 0.8 individuals per tree). The percentage of F. pubescens in the earwig community decreased from abandoned (52%) to low-input (40%), organic (15%) and IPM orchards (0.5%). These results were confirmed by LD50 assays showing that for the two pesticides causing mortality close to normal application rates (chlorpyrifos-ethyl and acetamiprid), F. pubescens was significantly more sensitive than F. auricularia. Since earwigs are also easy to capture and identify, they may be useful to estimate the effects of management strategies and their modification in pome fruit orchards. PMID:25577700

Malagnoux, Laure; Marliac, Gaëlle; Simon, Sylvaine; Rault, Magali; Capowiez, Yvan

2015-04-01

15

Detecting aphid predation by earwigs in organic citrus orchards using molecular markers.  

PubMed

Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea) can damage citrus trees via direct damage to leaves and flowers or via the indirect transmission of viruses. Predators such as the European earwig, Forficula auricularia Linnaeus (Dermaptera: Forficulidae), may assist in keeping aphid populations under control in citrus orchards. Group-specific primers were developed to detect aphid DNA in earwigs, in order to determine earwig predation rates in aphids in Mediterranean organic citrus trees. These primers were designed in accordance with the alignment of comparable sequences of aphids and earwigs, and they amplified a 224 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) region. Following the consumption of three to five Aphis spiraecola Patch, aphid DNA was still detectable in 50% of earwigs one day after the ingestion. When predation was evaluated in the field, aphid DNA was detected in earwigs in May, June and July but not in April and August. The most interesting result is that of May, when aphid abundance was very low but 30% of the earwigs tested positive for aphid DNA. This finding suggests that earwigs are important aphid predators in citrus orchards, as they probably alter aphid dynamics as a result of early seasonal pressure on this pest. PMID:22414267

Romeu-Dalmau, C; Piñol, J; Agustí, N

2012-10-01

16

European Earwig, Forficula auricularia L. (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) at the Hanford Reach National Monument, Washington State  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The European earwig, Forficula auricularia L., was surveyed using pitfall traps at three sites at the Hanford Reach National Monument in south central Washington state. Pitfall traps were collected weekly from April 2002 through April 2003. The earwig was consistently taken during all months of the...

17

The chemical defense in larvae of the earwig Forficula auricularia.  

PubMed

Larvae of the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, possess a paired pygidial gland with yet unknown content and function. We used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to analyze the larval secretions revealing the presence of 2-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, 2-ethyl-1,4-benzoquinone, n-tridecane and n-pentadecane. Based on our recent discovery that the morphologically-distinct abdominal glands of adult earwigs produce secretions with antibacterial, antifungal and nematicidal activity, we propose that the pygidial glands mediate chemical defenses in the larvae. We next considered whether the defensive functions of larval secretions include repellent activity against sympatric predators. Therefore, we tested the effects of larval secretions on foraging workers of the ant species Myrmica rubra, the actively hunting spiders Anyphaena accentuata and Philodromus aureolus and the net-hunting spider Pholcus phalangioides in laboratory feeding assays. The secretion is released in response to ant attacks, and discourages feeding in M. rubra, however, it does not discourage feeding in spiders. Our results suggest that earwigs use different glands during ontogenesis to produce secretions that play roles in chemical defense against predators such as ants. PMID:24879968

Gasch, Tina; Vilcinskas, Andreas

2014-08-01

18

European earwig (Forficula auricularia) as a novel host for the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae.  

PubMed

The natural history of many entomopathogenic nematode species remains unknown, despite their wide commercial availability as biological control agents. The ambushing entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae, and the introduced European earwig, Forficula auricularia, forage on the soil surface. Since they likely encounter one another in nature, we hypothesized that earwigs are susceptible to nematode infection. In the laboratory, the LC(50) for F. auricularia was 226 S. carpocapsae/earwig and the reproductive potential was 123.5 infective juvenile nematodes/mg tissue. This susceptibility depended on host body size with significantly higher mortality rates seen in larger earwigs. In a study of host recognition behavior, S. carpocapsae infective juveniles responded to earwig cuticle as strongly as they did to Galleria mellonella cuticle. We also found that earwigs exposed to S. carpocapsae cleaned and scratched their front, middle and back legs significantly more than controls. Coupled with previous field data, these findings lead us to suggest that F. auricularia may be a potential host for S. carpocapsae. PMID:21356215

Hodson, A K; Friedman, M L; Wu, L N; Lewis, E E

2011-05-01

19

New earwigs in mid-Cretaceous amber from Myanmar (Dermaptera, Neodermaptera)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two new earwigs (Dermaptera) recently discovered in mid-Cretaceous (latest Albian) amber from Myanmar are described and figured. Astreptolabis ethirosomatia gen. et sp. n. is represented by a peculiar pygidicranoid female, assigned to a new subfamily, Astreptolabidinae subfam. n., and differs from other protodermapterans in the structure of the head, pronotum, tegmina, and cercal forceps. Tytthodiplatys mecynocercus gen. et sp. n. is a distinctive form of first-instar nymph of the Diplatyidae, the earliest record for this basal earwig family. The taxon can be distinguished from other Early Cretaceous nymphs by the structure of the head, antennae, legs, and most notably its filamentous and annulate cerci. The character affinities of these taxa among Neodermaptera are generally discussed as is the identity of an enigmatic ‘earwig-like’ species from the Jurassic of China. PMID:22259272

Engel, Michael S.

2011-01-01

20

Tissue distribution, characterization and in vitro inhibition of B-esterases in the earwig Forficula auricularia.  

PubMed

Earwigs are important natural enemies of numerous pests in pome fruit orchards worldwide. Studying the effects of agricultural practices on these biological control agents is important for understanding its vulnerability in the field. The aim of this study was to characterize the B-esterase activities in the European earwig Forficula auricularia and to evaluate in vitro its sensitivity to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was mainly measured with 1.5 mM acetylthiocholine as the substrate in the microsomal fraction of earwig heads (70% of total AChE activity). Carboxylesterase (CbE) activities were measured with three substrates [5 mM 4-nitrophenyl acetate (4-NPA), 1mM 4-nitrophenyl valerate (4-NPV), and 2 mM ?-naphtyl acetate (?-NA)] to examine different isoenzymes, which were present mainly in the cytosolic fraction (about 70-88% of total activities) of all earwig tissues. CbE activity was higher than AChE activity, especially with ?-NA, then 4-NPA and lastly 4-NPV. Chlorpyrifos-oxon an organophosphate, and carbaryl a carbamate pesticide, inhibited AChE and CbE activities in a concentration-dependent manner. Earwig CbE activities showed a stronger sensitivity to organophosphate than AChE, with the strongest effect for chlorpyrifos-oxon on male carboxylesterase activities. CbE and AChE showed about the same sensitivity to carbamate pesticides regardless of sex. These results suggest that B-type esterases in the European earwig F.auricularia are suitable biomarkers of pesticide exposure. PMID:25048940

Malagnoux, Laure; Capowiez, Yvan; Rault, Magali

2014-10-01

21

Transitional fossil earwigs - a missing link in Dermaptera evolution  

PubMed Central

Background The Dermaptera belongs to a group of winged insects of uncertain relationship within Polyneoptera, which has expanded anal region and adds numerous anal veins in the hind wing. Evolutional history and origin of Dermaptera have been in contention. Results In this paper, we report two new fossil earwigs in a new family of Bellodermatidae fam. nov. The fossils were collected from the Jiulongshan Formation (Middle Jurassic) in Inner Mongolia, northeast China. This new family, characterized by an unexpected combination of primitive and derived characters, is bridging the missing link between suborders of Archidermaptera and Eodermaptera. Phylogenetic analyses support the new family to be a new clade at the base of previously defined Eodermaptera and to be a stem group of (Eodermaptera+Neodermaptera). Conclusion Evolutional history and origin of Dermaptera have been in contention, with dramatically different viewpoints by contemporary authors. It is suggested that the oldest Dermaptera might possibly be traced back to the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic and they had divided into Archidermaptera and (Eodermaptera+Neodermaptera) in the Middle Jurassic. PMID:21062504

2010-01-01

22

New earwigs in mid-Cretaceous amber from Myanmar (Dermaptera, Neodermaptera)  

E-print Network

-like fossils from Inner Mongolia, Chi- na. Insect Science 17(5): 459–464. Zhao J-X, Zhao Y-Y, Shih C-K, Ren D, Wang Y-J (2010b) Transitional fossil earwigs – a missing link in Dermaptera evolution. BMC Evolutionary Biology 10: 344 [1–10] doi: 10...

Engel, Michael S.

2011-09-24

23

De Novo Transcriptome Hybrid Assembly and Validation in the European Earwig (Dermaptera, Forficula auricularia)  

PubMed Central

Background The European earwig (Forficula auricularia) is an established system for studies of sexual selection, social interactions and the evolution of parental care. Despite its scientific interest, little knowledge exists about the species at the genomic level, limiting the scope of molecular studies and expression analyses of genes of interest. To overcome these limitations, we sequenced and validated the transcriptome of the European earwig. Methodology and Principal Findings To obtain a comprehensive transcriptome, we sequenced mRNA from various tissues and developmental stages of female and male earwigs using Roche 454 pyrosequencing and Illumina HiSeq. The reads were de novo assembled independently and screened for possible microbial contamination and repeated elements. The remaining contigs were combined into a hybrid assembly and clustered to reduce redundancy. A comparison with the eukaryotic core gene dataset indicates that we sequenced a substantial part of the earwig transcriptome with a low level of fragmentation. In addition, a comparative analysis revealed that more than 8,800 contigs of the hybrid assembly show significant similarity to insect-specific proteins and those were assigned for Gene Ontology terms. Finally, we established a quantitative PCR test for expression stability using commonly used housekeeping genes and applied the method to five homologs of known sex-biased genes of the honeybee. The qPCR pilot study confirmed sex specific expression and also revealed significant expression differences between the brain and antenna tissue samples. Conclusions By employing two different sequencing approaches and including samples obtained from different tissues, developmental stages, and sexes, we were able to assemble a comprehensive transcriptome of F. auricularia. The transcriptome presented here offers new opportunities to study the molecular bases and evolution of parental care and sociality in arthropods. PMID:24722757

Pichon, Samuel; Arbore, Roberto; Kühn-Bühlmann, Simone; Kölliker, Mathias; Walser, Jean-Claude

2014-01-01

24

ROOT-EXUDED OXYGEN IN THE AQUATIC ANGIOSPERM 'RUPPIA MARITIMA'  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential impact of oxygen from roots on the source of inorganic nitrogen for Ruppia maritima L. (Potamogetonales) was investigated in laboratory experiments. Roots released oxygen at an average rate of 2 to 3 micrograms O2 (mg dry wt)/hr. A distinctive oxygenated zone with a...

25

Population dynamics of Glaux maritima (L.) along a distributional cline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population fluctuations ofGlaux maritima, along a transect on a Baltle sea shore meadow, were recorded between 1979 and 1983. A bimodal distribution in numbers along the transect reflects the variation in factors regulating numbers: The two maintenance systems of the species, vegetative propagation and sexual reproduction play different roles. Vegetative propagation is fast and responds quickly to variations in the

L. Jerling

1988-01-01

26

Sagina maritima Don (Caryophyllaceae) and other halophytes in London  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sagina maritima has been recorded at three sites by the River Thames near central London, much further from the open sea than elsewhere in Britain. Other halophytes occur nearby. Hydrological data and other records suggest that saline water carrying seeds or other propagules penetrated far upstream during periods of unusually low freshwater river flow. These are the first records of

J. A. EDGINGTON

27

Wigeongrass (Ruppia maritima L.): a literature review  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wigeongrass (Ruppia maritima L.) is a submersed macrophyte of nearly cosmopolitan distribution and worldwide importance as a waterfowl food. Unfortunately, the plant no longer inhabits vast areas disturbed by human activities. Taxonomic status of the plant is uncertain, especially in North America. In mild climates, in habitats subject to environmental extremes, the plant behaves as an annual (vegetation perishes), or as a perennial in deeper, more stable habitats (some vegetative parts grow year round). Drupelets (seeds) provide a mechanism for wigeongrass to survive periods of drought and excessive water salinity. These sexual propagules can be washed ashore or carried by birds or fish for long distances.Wigeongrass mostly occurs in temporarily to permanently flooded mesohaline-hyperhaline estuarine wetlands, but it also occurs inland in fresh to hypersaline palustrine and lacustrine wetlands. Most populations inhabit warm, relatively unpolluted, and well lit waters 2S conditions. Turbidity frequently limits wigeongrass growth in waters overlying easily suspendible bottom substrates.Wigeongrass often occurs in monotypic stands, yet grows with many other submersed and emergent macrophytes. Dominance in certain wetlands sometimes alternates with dominance by other submersed macrophytes as salinities, seasonal temperature cycles, or other environmental factors change. The shading effect of metaphytic, planktonic, or epiphytic algae often reduces production.Wigeongrass and its detritus provide food and cover for a large invertebrate biota, although direct consumption of the living plants is minimal. Wigeongrass beds in coastal wetlands are heavily used by fish. The plant is recognized worldwide as an important food of migrant and wintering waterfowl, wading birds, and shorebirds. In subtropical climates, wintering waterfowl can quickly consume entire stands.Propagation and management of wigeongrass has occurred for nearly 60 years in the southern and eastern United States. During the seventies and eighties, sophisticated water level and salinity management techniques have been developed to encourage growth of the plant.Future research should concentrate on determining the means to reduce light-limiting turbidity in many wetland types; understanding the ways in which human activities on and near wetlands affect wigeongrass production; and developing reliable and predictable techniques to stimulate wigeongrass production by water level manipulations and other means in different environmental settings. Trophic interactions and the effects of biomanipulation of fish populations in managed wigeongrass habitat--now little understood--also require more study.

Kantrud, H.A.

1991-01-01

28

Side effects of plant protection products and biological interactions on the European earwig Forficula auricularia L.  

PubMed

Plant protection products are designed to control pests but can have negative side effects on non-target arthropods thus disturbing the important population of natural enemies required for biological control. Although the European earwig, Forficula auricularia L, (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) is not considered to be a key beneficial in pome fruit, it is an important predator of several pests, e.g. woolly apple aphid and pear sucker. The impact of non-selective plant protection products at crucial moments in their (univoltine) life cycle can be of significant relevance compared to insects with numerous generations. Foliar applications in spring when nymphs are migrating into the trees can reduce the number of adults in summer and subsequently affect the population size next year. Multiple and/or combined spraying during summer on adults may have a cumulative effect resulting in less over wintering females which possibly exhibit poor reproductive performance. Previous residual contact bioassays already revealed the harmful side effect of several formulated products on adults. Insects showing sub lethal symptoms recovered partially or died eventually. As spinosad caused significant toxicological effects it was subsequently tested in 3 different dose rates on adults and N4-nymphs. We noticed not only a clear dose-response relationship but N4-nymphs proved to be more susceptible than adults; even a dilution of 1/9-th of the registered dose rate still caused a mortality of 45.5 % after 20 days. Understanding the earwig's population dynamics is essential for efficient practical biocontrol. It proves difficult to increase population levels to sufficient high numbers for optimal pest control. Local biological factors might be limiting. Therefore, we tested two hypotheses that pertain to population limitation: 1. Bird predation during summer, 2. Small mammal nest predation during winter. Enclosure experiments showed no negative bird effect on earwig densities unless large bird flocks inhabited the area. Small mammals did not actively predate the over wintering nests, although other predatory arthropods may be important. PMID:20222599

Peusens, G; Moerkens, R; Beliën, T; Gobin, B

2009-01-01

29

Advanced morphology and behaviour of extinct earwig-like cockroaches (Blattida: Fuziidae fam. nov.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the extinct cockroach family Fuziidae fam. nov., represented by Fuzia dadao gen. et sp. nov. from the ?Bathonian (168 Ma) Middle Jurassic sediments of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. Males are characterized by unique, long and narrow bodies with a notch on forceps of earwig-like cerci, which attaches to the long external ovipositor during courtship. In a combination with the presence of male tergal glands, it appears the most advanced form of reproduction in the nearly 300 Myr history of long external ovipositor-bearing cockroaches. Its advanced morphology significantly supports attribution of living and fossil cockroaches within a single order Blattida.

Vršanský, Peter; Liang, Jun-Hui; Ren, Dong

2009-12-01

30

Male-male competition and large size mating advantage in European earwigs, Forficula auricularia.  

PubMed

European earwigs are sexually dimorphic in forceps shape and length. Male forceps are thought to be weapons in male contests for access to females, but recent findings suggest that females choose males on the basis of their forceps length. I investigated sexual selection on forceps length and body size and the occurrence of male-male competition. When I controlled for forceps length experimentally and statistically, relatively heavy males had greater copulation success than relatively light males. When I controlled for body size, males with relatively longer forceps had no tendency for greater copulation success than males with shorter forceps. Relatively heavy males more often took over copulations from smaller males than vice versa. Male contests were important for the outcome of mate competition, as males commonly interrupted and took over copulations. My results therefore suggest that intrasexual selection is significant in competition for copulations in male earwigs, and acts on body size. This contrasts with previous findings, which have shown intersexual selection on forceps length to be important. However, both modes of sexual selection may be acting through a two-stage process, where male-male competition first determines which males have access to females, and then through female choice among available males. Morphological measurements supported the conclusion that forceps length and body size are male secondary sexual characters, as these characters had large variance and skewed distributions in males, but were normally distributed in females. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10792930

Forslund

2000-04-01

31

Female choice and manipulations of forceps size and symmetry in the earwig Forficula auricularia L.  

PubMed

The size and asymmetry of male secondary sexual traits are believed to convey reliable information to females concerning the quality of potential mates. Experimental manipulations of male sexual traits provide a powerful approach to the study of preference evolution. Nevertheless, the majority of studies rely on correlational evidence for selection acting on secondary sexual traits. Here we report that in three of four populations of the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, females mated sooner with males with longer forceps although there was no female preference based on forceps asymmetry. We isolated the potentially confounding influences of forceps length and asymmetry by independently manipulating each trait. Manipulations of forceps length confirmed that females preferred males with longer forceps. However, manipulations of asymmetry revealed that although females pay attention to forceps condition, they show no preferences based on asymmetry. No relationships were found between the length and asymmetry of forceps in field populations, and there were no differences in condition between symmetrical and asymmetrical males. Our results are consistent with the notion that female choice has contributed to the sexual dimorphism in earwig forceps. However, they refute the notion that fluctuating asymmetry plays a role in sexual selection. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour PMID:9787025

Tomkins; Simmons

1998-08-01

32

Chromones and flavanones from artemisia campestris subsp. maritima  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the acetone extract of Artemisia campestris subsp. maritima six flavanones, two chromones and the coumarin scopoletin were isolated. 5-Hydroxy-7-methoxychromone and 5,7-dimethoxychromone are new compounds, while the flavanone eriodictyol-7,3?-dimethyl ether is reported for the first time in this species. The structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR techniques. The unequivocal assignments of carbon resonances, mainly made by using 1D

João M. J. Vasconcelos; Artur M. S. Silva; José A. S. Cavaleiro

1998-01-01

33

Isoenzyme diversity and affinity between Dactylis glomerata and Puccinellia maritima (Poaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two Estonian populations of Dactylis glomerata and two of Puccinellia maritima were surveyed electrophoretically for eight enzymes to assess their diversity and affinity. Analysis of electrophoretic data indicated a significant amount of variability in the studied populations of D. glomerata and P. maritima as judged by the number of isoenzyme phenotypes and isoforms detected. Phenotypic affinity between D. glomerata and

Georgi B. Angelov

34

Phytologia (December 2007) 89(3) 263 JUNIPERUS MARITIMA, THE SEASIDE JUNIPER, A NEW  

E-print Network

WORDS: Juniperus maritima, Puget Sound, J. scopulorum, J. virginiana, cryptic species, terpenoids, nr (Small) E. Murray (Adams, 2004). Juniperus scopulorum and J. virginiana are weedy junipers that occupyPhytologia (December 2007) 89(3) 263 JUNIPERUS MARITIMA, THE SEASIDE JUNIPER, A NEW SPECIES FROM

Adams, Robert P.

35

Pheromonal basis of aggregation in European earwig,Forficula auricularia L. (Dermaptera: Forficulidae).  

PubMed

The aggregation behavior of the European earwigForficula auricularia was investigated. Bioassays of frass extracts, cuticular washings, and the defensive exudate have been conducted to locate the source of an aggregation pheromone, and aggregation behavior has been demonstrated with extracts of frass and the washings of male cuticular lipids. Chemical investigations revealed the presence of a unique pattern of typical normal, monomethyl-, and dimethylalkanes, along with a series of fatty acids and the well-known defensive quinones from these insects. It has been concluded from the bioassays of a number of authentic compounds and the lack of a chemically discernible difference between male and female extracts that the aggregation pheromone ofF. auricularia is quite probably a minor component of the male cuticular lipids. PMID:24249377

Walker, K A; Jones, T H; Fell, R D

1993-09-01

36

Microsatellite marker development for the coastal dune shrub Prunus maritima (Rosaceae)1  

PubMed Central

• Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed in the beach plum, Prunus maritima, to investigate the genetic composition of remaining populations in need of conservation and, in future studies, to determine its relation to P. maritima var. gravesii. • Methods and Results: Fourteen primer pairs were identified and tested in four populations throughout the species’ geographic range. Of these 14 loci, 12 were shown to be polymorphic among a total of 60 P. maritima individuals sampled (15 individuals sampled from four populations). Among the polymorphic loci, the number of alleles ranged from two to 10 and observed heterozygosity of loci ranged from 0.07 to 0.93 among specimens tested. • Conclusions: These microsatellites will be useful in evaluating the population genetic composition of P. maritima and in developing approaches for further conservation and management of this species within the endangered coastal dune ecosystem of the northeastern United States.

Badgley, Emily M.; Grubisha, Lisa C.; Roland, Anna K.; Connolly, Bryan A.; Klooster, Matthew R.

2015-01-01

37

Effect of Oxygen and Redox Potential on Glucose Fermentation in Thermotoga maritima under Controlled Physicochemical Conditions  

PubMed Central

Batch cultures of Thermotoga maritima were performed in a bioreactor equipped with instruments adapted for experiments performed at 80°C to mimic the fluctuating oxidative conditions in the hot ecosystems it inhabits. When grown anaerobically on glucose, T. maritima was shown to significantly decrease the redox potential (Eh) of the culture medium down to about ?480?mV, as long as glucose was available. Addition of oxygen into T. maritima cultures during the stationary growth phase led to a drastic reduction in glucose consumption rate. However, although oxygen was toxic, our experiment unambiguously proved that T. maritima was able to consume it during a 12-hour exposure period. Furthermore, a shift in glucose metabolism towards lactate production was observed under oxidative conditions. PMID:21461371

Lakhal, Raja; Auria, Richard; Davidson, Sylvain; Ollivier, Bernard; Dolla, Alain; Hamdi, Moktar; Combet-Blanc, Yannick

2010-01-01

38

The flowering pattern of the perennial herb Lobularia maritima: an unusual case in the Mediterranean basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In plant communities of the Mediterranean Basin most plant species reach their blooming peak in spring and have characteristically short flowering periods of two-three months. The perennial herb Lobularia maritima represents an exception to these characteristics, because it flowers for almost 10 months, and has its flowering peak in autumn. In this five-year study, we describe the flowering pattern of L. maritima at the population and community levels. Despite the unusually extended flowering period of L. maritima, the species showed characteristic low among-year variability in the length of the flowering period but large interannual variation in the distribution of flowers throughout the flowering period. The flowering pattern (unimodal or bimodal) of L. maritima individuals differed among the five years, suggesting that L. maritima plants are plastic enough to tailor their flowering to variable environmental conditions. We conclude that flowering phenology of L. maritima represents a very particular case in the plant community studied, and the influence of abiotic and biotic factors on the phenology of this species is discussed.

Xavier Picó, F.; Retana, Javier

2001-08-01

39

Sibling cooperation in earwig families provides insights into the early evolution of social life.  

PubMed

The evolutionary transition from solitary to social life is driven by direct and indirect fitness benefits of social interactions. Understanding the conditions promoting the early evolution of social life therefore requires identification of these benefits in nonderived social systems, such as animal families where offspring are mobile and able to disperse and will survive independently. Family life is well known to provide benefits to offspring through parental care, but research on sibling interactions generally focused on fitness costs to offspring due to competitive behaviors. Here we show experimentally that sibling interactions also reflect cooperative behaviors in the form of food sharing in nonderived families of the European earwig, Forficula auricularia. Food ingested by individual offspring was transferred to their siblings through mouth-to-anus contacts and active allo-coprophagy. These transfers occurred in both the presence and the absence of the tending mothers, even though the direct contact with the mothers limited sibling food sharing. Neither food deprivation or relatedness influenced the total amount of transferred food, but relatedness affected frass release and the behavioral mechanisms mediating food sharing. Related offspring obtained food predominately through allo-coprophagy, whereas unrelated offspring obtained food through mouth-to-anus contacts. Overall, this study emphasizes that sibling cooperation may be a key process promoting the early evolution of social life. PMID:24642498

Falk, Joachim; Wong, Janine W Y; Kölliker, Mathias; Meunier, Joël

2014-04-01

40

Maternal care, mother-offspring aggregation and age-dependent coadaptation in the European earwig.  

PubMed

Benefits and costs of parental care are expected to change with offspring development and lead to age-dependent coadaptation expressed as phenotypic (behavioural) matches between offspring age and parental reproductive stage. Parents and offspring interact repeatedly over time for the provision of parental care. Their behaviours should be accordingly adjusted to each other dynamically and adaptively, and the phenotypic match between offspring age and parental stage should stabilize the repeated behavioural interactions. In the European earwig (Forficula auricularia), maternal care is beneficial for offspring survival, but not vital, allowing us to investigate the extent to which the stability of mother-offspring aggregation is shaped by age-dependent coadaptation. In this study, we experimentally cross-fostered nymphs of different age classes (younger or older) between females in early or late reproductive stage to disrupt age-dependent coadaptation, thereby generating female-nymph dyads that were phenotypically matched or mismatched. The results revealed a higher stability in aggregation during the first larval instar when care is most intense, a steeper decline in aggregation tendency over developmental time and a reduced developmental rate in matched compared with mismatched families. Furthermore, nymph survival was positively correlated with female-nymph aggregation stability during the early stages when maternal care is most prevalent. These results support the hypothesis that age-related phenotypically plastic coadaptation affects family dynamics and offspring developmental rate. PMID:23937357

Gómez, Y; Kölliker, M

2013-09-01

41

A seascape genetic analysis reveals strong biogeographical structuring driven by contrasting processes in the polyploid saltmarsh species Puccinellia maritima and Triglochin maritima.  

PubMed

Little is known about the processes shaping population structure in saltmarshes. It is expected that the sea should act as a powerful agent of dispersal. Yet, in contrast, import of external propagules into a saltmarsh is thought to be small. To determine the level of connectivity between saltmarsh ecosystems at a macro-geographical scale, we characterized and compared the population structure of two polyploid saltmarsh species, Puccinellia maritima and Triglochin maritima based on a seascape genetics approach. A discriminant analysis of principal components highlighted a genetic structure for both species arranged according to a regional pattern. Subsequent analysis based on isolation-by-distance and isolation-by-resistance frameworks indicated a strong role of coastal sediment transport processes in delimiting regional structure in P. maritima, while additional overland propagule dispersal was indicated for T. maritima. The identification and comparison of regional genetic structure and likely determining factors presented here allows us to understand the biogeographical units along the UK coast, between which barriers to connectivity occur not only at the species level but at the ecosystem scale. This information is valuable in plant conservation and community ecology and in the management and restoration of saltmarsh ecosystems. PMID:24862943

Rouger, R; Jump, A S

2014-07-01

42

When it is costly to have a caring mother: food limitation erases the benefits of parental care in earwigs.  

PubMed

The aggregation of parents with offspring is generally associated with different forms of care that improve offspring survival at potential costs to parents. Under poor environments, the limited amount of resources available can increase the level of competition among family members and consequently lead to adaptive changes in parental investment. However, it remains unclear as to what extent such changes modify offspring fitness, particularly when offspring can survive without parents such as in the European earwig, Forficula auricularia. Here, we show that under food restriction, earwig maternal presence decreased offspring survival until adulthood by 43 per cent. This effect was independent of sibling competition and was expressed after separation from the female, indicating lasting detrimental effects. The reduced benefits of maternal presence on offspring survival were not associated with higher investment in future reproduction, suggesting a condition-dependent effect of food restriction on mothers and local mother-offspring competition for food. Overall, these findings demonstrate for the first time a long-term negative effect of maternal presence on offspring survival in a species with maternal care, and highlight the importance of food availability in the early evolution of family life. PMID:22535642

Meunier, Joël; Kölliker, Mathias

2012-08-23

43

When it is costly to have a caring mother: food limitation erases the benefits of parental care in earwigs  

PubMed Central

The aggregation of parents with offspring is generally associated with different forms of care that improve offspring survival at potential costs to parents. Under poor environments, the limited amount of resources available can increase the level of competition among family members and consequently lead to adaptive changes in parental investment. However, it remains unclear as to what extent such changes modify offspring fitness, particularly when offspring can survive without parents such as in the European earwig, Forficula auricularia. Here, we show that under food restriction, earwig maternal presence decreased offspring survival until adulthood by 43 per cent. This effect was independent of sibling competition and was expressed after separation from the female, indicating lasting detrimental effects. The reduced benefits of maternal presence on offspring survival were not associated with higher investment in future reproduction, suggesting a condition-dependent effect of food restriction on mothers and local mother–offspring competition for food. Overall, these findings demonstrate for the first time a long-term negative effect of maternal presence on offspring survival in a species with maternal care, and highlight the importance of food availability in the early evolution of family life. PMID:22535642

Meunier, Joël; Kölliker, Mathias

2012-01-01

44

Aspartate Transcarbamylase from the Hyperthermophilic Eubacterium Thermotoga maritima: Fused Catalytic and Regulatory Polypeptides Form an Allosteric Enzyme  

PubMed Central

In the allosteric aspartate transcarbamylase (ATCase) from the hyperthermophilic eubacterium Thermotoga maritima, the catalytic and regulatory functions, which in class B ATCases are carried out by specialized polypeptides, are combined on a single type of polypeptide assembled in trimers. The ATCases from T. maritima and Treponema denticola present intriguing similarities, suggesting horizontal gene transfer. PMID:9829951

Chen, Pingguo; Van Vliet, Françoise; Van De Casteele, Mark; Legrain, Christianne; Cunin, Raymond; Glansdorff, Nicolas

1998-01-01

45

Loktanella maritima sp. nov. isolated from shallow marine sediments.  

PubMed

An aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, non-motile bacterium, KMM 9530(T), was isolated from a sediment sample collected from the Sea of Japan seashore. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis positioned novel strain KMM 9530(T) in the genus Loktanella as a separate line adjacent to Loktanella sediminilitoris KCTC 32383(T), Loktanella tamlensis JCM 14020(T) and Loktanella maricola JCM 14564(T) with 98.5-98.2% sequence similarity. Strain KMM 9530(T) was characterized by its weak hydrolytic capacity and inability to assimilate most organic substrates. The major isoprenoid quinone was Q-10, polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unknown phospholipid, an unknown aminolipid and unknown lipids, and the major fatty acid was C18 : 1?7c. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotypic characterization, it can be concluded that the novel strain KMM 9530(T) represents a novel species in the genus Loktanella, for which the name Loktanella maritima sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the species is KMM 9530(T) (?=?NRIC 0919(T)?=?JCM 19807(T)). PMID:24744019

Tanaka, Naoto; Romanenko, Lyudmila A; Kurilenko, Valeriya V; Svetashev, Vassilii I; Kalinovskaya, Natalia I; Mikhailov, Valery V

2014-07-01

46

Uniformity of the nuclear and chloroplast genomes of Spartina maritima (Poaceae), a salt-marsh  

E-print Network

the populations. The lack of genetic diversity is interpreted in light of the almost exclusive vegetative-marsh species in decline along the Western European Coast G Yannic1 , A Baumel2 and M Ainouche3 1 De´partement d Scientifique de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes, Cedex, France Spartina maritima is a salt-marsh species from European

Alvarez, Nadir

47

Seed Germination of Triglochin Maritima as Influenced by Salinity and Dormancy Relieving Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triglochin maritima had only 40 % germination in distilled water, but germination was substantially enhanced when seeds were exposed to ethephon, fusicoccin, proline, kinetin, and thiourea. Also, the effect of low salinity on germination was alleviated by fusicoccin, kinetin, nitrate and thiourea, whereas, the reduction in germination at high salinity was partially countered by ethephon, kinetin, thiourea and nitrate.

M. A. Khan; I. A. Ungar

2001-01-01

48

Population structure and origins of Purple Sandpipers Calidris maritima in north Norway during winter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wintering Purple Sandpipers Calidris maritima were captured at Varangerfjorden, Finnmark, in March 1992, and compared with samples from Troms county in November 1988 to describe the population structure in north Norway in terms of age and sex classes, and to determine the origins of these wintering birds. The overall percentage of first?year birds was 35% at Varangerfjorden, higher than that

Ron W. Summers; Rab Rae

2006-01-01

49

Phytologia (April 2009) 91(1) 31 THE LEAF ESSENTIAL OIL OF JUNIPERUS MARITIMA R. P.  

E-print Network

in leaf terpenoids throughout the range of Juniperus scopulorum Sarg. and found that plants from the PugetPhytologia (April 2009) 91(1) 31 THE LEAF ESSENTIAL OIL OF JUNIPERUS MARITIMA R. P. ADAMS COMPARED WITH J. HORIZONTALIS, J. SCOPULORUM AND J. VIRGINIANA OILS Robert P. Adams Biology Department, Baylor

Adams, Robert P.

50

Enzymatic synthesis of c-di-GMP using inclusion bodies of Thermotoga maritima full-length diguanylate cyclase.  

PubMed

Recombinant full-length diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) of Thermotoga maritima with native and mutant allosteric sites were overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells and characterized. It has been shown that target enzymes are produced substantially in the form of active inclusion bodies. Introduction of the mutation in allosteric site resulted in 7-fold increase of the T. maritima DGC activity. Possibility of applying full-length DGC of T. maritima in the form of inclusion bodies for synthesis of c-di-GMP was originally demonstrated. PMID:23274918

Korovashkina, A S; Rymko, A N; Kvach, S V; Zinchenko, A I

2012-12-15

51

Transcriptional Analysis of Biofilm Formation Processes in the Anaerobic, Hyperthermophilic Bacterium Thermotoga maritima  

PubMed Central

Thermotoga maritima, a fermentative, anaerobic, hyperthermophilic bacterium, was found to attach to bioreactor glass walls, nylon mesh, and polycarbonate filters during chemostat cultivation on maltose-based media at 80°C. A whole-genome cDNA microarray was used to examine differential expression patterns between biofilm and planktonic populations. Mixed-model statistical analysis revealed differential expression (twofold or more) of 114 open reading frames in sessile cells (6% of the genome), over a third of which were initially annotated as hypothetical proteins in the T. maritima genome. Among the previously annotated genes in the T. maritima genome, which showed expression changes during biofilm growth, were several that corresponded to biofilm formation genes identified in mesophilic bacteria (i.e., Pseudomonas species, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus epidermidis). Most notably, T. maritima biofilm-bound cells exhibited increased transcription of genes involved in iron and sulfur transport, as well as in biosynthesis of cysteine, thiamine, NAD, and isoprenoid side chains of quinones. These findings were all consistent with the up-regulation of iron-sulfur cluster assembly and repair functions in biofilm cells. Significant up-regulation of several ?-specific glycosidases was also noted in biofilm cells, despite the fact that maltose was the primary carbon source fed to the chemostat. The reasons for increased ?-glycosidase levels are unclear but are likely related to the processing of biofilm-based polysaccharides. In addition to revealing insights into the phenotype of sessile T. maritima communities, the methodology developed here can be extended to study other anaerobic biofilm formation processes as well as to examine aspects of microbial ecology in hydrothermal environments. PMID:15466556

Pysz, Marybeth A.; Conners, Shannon B.; Montero, Clemente I.; Shockley, Keith R.; Johnson, Matthew R.; Ward, Donald E.; Kelly, Robert M.

2004-01-01

52

The aquatic vascular plant Ruppia maritima as an indicator organisms for contaminated sediments  

SciTech Connect

An ongoing estuarine ecological risk assessment case study for the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in the Great Bay (Kittery, ME, Portsmouth, NH) has been the catalyst for continued methods development with a rooted aquatic plant for a sediment toxicity test. A test using the aquatic vascular plant Ruppia maritima would be similar in it`s utility to the Algal (Champia parvula) Reproduction Test, an accepted, short term test (US EPA Short term Methods for Estimating the Chronic Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Marine and Estuarine Organisms). Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate effects of lead, the primary site contaminant on R. maritima in the Great Bay. Morphology and life cycle of R. maritima are similar to that of the aquatic vascular plant Zostra marina which comprises up to 46% of the Great Bay habitat (Short 1992). R. maritima`s reduced size makes it a practical laboratory organism and Ruppia`s effects may offer useful insights into potential effects on Zostra or other aquatic vascular plants. Presently rooted vascular plants are not found in the site of concern (Clark Cove). This can be contributed to either of two factors; the physical parameters of the site, i.e., a depositional zone or the chemical parameters, i.e., metals contamination, specifically lead. Exposure of bedded and nonbedded plants occurred over a four day and ten day period using lead sulfate. Concentrations for bedded exposures were as follows, 0.3, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0 simultaneously extracted metal/acid volatile sulfide (SEM/AVS) molar ratios, and 0.1, 1.0, 10.0 and 100.0mg/l Pb for water only exposures. Some reduction in cumulative leaf growth was observed in the site samples as well as the spiked samples as compared to site controls. Results of this study and associated research which focuses on the further development of the Ruppia test methods will be presented.

Tagliabue, M.D.; Thursby, G.B. [Science Applications International Corporation, Narragansett, RI (United States); Walker, H.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States); Johnston, R.K.

1994-12-31

53

Chemical composition and biological effects of Artemisia maritima and Artemisia nilagirica essential oils from wild plants of western Himalaya.  

PubMed

Artemisia species possess pharmacological properties that are used for medical purposes worldwide. In this paper, the essential oils from the aerial parts of Artemisia nilagirica and Artemisia maritima from the western Indian Himalaya region are described. The main compounds analyzed by simultaneous GC/MS and GC/FID were camphor and 1,8-cineole from A. maritima, and camphor and artemisia ketone from A. nilagirica. Additionally, the oils were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal, mosquito biting deterrent, and larvicidal activities. A. nilagirica essential oil demonstrated nonselective antifungal activity against plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum fragariae, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, whereas A. maritima did not show antifungal activity. Both Artemisia spp. exhibited considerable mosquito biting deterrence, whereas only A. nilagirica showed larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. Antibacterial effects assessed by an agar dilution assay demonstrated greater activity of A. maritima essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to A. nilagirica. PMID:25127023

Stappen, Iris; Wanner, Jürgen; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Ali, Abbas; Khan, Ikhlas A; Kaul, Vijay K; Lal, Brij; Jaitak, Vikas; Gochev, Velizar; Girova, Tania; Stoyanova, Albena; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold

2014-08-01

54

Complete genome sequence of Hippea maritima type strain (MH2T)  

SciTech Connect

Hippea maritima (Miroshnichenko et al. 1999) is the type species of the genus Hippea, which belongs to the family Desulfurellaceae within the class Deltaproteobacteria. The anaerobic, moderately thermophilic marine sulfur-reducer was first isolated from shallow-water hot vents in Matipur Harbor, Papua New Guinea. H. maritima was of interest for genome se- quencing because of its isolated phylogenetic location, as a distant next neighbor of the ge- nus Desulfurella. Strain MH2T is the first type strain from the order Desulfurellales with a com- pletely sequenced genome. The 1,694,430 bp long linear genome with its 1,723 protein- coding and 57 RNA genes consists of one circular chromosome and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lu, Megan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Spring, Stefan [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

2011-01-01

55

Using a toxicity test with Ruppia maritima (Linnaeus) to assess the effects of Roundup.  

PubMed

Glyphosate, the active ingredient in Monsanto's broad-spectrum herbicide Roundup, consists of one of the most used pesticides worldwide, but its effects on the marine flora are still not well understood. Were examined Roundup toxic effects on Ruppia maritima specimens collected from Jansen Lagoon (São Luís, MA, Brazil) and acclimatized under laboratory conditions. The numbers of new and dead leaves, the root and leaf length, the chlorophyll a content, and the weight of R. maritima branches were determined before and after exposure to different Roundup concentrations for seven days. High concentrations caused a significant lethal effect. In addition, significant changes were observed in the wet and dry weights, the number and length of the leaves, and the chlorophyll a content. Leaf elongation was observed in the branches exposed to low concentrations, and this change was likely activated as a compensatory mechanism. The results indicate that high concentrations of this herbicide may compromise estuarine flora. PMID:25455815

Castro, Aline de Jesus Veloso; Colares, Ioni Gonçalves; Franco, Teresa Cristina Rodrigues Dos Santos; Cutrim, Marco Valerio Jansen; Luvizotto-Santos, Ricardo

2014-10-25

56

A thermostable K +-stimulated vacuolar-type pyrophosphatase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current evidence suggests the occurrence of two classes of vacuolar-type H+-translocating inorganic pyrophosphatases (V-PPases): K+-insensitive proteins, identified in eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea, and K+-stimulated V-PPases, identified to date only in eukaryotes. Here, we describe the functional characterization of a thermostable V-PPase from the anaerobic hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima by heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The activity of this 71-kDa membrane-embedded

José R. Pérez-Castiñeira; Rosa L. López-Marqués; Manuel Losada; Aurelio Serrano

2001-01-01

57

Transcriptional Analysis of Biofilm Formation Processes in the Anaerobic, Hyperthermophilic Bacterium Thermotoga maritima  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermotoga maritima, a fermentative, anaerobic, hyperthermophilic bacterium, was found to attach to bioreactor glass walls, nylon mesh, and polycarbonate filters during chemostat cultivation on maltose-based media at 80°C. A whole-genome cDNA microarray was used to examine differential expression patterns between biofilm and planktonic populations. Mixed-model statistical analysis revealed differential expression (twofold or more) of 114 open reading frames in sessile

Marybeth A. Pysz; Shannon B. Conners; Clemente I. Montero; Keith R. Shockley; Matthew R. Johnson; Donald E. Ward; Robert M. Kelly

2004-01-01

58

Biosynthesis of Cyanogenic Glucosides in Triglochin maritima and the Involvement of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biosynthesis of the two cyanogenic glucosides, taxiphyllin and triglochinin, in Triglochin maritima (seaside arrow grass) has been studied using undialyzed microsomal preparations from flowers and fruits. Tyrosine was converted to p-hydroxymandelonitrile with Vmax and Km values of 36 nmol mg?1 g?1 fresh weight and 0.14 mM, respectively. p-Hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime and p-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile accumulated as intermediates in the reaction mixtures. Using radiolabeled

John Strikart Nielsen; Birger Lindberg Møller

1999-01-01

59

JUNIPERUS MARITIMA, THE SEASIDE JUNIPER, A NEW SPECIES FROM PUGET SOUND, NORTH AMERICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on analyses of terpenoids, nrDNA and trnC-D SNPs as well as morphology and ecology, a new cryptic species, Juniperus maritima, from the Puget Sound region is recognized. The species, previously included in J. scopulorum, is characterized by having seed cones that mature in one year (14-16 months), seeds usually exserted from the cone, obtuse scale leaf tips, usually reniform

Robert P. Adams

60

Glycerate 2-kinase of Thermotoga maritima and genomic reconstruction of related metabolic pathways.  

PubMed

Members of a novel glycerate-2-kinase (GK-II) family were tentatively identified in a broad range of species, including eukaryotes and archaea and many bacteria that lack a canonical enzyme of the GarK (GK-I) family. The recently reported three-dimensional structure of GK-II from Thermotoga maritima (TM1585; PDB code 2b8n) revealed a new fold distinct from other known kinase families. Here, we verified the enzymatic activity of TM1585, assessed its kinetic characteristics, and used directed mutagenesis to confirm the essential role of the two active-site residues Lys-47 and Arg-325. The main objective of this study was to apply comparative genomics for the reconstruction of metabolic pathways associated with GK-II in all bacteria and, in particular, in T. maritima. Comparative analyses of approximately 400 bacterial genomes revealed a remarkable variety of pathways that lead to GK-II-driven utilization of glycerate via a glycolysis/gluconeogenesis route. In the case of T. maritima, a three-step serine degradation pathway was inferred based on the tentative identification of two additional enzymes, serine-pyruvate aminotransferase and hydroxypyruvate reductase (TM1400 and TM1401, respectively), that convert serine to glycerate via hydroxypyruvate. Both enzymatic activities were experimentally verified, and the entire pathway was validated by its in vitro reconstitution. PMID:18156253

Yang, Chen; Rodionov, Dmitry A; Rodionova, Irina A; Li, Xiaoqing; Osterman, Andrei L

2008-03-01

61

Complexes of Thermotoga maritima S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase provide insights into substrate specificity  

SciTech Connect

The polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine are ubiquitous aliphatic cations and are essential for cellular growth and differentiation. S-Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) is a critical pyruvoyl-dependent enzyme in the polyamine-biosynthetic pathway. The crystal structures of AdoMetDC from humans and plants and of the AdoMetDC proenzyme from Thermotoga maritima have been obtained previously. Here, the crystal structures of activated T. maritima AdoMetDC (TmAdoMetDC) and of its complexes with S-adenosylmethionine methyl ester and 5{prime}-deoxy-5{prime}-dimethylthioadenosine are reported. The results demonstrate for the first time that TmAdoMetDC autoprocesses without the need for additional factors and that the enzyme contains two complete active sites, both of which use residues from both chains of the homodimer. The complexes provide insights into the substrate specificity and ligand binding of AdoMetDC in prokaryotes. The conservation of the ligand-binding mode and the active-site residues between human and T. maritima AdoMetDC provides insight into the evolution of AdoMetDC.

Bale, Shridhar; Baba, Kavita; McCloskey, Diane E.; Pegg, Anthony E.; Ealick, Steven E.

2010-06-25

62

Phosphoribosyl anthranilate isomerase from Thermotoga maritima is an extremely stable and active homodimer.  

PubMed Central

The metabolism of hyperthermophilic microorganisms can function properly at temperatures close to 100 degrees C. It follows that they are equipped with both thermostable enzymes and mechanisms that handle labile metabolites. We wanted to understand how stable and active phosphoribosyl anthranilate isomerase (tPRAI) from the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima is at its optimum growth temperature of 80 degrees C, and how its thermolabile substrate, N-(5'-phosphoribosyl)-anthranilate (PRA), is protected from rapid decomposition. To this end, the trpF gene of T. maritima was expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli and tPRAI was purified. In contrast to most PRAIs from mesophiles, which are monomers with the eightfold beta alpha (or TIM) barrel fold, tPRAI is a homodimer. It is strongly resistant toward inactivation by temperatures up to 95 degrees C, by acidification to pH 3.2, and by proteases in the presence and absence of detergents. tPRAI is about 35-fold more active at its physiologic temperature than is the enzyme from E. coli (ePRAI) at 37 degrees C. This high catalytic efficiency of tPRAI is likely to complete successfully with the rapid spontaneous hydrolysis of PRA at 80 degrees C. Thus, with respect to both stability and function, tPRAI appears well adapted to the extreme habitat of T. maritima. Single crystals of tPRAI have been obtained that are suitable for X-ray analysis at high resolution. PMID:8897600

Sterner, R.; Kleemann, G. R.; Szadkowski, H.; Lustig, A.; Hennig, M.; Kirschner, K.

1996-01-01

63

DNA protection by histone-like protein HU from the hyperthermophilic eubacterium Thermotoga maritima  

PubMed Central

In mesophilic prokaryotes, the DNA-binding protein HU participates in nucleoid organization as well as in regulation of DNA-dependent processes. Little is known about nucleoid organization in thermophilic eubacteria. We show here that HU from the hyperthermophilic eubacterium Thermotoga maritima HU bends DNA and constrains negative DNA supercoils in the presence of topoisomerase I. However, while binding to a single site occludes ?35 bp, association of T. maritima HU with DNA of sufficient length to accommodate multiple protomers results in an apparent shorter occluded site size. Such complexes consist of ordered arrays of protomers, as revealed by the periodicity of DNase I cleavage. Association of TmHU with plasmid DNA yields a complex that is remarkably resistant to DNase I-mediated degradation. TmHU is the only member of this protein family capable of occluding a 35 bp nonspecific site in duplex DNA; we propose that this property allows TmHU to form exceedingly stable associations in which DNA flanking the kinks is sandwiched between adjacent proteins. We suggest that T. maritima HU serves an architectural function when associating with a single 35 bp site, but generates a very stable and compact aggregate at higher protein concentrations that organizes and protects the genomic DNA. PMID:18515342

Mukherjee, Anirban; Sokunbi, Abimbola O.; Grove, Anne

2008-01-01

64

Overexpression, crystallization, and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of shikimate dehydrogenase from Thermotoga maritima  

PubMed Central

Shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH), which catalyses the NADPH-dependent reduction of 3-dehydroshikimate to shikimate in the shikimate pathway, is an attractive target for the development of herbicides and antimicrobial agents. Previous structural studies showed that SDH exists in two conformations, an open form and a closed form, and it is believed that the conformational state is crucial to understanding a catalytic mechanism. To facilitate further structural comparisons among SDHs, structural analysis of an SDH from Thermotoga maritima encoded by the Tm0346 gene has been initiated. SDH from T. maritima has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized at 296?K using ammonium sulfate as a precipitant. Crystals of T. maritima SDH diffracted to 1.45?Å resolution and belonged to orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 54.21, b = 62.45 and c = 68.68?Å. The asymmetric unit contains a monomer, with a corresponding V M of 2.01?Å3?Da?1 and a solvent content of 38.9% by volume. PMID:21795804

Lee, Hyung Ho

2011-01-01

65

The aquatic vascular plant Ruppia maritima as an indicator organism for contaminated sediments  

SciTech Connect

An ongoing estuarine ecological risk assessment case study for the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in the Great Bay Estuary (New Hampshire, Maine) was the catalyst to continue development a rooted aquatic plant sediment toxicity test. Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate effects of lead, the primary site contaminant on R. maritima in the Great Bay. Although the aquatic vascular plant Zostra marina comprises up to 46% of the Great Bay subtidal habitat, R. maritima`s much smaller size makes it a more practical laboratory organism. Effects on Ruppia may offer useful insights into potential effects on Zostra or other aquatic vascular plants. Presently rooted vascular plants are not found in Clark Cove located adjacent to a landfill disposal site on the shipyard. The absence of rooted vegetation can be contributed to, physical parameters of the site (turbidity, grain size, texture) or chemical parameters (heavy metal/Pb contamination, redox potential). Exposure of bedded and nonbedded plants occurred over a four day and ten day period using lead sulfate. Concentrations for bedded exposures were as follows, 0.3, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0 simultaneously extracted metal/acid volatile sulfide (SEM/AVS) molar ratios, and 0.1, 1.0, 10.0 and 100.0mg/l Pb for water only exposures. Reduction in cumulative leaf growth was observed for the Clark Cove sediments as well as the spiked sediments as compared to reference sediments.

Tagliabue, M.D.; Thursby, G.B.; Walker, H.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States); Johnston, R.K.

1995-12-31

66

Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Free-Living Earwig, Challia fletcheri (Dermaptera: Pygidicranidae) and Phylogeny of Polyneoptera  

PubMed Central

The insect order Dermaptera, belonging to Polyneoptera, includes ?2,000 extant species, but no dermapteran mitochondrial genome has been sequenced. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the free-living earwig, Challia fletcheri, compared its genomic features to other available mitochondrial sequences from polyneopterous insects. In addition, the Dermaptera, together with the other known polyneopteran mitochondrial genome sequences (protein coding, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes), were employed to understand the phylogeny of Polyneoptera, one of the least resolved insect phylogenies, with emphasis on the placement of Dermaptera. The complete mitochondrial genome of C. fletcheri presents the following several unusual features: the longest size in insects is 20,456 bp; it harbors the largest tandem repeat units (TRU) among insects; it displays T- and G-skewness on the major strand and A- and C-skewness on the minor strand, which is a reversal of the general pattern found in most insect mitochondrial genomes, and it possesses a unique gene arrangement characterized by a series of gene translocations and/or inversions. The reversal pattern of skewness is explained in terms of inversion of replication origin. All phylogenetic analyses consistently placed Dermaptera as the sister to Plecoptera, leaving them as the most basal lineage of Polyneoptera or sister to Ephemeroptera, and placed Odonata consistently as the most basal lineage of the Pterygota. PMID:22879905

Wan, Xinlong; Kim, Man Il; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Iksoo

2012-01-01

67

Complete mitochondrial genome of the free-living earwig, Challia fletcheri (Dermaptera: Pygidicranidae) and phylogeny of Polyneoptera.  

PubMed

The insect order Dermaptera, belonging to Polyneoptera, includes ?2,000 extant species, but no dermapteran mitochondrial genome has been sequenced. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the free-living earwig, Challia fletcheri, compared its genomic features to other available mitochondrial sequences from polyneopterous insects. In addition, the Dermaptera, together with the other known polyneopteran mitochondrial genome sequences (protein coding, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes), were employed to understand the phylogeny of Polyneoptera, one of the least resolved insect phylogenies, with emphasis on the placement of Dermaptera. The complete mitochondrial genome of C. fletcheri presents the following several unusual features: the longest size in insects is 20,456 bp; it harbors the largest tandem repeat units (TRU) among insects; it displays T- and G-skewness on the major strand and A- and C-skewness on the minor strand, which is a reversal of the general pattern found in most insect mitochondrial genomes, and it possesses a unique gene arrangement characterized by a series of gene translocations and/or inversions. The reversal pattern of skewness is explained in terms of inversion of replication origin. All phylogenetic analyses consistently placed Dermaptera as the sister to Plecoptera, leaving them as the most basal lineage of Polyneoptera or sister to Ephemeroptera, and placed Odonata consistently as the most basal lineage of the Pterygota. PMID:22879905

Wan, Xinlong; Kim, Man Il; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Iksoo

2012-01-01

68

Morphological and molecular characterization of Mermis nigrescens Dujardin, (Nematoda: Mermithidae) parasitizing the introduced European earwig (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) in New Zealand.  

PubMed

Parasitic nematodes of the family Mermithidae were found to be infecting the introduced European earwig Forficula auricularia (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) in Dunedin, South Island, New Zealand. Adult females were later collected from various garden plants while depositing eggs. These mermithid specimens were identified morphologically as Mermis nigrescens Dujardin, 1842. A genetic distance of 0.7% between these specimens and a M. nigrescens isolate from Canada (18S rRNA gene), suggests that they have diverged genetically, but there are currently no available comparable sequences for the European M. nigrescens. Two additional nuclear fragments were also amplified, the 28S rRNA and the ribosomal DNA first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1), providing a basis for future studies. Bearing in mind the morphological similarity with other reported M. nigrescens and the lack of sequence data from other parts of the world, we retain the name M. nigrescens, and suggest that the species may be found to represent a complex of cryptic species when more worldwide data are available. Herein, we present a brief description of the post-parasitic worms and adult females, along with an inferred phylogeny using 18S rRNA gene sequences. PMID:24503193

Presswell, B; Evans, S; Poulin, R; Jorge, F

2014-02-01

69

Scouting contaminated estuaries: Heavy metal resistant and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in the native metal rhizoaccumulator Spartina maritima.  

PubMed

Spartina maritima is a native endangered heavy metal rhizoaccumulator cordgrass naturally growing in southwest coasts of Spain, where is used as a biotool to rehabilitate degraded salt marshes. Fifteen bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of S. maritima growing in the estuary of the Tinto River, one of the most polluted areas in the world. A high proportion of bacteria were resistant towards several heavy metals. They also exhibited multiple plant growth promoting (PGP) properties, in the absence and the presence of Cu. Bacillus methylotrophicus SMT38, Bacillusaryabhattai SMT48, B. aryabhattai SMT50 and Bacilluslicheniformis SMT51 were selected as the best performing strains. In a gnobiotic assay, inoculation of Medicago sativa seeds with the selected isolates induced higher root elongation. The inoculation of S. maritima with these indigenous metal-resistant PGP rhizobacteria could be an efficient method to increase plant adaptation and growth in contaminated estuaries during restoration programs. PMID:25467875

Mesa, J; Mateos-Naranjo, E; Caviedes, M A; Redondo-Gómez, S; Pajuelo, E; Rodríguez-Llorente, I D

2015-01-15

70

The first myriapod genome sequence reveals conservative arthropod gene content and genome organisation in the centipede Strigamia maritima.  

PubMed

Myriapods (e.g., centipedes and millipedes) display a simple homonomous body plan relative to other arthropods. All members of the class are terrestrial, but they attained terrestriality independently of insects. Myriapoda is the only arthropod class not represented by a sequenced genome. We present an analysis of the genome of the centipede Strigamia maritima. It retains a compact genome that has undergone less gene loss and shuffling than previously sequenced arthropods, and many orthologues of genes conserved from the bilaterian ancestor that have been lost in insects. Our analysis locates many genes in conserved macro-synteny contexts, and many small-scale examples of gene clustering. We describe several examples where S. maritima shows different solutions from insects to similar problems. The insect olfactory receptor gene family is absent from S. maritima, and olfaction in air is likely effected by expansion of other receptor gene families. For some genes S. maritima has evolved paralogues to generate coding sequence diversity, where insects use alternate splicing. This is most striking for the Dscam gene, which in Drosophila generates more than 100,000 alternate splice forms, but in S. maritima is encoded by over 100 paralogues. We see an intriguing linkage between the absence of any known photosensory proteins in a blind organism and the additional absence of canonical circadian clock genes. The phylogenetic position of myriapods allows us to identify where in arthropod phylogeny several particular molecular mechanisms and traits emerged. For example, we conclude that juvenile hormone signalling evolved with the emergence of the exoskeleton in the arthropods and that RR-1 containing cuticle proteins evolved in the lineage leading to Mandibulata. We also identify when various gene expansions and losses occurred. The genome of S. maritima offers us a unique glimpse into the ancestral arthropod genome, while also displaying many adaptations to its specific life history. PMID:25423365

Chipman, Ariel D; Ferrier, David E K; Brena, Carlo; Qu, Jiaxin; Hughes, Daniel S T; Schröder, Reinhard; Torres-Oliva, Montserrat; Znassi, Nadia; Jiang, Huaiyang; Almeida, Francisca C; Alonso, Claudio R; Apostolou, Zivkos; Aqrawi, Peshtewani; Arthur, Wallace; Barna, Jennifer C J; Blankenburg, Kerstin P; Brites, Daniela; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Coyle, Marcus; Dearden, Peter K; Du Pasquier, Louis; Duncan, Elizabeth J; Ebert, Dieter; Eibner, Cornelius; Erikson, Galina; Evans, Peter D; Extavour, Cassandra G; Francisco, Liezl; Gabaldón, Toni; Gillis, William J; Goodwin-Horn, Elizabeth A; Green, Jack E; Griffiths-Jones, Sam; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Gubbala, Sai; Guigó, Roderic; Han, Yi; Hauser, Frank; Havlak, Paul; Hayden, Luke; Helbing, Sophie; Holder, Michael; Hui, Jerome H L; Hunn, Julia P; Hunnekuhl, Vera S; Jackson, LaRonda; Javaid, Mehwish; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Jiggins, Francis M; Jones, Tamsin E; Kaiser, Tobias S; Kalra, Divya; Kenny, Nathan J; Korchina, Viktoriya; Kovar, Christie L; Kraus, F Bernhard; Lapraz, François; Lee, Sandra L; Lv, Jie; Mandapat, Christigale; Manning, Gerard; Mariotti, Marco; Mata, Robert; Mathew, Tittu; Neumann, Tobias; Newsham, Irene; Ngo, Dinh N; Ninova, Maria; Okwuonu, Geoffrey; Ongeri, Fiona; Palmer, William J; Patil, Shobha; Patraquim, Pedro; Pham, Christopher; Pu, Ling-Ling; Putman, Nicholas H; Rabouille, Catherine; Ramos, Olivia Mendivil; Rhodes, Adelaide C; Robertson, Helen E; Robertson, Hugh M; Ronshaugen, Matthew; Rozas, Julio; Saada, Nehad; Sánchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Scherer, Steven E; Schurko, Andrew M; Siggens, Kenneth W; Simmons, DeNard; Stief, Anna; Stolle, Eckart; Telford, Maximilian J; Tessmar-Raible, Kristin; Thornton, Rebecca; van der Zee, Maurijn; von Haeseler, Arndt; Williams, James M; Willis, Judith H; Wu, Yuanqing; Zou, Xiaoyan; Lawson, Daniel; Muzny, Donna M; Worley, Kim C; Gibbs, Richard A; Akam, Michael; Richards, Stephen

2014-11-01

71

The role of Spartina maritima and Sarcocornia fruticosa on trace metals retention in Ria Formosa, Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last years, phytoremediation has become an increasingly recognized pathway for contaminant removal from water and shallow soils. Assessing the phytoremediation potential of wetlands is complex due to variable conditions of hydrology, soil/sediment types, plant species diversity, growing season and water chemistry. Physico-chemical properties of wetlands provide many positive attributes for remediating contaminants. Saltmarsh plants can sequestrate and inherently tolerate high metal concentrations found in saltmarsh sediments. An increasing number of studies have been carried out to understand the role of halophyte vegetation on retention, biovailability and remediation of the pollutants in coastal areas (estuaries and lagoons). It is already known that the accumulation capacity and the pattern of metal distribution in the plant tissues vary among plant species, namely monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous, and with sediment characteristics. During the last decades, there has been a large increase in urbanization and industrialization of the area surrounding Ria Formosa. Due to this reality, anthropogenic contaminants, including trace metals, are transported via untreated sewage and agricultural effluents to several parts of the lagoon. The dominant producers are Spartina maritima (Poales: Poaceae) and Sarcocornia fruticosa (Caryophyllales: Chenopodiaceae), appearing in pure stands respectively in the lower and in the upper saltmarshes. The aim of this work was to survey, comparatively, the role of S. maritima and S. fruticosa on minor and trace element (Ag, Cd, Cu, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn), contents and distribution amongst sediment and plant tissues. Both S. maritima and S. fruticosa could fix metals from the surrounding belowground environment and accumulate metals, mainly in roots (also in rhizomes in the case of the former). Metal translocation to aerial parts of the plants was, in general, residual.

Moreira da Silva, Manuela; Duarte, Duarte; Isidoro, Jorge; Chícharo, Luís

2013-04-01

72

Biosynthesis of cyanogenic glucosides in Triglochin maritima and the involvement of cytochrome P450 enzymes.  

PubMed

The biosynthesis of the two cyanogenic glucosides, taxiphyllin and triglochinin, in Triglochin maritima (seaside arrow grass) has been studied using undialyzed microsomal preparations from flowers and fruits. Tyrosine was converted to p-hydroxymandelonitrile with V(max) and K(m) values of 36 nmol mg(-1) g(-1) fresh weight and 0.14 mM, respectively. p-Hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime and p-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile accumulated as intermediates in the reaction mixtures. Using radiolabeled tyrosine as substrate, the radiolabel was easily trapped in p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime and p-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile when these were added as unlabeled compounds. p-Hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime was the only product obtained using microsomes prepared from green leaves or dialyzed microsomes prepared from flowers and fruits. These data contrast earlier reports (Hösel and Nahrstedt, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 203, 753-757, 1980; and Cutler et al., J. Biol. Chem. 256, 4253-4258, 1981) where p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime was found not to accumulate. All steps in the conversion of tyrosine to p-hydroxymandelonitrile were found to be catalyzed by cytochrome P450 enzymes as documented by photoreversible carbon monoxide inhibition, inhibition by antibodies toward NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase, and by cytochrome P450 inhibitors. We hypothesize that cyanogenic glucoside synthesis in T. maritima is catalyzed by multifunctional cytochrome P450 enzymes similar to CYP79A1 and CYP71E1 in Sorghum bicolor except that the homolog to CYP71E1 in T. maritima exhibits a less tight binding of p-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile, thus permitting the release of this intermediate and its conversion into triglochinin. PMID:10415119

Nielsen, J S; Moller, B L

1999-08-01

73

Biobleach boosting effect of recombinant xylanase B from the hyperthermophilic Thermotoga maritima on wheat straw pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recombinant xylanase B (XynB) of Thermotoga maritima MSB8 was found to be highly specific towards xylans and exhibit very low activity towards carboxymethylcellulose in previous\\u000a study. XynB was thermostable at neutral to alkaline pH region at 90°C and retained more than 90% activity after 1 h over the\\u000a pH range of pH 6.1 to 11.1. The suitability of XynB for

Z. Q. Jiang; X. T. Li; S. Q. Yang; L. T. Li; Y. Li; W. Y. Feng

2006-01-01

74

Biophysical probing of Spartina maritima photo-system II changes during prolonged tidal submersion periods.  

PubMed

Submergence is one of the major constrains affecting wetland plants, with inevitable impacts on their physiology and productivity. Global warming as a driving force of sea level rise, tend to increase the submersion periods duration. Photosynthesis biophysical probing arise as an important tool to understand the energetics underlying plant feedback to these constrains. As in previous studies with Spartina maritima, there was no inhibition of photosynthetic activity in submerged individuals. Comparing both donor and acceptor sides of the PSII, the first was more severely affected during submersion, driven by the inactivation of the OEC with consequent impairment of the ETC. Although this apparent damage in the PSII donor side, the electron transport per active reaction centre was not substantially affected, indicating that this reduction in the electron flow is accompanied by a proportional increase in the number of active reaction centres. These conditions lead to the accumulation of excessive reducing power, source of damaging ROS, counteracted by efficient energy dissipation processes and anti-oxidant enzymatic defences. This way, S. maritima appears as a well-adapted species with an evident photochemical plasticity towards submersion, allowing it to maintain its photosynthetic activity even during prolonged submersion periods. PMID:24630362

Duarte, B; Santos, D; Marques, J C; Caçador, I

2014-04-01

75

A thermostable K(+)-stimulated vacuolar-type pyrophosphatase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima.  

PubMed

Current evidence suggests the occurrence of two classes of vacuolar-type H(+)-translocating inorganic pyrophosphatases (V-PPases): K(+)-insensitive proteins, identified in eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea, and K(+)-stimulated V-PPases, identified to date only in eukaryotes. Here, we describe the functional characterization of a thermostable V-PPase from the anaerobic hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima by heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The activity of this 71-kDa membrane-embedded polypeptide has a near obligate requirement for K(+), like the plant V-PPase, and its thermostability depends on the binding of Mg(2+). Phylogenetic analysis of protein sequences consistently assigned the T. maritima V-PPase to the K(+)-sensitive class of V-PPases so far only known for eukaryotes. The finding of a K(+)-stimulated V-PPase also in a member of a primitive eubacterial lineage strongly supports an ancient evolutionary origin of this group of pyrophosphate-energized proton pumps. PMID:11343697

Pérez-Castiñeira, J R; López-Marqués, R L; Losada, M; Serrano, A

2001-05-01

76

The in vitro biosynthesis of taxiphyllin and the channeling of intermediates in Triglochin maritima.  

PubMed

The in vitro biosynthesis of the cyanogenic glucoside taxiphyllin has recently been demonstrated in Triglochin maritima (Hösel, W., and Nahrstedt, A. (1980) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 203, 753-757). We have now studied in more detail the multistep conversion of tyrosine into p-hydroxymandelonitrile, the immediate precursor of taxiphyllin, catalyzed by microsomes isolated from dark-grown seedlings. The biosynthetic pathway involves N-hydroxytyrosine, p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime, and p-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile. In marked contrast to an analogous pathway in Sorghum bicolor, p-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile is the best substrate for cyanide production (Vmax = 224 nmol/h/g, fresh wt) and the physiological substrate tyrosine is the poorest (Vmax = 18.8 nmol/h/g, fresh wt). The substrates exhibit alkaline pH optima between 7.5 and 9, and all except tyrosine show pronounced substrate inhibition. We have found that p-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile generated in situ from tyrosine is free to equilibrate by diffusion with exogenous material. On the other hand, neither N-hydroxytyrosine nor p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime will readily exchange with exogenous intermediates. We consider both N-hydroxytyrosine and p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime to be channeled in T. maritima, whereas in S. bicolor N-hydroxytyrosine and p-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile are channeled and the aldoxime is freely exchangeable. PMID:7012151

Cutler, A J; Hösel, W; Sternberg, M; Conn, E E

1981-05-10

77

Anthemis maritima L. in different coastal habitats: A tool to explore plant plasticity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthemis maritima, a plant which has the ability to colonise different stressful coastal environments, sand dunes and rocky cliff ecosystems, exhibits a high degree of leaf trait plasticity. The key parameters are the regulation of stomatal density and size, the succulence index and the specific antioxidant response. With the aim to explore plant plasticity, we analysed various morphological and physiological traits of the leaves of A. maritima populations dwelling in three different coastal areas of Italy. The highest values of stomatal density, leaf thickness, and succulence index were found in plants living in a sub-arid climate, on rocky cliffs, with the highest soil pH and salinity. Although this population exhibited the highest concentration of oxygen reactive species (hydrogen peroxide), it also had the lowest value of lipid peroxidation, an indicator of oxidative stress. Ascorbate was the main protective molecule in this population, while phenols appeared to carry out this role in plants living on soils with the lowest salinity and highest annual rainfall.

Spanò, Carmelina; Balestri, Mirko; Bottega, Stefania; Grilli, Isa; Forino, Laura Maria Costantina; Ciccarelli, Daniela

2013-09-01

78

Magnetic detection of ship ballast deposits and anchorage sites in King Herod's Roman harbour, Caesarea Maritima, Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ballast stone deposits are a common feature of sediments in ancient harbour basins but are often overlooked as a potential source of archaeological information. Recent geophysical investigations at Caesarea Maritima in Israel have discovered a thick, laterally extensive ballast layer in the area seaward of the 1st c. BC Roman harbour. The ballast deposits were identified by low-relief mounds on

Joseph I. Boyce; Eduard G. Reinhardt; Beverly N. Goodman

2009-01-01

79

MALE STERILITY, PROTOGYNY, AND POLLEN-PISTIL INTERFERENCE IN PLANTAGO MARITIMA (PLANTAGINACEAE), AW IND -POLLINATED, SELF-INCOMPATIBLE PERENNIAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolution and maintenance of male sterility in seed plants can be explained by the maternal inheritance of mitochondria, which encode the trait, and by adaptive functions that enhance female fecundity in male-sterile compared to hermaphrodite individuals. Protogyny and male sterility can independently decrease the negative effect of pollen-pistil interference in self- incompatible species. In Plantago maritima, which possesses both traits,

PATRIK DINNETZ

80

Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Constituents of the Bark of Diospyros maritima Collected in Two Geographical Locations in Indonesia  

E-print Network

Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Constituents of the Bark of Diospyros maritima Collected in Two, Natural Products Laboratory, Research Triangle Institute, P.O. Box 12194, Research Triangle Park, North a new naphthoquinone derivative, (4S)-shinanolone (5), and a new natural product coumarin, 7,8-dimethoxy

Falkinham, Joseph

81

Aspects on the Biosynthesis of the Cyanogenic Glucoside Triglochinin in Triglochin maritima1.  

PubMed

The incorporation of L-[U- (14)C]phenylalanine, L-[U- (14)C]tyrosine and [U- (14)C]4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile into triglochinin and taxiphyllin, the latter a possible precursor of the former, was studied in seedlings of TRIGLOCHIN MARITIMA L. The nitrile was by far the best substrate; incorporation of the amino acids was poor. Environmental factors such as light and humidity act differently on production of both compounds which also show a wide variation in individual seedlings. Quantitative evaluation of the specific activities indicate that taxiphyllin cannot be regarded as a precursor of triglochinin and that the two compounds are probably synthesized by two, at least mainly independent, pathways. PMID:17340339

Nahrstedt, A; Kant, J D; Hösel, W

1984-10-01

82

Ferredoxin from the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima is stable beyond the boiling point of water 1 1 Edited by R Huber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat-stable proteins from hyperthermophilic microorganisms are ideally suited for investigating protein stability and evolution. We measured with differential scanning calorimetry and optical absorption spectroscopy the thermal stability of [4Fe-4S] ferredoxin from Thermotoga maritima (tfdx), which is a small electron transfer protein. The results are consistent with two-state unfolding at the record denaturation temperature of 125°C. According to the crystal structure

Wolfgang Pfeil; Ulrike Gesierich; Gerd R Kleemann; Reinhard Sterner

1997-01-01

83

An Expression-Driven Approach to the Prediction of Carbohydrate Transport and Utilization Regulons in the Hyperthermophilic Bacterium Thermotoga maritima  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comprehensive analysis of genome-wide expression patterns during growth of the hyperthermophilic bac- terium Thermotoga maritima on 14 monosaccharide and polysaccharide substrates was undertaken with the goal of proposing carbohydrate specificities for transport systems and putative transcriptional regulators. Saccharide-induced regulons were predicted through the complementary use of comparative genomics, mixed- model analysis of genome-wide microarray expression data, and examination of upstream

Shannon B. Conners; Clemente I. Montero; Donald A. Comfort; Keith R. Shockley; Matthew R. Johnson; Swapnil R. Chhabra; Robert M. Kelly

2005-01-01

84

First record and characterization of a powdery mildew on a member of the Juncaginaceae: Leveillula taurica on Triglochin maritima  

Microsoft Academic Search

The powdery mildew fungus Leveillula taurica (Erysiphales) is reported for the first time from the monocot Triglochin maritima (Juncaginaceae), a widespread salt marsh plant that causes economic losses because of its high toxicity to young livestock.\\u000a This is the first report of an erysiphaceous fungus on a member of the Juncaginaceae. Morphological data, obtained by light\\u000a and scanning electron microscopy,

Dean A. Glawe; Frank M. Dugan; Yajuan Liu; Jack D. Rogers

2005-01-01

85

Interacting infl uence of cold stratifi cation treatment and osmotic potential on seed germination of Triglochin maritima L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Th e eff ect of cold stratifi cation treatment and isoosmotic NaCl and polyethyleneglycol (PEG) concentrations on germination of Triglochin maritima seeds was assessed. Th e highest (400 mM) NaCl concentration caused a signifi cant decrease in germination percentage and no germination was observed at the two highest (64 and 128 mM) PEG concentrations. Th e large diff erence in

Gederts Ievinsh

2007-01-01

86

Differential transcript regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana and the halotolerant Lobularia maritima indicates genes with potential function in plant salt adaptation.  

PubMed

Salt stress is an environmental factor that severely impairs plant growth and productivity. Salinity-induced transcript accumulation was monitored in the salt-sensitive Arabidopsis thaliana and the related salt-tolerant Lobularia maritima using cDNA-arrays with expressed sequence tags derived from a cDNA subtraction library of salt-stressed L. maritima. The expression profiles revealed differences of the steady state transcript regulation in A. thaliana and L. maritima in response to salt stress. The differentially expressed transcripts include those involved in the control of gene expression as a transcription factor II homologue as well as signal transduction elements such as a serine/threonine protein kinase, a SNF1-related protein kinase AKIN10 homologue, and protein phosphatase 2C. Other ESTs with differential regulation patterns included transcripts encoding proteins with function in general stress responses and defense and included a peroxidase, dehydrins, enzymes of lipid and nitrogen metabolism, and functionally unclassified proteins. In a more detailed analysis the basic leucine zipper transcription factor AtbZIP24 showed differential transcript abundance in A. thaliana and L. maritima in response to salt stress. Transgenic AtbZIP24-RNAi lines showed improved growth and development under salt stress that was correlated with changed Cl(-) accumulation. The data indicate that AtbZIP24 functions as a transcriptional repressor in salt-stressed A. thaliana that negatively regulates growth and development under salinity in context of controlling Cl(-) homeostasis. Monitoring the differential and tissue specific global regulation of gene expression during adaptation to salinity in salt-sensitive and halotolerant plants is a promising and powerful approach to identify novel elements of plant salt stress adaptation. PMID:18703123

Popova, Olga V; Yang, Oksoon; Dietz, Karl-Josef; Golldack, Dortje

2008-11-01

87

Effectiveness of ants as pollinators of Lobularia maritima : effects on main sequential fitness components of the host plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of ants as pollinators of Lobularia maritima (Cruciferae) was experimentally analyzed by assessing (1) their quantitative importance at flowers; (2) their effect on host\\u000a plant seed production; (3) their effect on the performance of host plant progeny, estimated as seed germination, seedling\\u000a emergence, seedling survival to flowering, and (4) the overall effect of ants on a cumulative, more

José M. Gómez

2000-01-01

88

Structure of the endonuclease IV homologue from Thermotoga maritima in the presence of active-site divalent metal ions  

SciTech Connect

The most frequent lesion in DNA is at apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites resulting from DNA-base losses. These AP-site lesions can stall DNA replication and lead to genome instability if left unrepaired. The AP endonucleases are an important class of enzymes that are involved in the repair of AP-site intermediates during damage-general DNA base-excision repair pathways. These enzymes hydrolytically cleave the 5{prime}-phosphodiester bond at an AP site to generate a free 3{prime}-hydroxyl group and a 5{prime}-terminal sugar phosphate using their AP nuclease activity. Specifically, Thermotoga maritima endonuclease IV is a member of the second conserved AP endonuclease family that includes Escherichia coli endonuclease IV, which is the archetype of the AP endonuclease superfamily. In order to more fully characterize the AP endonuclease family of enzymes, two X-ray crystal structures of the T. maritima endonuclease IV homologue were determined in the presence of divalent metal ions bound in the active-site region. These structures of the T. maritima endonuclease IV homologue further revealed the use of the TIM-barrel fold and the trinuclear metal binding site as important highly conserved structural elements that are involved in DNA-binding and AP-site repair processes in the AP endonuclease superfamily.

Tomanicek, Stephen J.; Hughes, Ronny C.; Ng, Joseph D.; Coates, Leighton (UAH); (ORNL)

2010-10-05

89

Cloning and Expression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes Catalyzing the Conversion of Tyrosine to p-Hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime in the Biosynthesis of Cyanogenic Glucosides in Triglochin maritima1  

PubMed Central

Two cDNA clones encoding cytochrome P450 enzymes belonging to the CYP79 family have been isolated from Triglochin maritima. The two proteins show 94% sequence identity and have been designated CYP79E1 and CYP79E2. Heterologous expression of the native and the truncated forms of the two clones in Escherichia coli demonstrated that both encode multifunctional N-hydroxylases catalyzing the conversion of tyrosine to p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime in the biosynthesis of the two cyanogenic glucosides taxiphyllin and triglochinin in T. maritima. This renders CYP79E functionally identical to CYP79A1 from Sorghum bicolor, and unambiguously demonstrates that cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis in T. maritima and S. bicolor is catalyzed by analogous enzyme systems with p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime as a free intermediate. This is in contrast to earlier reports stipulating p-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile as the only free intermediate in T. maritima. l-3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl[3-14C]Ala (DOPA) was not metabolized by CYP79E1, indicating that hydroxylation of the phenol ring at the meta position, as required for triglochinin formation, takes place at a later stage. In S. bicolor, CYP71E1 catalyzes the subsequent conversion of p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime to p-hydroxymandelonitrile. When CYP79E1 from T. maritima was reconstituted with CYP71E1 and NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase from S. bicolor, efficient conversion of tyrosine to p-hydroxymandelonitrile was observed. PMID:10759528

Nielsen, John Strikart; Møller, Birger Lindberg

2000-01-01

90

Cloning and expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes catalyzing the conversion of tyrosine to p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime in the biosynthesis of cyanogenic glucosides in Triglochin maritima.  

PubMed

Two cDNA clones encoding cytochrome P450 enzymes belonging to the CYP79 family have been isolated from Triglochin maritima. The two proteins show 94% sequence identity and have been designated CYP79E1 and CYP79E2. Heterologous expression of the native and the truncated forms of the two clones in Escherichia coli demonstrated that both encode multifunctional N-hydroxylases catalyzing the conversion of tyrosine to p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime in the biosynthesis of the two cyanogenic glucosides taxiphyllin and triglochinin in T. maritima. This renders CYP79E functionally identical to CYP79A1 from Sorghum bicolor, and unambiguously demonstrates that cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis in T. maritima and S. bicolor is catalyzed by analogous enzyme systems with p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime as a free intermediate. This is in contrast to earlier reports stipulating p-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile as the only free intermediate in T. maritima. L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl[3-(14)C]Ala (DOPA) was not metabolized by CYP79E1, indicating that hydroxylation of the phenol ring at the meta position, as required for triglochinin formation, takes place at a later stage. In S. bicolor, CYP71E1 catalyzes the subsequent conversion of p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime to p-hydroxymandelonitrile. When CYP79E1 from T. maritima was reconstituted with CYP71E1 and NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase from S. bicolor, efficient conversion of tyrosine to p-hydroxymandelonitrile was observed. PMID:10759528

Nielsen, J S; Møller, B L

2000-04-01

91

Crystal Structures of the Laminarinase Catalytic Domain from Thermotoga maritima MSB8 in Complex with Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Laminarinases hydrolyzing the ?-1,3-linkage of glucans play essential roles in microbial saccharide degradation. Here we report the crystal structures at 1.65–1.82 ? resolution of the catalytic domain of laminarinase from the thermophile Thermotoga maritima with various space groups in the ligand-free form or in the presence of inhibitors gluconolactone and cetyltrimethylammonium. Ligands were bound at the cleft of the active site near an enclosure formed by Trp-232 and a flexible GASIG loop. A closed configuration at the active site cleft was observed in some molecules. The loop flexibility in the enzyme may contribute to the regulation of endo- or exo-activity of the enzyme and a preference to release laminaritrioses in long chain carbohydrate hydrolysis. Glu-137 and Glu-132 are proposed to serve as the proton donor and nucleophile, respectively, in the retaining catalysis of hydrolyzation. Calcium ions in the crystallization media are found to accelerate crystal growth. Comparison of laminarinase and endoglucanase structures revealed the subtle difference of key residues in the active site for the selection of ?-1,3-glucan and ?-1,4-glucan substrates, respectively. Arg-85 may be pivotal to ?-1,3-glucan substrate selection. The similarity of the structures between the laminarinase catalytic domain and its carbohydrate-binding modules may have evolutionary relevance because of the similarities in their folds. PMID:22065588

Jeng, Wen-Yih; Wang, Nai-Chen; Lin, Cheng-Tse; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Wang, Andrew H.-J.

2011-01-01

92

Urgineaglyceride A: a new monoacylglycerol from the Egyptian Drimia maritima bulbs.  

PubMed

One new compound, (2S)-1-O-(Z)-tetracos-6-enoate glycerol (1) named urgineaglyceride A, along with six known compounds, 3,5,7,3',5'-pentahydroxydihydroflavonol (2), stigmasterol (3), (25S)-5?-furostane-3?-22?-26-triol (4), scillaridin A (5), (2S)-(+)-2-hydroxynaringenin-4'-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (6) and quercetin-3'-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (7), were isolated from the EtOAc fraction of Drimia maritima (L.) Stearn bulbs. Their structures were secured based on their IR, UV, 1D and 2D NMR data, in addition to HR-MS data and comparison with the literature data. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their in vitro growth inhibitory activity against A549 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), U373 glioblastoma (GBM) and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines. Compounds 2 and 3 displayed variable activities against the tested cancer cell lines. Compound 2 was a selective inhibitor of the NSCLC cell line with an IC?? of 2.3 ?M, whereas 3 was selective against GBM with IC?? of 0.5 ?M and against PC-3 with 2.0 ?M. PMID:24938488

Mohamed, Gamal A; Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Shaala, Lamiaa A; Alshali, Khalid Z; Youssef, Diaa T A

2014-01-01

93

Synthetic symmetrization in the crystallization and structure determination of CelA from Thermotoga maritima.  

PubMed

Protein crystallization continues to be a major bottleneck in X-ray crystallography. Previous studies suggest that symmetric proteins, such as homodimers, might crystallize more readily than monomeric proteins or asymmetric complexes. Proteins that are naturally monomeric can be made homodimeric artificially. Our approach is to create homodimeric proteins by introducing single cysteines into the protein of interest, which are then oxidized to form a disulfide bond between the two monomers. By introducing the single cysteine at different sequence positions, one can produce a variety of synthetically dimerized versions of a protein, with each construct expected to exhibit its own crystallization behavior. In earlier work, we demonstrated the potential utility of the approach using T4 lysozyme as a model system. Here we report the successful application of the method to Thermotoga maritima CelA, a thermophilic endoglucanase enzyme with low sequence identity to proteins with structures previously reported in the Protein Data Bank. This protein had resisted crystallization in its natural monomeric form, despite a broad survey of crystallization conditions. The synthetic dimerization of the CelA mutant D188C yielded well-diffracting crystals with molecules in a packing arrangement that would not have occurred with native, monomeric CelA. A 2.4 Å crystal structure was determined by single anomalous dispersion using a seleno-methionine derivatized protein. The results support the notion that synthetic symmetrization can be a useful approach for enlarging the search space for crystallizing monomeric proteins or asymmetric complexes. PMID:21082721

Forse, G Jason; Ram, Nina; Banatao, D Rey; Cascio, Duilio; Sawaya, Michael R; Klock, Heath E; Lesley, Scott A; Yeates, Todd O

2011-01-01

94

Germ cells of the centipede Strigamia maritima are specified early in embryonic development.  

PubMed

We provide the first systematic description of germ cell development with molecular markers in a myriapod, the centipede Strigamia maritima. By examining the expression of Strigamia vasa and nanos orthologues, we find that the primordial germ cells are specified from at least the blastoderm stage. This is a much earlier embryonic stage than previously described for centipedes, or any other member of the Myriapoda. Using these genes as markers, and taking advantage of the developmental synchrony of Strigamia embryos within single clutches, we are able to track the development of the germ cells throughout embryogenesis. We find that the germ cells accumulate at the blastopore; that the cells do not internalize through the hindgut, but rather through the closing blastopore; and that the cells undergo a long-range migration to the embryonic gonad. This is the first evidence for primordial germ cells displaying these behaviours in any myriapod. The myriapods are a phylogenetically important group in the arthropod radiation for which relatively little developmental data is currently available. Our study provides valuable comparative data that complements the growing number of studies in insects, crustaceans and chelicerates, and is important for the correct reconstruction of ancestral states and a fuller understanding of how germ cell development has evolved in different arthropod lineages. PMID:24930702

Green, Jack E; Akam, Michael

2014-08-15

95

Dissecting endonuclease and exonuclease activities in endonuclease V from Thermotoga maritima  

PubMed Central

Endonuclease V is an enzyme that initiates a conserved DNA repair pathway by making an endonucleolytic incision at the 3?-side 1?nt from a deaminated base lesion. DNA cleavage analysis using mutants defective in DNA binding and Mn2+ as a metal cofactor reveals a novel 3?-exonuclease activity in endonuclease V [Feng,H., Dong,L., Klutz,A.M., Aghaebrahim,N. and Cao,W. (2005) Defining amino acid residues involved in DNA-protein interactions and revelation of 3?-exonuclease activity in endonuclease V. Biochemistry, 44, 11486–11495.]. This study defines the enzymatic nature of the endonuclease and exonuclease activity in endonuclease V from Thermotoga maritima. In addition to its well-known inosine-dependent endonuclease, Tma endonuclease V also exhibits inosine-dependent 3?-exonuclease activity. The dependence on an inosine site and the exonuclease nature of the 3?-exonuclease activity was demonstrated using 5?-labeled and internally-labeled inosine-containing DNA and a H214D mutant that is defective in non-specific nuclease activity. Detailed kinetic analysis using 3?-labeled DNA indicates that Tma endonuclease V also possesses non-specific 5?-exonuclease activity. The multiplicity of the endonuclease and exonuclease activity is discussed with respect to deaminated base repair. PMID:20852258

Mi, Rongjuan; Abole, Anne K.; Cao, Weiguo

2011-01-01

96

Germ cells of the centipede Strigamia maritima are specified early in embryonic development  

PubMed Central

We provide the first systematic description of germ cell development with molecular markers in a myriapod, the centipede Strigamia maritima. By examining the expression of Strigamia vasa and nanos orthologues, we find that the primordial germ cells are specified from at least the blastoderm stage. This is a much earlier embryonic stage than previously described for centipedes, or any other member of the Myriapoda. Using these genes as markers, and taking advantage of the developmental synchrony of Strigamia embryos within single clutches, we are able to track the development of the germ cells throughout embryogenesis. We find that the germ cells accumulate at the blastopore; that the cells do not internalize through the hindgut, but rather through the closing blastopore; and that the cells undergo a long-range migration to the embryonic gonad. This is the first evidence for primordial germ cells displaying these behaviours in any myriapod. The myriapods are a phylogenetically important group in the arthropod radiation for which relatively little developmental data is currently available. Our study provides valuable comparative data that complements the growing number of studies in insects, crustaceans and chelicerates, and is important for the correct reconstruction of ancestral states and a fuller understanding of how germ cell development has evolved in different arthropod lineages. PMID:24930702

Green, Jack E.; Akam, Michael

2014-01-01

97

Gynodioecy in structured populations: understanding fine-scale sex ratio variation in Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima.  

PubMed

Natural selection, random processes and gene flow are known to generate sex ratio variations among sexually polymorphic plant populations. In gynodioecious species, in which hermaphrodites and females coexist, the relative effect of these processes on the maintenance of sex polymorphism is still up for debate. The aim of this study was to document sex ratio and cytonuclear genetic variation at a very local scale in wind-pollinated gynodioecious Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima and attempt to elucidate which processes explained the observed variation. The study sites were characterized by geographically distinct patches of individuals and appeared to be dynamic entities, with recurrent establishment of distinct haplotypes through independent founder events. Along with substantial variation in sex ratio and unexpectedly low gene flow within study sites, our results showed a high genetic differentiation among a mosaic of genetically distinct demes, with isolation by distance or abrupt genetic discontinuities taking place within a few tens of metres. Overall, random founder events with restricted gene flow could be primary determinants of sex structure, by promoting the clumping of sex-determining genes. Such high levels of sex structure provide a landscape for differential selection acting on sex-determining genes, which could modify the conditions of maintenance of gynodioecy in structured populations. PMID:22211480

De Cauwer, Isabelle; Dufay, M; Hornoy, B; Courseaux, A; Arnaud, J-F

2012-02-01

98

Kaempferol glycosides from Lobularia maritima and their potential role in plant interactions.  

PubMed

Six kaempferol glycosides, four of them characterized for the first time, were isolated from the leaf extract of Lobularia maritima. The structural elucidation was performed by a combined approach using Electrospray-Ionization Triple-Quadrupole Mass-Spectrometric (ESI/TQ/MS) techniques, and 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments (1H, 13C, DEPT, DQ-COSY, TOCSY, ROESY, NOESY, HSQC, HMBC, and HSQC-TOCSY). The isolated kaempferol derivatives have different disaccharide substituents at C(3) and four of them have a rhamnose unit at C(7). To evaluate their potential allelopathic role within the herbaceous plant community, the compounds, as well as the aglycone obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis, have been tested in vitro on three coexisting plant species, Dactylis hispanica, Petrorhagia velutina, and Phleum subulatum. The results obtained allow us to hypothesize that the type of the sugar modulates the biological response. The bioassay data, analyzed by a multivariate approach, and grouping the compounds on the basis of the number of sugar units and the nature of carbohydrates present in the disaccharide moiety, indicate a structure-activity relationship. PMID:19235162

Fiorentino, Antonio; Ricci, Andreina; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Golino, Annunziata; Izzo, Angelina; Pascarella, Maria Teresa; Piccolella, Simona; Esposito, Assunta

2009-02-01

99

Structure of a Diguanylate Cyclase from Thermotoga maritima: Insights into Activation, Feedback Inhibition and Thermostability  

PubMed Central

Large-scale production of bis-3?-5?-cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) would facilitate biological studies of numerous bacterial signaling pathways and phenotypes controlled by this second messenger molecule, such as virulence and biofilm formation. C-di-GMP constitutes also a potentially interesting molecule as a vaccine adjuvant. Even though chemical synthesis of c-di-GMP can be done, the yields are incompatible with mass-production. tDGC, a stand-alone diguanylate cyclase (DGC or GGDEF domain) from Thermotoga maritima, enables the robust enzymatic production of large quantities of c-di-GMP. To understand the structural correlates of tDGC thermostability, its catalytic mechanism and feedback inhibition, we determined structures of an active-like dimeric conformation with both active (A) sites facing each other and of an inactive dimeric conformation, locked by c-di-GMP bound at the inhibitory (I) site. We also report the structure of a single mutant of tDGC, with the R158A mutation at the I-site, abolishing product inhibition and unproductive dimerization. A comparison with structurally characterized DGC homologues from mesophiles reveals the presence of a higher number of salt bridges in the hyperthermophile enzyme tDGC. Denaturation experiments of mutants disrupting in turn each of the salt bridges unique to tDGC identified three salt-bridges critical to confer thermostability. PMID:25360685

Deepthi, Angeline; Liew, Chong Wai; Liang, Zhao-Xun; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam; Lescar, Julien

2014-01-01

100

Synthetic symmetrization in the crystallization and structure determination of CelA from Thermotoga maritima  

PubMed Central

Protein crystallization continues to be a major bottleneck in X-ray crystallography. Previous studies suggest that symmetric proteins, such as homodimers, might crystallize more readily than monomeric proteins or asymmetric complexes. Proteins that are naturally monomeric can be made homodimeric artificially. Our approach is to create homodimeric proteins by introducing single cysteines into the protein of interest, which are then oxidized to form a disulfide bond between the two monomers. By introducing the single cysteine at different sequence positions, one can produce a variety of synthetically dimerized versions of a protein, with each construct expected to exhibit its own crystallization behavior. In earlier work, we demonstrated the potential utility of the approach using T4 lysozyme as a model system. Here we report the successful application of the method to Thermotoga maritima CelA, a thermophilic endoglucanase enzyme with low sequence identity to proteins with structures previously reported in the Protein Data Bank. This protein had resisted crystallization in its natural monomeric form, despite a broad survey of crystallization conditions. The synthetic dimerization of the CelA mutant D188C yielded well-diffracting crystals with molecules in a packing arrangement that would not have occurred with native, monomeric CelA. A 2.4 Å crystal structure was determined by single anomalous dispersion using a seleno-methionine derivatized protein. The results support the notion that synthetic symmetrization can be a useful approach for enlarging the search space for crystallizing monomeric proteins or asymmetric complexes. PMID:21082721

Forse, G Jason; Ram, Nina; Banatao, D Rey; Cascio, Duilio; Sawaya, Michael R; Klock, Heath E; Lesley, Scott A; Yeates, Todd O

2011-01-01

101

Amorphus suaedae sp. nov., isolated from the root of a tidal flat plant, Suaeda maritima.  

PubMed

A novel bacterial strain, YC6899(T), was isolated from the root of Suaedae maritima growing on a tidal flat of Namhae Island, Korea. Cells were Gram-reaction-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile, slightly halophilic and heterotrophic. Strain YC6899(T) grew optimally at a salinity of 2-4?%, at 25-37 °C and at pH 6.5-8.0. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that strain YC6899(T) was closely related to Amorphus orientalis YIM D10(T) (96.1?% similarity) and Amorphus coralli RS.Sph.026(T) (95.9?%). The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown aminolipids, an unknown aminophospholipid, an unknown aminoglycolipid, unknown glycolipids and unknown lipids. The major fatty acids of strain YC6899(T) were C19?:?0 cyclo ?8c and C18?:?1?7c. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 61.3 mol%. Strain YC6899(T) contained ubiquinone-10 (Q-10) as the major respiratory quinone system. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain YC6899(T) represents a novel species within the genus Amorphus, for which the name Amorphus suaedae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YC6899(T) (?=?KACC 14912(T)?=?NBRC 107845(T)). PMID:23687061

Hwang, Jung Moon; Chung, Eu Jin; Park, Jeong Ae; Jeong, Jae Heon; Jeon, Che Ok; Chung, Young Ryun

2013-10-01

102

A bacterial genetic screen identifies functional coding sequences of the insect mariner transposable element Famar1 amplified from the genome of the earwig, Forficula auricularia.  

PubMed

Transposons of the mariner family are widespread in animal genomes and have apparently infected them by horizontal transfer. Most species carry only old defective copies of particular mariner transposons that have diverged greatly from their active horizontally transferred ancestor, while a few contain young, very similar, and active copies. We report here the use of a whole-genome screen in bacteria to isolate somewhat diverged Famar1 copies from the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, that encode functional transposases. Functional and nonfunctional coding sequences of Famar1 and nonfunctional copies of Ammar1 from the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, were sequenced to examine their molecular evolution. No selection for sequence conservation was detected in any clade of a tree derived from these sequences, not even on branches leading to functional copies. This agrees with the current model for mariner transposon evolution that expects neutral evolution within particular hosts, with selection for function occurring only upon horizontal transfer to a new host. Our results further suggest that mariners are not finely tuned genetic entities and that a greater amount of sequence diversification than had previously been appreciated can occur in functional copies in a single host lineage. Finally, this method of isolating active copies can be used to isolate other novel active transposons without resorting to reconstruction of ancestral sequences. PMID:15020471

Barry, Elizabeth G; Witherspoon, David J; Lampe, David J

2004-02-01

103

A bacterial genetic screen identifies functional coding sequences of the insect mariner transposable element Famar1 amplified from the genome of the earwig, Forficula auricularia.  

PubMed Central

Transposons of the mariner family are widespread in animal genomes and have apparently infected them by horizontal transfer. Most species carry only old defective copies of particular mariner transposons that have diverged greatly from their active horizontally transferred ancestor, while a few contain young, very similar, and active copies. We report here the use of a whole-genome screen in bacteria to isolate somewhat diverged Famar1 copies from the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, that encode functional transposases. Functional and nonfunctional coding sequences of Famar1 and nonfunctional copies of Ammar1 from the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, were sequenced to examine their molecular evolution. No selection for sequence conservation was detected in any clade of a tree derived from these sequences, not even on branches leading to functional copies. This agrees with the current model for mariner transposon evolution that expects neutral evolution within particular hosts, with selection for function occurring only upon horizontal transfer to a new host. Our results further suggest that mariners are not finely tuned genetic entities and that a greater amount of sequence diversification than had previously been appreciated can occur in functional copies in a single host lineage. Finally, this method of isolating active copies can be used to isolate other novel active transposons without resorting to reconstruction of ancestral sequences. PMID:15020471

Barry, Elizabeth G; Witherspoon, David J; Lampe, David J

2004-01-01

104

In the halotolerant Lobularia maritima (Brassicaceae) salt adaptation correlates with activation of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase and the vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter.  

PubMed

Lobularia maritima (Brassicaceae) is a facultative halophyte related to Arabidopsis thaliana and may be a suitable model to identify molecular mechanisms that regulate tolerance to salt stress in plants. Under the same salt stress conditions, the accumulation of sodium was similar in shoots and roots of Lobularia maritima and Arabidopsis thaliana, whereas the sodium to potassium ratio was less in Lobularia maritima. Aquaporins, the NHX-type Na(+)/H(+) antiporter, and the vacuolar ATPase are well established targets of regulation under salt stress that have a central role in the control of water status and cytoplasmic sodium homeostasis. Therefore, salt-dependent expression of transcripts encoding a PIP2;1 aquaporin, the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter NHX, and V-ATPase subunit E (VHA-E) was characterized in Lobularia maritima. Transcription of LmPIP2;1 was repressed in leaves and roots by treatment with 500mM NaCl. In contrast, salt stress stimulated the expression of LmNHX1 and LmVHA-E. Cell-specificity of the transcription of LmNHX1 was analyzed by fluorescence in situ PCR in leaf cross sections of Lobularia maritima. Expression of the gene was localized to the phloem and to mesophyll cells. In plants treated with 500 mM NaCl, transcription of LmNHX1 was stimulated in the mesophyll. The findings indicate divergent transcriptional responses of key mechanisms of salt adaptation in Lobularia maritima and suggest distinct regulation of sodium homeostasis and water flux under salt stress. PMID:17166622

Popova, Olga V; Golldack, Dortje

2007-10-01

105

Purification and characterization of a novel thermostable 4-alpha-glucanotransferase of Thermotoga maritima cloned in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Maltodextrin glycosyltransferase (4-alpha-glucanotransferase) of the extremely thermophilic ancestral bacterium Thermotoga maritima has been purified from an Escherichia coli clone expressing the corresponding T. maritima MSB8 chromosomal gene. T. maritima 4-alpha-glucanotransferase, an approximately 53-kDa monomeric enzyme, is the most thermophilic glycosyltransferase described to date. It retained more than 90% of its maximum activity at temperatures from 55 degrees C up to 80 degrees C. The proposed action modus is the transfer of 1,4-alpha-glucanosyl chains, thus resulting in the disproportionation of 1,4-alpha-glucans. It converted soluble starch, amylopectin, and amylose, thereby changing the iodine staining properties of these substrates. The addition of low-molecular-mass malto-oligosaccharides, which act as glucanosyl acceptor molecules, enhanced the reaction and resulted in the formation of a series of linear maltohomologues from two to more than nine glucose units in size. Use of either of the malto-oligosaccharides maltotetraose, maltopentaose, maltohexaose, or maltoheptaose as sole substrate also yielded linear maltohomologues. On the other hand, maltose and maltotriose were not disproportionated by 4-alpha-glucanotransferase, although both were good acceptors for glucanosyl transfer. Glucose did not function as an acceptor in transfer reactions. Glucose also never appeared as a reaction product. The chain length of glucanosyl segments transferred ranged from two to probably far more than six glucose residues. Comparison of the N-terminal amino acid sequence of 4-alpha-glucanotransferase with other published protein sequences revealed significant similarity to sequences near the N-termini of various eucaryotic maltases and bacterial cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases, suggesting its relatedness on the molecular level with other starch- and maltodextrin-converting enzymes. PMID:1628664

Liebl, W; Feil, R; Gabelsberger, J; Kellermann, J; Schleifer, K H

1992-07-01

106

NMR characterisation of inulin-type fructooligosaccharides as the major water-soluble carbohydrates from Matricaria maritima (L.).  

PubMed

By use of 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy including 2D 1H,1H DQF-COSY/TOCSY and 1H,13C HMQC/HMBC experiments, the main water-soluble carbohydrate components extracted from leaves of Matricaria maritima were identified as oligofructans composed of a linear chain of (2-->1)-linked beta-D-fructofuranosyl residues specifying an inulin-type structure. Alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->2)-[beta-D-Fruf-(2-->1)-beta-D-Frucf]n-(2-->1)-beta-D-Fruf. PMID:15388360

Cérantola, Stéphane; Kervarec, Nelly; Pichon, Roger; Magné, Christian; Bessieres, Marie-Anne; Deslandes, Eric

2004-10-01

107

Functional and structural characterization of a thermostable acetyl esterase from Thermotoga maritima  

PubMed Central

TM0077 from Thermotoga maritima is a member of the carbohydrate esterase family 7 and is active on a variety of acetylated compounds, including cephalosporin C. TM0077 esterase activity is confined to short-chain acyl esters (C2-C3), and is optimal around 100°C and pH 7.5. The positional specificity of TM0077 was investigated using 4-nitrophenyl-?-D-xylopyranoside monoacetates as substrates in a ?-xylosidase-coupled assay. TM0077 hydrolyzes acetate at positions 2, 3 and 4 with equal efficiency. No activity was detected on xylan or acetylated xylan, which implies that TM0077 is an acetyl esterase and not an acetyl xylan esterase as currently annotated. Selenomethionine-substituted and native structures of TM0077 were determined at 2.1 Å and 2.5 Å resolution, respectively, revealing a classic ?/?-hydrolase fold. TM0077 assembles into a doughnut-shaped hexamer with small tunnels on either side leading to an inner cavity, which contains the six catalytic centers. Structures of TM0077 with covalently bound phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and paraoxon were determined to 2.4 Å and 2.1 Å, respectively, and confirmed that both inhibitors bind covalently to the catalytic serine (Ser188). Upon binding of inhibitor, the catalytic serine adopts an altered conformation, as observed in other esterase and lipases, and supports a previously proposed catalytic mechanism in which this Ser hydroxyl rotation prevents reversal of the reaction and allows access of a water molecule for completion of the reaction. PMID:22411095

Levisson, Mark; Han, Gye Won; Deller, Marc C.; Xu, Qingping; Biely, Peter; Hendriks, Sjon; Ten Eyck, Lynn F.; Flensburg, Claus; Roversi, Pietro; Miller, Mitchell D.; McMullan, Daniel; von Delft, Frank; Kreusch, Andreas; Deacon, Ashley M.; van der Oost, John; Lesley, Scott A.; Elsliger, Marc-André; Kengen, Servé W. M.; Wilson, Ian A.

2012-01-01

108

Hoeflea suaedae sp. nov., an endophytic bacterium isolated from the root of the halophyte Suaeda maritima.  

PubMed

A Gram-negative, aerobic, short rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain YC6898(T), was isolated from the surface-sterilized root of a halophyte (Suaeda maritima) inhabiting tidal flat of Namhae Island, Korea. Strain YC6898(T) grew optimally at 30-37 °C and pH 6.5-7.5. The strain inhibited mycelial growth of Pythium ultimum and Phytophthora capsici. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain YC6898(T) belongs to the genus Hoeflea in the family Phyllobacteriaceae. Its closest relatives were Hoeflea alexandrii AM1V30(T) (96.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Hoeflea anabaenae WH2K(T) (95.7%), Hoeflea phototrophica DFL-43(T) (95.5%) and Hoeflea marina LMG 128(T) (94.8%). Strain YC6898(T) contained Q-10 as the major ubiquinone. The major fatty acids of strain YC6898(T) were C18:1?7c (61.1%), C16:0 (11.9%), 11-methyl C18:1?7c (9.6%) and C19:0 cyclo ?8c (8.0%). The polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, unknown lipids and an unknown glycolipid. The total genomic DNA G+C content was 53.7 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analysis, strain YC6898(T) represents a novel species of the genus Hoeflea, for which the name Hoeflea suaedae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YC6898(T) (=KACC 14911(T)=NBRC 107700(T)). PMID:23159752

Chung, Eu Jin; Park, Jeong Ae; Pramanik, Prabhat; Bibi, Fehmida; Jeon, Che Ok; Chung, Young Ryun

2013-06-01

109

?-Galactobiosyl units: thermodynamics and kinetics of their formation by transglycosylations catalysed by the GH36 ?-galactosidase from Thermotoga maritima.  

PubMed

Broad regioselectivity of ?-galactosidase from Thermotoga maritima (TmGal36A) is a limiting factor for application of the enzyme in the directed synthesis of oligogalactosides. However, this property can be used as a convenient tool in studies of thermodynamics of a glycosidic bond. Here, a novel approach to energy difference estimation is suggested. Both transglycosylation and hydrolysis of three types of galactosidic linkages were investigated using total kinetics of formation and hydrolysis of pNP-galactobiosides catalysed by monomeric glycoside hydrolase family 36 ?-galactosidase from T. maritima, a retaining exo-acting glycoside hydrolase. We have estimated transition state free energy differences between the 1,2- and 1,3-linkage (??G(‡)0 values were equal 5.34±0.85kJ/mol) and between 1,6-linkage and 1,3-linkage (??G(‡)0=1.46±0.23kJ/mol) in pNP-galactobiosides over the course of the reaction catalysed by TmGal36A. Using the free energy difference for formation and hydrolysis of glycosidic linkages (??G(‡)F-??G(‡)H), we found that the 1,2-linkage was 2.93±0.47kJ/mol higher in free energy than the 1,3-linkage, and the 1,6-linkage 4.44±0.71kJ/mol lower. PMID:25486100

Borisova, Anna S; Ivanen, Dina R; Bobrov, Kirill S; Eneyskaya, Elena V; Rychkov, Georgy N; Sandgren, Mats; Kulminskaya, Anna A; Sinnott, Michael L; Shabalin, Konstantin A

2015-01-12

110

Expansion of Genetic Diversity in Randomly Mating Founder Populations of Alternaria brassicicola Infecting Cakile maritima in Australia?  

PubMed Central

Founder populations of fungal plant pathogens are expected to have low levels of genetic diversity coupled with further genetic drift due to, e.g., limited host availability, which should result in additional population bottlenecks. This study used microsatellite markers in the interaction between Cakile maritima and the fungal pathogen Alternaria brassicicola to explore genetic expectations associated with such situations. The host, C. maritima, was introduced into Australia approximately 100 years ago, but it is unknown whether the pathogen was already present in Australia, as it has a wide occurrence, or whether it was introduced to Australia on brassicaceous hosts. Eleven A. brassicicola populations were studied, and all showed moderate levels of gene and genotypic diversity. Chi-square tests of the frequencies of mating type alleles, a large number of genotypes, and linkage equilibrium among microsatellite loci all suggest A. brassicicola reproduces sexually. Significant genetic differentiation was found among populations, but there was no evidence for isolation by distance effects. Bayesian analyses identified eight clusters where the inferred clusters did not represent geographical populations but instead consisted of individuals admixed from all populations. Further analysis indicated that fungal populations were more likely to have experienced a recent population expansion than a population bottleneck. It is suggested that A. brassicicola has been introduced into Australia multiple times, potentially increasing the diversity and size of any A. brassicola populations already present there. Combined with its ability to reproduce sexually, such processes appear to have increased the evolutionary potential of the pathogen through recent population expansions. PMID:20097819

Linde, C. C.; Liles, J. A.; Thrall, P. H.

2010-01-01

111

Comparison of parasitic hymenoptera captured in malaise traps baited with two flowering plants Lobularia maritima (Brassicales:Brassicaceae) and Spermacoce verticillate (Gentianales:Rubiaceae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many adult hymenopterous parasitoids feed on floral nectar, and occasionally pollen. However, flowers differ in both accessibility and attractiveness to these insects. Malaise traps, a type of “passive/interception” trap, were baited with potted flowering plants, Lobularia maritima L. (Brassicaceae)...

112

Phylogeographic evidence for the postglacial colonization of the North and Baltic Sea coasts from inland glacial refugia by Triglochin maritima L  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the geographical distribution of genetic variation in 67 individuals of Triglochin maritima from 38 localities across Europe using AFLP markers. Analysis of genetic variation resulted in the recognition of two major genetic groups. Apart from few geographical outliers, these are distributed (1) along the Atlantic coasts of Portugal, Spain and France and (2) in the North Sea area,

Esther Lambracht; Erik Westberg; Joachim W. Kadereit

2007-01-01

113

The role of fish in distribution and germination of seeds of the submerged macrophytes Najas marina L. and Ruppia maritima L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of three species of fish (tilapia, grass carp and common carp) on the seeds of Najas marina L. and of Ruppia maritima L. were investigated. Practically all the seeds that were injested by the common carp were digested. The two other fish were less affective: they digested seeds with soft seed-coats but excreted a good portion of the

M. Agami; Y. Waisel

1988-01-01

114

Characterization of glycosyl hydrolase family 3 beta-N-acetylglucosaminidases from Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga neapolitana.  

PubMed

The genes encoding beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase (nagA and cbsA) from Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga neapolitana were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli in order to investigate whether Thermotoga sp. is capable of utilizing chitin as a carbon source. NagA and CbsA were purified to homogeneity by HiTrap Q HP and Sephacryl S-200 HR column chromatography. Both enzymes were homodimers containing a family 3 glycoside hydrolase (GH3) catalytic domain, with a monomer molecular mass of 54 kDa. The optimal temperatures and pHs for the activities of the beta-N-acetylglucosaminidases were found to be 65-75 degrees C and 7.0-8.0, respectively. Both enzymes hydrolyzed chitooligomers such as di-N-acetylchitobiose and tri-N-acetylchitotriose, and synthetic substrates such as p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucose (pNPGlc), p-nitrophenyl N-acetyl beta-D-glucosamine (pNPGlcNAc), p-nitrophenyl di-N-acetyl beta-D-chitobiose (pNPGlcNAc(2)) and p-nitrophenyl tri-N-acetyl beta-D-chitotriose (pNPGlcNAc(3)). However, the enzymes had no activity against p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactose (pNPGal) and p-nitrophenyl N-acetyl beta-D-galactosamine (pNPGalNAc) or highly polymerized chitin. The k(cat) and K(m) values were determined for pNPGlcNAc, pNPGlcNAc(2) and pNPGlcNAc(3). The k(cat)/K(m) value for pNPGlcNAc was the highest among three synthetic substrates. NagA and CbsA initially hydrolyzed p-nitrophenyl substrates to give GlcNAc, suggesting that the enzymes have exo-activity with chitin oligosaccharides from the non-reducing ends, like other beta-N-acetylglucosaminidases. However, NagA and CbsA can be distinguished from other GH3-type beta-N-acetylglucosaminidases in that they are highly active against di-N-acetylchitobiose. Thus, the present results suggest that the physiological role of both enzymes is to degrade the chitooligosaccharides transported through membrane following hydrolysis of chitin into beta-N-acetylglucosamine to be further metabolized in Thermotoga sp. PMID:19914575

Choi, Kyoung-Hwa; Seo, Ja Yeong; Park, Kyung-Min; Park, Cheon-Seok; Cha, Jaeho

2009-12-01

115

Putative free radical-scavenging activity of an extract of Cineraria maritima in preventing selenite-induced cataractogenesis in Wistar rat pups  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the possible free radical-scavenging activity of an extract of Cineraria maritima on selenite-induced cataractous lenses in Wistar rat pups. Methods In the present study, Wistar rat pups were divided into three experimental groups. On P10, Group I (control) rat pups received an intraperitoneal injection of 0.89% saline. Rats in groups II (selenite-challenged, untreated) and III (selenite-challenged, C. maritima treated) received a subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite (19 ?mol/kg bodyweight); Group III rat pups also received an intraperitoneal injection of the extract of C. maritima (350 mg/kg bodyweight) once daily P9–14. Both eyes of each pup were examined from P16 until P30. Cytochemical localization of nitroblue tetrazolium salts and generation of superoxide, hydroxyl, and nitric oxide levels were measured. The expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene was evaluated with reverse transcription-PCR. Immunoblot analysis was also performed to confirm the differential expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase protein. Results Subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite led to severe oxidative damage in the lenticular tissues, shown by increased formation of formazan crystals, elevated generation of superoxide, hydroxyl, and nitric oxide radicals, and elevated inducible nitric oxide synthase gene and protein expression that possibly contributed to the opacification of the lens and thus cataract formation. When rat pups were treated with intraperitoneal administration of the extract of C. maritima, the generation of free radicals as well as the messenger ribonucleic acid and protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase were maintained at near normal levels. Conclusions The data generated by this study suggest that an ethanolic extract of C. maritima possibly prevents cataractogenesis in a rat model by minimizing free radical generation. PMID:24357923

Anitha, Thirugnanasambandhar Sivasubramanian; Muralidharan, Arumugam Ramachandran; Annadurai, Thangaraj; Jesudasan, Christdas Arul Nelson; Thomas, Philip Aloysius

2013-01-01

116

Properties and gene structure of the Thermotoga maritima alpha-amylase AmyA, a putative lipoprotein of a hyperthermophilic bacterium.  

PubMed Central

Thermotoga maritima MSB8 has a chromosomal alpha-amylase gene, designated amyA, that is predicted to code for a 553-amino-acid preprotein with significant amino acid sequence similarity to the 4-alpha-glucanotransferase of the same strain and to alpha-amylase primary structures of other organisms. Upstream of the amylase gene, a divergently oriented open reading frame which can be translated into a polypeptide with similarity to the maltose-binding protein MalE of Escherichia coli was found. The T. maritima alpha-amylase appears to be the first known example of a lipoprotein alpha-amylase. This is in agreement with observations pointing to the membrane localization of this enzyme in T. maritima. Following the signal peptide, a 25-residue putative linker sequence rich in serine and threonine was found. The amylase gene was expressed in E. coli, and the recombinant enzyme was purified and characterized. The molecular mass of the recombinant enzyme was estimated at 61 kDa by denaturing gel electrophoresis (63 kDa by gel permeation chromatography). In a 10-min assay at the optimum pH of 7.0, the optimum temperature of amylase activity was 85 to 90 degrees C. Like the alpha-amylases of many other organisms, the activity of the T. maritima alpha-amylase was dependent on Ca2+. The final products of hydrolysis of soluble starch and amylose were mainly glucose and maltose. The extraordinarily high specific activity of the T. maritima alpha-amylase (about 5.6 x 10(3) U/mg of protein at 80 degrees C, pH 7, with amylose as the substrate) together with its extreme thermal stability makes this enzyme an interesting candidate for biotechnological applications in the starch processing industry. PMID:9006052

Liebl, W; Stemplinger, I; Ruile, P

1997-01-01

117

The effect of macrofauna, meiofauna and microfauna on the degradation of Spartina maritima detritus from a salt marsh area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decomposition of salt marsh plants results from physical, chemical and biological processes including abiotic and biotic fragmentation, microbial decay and chemical transformation. According to literature data, only a few species have the ability to feed directly on living plant material, so fungi and bacteria seem to be the principal competitors for the organic substrates. Nevertheless, by consuming bacteria, protists and fungi associated to the detritus, macrofauna and meiofauna recycle the incorporated nutrients. Moreover, this nutrient regeneration may be seen as an effective factor in maintaining and stimulating bacterial production. In fact, it is well known that many detritus feeding species have very low assimilation efficiencies. The objective of the present study was to compare the nutrient mass balance of carbon; nitrogen and phosphorus in Spartina maritima covered areas and bare bottom sediment, with and without contribution of macrofauna, meiofauna and microbial populations. Nutrients mass balance was studied taking into account the initial and final nutrient concentrations in the sediment, water and plant material. Faunal activity was measured as a function of remineralised carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. The experimental set-up included sixteen sub-experiments, which varied with respect to type of fauna, plant biomass and oxic status. Each sub-experiment was performed in small glass containers (3 L) containing about 900 g wwt sediment and 2.5 L estuarine water. Plant material, cut from intact plants, sediment cores and estuarine water were brought from the southern arm of the Mondego estuary (Portugal). The results showed that although the bacterial activity was responsible for the Spartina maritima degradation, the presence of meiofauna and macrofauna significantly enhanced the process. Moreover, the presence of Spartina maritima positively affected the mineralisation of the sediment carbon and nitrogen, especially when the three faunal components were present, and denitrification rates were highest in the presence of the macrofauna and meiofauna. The present study suggests that macrofauna and meiofauna have an important role on the ecosystem nutrient flux and that fauna might function as a sink for excess nutrients, that otherwise could be exported to the coastal waters.

Lillebø, Ana Isabel; Flindt, Mogens R.; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Marques, João Carlos

1999-07-01

118

Crystal structure of a transcriptional regulator TM1030 from Thermotoga maritima solved by an unusual MAD experiment  

PubMed Central

The crystal structure of a putative transcriptional regulator protein TM1030 from Thermotoga maritima, a hyperthermophilic bacterium, was determined by an unusual multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion method at 2.0 Å resolution., in which data from two different crystals and two different beamlines were used. The protein belongs to the tetracycline repressor TetR superfamily. The three-dimensional structure of TM1030 is similar to the structures of proteins that function as multidrug-binding transcriptional repressors, and contains a large solvent-exposed pocket similar to the drug-binding pockets present in those repressors. The asymmetric unit in the crystal structure contains a single protein chain and the two-fold symmetry of the dimer is adopted by the crystal symmetry. The structure described in this paper is an apo-form of TM1030. Although it is known that the protein is significantly overexpressed during heat shock, its detailed function cannot be yet explained. PMID:17588774

Koclega, Katarzyna D.; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Zimmerman, Matthew D.; Cymborowski, Marcin; Evdokimova, Elena; Minor, Wladek

2007-01-01

119

Characterization of a [2Fe-2S] protein encoded in the iron-hydrogenase operon of Thermotoga maritima.  

PubMed

Thermotoga maritima grows optimally at 80 degrees C by fermenting carbohydrates to organic acids, CO(2), and H(2). The production of H(2) is catalyzed by a cytoplasmic, heterotrimeric (alphabetagamma) Fe-hydrogenase. This is encoded by three genes, hydC (gamma), hydB (beta) and hydA (alpha), organized within a single operon that contains five additional open reading frames (ORFs). The recombinant form of the first ORF of the operon, TM1420, was produced in Escherichia coli. It has a molecular mass of 8537+/-3 Da as determined by mass spectrometry, in agreement with the predicted amino acid sequence. Purified TM1420 is red in color, has a basic p I (8.8), and contains 1.9 Fe atoms/mol that are present as a single [2Fe-2S] cluster, as determined by UV-visible absorption and EPR spectroscopy. The protein contains five cysteine residues, but their arrangement is characteristic of a subunit or domain rather than of a ferredoxin-type protein. The reduction potential of the [2Fe-2S] cluster (-233 mV at pH 6.5 and 25 degrees C) is pH independent but decreases linearly with temperature to -296 mV (-1.15 mV/ degrees C) at 80 degrees C. TM1420 is not reduced, in vitro, by the Fe-hydrogenase nor by a pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase. The protein was unstable at 70 degrees C under anaerobic conditions with a half-life of approximately 30 min. The basic nature of TM1420, its instability at the growth temperature of T. maritima, and the unusual spacing of its cysteine residues suggest that this protein does not function as a ferredoxin-type electron carrier for the Fe-hydrogenase. Instead, TM1420 is more likely part of a thermostable multi-protein complex that is involved in metal cluster assembly of the hydrogenase holoenzyme. PMID:12605255

Pan, Guangliang; Menon, Angeli Lal; Adams, Michael W W

2003-04-01

120

Phenological development stages variation versus mercury tolerance, accumulation, and allocation in salt marsh macrophytes Triglochin maritima and Scirpus maritimus prevalent in Ria de Aveiro coastal lagoon (Portugal).  

PubMed

Efficient and sustainable management of rapidly mounting environmental issues has been the focus of current intensive research. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of plant phenological development stage variation on mercury (Hg) tolerance, accumulation, and allocation in two salt marsh macrophytes Triglochin maritima and Scirpus maritimus prevalent in historically Hg-contaminated Ria de Aveiro coastal lagoon (Portugal). Both plant samples and the sediments vegetated by monospecific stands of T. maritima and S. maritimus were collected from reference (R) and sites with moderate (M) and high (H) Hg contamination in Laranjo bay within Ria de Aveiro lagoon. Hg tolerance, uptake, and allocation in T. maritima and S. maritimus, physico-chemical traits (pH, redox potential, and organic matter content) and Hg concentrations in sediments vegetated by these species were impacted differentially by phenological development stages variation irrespective of the Hg contamination level. In T. maritima, Hg concentration increased with increase in Hg contamination gradient where root displayed significantly higher Hg followed by rhizome and leaf maximally at H. However, in S. maritimus, the highest Hg concentration was perceptible in rhizome followed by root maximally at M. Between the two studied plant species, S. maritimus displayed higher Hg tolerance index (depicted by higher plant dry mass allocated to reproductive stage) and higher available Hg at M (during all growth stages) and H (during senescent stage) when compared to T. maritimus. Both plant species proved to be Hg excluder (low root/rhizome-leaf Hg translocation). Additionally, T. maritima also acted as Hg stabilizer while, S. maritimus as Hg accumulator. It can be inferred from the study that (a) the plant phenological development stage variations significantly influenced plant Hg sensitivity by impacting sediment chemistry, plant growth (in terms of plant dry mass), Hg accumulation, and its subsequent allocation capacity, contingent to Hg contamination gradient; (b) S. maritimus accumulated higher Hg but restricted its translocation to above-ground part using exclusion process at both M and H due to its accelerated growth during Hg-tolerant reproductive/metabolically active phenological development stage greater than its counterpart T. maritima; and (c) the studied salt marsh plants although hailed from the same C3 and monocot group did not necessarily display similar phenotypic plasticity and behavior towards Hg-contaminated scenario during their life cycle. PMID:23184133

Anjum, Naser A; Ahmad, Iqbal; Válega, Mónica; Figueira, Etelvina; Duarte, Armando C; Pereira, Eduarda

2013-06-01

121

Spatial genetic structure in Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima and Beta macrocarpa reveals the effect of contrasting mating system, influence of marine currents, and footprints of postglacial recolonization routes.  

PubMed

Understanding the factors that contribute to population genetic divergence across a species' range is a long-standing goal in evolutionary biology and ecological genetics. We examined the relative importance of historical and ecological features in shaping the present-day spatial patterns of genetic structure in two related plant species, Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima and Beta macrocarpa. Using nuclear and mitochondrial markers, we surveyed 93 populations from Brittany (France) to Morocco - the southern limit of their species' range distribution. Whereas B. macrocarpa showed a genotypic structure and a high level of genetic differentiation indicative of selfing, the population genetic structure of B. vulgaris subsp. maritima was consistent with an outcrossing mating system. We further showed (1) a strong geographic clustering in coastal B. vulgaris subsp. maritima populations that highlighted the influence of marine currents in shaping different lineages and (2) a peculiar genetic structure of inland B. vulgaris subsp. maritima populations that could indicate the admixture of distinct evolutionary lineages and recent expansions associated with anthropogenic disturbances. Spatial patterns of nuclear diversity and differentiation also supported a stepwise recolonization of Europe from Atlantic-Mediterranean refugia after the last glacial period, with leading-edge expansions. However, cytoplasmic diversity was not impacted by postglacial recolonization: stochastic long-distance seed dispersal mediated by major oceanic currents may mitigate the common patterns of reduced cytoplasmic diversity observed for edge populations. Overall, the patterns we documented here challenge the general view of reduced genetic diversity at the edge of a species' range distribution and provide clues for understanding how life-history and major geographic features interact to shape the distribution of genetic diversity. PMID:24963380

Leys, Marie; Petit, Eric J; El-Bahloul, Yasmina; Liso, Camille; Fournet, Sylvain; Arnaud, Jean-François

2014-05-01

122

Spatial genetic structure in Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima and Beta macrocarpa reveals the effect of contrasting mating system, influence of marine currents, and footprints of postglacial recolonization routes  

PubMed Central

Understanding the factors that contribute to population genetic divergence across a species' range is a long-standing goal in evolutionary biology and ecological genetics. We examined the relative importance of historical and ecological features in shaping the present-day spatial patterns of genetic structure in two related plant species, Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima and Beta macrocarpa. Using nuclear and mitochondrial markers, we surveyed 93 populations from Brittany (France) to Morocco – the southern limit of their species' range distribution. Whereas B. macrocarpa showed a genotypic structure and a high level of genetic differentiation indicative of selfing, the population genetic structure of B. vulgaris subsp. maritima was consistent with an outcrossing mating system. We further showed (1) a strong geographic clustering in coastal B. vulgaris subsp. maritima populations that highlighted the influence of marine currents in shaping different lineages and (2) a peculiar genetic structure of inland B. vulgaris subsp. maritima populations that could indicate the admixture of distinct evolutionary lineages and recent expansions associated with anthropogenic disturbances. Spatial patterns of nuclear diversity and differentiation also supported a stepwise recolonization of Europe from Atlantic-Mediterranean refugia after the last glacial period, with leading-edge expansions. However, cytoplasmic diversity was not impacted by postglacial recolonization: stochastic long-distance seed dispersal mediated by major oceanic currents may mitigate the common patterns of reduced cytoplasmic diversity observed for edge populations. Overall, the patterns we documented here challenge the general view of reduced genetic diversity at the edge of a species' range distribution and provide clues for understanding how life-history and major geographic features interact to shape the distribution of genetic diversity. PMID:24963380

Leys, Marie; Petit, Eric J; El-Bahloul, Yasmina; Liso, Camille; Fournet, Sylvain; Arnaud, Jean-François

2014-01-01

123

The spatial structure of sexual and cytonuclear polymorphism in the gynodioecious Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima: I/ at a local scale.  

PubMed Central

We have analyzed the spatial distribution of the sex phenotypes and of mitochondrial, chloroplast, and nuclear markers within two gynodioecious populations of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima. Within both populations, sexual phenotype variation is controlled mainly by the cytoplasmic genotype, although in one study population a joint polymorphism of cytonuclear factors is clearly involved. In spite of contrasts in the ecology (mainly due to different habitats), a clear common feature in both populations is the highly patchy distribution of cytoplasmic haplotypes, contrasting with the wide distribution of nuclear diversity. This high contrast between cytoplasmic vs. nuclear spatial structure may have important consequences for the maintenance of gynodioecy. It provides opportunities for differential selection since nuclear restorer alleles are expected to be selected for in the presence of their specific cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) type, but to be neutral (or selected against if there is a cost of restoration) in the absence of their CMS type. Selective processes in such a cytonuclear landscape may explain the polymorphism we observed at restorer loci for two CMS types. PMID:11290724

Laporte, V; Viard, F; Bena, G; Valero, M; Cuguen, J

2001-01-01

124

Hyperthermophilic alpha-L: -arabinofuranosidase from Thermotoga maritima MSB8: molecular cloning, gene expression, and characterization of the recombinant protein.  

PubMed

A putative alpha-L: -arabinofuranosidase (AFase) gene belonging to family 51 of glycosyl hydrolases of a hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima MSB8 was cloned, sequenced, and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein (Tm-AFase) was purified to apparent homogeneity by heat treatment (80 degrees C, 30 min), followed by hydrophobic interaction, anion-exchange, and gel permeation column chromatography. Tm-AFase had a molecular mass of 55,284 Da on matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and approximately 332 kDa on gel permeation column chromatography. Therefore, Tm-AFase comprised six identical subunits as in the case of homologous AFase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus. Regarding substrate specificity, Tm-AFase was active with p-nitrophenyl alpha-L: -arabinofuranoside but not with p-nitrophenyl alpha-L: -arabinopyranoside. Regarding polysaccharides, Tm-AFase hydrolyzed arabinan and debranched arabinan but not arabinoxylan, arabinogalactan, and carboxymethyl cellulose. Tm-AFase was extremely thermophilic, displaying an optimal reaction temperature of 90 degrees C in a 10 min assay. When Tm-AFase was heated at 90 degrees C, no loss of activity was observed for at least 24 h. At 100 degrees C, the activity dropped to approximately 50% in 20 min; thereafter, inactivation occurred very slowly exhibiting a half-life of approximately 2.7 h, characterizing the enzyme to be the most thermophilic AFase reported thus far. PMID:15965714

Miyazaki, Kentaro

2005-10-01

125

Growth Habit and Mechanical Architecture of the Sand Dune?adapted Climber Clematis flammula var. maritima L.  

PubMed Central

Clematis flammula var. maritima is a woody lianoid plant that grows on coastal sand dunes in the Mediterranean region. Older perennial stems are present as extensive underground axes. These generate surface growth of shorter?lived stems producing monospecific trellises above the surface of the sand. Despite its sand dune habitat and shortage of host support plants, this variety of Clematis shows mechanical characteristics during growth that are closely comparable with those of scandent woody lianas. A significant decrease in the value of structural Young’s modulus is observed from the aerial trellis?forming shoots (1·619 ± 0·492 GN m–2) to emergent axes (0·855 ± 0·253 GN m–2) and underground woody stems (0·470 ± 0·113 GN m–2). Biomechanical and evelopmental observations indicate that most emergent branches are optimized geometrically and mechanically in relation to their points of emergence from the sand, with increases in structural Young’s modulus and the second moment of area around the surface of the sand. Lianoid plants, physiologically capable of withstanding sand dune environments, might represent acceptable natural or introduced species for dune stabilization and conservation. PMID:12588720

ISNARD, SANDRINE; ROWE, NICK; SPECK, THOMAS

2003-01-01

126

Structure of a d-tagatose 3-epimerase-related protein from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima  

PubMed Central

The crystal structure of a d-tagatose 3-epimerase-related protein (TM0416p) encoded by the hypothetical open reading frame TM0416 in the genome of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima was determined at a resolution of 2.2?Å. The asymmetric unit contained two homologous subunits and a dimer was generated by twofold symmetry. The main-chain coordinates of the enzyme monomer proved to be similar to those of d-tagatose 3-­epimerase from Pseudomonas cichorii and d-psicose 3-epimerase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens; however, TM0416p exhibited a unique solvent-accessible substrate-binding pocket that reflected the absence of an ?-helix that covers the active-site cleft in the two aforementioned ketohexose 3-epimerases. In addition, the residues responsible for creating a hydrophobic environment around the substrate in TM0416p differ entirely from those in the other two enzymes. Collectively, these findings suggest that the substrate specificity of TM0416p is likely to differ substantially from those of other d-tagatose 3-­epimerase family enzymes. PMID:19255464

Sakuraba, Haruhiko; Yoneda, Kazunari; Satomura, Takenori; Kawakami, Ryushi; Ohshima, Toshihisa

2009-01-01

127

Structure of a D-tagatose 3-epimerase-related protein from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima.  

PubMed

The crystal structure of a D-tagatose 3-epimerase-related protein (TM0416p) encoded by the hypothetical open reading frame TM0416 in the genome of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima was determined at a resolution of 2.2 A. The asymmetric unit contained two homologous subunits and a dimer was generated by twofold symmetry. The main-chain coordinates of the enzyme monomer proved to be similar to those of D-tagatose 3-epimerase from Pseudomonas cichorii and D-psicose 3-epimerase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens; however, TM0416p exhibited a unique solvent-accessible substrate-binding pocket that reflected the absence of an alpha-helix that covers the active-site cleft in the two aforementioned ketohexose 3-epimerases. In addition, the residues responsible for creating a hydrophobic environment around the substrate in TM0416p differ entirely from those in the other two enzymes. Collectively, these findings suggest that the substrate specificity of TM0416p is likely to differ substantially from those of other D-tagatose 3-epimerase family enzymes. PMID:19255464

Sakuraba, Haruhiko; Yoneda, Kazunari; Satomura, Takenori; Kawakami, Ryushi; Ohshima, Toshihisa

2009-03-01

128

Constitutive high-level expression of a codon-optimized ?-fructosidase gene from the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima in Pichia pastoris.  

PubMed

Enzymes for use in the sugar industry are preferred to be thermotolerant. In this study, a synthetic codon-optimized gene encoding a highly thermostable ?-fructosidase (BfrA, EC 3.2.1.26) from the bacterium Thermotoga maritima was expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The gradual increase of the transgene dosage from one to four copies under the control of the constitutive glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter had an additive effect on BfrA yield without causing cell toxicity. Maximal values of cell biomass (115 g/l, dry weight) and overall invertase activity (241 U/ml) were reached at 72 h in fed-batch fermentations using cane sugar as the main carbon source for growth. Secretion driven by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ?-factor signal peptide resulted in periplasmic retention (44 %) and extracellular release (56 %) of BfrA. The presence of N-linked oligosaccharides did not influence the optimal activity, thermal stability, kinetic properties, substrate specificity, and exo-type action mode of the yeast-secreted BfrA in comparison to the native unglycosylated enzyme. Complete inversion of cane sugar at initial concentration of 60 % (w/v) was achieved by periplasmic BfrA in undisrupted cells reacting at pH 5.5 and 70 °C, with average productivity of 4.4 g of substrate hydrolyzed per grams of biomass (wet weight) per hour. The high yield of fully active glycosylated BfrA here attained by recombinant P. pastoris in a low-cost fermentation process appears to be attractive for the large-scale production of this thermostable enzyme useful for the manufacture of inverted sugar syrup. PMID:22821437

Menéndez, Carmen; Martínez, Duniesky; Trujillo, Luis E; Mazola, Yuliet; González, Ernesto; Pérez, Enrique R; Hernández, Lázaro

2013-02-01

129

Crystal Structure of Butyrate Kinase 2 from Thermotoga maritima, a Member of the ASKHA Superfamily of Phosphotransferases  

SciTech Connect

The enzymatic transfer of phosphoryl groups is central to the control of many cellular processes. One of the phosphoryl transfer mechanisms, that of acetate kinase, is not completely understood. Besides better understanding of the mechanism of acetate kinase, knowledge of the structure of butyrate kinase 2 (Buk2) will aid in the interpretation of active-site structure and provide information on the structural basis of substrate specificity. The gene buk2 from Thermotoga maritima encodes a member of the ASKHA (acetate and sugar kinases/heat shock cognate/actin) superfamily of phosphotransferases. The encoded protein Buk2 catalyzes the phosphorylation of butyrate and isobutyrate. We have determined the 2.5-{angstrom} crystal structure of Buk2 complexed with ({beta},{gamma}-methylene) adenosine 5'-triphosphate. Buk2 folds like an open-shelled clam, with each of the two domains representing one of the two shells. In the open active-site cleft between the N- and C-terminal domains, the active-site residues consist of two histidines, two arginines, and a cluster of hydrophobic residues. The ATP binding region of Buk2 in the C-terminal domain consists of abundant glycines for nucleotide binding, and the ATP binding motif is similar to those of other members of the ASKHA superfamily. The enzyme exists as an octamer, in which four disulfide bonds form between intermolecular cysteines. Sequence alignment and structure superposition identify the simplicity of the monomeric Buk2 structure, a probable substrate binding site, the key residues in catalyzing phosphoryl transfer, and the substrate specificity differences among Buk2, acetate, and propionate kinases. The possible enzyme mechanisms are discussed.

Diao, Jiasheng; Hasson, Miriam S.; (Purdue)

2009-04-01

130

Relationship between the photosynthetic activity and the performance of Cakile maritima after long-term salt treatment.  

PubMed

Cakile maritima is a halophyte with potential for ecological, economical and medicinal uses. We address here the impact of salinity on its growth, photosynthesis and seed quality. Whole plant growth rate and shoot development were stimulated at moderate salinity (100-200 mM NaCl) and inhibited at higher salt concentrations. Although diminished in the presence of salt, potassium and calcium uptake per unit of root biomass was maintained at relatively high value, while nutrient-use efficiency (NUE) was improved in salt-treated plants. Chl and carotenoid concentrations decreased at extreme salinities, but anthocyanin concentration continuously grew with salinity. Net photosynthetic rate (A), stomatal conductance, maximum quantum efficiency of PSII and quantum yield were stimulated in the 100-200 mM NaCl range. Higher salinity adversely affected gas exchange and changed PSII functional characteristics, resulting in a reduction of A per leaf area unit. This phenomenon was associated with increased non-photochemical quenching. Harvest index, silique number and seeds per fruit valve were maximal at 100 mM NaCl. Despite the decreasing salt accumulation gradient from the vegetative to the reproductive organs, high salinities were detrimental for the seed viability and increased the proportion of empty siliques. Overall, the salt-induced changes in the plant photosynthetic activity resulted into analogous responses at the vegetative and reproductive stages. The enhancement of NUE, the absence of pigment degradation, the reduction of water loss and the concomitant PSII protection from photodamage through thermal dissipation of excess excitation significantly accounted for Cakile survival capacity at high salinity. PMID:18346075

Debez, Ahmed; Koyro, Hans-Werner; Grignon, Claude; Abdelly, Chedly; Huchzermeyer, Bernhard

2008-06-01

131

The interaction of ammonia and xenon with the imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase from Thermotoga maritima as detected by NMR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The imidazole glycerol phosphate (ImGP) synthase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima is a 1:1 complex of the glutaminase subunit HisH and the cyclase subunit HisF. It has been proposed that ammonia generated by HisH is transported through a channel to the active site of HisF, which generates intermediates of histidine (ImGP) and de novo biosynthesis of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamideribotide. Solution NMR spectroscopy of ammonium chloride-titrated samples was used to study the interaction of NH(3) with amino acids inside this channel. Although numerous residues showed (15)N chemical shift changes, most of these changes were caused by nonspecific ionic strength effects. However, several interactions appeared to be specific. Remarkably, the amino acid residue Thr 78-which is located in the central channel-shows a large chemical shift change upon titration with ammonium chloride. This result and the reduced catalytic activity of the Thr78Met mutant indicate a special role of this residue in ammonia channeling. To detect and further characterize internal cavities in HisF, which might for example contribute to ammonia channeling, the interaction of HisF with the noble gas xenon was analyzed by solution NMR spectroscopy using (1)H-(15)N HSQC experiments. The results indicate that HisF contains three distinct internal cavities, which could be identified by xenon-induced chemical shift changes of the neighboring amino acid residues. Two of these cavities are located at the active site at opposite ends of the substrate N'-[(5'-phosphoribulosyl)formimino]-5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-ribonucleotide (PRFAR) binding groove. The third cavity is located in the interior of the central ?-barrel of HisF and overlaps with the putative ammonia transport channel. PMID:20665694

Liebold, Christoph; List, Felix; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert; Sterner, Reinhard; Brunner, Eike

2010-09-01

132

Enhanced catalytic efficiency in quercetin-4'-glucoside hydrolysis of Thermotoga maritima ?-glucosidase A by site-directed mutagenesis.  

PubMed

Te-BglA and Tm-BglA are glycoside hydrolase family 1 ?-glucosidases from Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus JW200 and Thermotoga maritima, respectively, with 53% sequence identity. However, Te-BglA could more effectively hydrolyze isoflavone glucosides to their aglycones than could Tm-BglA, possibly due to the difference in amino acid residues around their glycone binding pockets. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to replace the amino acid residues of Tm-BglA with the corresponding residues of Te-BglA, generating three single mutants (F221L, N223L, and G224T), as well as the corresponding three double mutants (F221L/N223L, F221L/G224T, and N223L/G224T) and one triple mutant (F221L/N223L/G224T). The seven mutants have been purified, characterized, and compared to the wild-type Tm-BglA. The effects of the mutations on kinetics, enzyme activity, and substrate specificity were determined. All mutants showed pH-activity curves narrower on the basic side and wider on the acid side and had similar optimal pH and stability at pH 6.5-8.3. They were more stable up to 85 °C, but G224T displayed higher optimal temperature than Tm-BglA. Seven mutants indicated an obvious increase in catalytic efficiency toward p-nitrophenyl ?-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG) but an increase or not change in K(m). All mutants showed a decrease in catalytic efficiency of isoflavonoid glycosides and were not changed for F221L and lost for N223L in enzymatic hydrolysis on quercetin glucosides. Contrarily, G224T resulted in a dramatic increase conversion of Q4' (35.5%) and Q3,4' (28.6%) in accord with an increased turnover number (k(cat), 1.4×) and catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m), 2.2×) as well as a decrease in K(m) (0.24) for Q4'. Modeling showed that G224T mutation at position 224 may enhance the interaction between G224T and 5-OH and 3-OH on the quercetin backbone of Q4'. PMID:24933681

Sun, Huihui; Xue, Yemin; Lin, Yufei

2014-07-16

133

A unique beta-1,2-mannosyltransferase of Thermotoga maritima that uses di-myo-inositol phosphate as the mannosyl acceptor.  

PubMed

In addition to di-myo-inositol-1,3'-phosphate (DIP), a compatible solute widespread in hyperthermophiles, the organic solute pool of Thermotoga maritima comprises 2-(O-beta-D-mannosyl)-di-myo-inositol-1,3'-phosphate (MDIP) and 2-(O-beta-D-mannosyl-1,2-O-beta-D-mannosyl)-di-myo-inositol-1,3'-phosphate (MMDIP), two newly identified beta-1,2-mannosides. In cells grown under heat stress, MDIP was the major solute, accounting for 43% of the total pool; MMDIP and DIP accumulated to similar levels, each corresponding to 11.5% of the total pool. The synthesis of MDIP involved the transfer of the mannosyl group from GDP-mannose to DIP in a single-step reaction catalyzed by MDIP synthase. This enzyme used MDIP as an acceptor of a second mannose residue, yielding the di-mannosylated compound. Minor amounts of the tri-mannosylated form were also detected. With a genomic approach, putative genes for MDIP synthase were identified in the genome of T. maritima, and the assignment was confirmed by functional expression in Escherichia coli. Genes with significant sequence identity were found only in the genomes of Thermotoga spp., Aquifex aeolicus, and Archaeoglobus profundus. MDIP synthase of T. maritima had maximal activity at 95 degrees C and apparent K(m) values of 16 mM and 0.7 mM for DIP and GDP-mannose, respectively. The stereochemistry of MDIP was characterized by isotopic labeling and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR): DIP selectively labeled with carbon 13 at position C1 of the l-inositol moiety was synthesized and used as a substrate for MDIP synthase. This beta-1,2-mannosyltransferase is unrelated to known glycosyltransferases, and within the domain Bacteria, it is restricted to members of the two deepest lineages, i.e., the Thermotogales and the Aquificales. To our knowledge, this is the first beta-1,2-mannosyltransferase characterized thus far. PMID:19648237

Rodrigues, Marta V; Borges, Nuno; Almeida, Carla P; Lamosa, Pedro; Santos, Helena

2009-10-01

134

Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of PotA, a membrane-associated ATPase of the spermidine-preferential uptake system in Thermotoga maritima.  

PubMed

A membrane-associated ATPase, PotA, is a component of the spermidine-preferential uptake system in prokaryotes that plays an important role in normal cell growth by regulating the cellular polyamine concentration. No three-dimensional structures of membrane-associated ATPases in polyamine-uptake systems have been determined to date. Here, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of PotA from Thermotoga maritima are reported. Diffraction data were collected and processed to 2.7?Å resolution from both native and selenomethionine-labelled crystals. Preliminary crystallographic analysis revealed that the crystals belonged to the hexagonal space group P3?12 (or P3?12), with unit-cell parameters a=b=88.9, c=221.2?Å, ?=90, ?=90, ?=120°, indicating that a dimer was present in the asymmetric unit. PMID:24915082

Sugiyama, Shigeru; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Kakinouchi, Keisuke; Tomitori, Hideyuki; Kanai, Ken; Murata, Michio; Adachi, Hiroaki; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Takano, Kazufumi; Murakami, Satoshi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Igarashi, Kazuei

2014-06-01

135

TM0486 from the hyperthermophilic anaerobe Thermotoga maritima is a thiamin binding protein involved in response of the cell to oxidative conditions  

PubMed Central

Using the COG database, a comparative genome analysis from anaerobic and aerobic microorganisms, was performed with the aim of identifying proteins specific to the anaerobic way of life. Thirty-three COGs were identified, five of which corresponded to proteins of unknown function. We focused our study on TM0486, from Thermotoga maritima, that belongs to one of these latter COGs of unknown function, namely COG0011. The crystal structure of the protein was determined at 2 Å resolution. The structure adopts a ?????? ferredoxin-like fold and assembles as a homotetramer. The structure also revealed the presence of a pocket in each monomer that bound an unidentified ligand NMR and calorimetric experiments revealed that TM0486 specifically bound thiamin with a Kd of 1.58 µM, but not hydroxymethyl pyrimidine (HMP), that was implicated previously as a potential ligand. We demonstrated that the TM0486 gene belongs to the same multicistronic unit as TM0483, TM0484 and TM0485. Although these three genes have already been assigned to the transport of HMP, with TM0484 being the periplasmic thiamin/HMP binding protein and TM0485 and TM0483 the transmembrane and the ATPase components, respectively, our results led us to conclude that this operon encodes for an ABC transporter dedicated to thiamin, with TM0486 transporting charged thiamin in the cytoplasm. Given that this transcriptional unit was up-regulated when T. maritima was exposed to oxidative conditions, we propose that by chelating cytoplasmic thiamin, TM0486 and, by extension, proteins belonging to COG0011 are involved in the response mechanism to stress that could arise during aerobic conditions. PMID:20471400

Dermoun, Zorah; Foulon, Amélie; Miller, Mitchell D.; Harrington, Daniel J.; Deacon, Ashley M.; Sebban-Kreuzer, Corinne; Roche, Philippe; Lafitte, Daniel; Bornet, Olivier; Wilson, Ian A.; Dolla, Alain

2010-01-01

136

Transcriptome de novo assembly from next-generation sequencing and comparative analyses in the hexaploid salt marsh species Spartina maritima and Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae)  

PubMed Central

Spartina species have a critical ecological role in salt marshes and represent an excellent system to investigate recurrent polyploid speciation. Using the 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencer, we assembled and annotated the first reference transcriptome (from roots and leaves) for two related hexaploid Spartina species that hybridize in Western Europe, the East American invasive Spartina alterniflora and the Euro-African S. maritima. The de novo read assembly generated 38?478 consensus sequences and 99% found an annotation using Poaceae databases, representing a total of 16?753 non-redundant genes. Spartina expressed sequence tags were mapped onto the Sorghum bicolor genome, where they were distributed among the subtelomeric arms of the 10 S. bicolor chromosomes, with high gene density correlation. Normalization of the complementary DNA library improved the number of annotated genes. Ecologically relevant genes were identified among GO biological function categories in salt and heavy metal stress response, C4 photosynthesis and in lignin and cellulose metabolism. Expression of some of these genes had been found to be altered by hybridization and genome duplication in a previous microarray-based study in Spartina. As these species are hexaploid, up to three duplicated homoeologs may be expected per locus. When analyzing sequence polymorphism at four different loci in S. maritima and S. alterniflora, we found up to four haplotypes per locus, suggesting the presence of two expressed homoeologous sequences with one or two allelic variants each. This reference transcriptome will allow analysis of specific Spartina genes of ecological or evolutionary interest, estimation of homoeologous gene expression variation using RNA-seq and further gene expression evolution analyses in natural populations. PMID:23149455

Ferreira de Carvalho, J; Poulain, J; Da Silva, C; Wincker, P; Michon-Coudouel, S; Dheilly, A; Naquin, D; Boutte, J; Salmon, A; Ainouche, M

2013-01-01

137

Structural Analysis of Semi-specific Oligosaccharide Recognition by a Cellulose-binding Protein of Thermotoga maritima Reveals Adaptations for Functional Diversification of the Oligopeptide Periplasmic Binding Protein Fold  

SciTech Connect

Periplasmic binding proteins (PBPs) constitute a protein superfamily that binds a wide variety of ligands. In prokaryotes, PBPs function as receptors for ATP-binding cassette or tripartite ATP-independent transporters and chemotaxis systems. In many instances, PBPs bind their cognate ligands with exquisite specificity, distinguishing, for example, between sugar epimers or structurally similar anions. By contrast, oligopeptide-binding proteins bind their ligands through interactions with the peptide backbone but do not distinguish between different side chains. The extremophile Thermotoga maritima possesses a remarkable array of carbohydrate-processing metabolic systems, including the hydrolysis of cellulosic polymers. Here, we present the crystal structure of a T. maritima cellobiose-binding protein (tm0031) that is homologous to oligopeptide-binding proteins. T. maritima cellobiose-binding protein binds a variety of lengths of {beta}(1 {yields} 4)-linked glucose oligomers, ranging from two rings (cellobiose) to five (cellopentaose). The structure reveals that binding is semi-specific. The disaccharide at the nonreducing end binds specifically; the other rings are located in a large solvent-filled groove, where the reducing end makes several contacts with the protein, thereby imposing an upper limit of the oligosaccharides that are recognized. Semi-specific recognition, in which a molecular class rather than individual species is selected, provides an efficient solution for the uptake of complex mixtures.

Cuneo, Matthew J.; Beese, Lorena S.; Hellinga, Homme W.; (Duke)

2010-05-25

138

Xylanase XynA from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima: structure and stability of the recombinant enzyme and its isolated cellulose-binding domain.  

PubMed Central

The hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima is capable of gaining metabolic energy utilizing xylan. XynA, one of the corresponding hydrolases required for its degradation, is a 120-kDa endo-1,4-D-xylanase exhibiting high intrinsic stability and a temperature optimum approximately 90 degrees C. Sequence alignments with other xylanases suggest the enzyme to consist of five domains. The C-terminal part of XynA was previously shown to be responsible for cellulose binding (Winterhalter C, Heinrich P, Candussio A, Wich G, Liebl W. 1995. Identification of a novel cellulose-binding domain within the multi-domain 120 kDa Xylanase XynA of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima. Mol Microbiol 15:431-444). In order to characterize the domain organization and the stability of XynA and its C-terminal cellulose-binding domain (CBD), the two separate proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli. CBD, because of its instability in its ligand-free form, was expressed as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein with a specific thrombin cleavage site as linker. XynA and CBD were compared regarding their hydrodynamic and spectral properties. As taken from analytical ultracentrifugation and gel permeation chromatography, both are monomers with 116 and 22 kDa molecular masses, respectively. In the presence of glucose as a ligand, CBD shows high intrinsic stability. Denaturation/renaturation experiments with isolated CBD yield > 80% renaturation, indicating that the domain folds independently. Making use of fluorescence emission and far-UV circular dichroism in order to characterize protein stability, guanidine-induced unfolding of XynA leads to biphasic transitions, with half-concentrations c1/2 (GdmCl) approximately 4 M and > 5 M, in accordance with the extreme thermal stability. At acid pH, XynA exhibits increased stability, indicated by a shift of the second guanidine-transition from 5 to 7 M GdmCl. This can be tentatively attributed to the cellulose-binding domain. Differences in the transition profiles monitored by fluorescence emission and dichroic absorption indicate multi-state behavior of XynA. In the case of CBD, a temperature-induced increase in negative ellipticity at 217 nm is caused by alterations in the environment of aromatic residues that contribute to the far-UV CD in the native state. PMID:9260284

Wassenberg, D.; Schurig, H.; Liebl, W.; Jaenicke, R.

1997-01-01

139

Production of xylobiose from the autohydrolysis explosion liquor of corncob using Thermotoga maritima xylanase B (XynB) immobilized on nickel-chelated Eupergit C.  

PubMed

In this study, a thermostable recombinant xylanase B (XynB) from Thermotoga maritima MSB8 was immobilized on nickel-chelated Eupergit C 250L. This immobilized XynB was then used to hydrolyze the autohydrolysis explosion liquor of corncob (AELC) in a packed-bed enzyme reactor for continuous production of xylooligosaccharides, especially xylobiose. When tested in batch hydrolysis of AELC, the immobilized XynB still retained its relative activity of 92.5% after 10 cycles of hydrolysis at 90 degrees C. The immobilized XynB retained 83.6% of its initial hydrolysis activity even after 168 h of hydrolysis reaction at 90 degrees C and demonstrated a half-life time of 577.6 h (24 days) for continuous hydrolysis. HPLC showed that xylobiose (49.8%) and xylose (22.6%) were the main hydrolysis products yielded during continuous hydrolysis. Xylobiose was adsorbed on an activated charcoal column and eluted with a linear gradient of 15% (v/v) ethanol to yield xylobiose with 84.7% of recovery. Also, the purity of xylobiose was up to 97.2% as determined by HPLC. Therefore, the immobilized XynB was suitable for the efficient production of xylobiose from AELC. This is the first report on the immobilization of xylanase for xylobiose production. PMID:17258452

Tan, S S; Li, D Y; Jiang, Z Q; Zhu, Y P; Shi, B; Li, L T

2008-01-01

140

Exploring the structure and function of Thermotoga maritima CorA reveals the mechanism of gating and ion selectivity in Co2+/Mg2+ transport.  

PubMed

The CorA family of divalent cation transporters utilizes Mg2+ and Co2+ as primary substrates. The molecular mechanism of its function, including ion selectivity and gating, has not been fully characterized. Recently we reported a new structure of a CorA homologue from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, which provided novel structural details that offered the conception of a unique gating mechanism involving conversion of an open hydrophilic gate into a closed hydrophobic one. In the present study we report functional evidence for this novel gating mechanism in the Thermotoga maritima CorA together with an improved crystal structure of this CorA to 2.7 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm) resolution. The latter reveals the organization of the selectivity filter to be similar to that of M. jannaschii CorA and also the previously unknown organization of the second signature motif of the CorA family. The proposed gating is achieved by a helical rotation upon the binding of a metal ion substrate to the regulatory binding sites. Additionally, our data suggest that the preference of this CorA for Co2+ over Mg2+ is controlled by the presence of threonine side chains in the channel. Finally, the roles of the intracellular metal-binding sites have been assigned to increased thermostability and regulation of the gating. These mechanisms most likely apply to the entire CorA family as they are regulated by the highly conserved amino acids. PMID:23425532

Nordin, Nurhuda; Guskov, Albert; Phua, Terri; Sahaf, Newsha; Xia, Yu; Lu, Siyan; Eshaghi, Hojjat; Eshaghi, Said

2013-05-01

141

Identification of Tyr241 as a key catalytic base in the family 4 glycoside hydrolase BglT from Thermotoga maritima.  

PubMed

While the vast majority of glycosidases catalyze glycoside hydrolysis via oxocarbenium ion-like transition states and typically employ carboxylic acid residues as acid/base or nucleophile catalysts, two subfamilies of these enzymes (GH4 and GH109 in the CAZY classification) conduct hydrolysis via a redox-assisted mechanism involving anionic transition states. While good evidence of this mechanism has been obtained, the identities of the catalytic residues involved have not yet been confirmed. Mechanistic analyses of mutants of the 6-phospho-?-glucosidase from Thermotoga maritima (BglT), in which the active site tyrosine residue (Tyr 241) has been replaced with Phe and Ala, provide support for its role as a catalytic base. The pH dependence of k(cat) and k(cat)/K(m), particularly of the acidic limb corresponding to the base, is shifted relative to that of the wild-type enzyme. Kinetic isotope effects for hydrolysis of substrates deuterated at C1, C2, and C3 by the Tyr 241 mutants are strongly pH-dependent, with essentially full primary kinetic isotope effects being observed for the 2-deutero substrate at low pH with the Tyr241Ala mutant. This is consistent with a slowing of the deprotonation step upon removal of the base. PMID:23025815

Yip, Vivian L Y; Withers, Stephen G

2012-10-23

142

The N-terminal hybrid binding domain of RNase HI from Thermotoga maritima is important for substrate binding and Mg2+-dependent activity.  

PubMed

Thermotoga maritima ribonuclease H (RNase H) I (Tma-RNase HI) contains a hybrid binding domain (HBD) at the N-terminal region. To analyze the role of this HBD, Tma-RNase HI, Tma-W22A with the single mutation at the HBD, the C-terminal RNase H domain (Tma-CD) and the N-terminal domain containing the HBD (Tma-ND) were overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and biochemically characterized. Tma-RNase HI prefers Mg(2+) to Mn(2+) for activity, and specifically loses most of the Mg(2+)-dependent activity on removal of the HBD and 87% of it by the mutation at the HBD. Tma-CD lost the ability to suppress the RNase H deficiency of an E. coli rnhA mutant, indicating that the HBD is responsible for in vivo RNase H activity. The cleavage-site specificities of Tma-RNase HI are not significantly changed on removal of the HBD, regardless of the metal cofactor. Binding analyses of the proteins to the substrate using surface plasmon resonance indicate that the binding affinity of Tma-RNase HI is greatly reduced on removal of the HBD or the mutation. These results indicate that there is a correlation between Mg(2+)-dependent activity and substrate binding affinity. Tma-CD was as stable as Tma-RNase HI, indicating that the HBD is not important for stability. The HBD of Tma-RNase HI is important not only for substrate binding, but also for Mg(2+)-dependent activity, probably because the HBD affects the interaction between the substrate and enzyme at the active site, such that the scissile phosphate group of the substrate and the Mg(2+) ion are arranged ideally. PMID:20875084

Jongruja, Nujarin; You, Dong-Ju; Kanaya, Eiko; Koga, Yuichi; Takano, Kazufumi; Kanaya, Shigenori

2010-11-01

143

Structural and biochemical characterization of the ?-N-acetylglucosaminidase from Thermotoga maritima: Toward rationalization of mechanistic knowledge in the GH73 family.  

PubMed

Members of the GH73 glycosidase family cleave the ?-1,4-glycosidic bond between the N-acetylglucosaminyl (GlcNAc) and N-acetylmuramyl (MurNAc) moieties in bacterial peptidoglycan. A catalytic mechanism has been proposed for members FlgJ, Auto, AcmA and Atl(WM) and the structural analysis of FlgJ and Auto revealed a conserved ?/? fold reminiscent of the distantly related GH23 lysozyme. Comparison of the active site residues reveals variability in the nature of the catalytic general base suggesting two distinct catalytic mechanisms: an inverting mechanism involving two distant glutamate residues and a substrate-assisted mechanism involving anchimeric assistance by the C2-acetamido group of the GlcNAc moiety. Herein, we present the biochemical characterization and crystal structure of TM0633 from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima. TM0633 adopts the ?/? fold of the family and displays ?-N-acetylglucosaminidase activity on intact peptidoglycan sacculi. Site-directed mutagenesis identifies Glu34, Glu65 and Tyr118 as important residues for catalysis. A thorough bioinformatic analysis of the GH73 sequences identified five phylogenetic clusters. TM0633, FlgJ and Auto belong to a group of three clusters that conserve two carboxylate residues involved in a classical inverting acid-base mechanism. Members of the other two clusters lack a conserved catalytic general base supporting a substrate-assisted mechanism. Molecular modeling of representative members from each cluster suggests that variability in length of the ?-hairpin region above the active site confers ligand-binding specificity and modulates the catalytic mechanisms within the GH73 family. PMID:25344445

Lipski, Alexandra; Hervé, Mireille; Lombard, Vincent; Nurizzo, Didier; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Bourne, Yves; Vincent, Florence

2015-03-01

144

Crystal structure of Thermotoga maritima TM0439: implications for the mechanism of bacterial GntR transcription regulators with Zn2+-binding FCD domains  

SciTech Connect

The GntR superfamily of dimeric transcription factors, with more than 6200 members encoded in bacterial genomes, are characterized by N-terminal winged helix (WH) DNA-binding domains and diverse C-terminal, regulatory domains, which provide a basis for the classification of the constituent families. The largest of these families, FadR, contains nearly 3000 proteins with all a-helical regulatory domains classified into two related Pfam families: FadR{_}C and FCD. Only two crystal structures of the FadR family members, i.e. the E. coli FadR protein and the LldR from C. glutamicum, have been described to date in literature. Here we describe the crystal structure of TM0439, a GntR regulator with an FCD domain, found in the Thermotoga maritima genome. The FCD domain is similar to that of the LldR regulator, and contains a buried metal binding site. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy and Trp fluorescence, we show that the recombinant protein contains bound Ni{sup 2+} ions, but it is able to bind Zn{sup 2+} with K{sub D} < 70 nM . We conclude that Zn{sup 2+} is the likely physiological metal, where it may perform either or both structural and regulatory roles. Finally, we compare the TM0439 structure to two other FadR family structures recently deposited by Structural Genomics consortia. The results call for a revision in the classification of the FadR family of transcription factors.

Zheng, Meiying; Cooper, David; Grossoehmerb, Nickolas; Yu, Minmin; Hung, Li-Wei; Cieslik, Murcin; Derewendaro, Urszula; Lesley, Scott; Wilson, Ian; Giedrocb, David; Derewenda, Zygmunt

2009-06-06

145

Isolation and cloning of Omp alpha, a coiled-coil protein spanning the periplasmic space of the ancestral eubacterium Thermotoga maritima.  

PubMed Central

We have discovered a new oligomeric protein component associated with the outer membrane of the ancestral eubacterium Thermotoga maritima. In electron micrographs, the protein, Omp alpha, appears as a rod-shaped spacer that spans the periplasm, connecting the outer membrane to the inner cell body. Purification, biochemical characterization and sequencing of Omp alpha suggest that it is a homodimer composed of two subunits of 380 amino acids with a calculated M(r) of 43,000 and a pI of 4.54. The sequence of the omp alpha gene indicates a tripartite organization of the protein with a globular NH2-terminal domain of 64 residues followed by a putative coiled-coil segment of 300 residues and a COOH-terminal, membrane-spanning segment. The predicted length of the coiled-coil segment (45 nm) correlates closely with the spacing between the inner and outer membranes. Despite sequence similarity to a large number of coiled-coil proteins and high scores in a coiled-coil prediction algorithm, the sequence of the central rod-shaped domain of Omp alpha does not have the typical 3.5 periodicity of coiled-coil proteins but rather has a periodicity of 3.58 residues. Such a periodicity was also found in the central domain of staphylococcal M protein and beta-giardin and might be indicative of a subclass of fibrous proteins with packing interactions that are distinct from the ones seen in other two-stranded coiled-coils. Images PMID:1330536

Engel, A M; Cejka, Z; Lupas, A; Lottspeich, F; Baumeister, W

1992-01-01

146

Role of N-terminal extension of Bacillus stearothermophilus RNase H2 and C-terminal extension of Thermotoga maritima RNase H2.  

PubMed

Bacillus stearothermophilus RNase H2 (BstRNH2) and Thermotoga maritima RNase H2 (TmaRNH2) have N-terminal and C-terminal extensions, respectively, as compared with Aquifex aeolicus RNase H2 (AaeRNH2). To analyze the role of these extensions, BstRNH2 and TmaRNH2 without these extensions were constructed, and their biochemical properties were compared with those of their intact partners and AaeRNH2. The far-UV CD spectra of all proteins were similar, suggesting that the protein structure is not significantly altered by removal of these extensions. However, both the junction ribonuclease and RNase H activities of BstRNH2 and TmaRNH2, as well as their substrate-binding affinities, were considerably decreased by removal of these extensions. The stability of BstRNH2 and TmaRNH2 was also decreased by removal of these extensions. The activity, substrate binding affinity and stability of TmaRNH2 without the C-terminal 46 residues were partly restored by the attachment of the N-terminal extension of BstRNH2. These results suggest that the N-terminal extension of BstRNH2 functions as a substrate-binding domain and stabilizes the RNase H domain. Because the C-terminal extension of TmaRNH2 assumes a helix hairpin structure and does not make direct contact with the substrate, this extension is probably required to make the conformation of the substrate-binding site functional. AaeRNH2 showed comparable junction ribonuclease activity to those of BstRNH2 and TmaRNH2, and was more stable than these proteins, indicating that bacterial RNases H2 do not always require an N-terminal or C-terminal extension to increase activity, substrate-binding affinity, and/or stability. PMID:23937561

Permanasari, Etin-Diah; Angkawidjaja, Clement; Koga, Yuichi; Kanaya, Shigenori

2013-10-01

147

Post-translational Modification of Ribosomal Proteins: Structural and Functional Characterization of RimO from Thermotoga maritima, a Radical S-adenosylmethionine methylthiotransferase  

SciTech Connect

Post-translational modifications of ribosomal proteins are important for the accuracy of the decoding machinery. A recent in vivo study has shown that the rimO gene is involved in generation of the 3-methylthio derivative of residue Asp-89 in ribosomal protein S12 (Anton, B. P., Saleh, L., Benner, J. S., Raleigh, E. A., Kasif, S., and Roberts, R. J. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105, 1826-1831). This reaction is formally identical to that catalyzed by MiaB on the C2 of adenosine 37 near the anticodon of several tRNAs. We present spectroscopic evidence that Thermotoga maritima RimO, like MiaB, contains two [4Fe-4S] centers, one presumably bound to three invariant cysteines in the central radical S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) domain and the other to three invariant cysteines in the N-terminal UPF0004 domain. We demonstrate that holo-RimO can specifically methylthiolate the aspartate residue of a 20-mer peptide derived from S12, yielding a mixture of mono- and bismethylthio derivatives. Finally, we present the 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of the central radical AdoMet and the C-terminal TRAM (tRNA methyltransferase 2 and MiaB) domains in apo-RimO. Although the core of the open triose-phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel of the radical AdoMet domain was conserved, RimO showed differences in domain organization compared with other radical AdoMet enzymes. The unusually acidic TRAM domain, likely to bind the basic S12 protein, is located at the distal edge of the radical AdoMet domain. The basic S12 protein substrate is likely to bind RimO through interactions with both the TRAM domain and the concave surface of the incomplete TIM barrel. These biophysical results provide a foundation for understanding the mechanism of methylthioation by radical AdoMet enzymes in the MiaB/RimO family.

Arragain, S.; Latour, J; Forouhar, F; Neely, H; Montelione, G; Hunt, J; Mulliez, E; Fontecave, M; Atta, M; et al.

2010-01-01

148

Post-translational Modification of Ribosomal Proteins - Structural and Functional Characterization of RimO from Thermotoga Maritima, A Radiacal S-Adenosylmethionine Methylthiotransferase  

SciTech Connect

Post-translational modifications of ribosomal proteins are important for the accuracy of the decoding machinery. A recent in vivo study has shown that the rimO gene is involved in generation of the 3-methylthio derivative of residue Asp-89 in ribosomal protein S12 (Anton, B. P., Saleh, L., Benner, J. S., Raleigh, E. A., Kasif, S., and Roberts, R. J. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105, 1826-1831). This reaction is formally identical to that catalyzed by MiaB on the C2 of adenosine 37 near the anticodon of several tRNAs. We present spectroscopic evidence that Thermotoga maritima RimO, like MiaB, contains two [4Fe-4S] centers, one presumably bound to three invariant cysteines in the central radical S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) domain and the other to three invariant cysteines in the N-terminal UPF0004 domain. We demonstrate that holo-RimO can specifically methylthiolate the aspartate residue of a 20-mer peptide derived from S12, yielding a mixture of mono- and bismethylthio derivatives. Finally, we present the 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of the central radical AdoMet and the C-terminal TRAM (tRNA methyltransferase 2 and MiaB) domains in apo-RimO. Although the core of the open triose-phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel of the radical AdoMet domain was conserved, RimO showed differences in domain organization compared with other radical AdoMet enzymes. The unusually acidic TRAM domain, likely to bind the basic S12 protein, is located at the distal edge of the radical AdoMet domain. The basic S12 protein substrate is likely to bind RimO through interactions with both the TRAM domain and the concave surface of the incomplete TIM barrel. These biophysical results provide a foundation for understanding the mechanism of methylthioation by radical AdoMet enzymes in the MiaB/RimO family.

Arragain, S.; Garcia-Serres, R; Blondin, G; Douki, T; Clemancey, M; Latour, J; Forouhar, F; Neely, H; Montelione, G; et. al.

2010-01-01

149

No male agonistic experience effect on pre-copulatory mate choice in female earwigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mating with dominant males may confer considerable benefits, but also incur significant costs, hence intrasexual competitiveness\\u000a is a likely target of mate choice. In addition to established modes of mate assessment, females may use cues or signals associated\\u000a with agonistic experience effects to assess the relative competiveness of males. Experience effects, where the outcome of\\u000a a fight increases the likelihood

Emile van Lieshout; Ellen van Wilgenburg; Mark Adrian Elgar

2009-01-01

150

Directional substitution and evolution of nucleotide content in the cytochrome oxidase II gene in earwigs (dermapteran insects).  

PubMed

The cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) gene was sequenced for six dermapteran species. The nucleotide composition of this gene is biased in most animals. While the CG content of other insect orders is low (mean, 27.6%; range, 19.5%-33.1%), species from the Forficula genus showed unusually high values (mean, 42.4%; range, 37.3%-44.1%), mostly due to high CG frequencies at third codon positions: the mean CG content at these positions was around 45% (range, 43.9%-46.9%) for Forficula, compared with only 13.3% for other insects. This effect was so strong that in one species, Forficula lesnei, there was no significant difference between the frequencies of the four bases. During evolution, this loss of bias has involved a significant increase in the synonymous substitution rate and an increase of transitions over transversions compared with other insects. A strong directionality of substitutions has favored T-->C and A-->G changes. This phenomenon was also observed between two conspecific populations of Forficula auricularia. A species from a closely related genus, Anechura bipunctata, was intermediate between Forficula and other insects for these parameters, while two remotely related dermapteran species, Labidura riparia and Euborellia moesta, were similar to other insects. These results suggest that the evolution of Forficula DNA content has been both rapid and recent. PMID:10605107

Wirth, T; Le Guellec, R; Veuille, M

1999-12-01

151

Genetic structure and gene flow in Beta vulgaris subspecies maritima along the Atlantic coast of France  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Locating and quantifying genetic variation within crop wild relatives is an ongoing activity of gene banks tasked with ex situ conservation. Without detailed information about the population genetics of a species geography often serves as a reasonable proxy for differentiation. With this in mind, ...

152

An analysis of segmentation dynamics throughout embryogenesis in the centipede Strigamia maritima  

PubMed Central

Background Most segmented animals add segments sequentially as the animal grows. In vertebrates, segment patterning depends on oscillations of gene expression coordinated as travelling waves in the posterior, unsegmented mesoderm. Recently, waves of segmentation gene expression have been clearly documented in insects. However, it remains unclear whether cyclic gene activity is widespread across arthropods, and possibly ancestral among segmented animals. Previous studies have suggested that a segmentation oscillator may exist in Strigamia, an arthropod only distantly related to insects, but further evidence is needed to document this. Results Using the genes even skipped and Delta as representative of genes involved in segment patterning in insects and in vertebrates, respectively, we have carried out a detailed analysis of the spatio-temporal dynamics of gene expression throughout the process of segment patterning in Strigamia. We show that a segmentation clock is involved in segment formation: most segments are generated by cycles of dynamic gene activity that generate a pattern of double segment periodicity, which is only later resolved to the definitive single segment pattern. However, not all segments are generated by this process. The most posterior segments are added individually from a localized sub-terminal area of the embryo, without prior pair-rule patterning. Conclusions Our data suggest that dynamic patterning of gene expression may be widespread among the arthropods, but that a single network of segmentation genes can generate either oscillatory behavior at pair-rule periodicity or direct single segment patterning, at different stages of embryogenesis. PMID:24289308

2013-01-01

153

Germ cells of the centipede Strigamia maritima are specified early in embryonic development  

E-print Network

in induction (Donoughe et al., 2014; Lawson et al., 1999; Ying et al., 2000; Ying and Zhao, 2001). In three of the four myriapod groups, classical literature describes a late origin of the PGCs from the coelomic pouches of the mesoderm (millipedes, symphylans...

Green, Jack E.; Akam, Michael

2014-06-12

154

Necromenic life style of Histiostoma polypori (Acari: Histiostomatidae).  

PubMed

Histiostoma polypori (Histiostomatidae, Astigmata) is associated with the earwig Forficula auricularia, which has an interesting brood behavior: the adult earwig female cares for her eggs and stays with the N2 and N3 nymphs in the nest. Deutonymphs of H. polypori only leave the female earwig to develop on dead earwig N2 and N3 nymphs. The newly molted deutonymphs attach to live earwig N3 nymphs. The earwig's cleaning behavior displaces the deutonymphs to the exuvial suture, around the area between cephalon and prothorax. From there, deutonymphs switch from one earwig stage to the following, always occupying that region. Histiostoma polypori obviously has a necromenic life style, that is, it ascends a carrier organism and develops on the carrier's cadavers. Necromeny within the Histiostomatidae presumably derived at least twice convergently from phoretic transport. PMID:19697142

Wirth, S

2009-12-01

155

Biology and ecology of the earwig, Doru taeniata (Dohrn) and evaluation as a predator of Spodoptera frugiperda attacking corn and sorghum in Honduras  

E-print Network

and adult stages of D. taeniate Comparison of immature development times for males and females of D. taeniate 30 31 Developmental times of immature stages of D. taeniate reared on different food sources . . . . . . . . 35 Reproductive statistics of D... on aphids in alfalfa. In laboratory studies, L. ~ri aria consumed a wide variety of prey, including larval and pupal stages of several noctuid species, immature mantids, beetle larvae and earthworms. L. ~ri aria also reportedly feeds on various...

Jones, Robert Wallace

1985-01-01

156

The first myriapod genome sequence reveals conservative arthropod gene content and genome organisation in the centipede Strigamia maritima  

E-print Network

 Anthropologie,  Abteilung  Entwicklungsbiologie,  GZMB,  Justus-­?von-­?Liebig-­?Weg  11,  37077  Göttingen,  Germany.  9.  Current  address:  Centre  de  Recherche  de  Biochimie  Macromoléculaire,  Bioinformatique...

Chipman, Ariel D.; Ferrier, David E. K.; Brena, Carlo; Qu, Jiaxin; Hughes, Daniel S. T.; Schröder, Reinhard; Torres-­Oliva, Montserrat; Znassi, Nadia; Jiang, Huaiyang; Almeida, Francisca C.; Alonso, Claudio R.; Apostolou, Zivkos; Aqrawi, Peshtewani; Arthur, Wallace; Barna, Jennifer C. J.; Blankenburg, Kerstin P.; Brites, Daniela; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Coyle, Marcus; Dearden, Peter K.; Du Pasquier, Louis; Duncan, Elizabeth J.; Ebert, Dieter; Eibner, Cornelius; Erikson, Galina; Evans, Peter D.; Extavour, Cassandra G.; Francisco, Liezl; Gabaldón, Toni; Gillis, William J.; Goodwin-­Horn, Elizabeth A.; Green, Jack E.; Griffiths-­Jones, Sam; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J. P.; Gubbala, Sai; Guigó, Roderic; Han, Yi; Hauser, Frank; Havlak, Paul; Hayden, Luke; Helbing, Sophie; Holder, Michael; Hui, Jerome H. L.; Hunn, Julia P.; Hunnekuhl, Vera S.; Jackson, LaRonda; Javaid, Mehwish; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Jiggins, Francis M.; Jones, Tamsin E.; Kaiser, Tobias S.; Kalra, Divya; Kenny, Nathan J.; Korchina, Viktoriya; Kovar, Christie L.; Kraus, F. Bernhard; Lapraz, François; Lee, Sandra L.; Lv, Jie; Mandapat, Christigale; Manning, Gerard; Mariotti, Marco; Mata, Sandra; Mathew, Tittu; Neumann, Tobias; Newsham, Irene; Ngo, Dinh N.; Ninova, Maria; Okwuonu, Geoffrey; Ongeri, Fiona; Palmer, William J.; Patil, Shobha; Patraquim, Pedro; Pham, Christopher; Pu, Ling?Ling; Putman, Nicholas H.; Rabouille, Catherine; Ramos, Olivia Mendivil; Rhodes, Adelaide C.; Robertson, Helen E.; Robertson, Hugh M.; Ronshaugen, Matthew; Rozas, Julio; Saada, Nehad; Sánchez-­Gracia, Alejandro; Scherer, Steven E.; Schurko, Andrew M.; Siggens, Kenneth W.; Simmons, DeNard; Stief, Anna; Stolle, Eckart; Telford, Maximilian J.; Tessmar-­ Raible, Kristin; Thornton, Rebecca; van der Zee, Maurijn; von Haeseler, Arndt; Williams, James M.; Willis, Judith H.; Wu, Yuanqing; Zou, Xiaoyan; Lawson, Daniel; Muzny, Donna M.; Worley, Kim C.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Akam, Michael; Richards, Stephen

2014-01-01

157

Molecular analysis of hyperthermophilic endoglucanase Cel12B from Thermotoga maritima and the properties of its functional residues  

PubMed Central

Background Although many hyperthermophilic endoglucanases have been reported from archaea and bacteria, a complete survey and classification of all sequences in these species from disparate evolutionary groups, and the relationship between their molecular structures and functions are lacking. The completion of several high-quality gene or genome sequencing projects provided us with the unique opportunity to make a complete assessment and thorough comparative analysis of the hyperthermophilic endoglucanases encoded in archaea and bacteria. Results Structure alignment of the 19 hyperthermophilic endoglucanases from archaea and bacteria which grow above 80°C revealed that Gly30, Pro63, Pro83, Trp115, Glu131, Met133, Trp135, Trp175, Gly227 and Glu229 are conserved amino acid residues. In addition, the average percentage composition of residues cysteine and histidine of 19 endoglucanases is only 0.28 and 0.74 while it is high in thermophilic or mesophilic one. It can be inferred from the nodes that there is a close relationship among the 19 protein from hyperthermophilic bacteria and archaea based on phylogenetic analysis. Among these conserved amino acid residues, as far as Cel12B concerned, two Glu residues might be the catalytic nucleophile and proton donor, Gly30, Pro63, Pro83 and Gly227 residues might be necessary to the thermostability of protein, and Trp115, Met133, Trp135, Trp175 residues is related to the binding of substrate. Site-directed mutagenesis results reveal that Pro63 and Pro83 contribute to the thermostability of Cel12B and Met133 is confirmed to have role in enhancing the binding of substrate. Conclusions The conserved acids have been shown great importance to maintain the structure, thermostability, as well as the similarity of the enzymatic properties of those proteins. We have made clear the function of these conserved amino acid residues in Cel12B protein, which is helpful in analyzing other undetailed molecular structure and transforming them with site directed mutagenesis, as well as providing the theoretical basis for degrading cellulose from woody and herbaceous plants. PMID:24529187

2014-01-01

158

Effects of seed ingestion and herbivory by waterfowl on seedling establishment: a field experiment with wigeongrass Ruppia maritima in  

E-print Network

, Germination rate, Macrophytes, Seed dispersal, Seedling survival Abstract The ingestion of seeds by vertebrates usually affects the viability and/or germination rate of seeds. Increases in germination rate non-ingested seeds. In conclusion, increases in germination rate after ingestion are not necessarily

Green, Andy J.

159

Local and global influences on population declines of coastal waders: Purple Sandpiper Calidris maritima numbers in the Moray Firth, Scotland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Declines in numbers by several wader species in Britain have been linked to climate change, but the mechanism for the declines has rarely been explored. Britain lies at the northern end of the East Atlantic Flyway, and supports 1.3 million out of the Flyway's 8.5 million coastal waders (Charadrii) in winter and the Purple Sandpiper is one of the species whose numbers have declined. Here, we examine the dynamics of the decline as observed in the Moray Firth, northeast Scotland, investigating whether the decline was due to poorer apparent survival (return rate) or poorer recruitment of young birds. The maximum number in the Moray Firth declined from 860 in 1987/88 to 236 in 2006/07, with some increase during winters 2007/08 and 2008/09. At the three main high-tide roosts (Balintore, Lossiemouth and Buckie) the maximum combined number declined from 574 to 90. Changes in survival and recruitment (percentage of first-year birds) were examined at these roosts from captured samples, which were ringed and recaptured. There were no significant changes between winters in survival rates, nor were there differences between the survival rates of age groups (first-year and adult) or bill size groups, which represented birds of different sex and breeding origin. Annual survival estimates for the three roosts ranged from 72 to 77%. The percentage of first-year birds varied among roosts and years; the lowest values were during the late 1980s/early 1990s and early 2000s. A free-running population model incorporating varying percentages of first-year birds and constant mortality for each roost provided a plausible explanation for the decline. Although modelled numbers followed the observed pattern, a discrepancy in one year was carried forward in subsequent years, so that the fit with the observed numbers was parallel rather than similar. However, it seems that the decline in numbers was largely due to poorer recruitment. We discuss whether breeding success had declined, whether the population had responded to changes in the local sewage treatment systems, which could affect invertebrate food for Purple Sandpipers, or whether fewer birds chose to winter in Scotland. The Moray Firth population is derived from Norway and possibly Canada, and there is evidence that the Norwegian population was disproportionately affected. The reason for poor recruitment requires further study, and other wader species require examination to test if poor recruitment is a common feature of decline in numbers.

Summers, Ron W.; Foster, Simon; Swann, Bob; Etheridge, Brian

2012-05-01

160

News you can use Disease management  

E-print Network

numbers. The earwig population remains intense in area vines. Earwigs are not considered a pest of grape, but do pose a concern when populations are present in the clusters at harvest. Luckily we have a while before harvest. Cicadas are out in force and can be heard calling in area vineyards, grasshopper

Isaacs, Rufus

161

Effects of seed ingestion and herbivory by waterfowl on seedling establishment: a field experiment with wigeongrass Ruppia maritima in Doñana, south-west Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ingestion of seeds by vertebrates usually affects the viability and\\/or germination rate of seeds. Increases in germination rate following passage through the vertebrate gut have often been assumed to be favourable for seedling survival and plant fitness, but this assumption has never been tested experimentally. Given that numbers of herbivorous waterfowl are higher in winter in Mediterranean wetlands, herbivory

Jordi Figuerola; Andy J. Green

2004-01-01

162

Cloning and Expression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes Catalyzing the Conversion of Tyrosine to p-Hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime in the Biosynthesis of Cyanogenic Glucosides in Triglochin maritima  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cDNA clones encoding cytochrome P450 enzymes belong- ing to the CYP79 family have been isolated from Triglochin mari- tima. The two proteins show 94% sequence identity and have been designated CYP79E1 and CYP79E2. Heterologous expression of the native and the truncated forms of the two clones in Escherichia coli demonstrated that both encode multifunctional N-hydroxylases cat- alyzing the conversion

John Strikart Nielsen; Birger Lindberg Møller

2000-01-01

163

Small structural changes account for the high thermostability of 1[4Fe–4S] ferredoxin from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The characterization of the structural features that account for the high thermostability of some proteins is of great scientific and biotechnological interest. Proteins from hyperthermophilic organisms with optimum growth temperatures of 80° C and higher generally show high intrinsic stabilities. The comparison of high resolution X-ray structures of these proteins with their counterparts from mesophilic organisms has therefore helped

Sandra Macedo-Ribeiro; Beatrice Darimont; Reinhard Sterner; Robert Huber

1996-01-01

164

A comparative study of the tolerance of salt marsh plants to manganese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Salicornia europaea, Puccinellia maritima, Triglochin maritima, Aster tripolium, Plantago maritima, Armeria maritima, Juncus gerardii andFestuca rubra, collected as seed from a salt marsh at Portaferry, County Down, were grown on saline (340 mM NaCl) and non saline nutrient solutions at five concentrations of manganese sulphate (0.025–10.0 mM). After an eight week growing period, shoot and root yields and the

A. Cooper

1984-01-01

165

BULLETIN OF MARINE SCIENCE, 77(3): 453458, 2005 453Bulletin of Marine Science  

E-print Network

ON SEED GERMINATION IN RUPPIA MARITIMA FROM FLORIDA BAY A. E. Kahn and M. J. Durako Ruppia maritima L to require recruitment via seed germination in this species (Kantrud, 1991). Germination in Ruppia spp, rather than temperature, is the prime factor in ecotypic variation in R. maritima seed germination

Durako, Michael J.

166

Bell Pettigrew Museum of Natural History  

E-print Network

-dwelling herbivores and carnivores (e.g. many beetles and ants), scavengers (e.g. earwigs, houseflies and cockroaches.g. black-fly larvae) and benthic scavengers (e.g. caddis , and mayfly nymphs). Classification within

Brierley, Andrew

167

Spring staging in Brent Geese Branta bernicla : feeding constraints and the impact of diet on the accumulation of body reserves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diet composition of Brent Geese Branta bernicla on a salt-marsh was quantified. Puccinellia maritima was the principal food species, while Plantago maritima and Triglochin maritima were less commonly taken. Festuca rubra only acted as a substitute for Puccinellia when production of the latter species dropped. The metabolizable energy of the food plants ranged from 5 to 11 kJ·g-1. By

Jouke Prop; Charlotte Deerenberg

1991-01-01

168

Competition and herbivory during salt marsh succession: the importance of forb growth strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1 Despite much debate about their importance, only a few field studies have evalu- ated the intensity of competition and herbivory. 2 Artemisia maritima, Atriplex portulacoides and Plantago maritima, three plant species which are common in European temperate salt marshes, were transplanted into diÄerent successional stages (15, 30 and 45 years old) of a temperate salt marsh. Biomass of

Carsten F. Dormann; Rene Van Der Wal; Jan P. Bakker

2000-01-01

169

Determinants of phylogeographic structure: a comparative study of seven coastal flowering plant species across their European range  

Microsoft Academic Search

We here synthesize our own mostly published work on the phylogeographic structure of seven flowering plant species (Cakile maritima, Calystegia sold- anella, Eryngium maritimum, Salsola kali, Halimione portulacoides, Triglochin maritima and Crithmum maritimum) widely distributed along the European coasts. Three categories of factors were identified to determine phylogeographic structure and are illustrated with examples. These are 1) historical abiotic factors

J. W. KADEREIT; E. WESTBERG

170

Phytologia (August 2013) 95(3)226 The following paper  

E-print Network

. 2012. Taxonomy of the multi-seeded, entire leaf taxa of the Juniperus, section Sabina: sequence, 2013). KEY WORDS: Juniperus, sect. sabina, correction. Figure 3 (revised). Minimum spanning network. jarkendensis J. semiglobosa ++ J. s. v. jarkendensis J. maritima J. scopulorum ++ J. maritima J. phoenicea J

Adams, Robert P.

171

An Insight into the Interaction Mode Between CheB and Chemoreceptor from Two Crystal Structures of CheB Methylesterase Catalytic Domain  

SciTech Connect

We have determined 2.2 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of Thermotoga maritima CheB methylesterase domain to provide insight into the interaction mode between CheB and chemoreceptors. T. maritima CheB methylesterase domain has identical topology of a modified doubly-wound {alpha}/{beta} fold that was observed from the previously reported Salmonella typhimurium counterpart, but the analysis of the electrostatic potential surface near the catalytic triad indicated considerable charge distribution difference. As the CheB demethylation consensus sites of the chemoreceptors, the CheB substrate, are not uniquely conserved between T. maritima and S. typhimurium, such surfaces with differing electrostatic properties may reflect CheB regions that mediate protein-protein interaction. Via the computational docking of the two T. maritima and S. typhimurium CheB structures to the respective T. maritima and Escherichia coli chemoreceptors, we propose a CheB:chemoreceptor interaction mode.

K Cho; B Crane; S Park

2011-12-31

172

Epilogue to Special Issue on Developmental Robotics: Can Experiments with Machines Inform Theory in Infant Development?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmental robotics has forwarded a range of models of development and behaviours. With the variety of systems that have been created, and with some of these approximating prominent human behaviours (e.g. joint attention, word learning, imitation), one may argue that developmental robotics has started to go past robotic models of earwigs

Prince, Christopher G.

2008-01-01

173

Utilization of submerged aquatic vegetation habitats by fishes and decapods in the Galvestion Bay Ecosystem, Texas  

E-print Network

Fish and decapod densities in shoalgrass, Halodule wrightii, wigeongrass, Ruppia maritima, and adjacent non-vegetated sand or mud habitats in Galveston Bay, Texas were compared to determine the relative value of each habitat in terms of faunal...

Scott, Elizabeth A.

2012-06-07

174

Cornus suecica Swedish dwarf cornel  

E-print Network

maritima Oysterleaf Should be looked for. Habitat is sandy beaches on the coast. Prunella vulgaris Self, lakeshores, occasionally in disturbed areas. Blooms in late July. Pinguicula vulgaris Butterwort Uncommon

Jones, Ian L.

175

An offspring signal of quality affects the timing of future parental reproduction.  

PubMed

Solicitation signals by offspring are well known to influence parental behaviour, and it is commonly assumed that this behavioural effect translates into an effect on residual reproduction of parents. However, this equivalence assumption concerning behavioural and reproductive effects caused by offspring signals remains largely untested. Here, we tested the effect of a chemical offspring signal of quality on the relative timing and amount of future reproduction in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia). We manipulated the nutritional condition of earwig nymphs and exposed females to their extract, or to solvent as a control. There were no significant main effects of exposure treatment on 2nd clutch production, but exposure to extracts of well-fed nymphs induced predictable timing of the 2nd relative to the 1st clutch. This result demonstrates for the first time that an offspring signal per se, in the absence of any maternal behaviour, affects maternal reproductive timing, possibly through an effect on maternal reproductive physiology. PMID:21208942

Mas, Flore; Kölliker, Mathias

2011-06-23

176

An offspring signal of quality affects the timing of future parental reproduction  

PubMed Central

Solicitation signals by offspring are well known to influence parental behaviour, and it is commonly assumed that this behavioural effect translates into an effect on residual reproduction of parents. However, this equivalence assumption concerning behavioural and reproductive effects caused by offspring signals remains largely untested. Here, we tested the effect of a chemical offspring signal of quality on the relative timing and amount of future reproduction in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia). We manipulated the nutritional condition of earwig nymphs and exposed females to their extract, or to solvent as a control. There were no significant main effects of exposure treatment on 2nd clutch production, but exposure to extracts of well-fed nymphs induced predictable timing of the 2nd relative to the 1st clutch. This result demonstrates for the first time that an offspring signal per se, in the absence of any maternal behaviour, affects maternal reproductive timing, possibly through an effect on maternal reproductive physiology. PMID:21208942

Mas, Flore; Kölliker, Mathias

2011-01-01

177

Which insect species numerically respond to allochthonous inputs?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Herons (Ardeidae) frequently breed in inland forests and provide organic material in the form of carcasses of prey (that they drop) and chicks (that die) to the forest floor. Such allochthonous inputs of organic materials are known to increase arthropod populations in forests. However, the exact species that show numerical responses to allochthonous inputs in heron breeding colonies remains unclear. Very few studies have clarified which factors determine numerical responses in individual species. We used pitfall and baited traps to compare the densities of arthropods between forest patches in heron breeding colonies (five sites) and areas outside of colonies (five sites) in central Japan. The density of all arthropods was not significantly different between colonies and non-colony areas. However, significant differences between colonies and non-colony areas were found in four arthropod groups. Earwigs (Dermaptera: Anisolabididae), hister beetles (Coleoptera: Histeridae), and carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae) were more abundant in colonies, while ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) were less abundant in colonies. We detected numerical responses to heron breeding in two earwig, one histerid, five silphid, and one ant species. Chick and prey carcasses from herons may have directly led to increases in consumer populations such as earwigs, histerids, and silphids in colonies, while microenvironmental changes caused by heron breeding may have reduced ant abundance. In the Silphidae, five species showed numerical responses to allochthonous inputs, and the other two species did not. Numerical responses in individual species may have been determined by life history traits such as reproductive behaviour.

Sugiura, Shinji; Ikeda, Hiroshi

2013-08-01

178

Sugar Transport and Metabolism in Thermotoga  

SciTech Connect

The work conducted under this grant demonstrated that the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana carries out glucose and lactose transport in a sodium-dependent manner and that energization of anaerobic cells is required to observe transport. We also demonstrated that Thermotoga maritima carries out maltose and glucose transport using periplasmic sugar binding proteins. We began defining patterns of expression of genes encoding sugar transport and catabolic functions in both T. maritima and T. neapolitana. We began a collaborative effort to identify all the genes regulated at the transcriptional level in response to sugars substrates. These funds also allowed us to begin an examination of the functions of several periplasmic substrate binding proteins encoded in the genome of T. maritima.

Noll, Kenneth M.; Romano, Antonio H.

2003-02-11

179

Effects of thermoperiod on recovery of seed germination of halophytes from saline conditions.  

PubMed

Recovery of seed germination from NaCl salinity of desert shrubs (Haloxylon recurvum and Suaeda fruticosa, and the herbs Zygophyllum simplex and Triglochin maritima was studied under various thermoperiods. The percentage of ungerminated seeds that recovered when they were transferred to distilled water varied significantly with variation in species and thermoperiods. Zygophyllum simplex had little recovery from all NaCl concentrations in all thermoperiods. Haloxylon recurvum, S. fruticosa, and T. maritima showed substantial recovery. Percentage recovery was highest in S. fruticosa, followed by T. maritima, and H. recurvum. Thermoperiodic effects varied with the species investigated. There was little thermoperodic effect on the percentage recovery of S. fruticosa, except in the higher salinity treatment at higher thermoperiods. Variation in thermoperiod appears to play an important role in recovery of germination of halophytes from salt stress when seeds are transferred to distilled water. PMID:21712207

Khan, M; Ungar, I

1997-02-01

180

The role of proline accumulation in halophytes.  

PubMed

It is shown that in the majority of higher plant halophytes examined proline is the major component of the amino acid pool in plants collected from the field. In Triglochin maritima L. free proline can represent 10-20% of the shoot dry weight. Under non-saline conditions proline levels are low and increase as the salinity is raised. Comparisons of inland and coastal populations of Ameria maritima Willd. suggest that the capacity to accumulate proline is correlated with salt tolerance. It is suggested that proline functions as a source of solute for intracellular osmotic adjustments under saline conditions. PMID:24442703

Stewart, G R; Lee, J A

1974-01-01

181

Genome Sequence of Thermotoga sp Strain RQ2, a Hyperthermophilic Bacterium Isolated from a Geothermally Heated Region of the Seafloor near Ribeira Quente, the Azores  

SciTech Connect

Thermotoga sp. strain RQ2 is probably a strain of Thermotoga maritima. Its complete genome sequence allows for an examination of the extent and consequences of gene flow within Thermotoga species and strains. Thermotoga sp. RQ2 differs from T. maritima in its genes involved in myo-inositol metabolism. Its genome also encodes an apparent fructose phosphotransferase system (PTS) sugar transporter. This operon is also found in Thermotoga naphthophila strain RKU-10 but no other Thermotogales. These are the first reported PTS transporters in the Thermotogales.

Swithers, Kristen S [University of Connecticut, Storrs; DiPippo, Jonathan L [University of Connecticut, Storrs; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pennacchio, Len [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lykidis, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Stetter, Karl O [Universitat Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany; Nelson, Karen E [J. Craig Venter Institute; Gogarten, Peter [University of Connecticut, Storrs; Noll, Kenneth M [University of Connecticut, Storrs

2011-01-01

182

Cues of maternal condition influence offspring selfishness.  

PubMed

The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia) if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism) and extracted and analyzed the females' cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC). Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons. PMID:24498046

Wong, Janine W Y; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

2014-01-01

183

The importance of salt-marsh wetness for seed exploitation by dabbling ducks Anas sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the inundation of a salt marsh in southeast Denmark not subject to lunar tides and the availability and predation of seeds of the annuals Salicornia spp. and Suada maritima by autumn staging dabbling ducks was studied by carrying out exclosure experiments over the course of 2 years. There was a marked difference in the wetness of the salt

Ole R. Therkildsen; Thomas Bregnballe

2006-01-01

184

Potential for Phytotoxicity of Pennant Magnum 7.62 EC (s-Metalochlor) on  

E-print Network

Potential for Phytotoxicity of Pennant Magnum 7.62 EC (s-Metalochlor) on Sea Pink (Armeria maritima-Metalochlor - Formulation 7.62% EC - Batch Number - Product Pennant Magnum 7.62 EC - EPA Registration Number 100.5 (1X), 5 (2X), or 10 (4X) lb. ai/A Pennant Magnum 7.62 EC with 4 replicates per treatment

Lieth, J. Heinrich

185

Strategies of heavy metal uptake by three plant species growing near a metal smelter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some higher plant species have developed heavy metal tolerance strategies which enable them to survive and reproduce in highly metal-contaminated soils. We have investigated such heavy metal uptake and accumulation strategies of two absolute metallophyte species (Armeria maritima ssp. halleri and Cardaminopsis halleri) and one pseudometallophyte (Agrostis tenuis) growing near a former metal smelter. Samples of plant parts and soil

H Dahmani-Muller; F van Oort; B Gélie; M Balabane

2000-01-01

186

Beta section Beta: biogeographical patterns of variation and taxonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Chapter 1 an account is given of the historical subdivision of the genus Beta and its sections, and the relations of the sections are discussed. Emphasis is given to the taxonomic treatment of wild section Beta by various authors. The Linnaean names B. vulgaris L. and B. maritima L. are lectotypified, resp. neotypified as a basis for a new

J. P. W. Letschert

1993-01-01

187

The seed oils of some species of the family Cruciferae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The physicochemical properties of the oils of the seeds of seven plants of the family Cruciferae —Cakile maritima, Sisymbrium altissimum, Sisymbrium Loeselii, Descurainia Sophia, Erysimum cheiranthoides, Brassica amoracioides andCrambe pontica — have been studied and their fatty acid compositions have been determined. The results obtained showed no marked differences\\u000a from those given in the literature.

V. S. Dolya; E. N. Shkurupii; T. V. Podzolkova; N. A. Kaminskii

1973-01-01

188

Heavy metal uptake by marsh plants in hydroponic solution cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight marsh plants were grown in chemically controlled hydroponic solutions containing three concentrations of heavy metals to evaluate the ability of each plant species to take up and accumulate heavy metals. The marsh plants studited were Cyperus esculentus, Scirpus validus, Spartina patens, Scirpus robustus, Distichiis spicata, Triglochin maritima, Spartina alterniflora, and Spartina foliosa. These species represented freshwater, brackish water, and

C. R. Lee; T. C. Sturgis; M. C. Landin

1981-01-01

189

NOTICE OF RELEASE OF SUGARBEET GERMPLASM LINES CN12 AND CN72  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarbeet germplasm lines CN12 and CN72 were officially released on 02/28/05. These releases are multigerm, random-mated populations that segregate for resistance to sugarbeet cyst nematode from the wild species Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima. Cyst nematode is one of the most damaging pests of suga...

190

Losses and gains to the Scottish Flora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several examples are discussed of plants which have been exterminated from or introduced to Scotland as a result of human activities, and an attempt is made to draw lessons from these case histories. Four rare or threatened Scottish plants, Homogyne alpina, Mertensia maritima, Primula scotica, and Pteridium aquilinum ssy. latiusculum are considered to illustrate future plant conservation imperatives. Threats to

Michael M. Scott

1990-01-01

191

Ingestion, enzymatic digestion and absorption of particles derived from different vegetal sources by the cockle Cerastoderma edule  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ingestion, enzymatic digestion and absorption of particulate detrital matter derived from six different vegetal sources by the common cockle Cerastoderma edule was analyzed in a series of seasonal experiments performed in March, May and October 2005. Two green macroalgae: Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha sp; two vascular plants: Spartina maritima and Juncus maritimus, the red macroalgae Gracilaria gracilis; and the microalgae

U. Arambalza; M. B. Urrutia; E. Navarro; I. Ibarrola

2010-01-01

192

Nitrogen resorption from senescing leaves of three salt marsh plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonalvariation in leaf nitrogen of mature green and senescent leaves and nitrogenresorption efficiency in three plants (Spartina maritima, Halimioneportulacoides and Arthrocnemum perenne) of aTagus estuary salt marsh are reported. Total nitrogen concentrations in greenand senescent leaves were higher during winter (December and March). Soilinorganic nitrogen availability showed an opposite pattern with higherconcentrations during summer (June and September) when total leaf

P. Cartaxana; F. Catarino

2002-01-01

193

Accumulation, distribution and cellular partitioning of mercury in several halophytes of a contaminated salt marsh  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work evaluates the role of a plant community in mercury (Hg) stabilization and mobility in a contaminated Portuguese salt marsh. With this aim, the distribution of Hg in below and aboveground tissues, as well as the metal partitioning between cellular fractions (soluble and insoluble) in four different species (Triglochin maritima L., Juncus maritimus Lam, Sarcocornia perennis (Miller) A.J. Scott,

Rita Castro; Sofia Pereira; Ana Lima; Sofia Corticeiro; Mónica Válega; Eduarda Pereira; Armando Duarte; Etelvina Figueira

2009-01-01

194

Effects of Thermoperiod on Recovery of Seed Germination of Halophytes from Saline Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery of seed germination from NaCl salinity of desert shrubs (Haloxylon recurvum and Suaeda fruticosa, and the herbs Zygophyllum simplex and Triglochin maritima was studied under various thermoperiods. The percentage of unger- minated seeds that recovered when they were transferred to distilled water varied significantly with variation in species and thermoperiods. Zygophyllum simplex had little recovery from all NaCl concentrations

M. Ajmal Khan; Irwin A. Ungar

1997-01-01

195

The role of proline accumulation in halophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that in the majority of higher plant halophytes examined proline is the major component of the amino acid pool in plants collected from the field. In Triglochin maritima L. free proline can represent 10–20% of the shoot dry weight. Under non-saline conditions proline levels are low and increase as the salinity is raised. Comparisons of inland and

G. R. Stewart; J. A. Lee

1974-01-01

196

Chromatographic fingerprint analysis of Pycnogenol® dietary supplements  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

French maritime bark (Pinus maritima) has been widely used as an herbal remedy for various degenerative diseases. A standardized bark extract is available that complies with its USP monograph and is derived from Pinus pinaster, Ait. (Pycnogenol®, Horphag Research Ltd., UK). The method specified in...

197

Seed morphology and endosperm structure of selected species of Primulaceae, Myrsinaceae, and Theophrastaceae and their systematic importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed size and shape, seed coat surface pattern, seed coat thickness, and endosperm structure were investigated in Androsace septentrionalis, Cortusa matthioli, Hottonia palustris, Primula elatior, Soldanella carpatica (Primulaceae), Anagallis arvensis, A. minima, Cyclamen purpurascens, Glaux maritima, Lysimachia nemorum, L. vulgaris, Trientalis europaea (Myrsinaceae), and Samolus valerandi (Theophrastaceae). Three seed size categories were distinguished on the basis of biometric measurements. Almost

Maria Morozowska; Aneta Czarna; Marcin Kujawa; Andrzej M. Jagodzinski

2011-01-01

198

Modelling the submerged vegetation in the Orbetello lagoon with fuzzy cellular automata  

E-print Network

model for the water movements, named SWAMP for Shallow WAter Modelling Program. Both models (SWAMP the nutrient flux into the water. This model was developed for the Orbetello Lagoon Managerial Office refinement, with the dynamics of wigeongrass (Ruppia maritima) including a hydrodynamic model for the water

199

Phytologia (April 2010) 92(1)68 DISCOVERY AND SNPS ANALYSES OF POPULATIONS OF  

E-print Network

98368 ABSTRACT Trees from two populations of Juniperus commonly identified as J. scopulorum growing that Juniperus trees identified as J. scopulorum Sarg. have been reported from the dry side (northeastPhytologia (April 2010) 92(1)68 DISCOVERY AND SNPS ANALYSES OF POPULATIONS OF JUNIPERUS MARITIMA

Adams, Robert P.

200

Response of primary producers to nutrient enrichment in a shallow estuary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Shallow coastal systems worldwide are exhibiting increased algal growth in response to nutrient enrichment. This study evaluates primary production patterns in an estuarine system (Bass Harbor Marsh, ME, USA) receiving low levels of anthropogenic nitrogen. Biomass, areal coverage and in situ oxygen production of green macroalgae, Ruppia Maritima, and Phytoplankton were measured over a growing season to determine net ecosystem production. Macroalgae and R. maritima exhibited seasonal biomass curves with early summer peaks; however, peak biomass of macroalgae [150 g dry weight (wt) m-2] was substantially greater that R. maritima (33 g dry wt m-2) Phytoplankton biomass, measured as chlorophyll a, was low (<1 ??g 1-1) early in the season and peaked (11 ??g 1-1) following a mid-summer decline in macroalgal biomass, suggesting a competitive interaction with macroalgae. Instantaneous net production rates varied over the growing season for all 3 primary producers. R. maritima net production ranged from near zero to 2.7 mg C g-1 dry wt h-1, with higher rates during summer and much of the seasonal variability explained by temperature. Macroalgal (0.88 to 5.0 mg C g-1 dry wt h-1) and phytoplankton (0 to 28 mg C m-3 h-1) net production did not exhibit any clear seasonal signal. Net primary production calculated on an areal basis demonstrated macroalgae's dominance in the lower basin of Bass Harbor Marsh, with peak summer rates (400 mg C m-2 h-1) greatly exceeding maximum rates for both R maritima (70 mg C m-2h-1) and phytoplankton (12 mg C m-2 h-1). When compared to other New England estuarine sites with short residence times, nutrient loading and peak green macroalgal biomass in Bass Harbor Marsh are relatively low; however, the strong dominance of opportunistic green macroalgae is a pattern that is characteristic of shallow coastal systems undergoing eutrophication.

Kinney, E.H.; Roman, C.T.

1998-01-01

201

Gene Transfer & Hybridization Studies in Hyperthermophilic Species  

SciTech Connect

A. ABSTRACT The importance of lateral gene transfer (LGT) in the evolution of microbial species has become increasingly evident with each completed microbial genome sequence. Most significantly, the genome of Thermotoga maritima MSB8, a hyperthermophilic bacterium isolated by Karl Stetter and workers from Vulcano Italy in 1986, and sequenced at The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) in Rockville Maryland in 1999, revealed extensive LGT between % . this bacterium and members of the archaeal domain (in particular Archaeoglobus fulgidus, and Pyracoccus frcriosus species). Based on whole genome comparisons, it was estimated that 24% of the genetic information in this organism was acquired by genetic exchange with archaeal species, Independent analyses including periodicity analysis of the T. maritimu genomic DNA sequence, phylogenetic reconstruction based on genes that appear archaeal-like, and codon and amino acid usage, have provided additional evidence for LGT between T. maritima and the archaea. More recently, DiRuggiero and workers have identified a very recent LGT event between two genera of hyperthermophilic archaea, where a nearly identical DNA fragment of 16 kb in length flanked by insertion sequence (IS) elements, exists. Undoubtedly, additional examples of LGT will be identified as more microbial genomes are completed. For the present moment however, the genome sequence of T. maritima and other hyperthermophiles including P. furiosus, Pyrococcus horikoshii, Pyrococcus abyssi, A. fulgidus, and Aquifex aeolicus, have significantly increased out awareness of evolution being a web of life rather than a tree of life, as suggested by single gene phylogenies. In this proposal, we will aim to determine the extent of LGT across the hyperthemophiles, employing iY maritima as the model organism. A variety of biochemical techniques and phylogenetic reconstructions will allow for a detailed and thorough characterization of the extent of LGT in this species. The complete characterization of LGT in i? maritima will also allow for the identification of both false positive and false negative cases of LGT that have been described or overlooked respectively.

Nelson, Karen E.

2005-10-14

202

INVERTEBRATES FEEDING ON BAITS USED FOR  

E-print Network

Summary: This study was initiated in response to concerns that vertebrate pest control operations in New Zealand may be having deleterious impacts on invertebrate populations and, secondarily, on insectivorous non-target vertebrate populations. Invertebrates feeding on non-toxic baits of the types used for vertebrate pest control were collected and identified. The bait types were diced carrots and three types of cereal-based baits (No.7, RS5, and AgTech). The study was conducted in two rata/kamahi dominated forests (Bell Hill Scenic Reserve and Kopara Forest, West Coast), in July and September 1996. The most common species found on baits was the ant Huberia brouni (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Other common taxa were Orthoptera (at least eight species of weta including Zealandosandrus aff. gracilis, Gymnoplectron sp., and Pleioplectron sp.), Coleoptera (at least nine species of beetles including Saphobius nitidulus, Nestrius sp., and Phrynixus sp.), Dermaptera (at least one species of the earwig Parisolabis sp.), Opiliones (at least three species of harvestmen), and Acarina (at least three species of mites). The ants and weta were found predominately on cereal-based baits, and the beetles, earwigs, harvestmen, and mites predominantly on carrot baits. More invertebrates were found on carrot and RS5 cereal-based baits than on the other two bait types, and more on baits at night than during the day. Fewer invertebrates were found on cinnamon-flavoured baits (used for 1080-poisoning of possums) than on plain baits (used for brodifacoum-poisoning of rodents). The number of

unknown authors

203

Matters of scale: positive allometry and the evolution of male dimorphisms.  

PubMed

The developmental independence of alternative phenotypes is key to evolutionary theories of phenotypic plasticity and the origins of diversity. Male dimorphisms associated with alternative reproductive tactics are widely cited examples of such facultative expression of divergent fitness optima. Current models for the evolution of male dimorphisms invoke a size-dependent threshold at which the phenotype is reprogrammed. We use predictions derived from allometric modeling to test for the existence of reprogramming thresholds in two species of beetle, Onthophagus taurus and Onthophagus binodis, and the European earwig Forficula auricularia. We also compare the allometry of a number of morphological traits to determine whether minor males suppress their secondary sexual traits. The intercept of the horn allometry was suppressed, but there was no evidence of reprogramming of horn growth in either beetle species. There was reprogramming in the earwig. In the beetles, the horn length in all males can be explained largely in terms of exponential horn growth following an extraordinarily steep power function. The asymptote in O. taurus can be explained by exponential growth meeting the constraint of resource exhaustion. These findings question the currently held view that beetle horn dimorphisms showcase the importance of developmental independence in the evolution of diversity. PMID:15729668

Tomkins, Joseph L; Kotiaho, Janne S; LeBas, Natasha R

2005-03-01

204

Effect of some insecticides on acetylcholinesterase from beneficial insects: Coccinella septempunctata, Chrysoperla carnea and Forficula auricularia.  

PubMed

In vitro enzyme activity of head homogenates from adults of Coccinella septempunctata, Chrysoperla carnea and Forficula auricularia originated from different habitats in Belgium (wheat, barley, rye, set-aside fields and experimental orchard, uncultivated area) were investigated in presence of insecticide active ingredients. Using the procedure of Ellman, I50 (M) and Ki (M-1 min-1) values were established. The beneficial insects showed the least susceptibility to diazinon and the differences between their measured values were not remarkable. Paraoxon was extremely toxic to the AChE of F. auricularia but Ch. carnea and C. septempunctata were similarly more tolerant to this organophosphate. In the case of malaoxon earwig and green lacewing AChEs were much more sensitive than AChE of the ladybird beetle. Measuring the carbaryl inhibition, F. auricularia was the least tolerant. The susceptibility of ladybird AChE differed highly from that of both species. According to the measured values, the green lacewing was less tolerant than the ladybird beetle but more tolerant compared with the common earwig. Summarizing our biochemical results, the order of susceptibility of beneficial insects to insecticides investigated was the following F. auricularia > Ch. carnea > C. septempunctata. PMID:12696436

Bozsik, Andras; Francis, Frédéric; Gaspar, Charles; Haubruge, Eric

2002-01-01

205

Paternal signature in kin recognition cues of a social insect: concealed in juveniles, revealed in adults.  

PubMed

Kin recognition is a key mechanism to direct social behaviours towards related individuals or avoid inbreeding depression. In insects, recognition is generally mediated by cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) compounds, which are partly inherited from parents. However, in social insects, potential nepotistic conflicts between group members from different patrilines are predicted to select against the expression of patriline-specific signatures in CHC profiles. Whereas this key prediction in the evolution of insect signalling received empirical support in eusocial insects, it remains unclear whether it can be generalized beyond eusociality to less-derived forms of social life. Here, we addressed this issue by manipulating the number of fathers siring clutches tended by females of the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, analysing the CHC profiles of the resulting juvenile and adult offspring, and using discriminant analysis to estimate the information content of CHC with respect to the maternal and paternal origin of individuals. As predicted, if paternally inherited cues are concealed during family life, increases in mating number had no effect on information content of CHC profiles among earwig juveniles, but significantly decreased the one among adult offspring. We suggest that age-dependent expression of patriline-specific cues evolved to limit the risks of nepotism as family-living juveniles and favour sibling-mating avoidance as group-living adults. These results highlight the role of parental care and social life in the evolution of chemical communication and recognition cues. PMID:25165768

Wong, Janine W Y; Meunier, Joël; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

2014-10-22

206

Inbreeding depression in an insect with maternal care: influences of family interactions, life stage and offspring sex.  

PubMed

Although inbreeding is commonly known to depress individual fitness, the severity of inbreeding depression varies considerably across species. Among the factors contributing to this variation, family interactions, life stage and sex of offspring have been proposed, but their joint influence on inbreeding depression remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that these three factors jointly shape inbreeding depression in the European earwig, Forficula auricularia. Using a series of cross-breeding, split-clutch and brood size manipulation experiments conducted over two generations, we first showed that sib mating (leading to inbred offspring) did not influence the reproductive success of earwig parents. Second, the presence of tending mothers and the strength of sibling competition (i.e. brood size) did not influence the expression of inbreeding depression in the inbred offspring. By contrast, our results revealed that inbreeding dramatically depressed the reproductive success of inbred adult male offspring, but only had little effect on the reproductive success of inbred adult female offspring. Overall, this study demonstrates limited effects of family interactions on inbreeding depression in this species and emphasizes the importance of disentangling effects of sib mating early and late during development to better understand the evolution of mating systems and population dynamics. PMID:23981229

Meunier, J; Kölliker, M

2013-10-01

207

Notes on Lichen Genus Buellia De Not. (lichenized Ascomycetes) from South Korea  

PubMed Central

Based on a literature survey and assessment of the important features of lichen genus Buellia (spore shape and size, anatomy of the exciple as well as analysis of the lichen substances), the present paper describes four new records of B. maritima, B. polyspora, B. spuria and B. stellulata from South Korea. Among them, B. maritima and B. polyspora are firstly reported in East Asia including in China, the Korean Peninsula and Japan. Brief description of all the new records along with earlier described species placed under genus Amandinea and Hafellia are provided with their distribution and chemistry. A key to all the Buellia species reported so far from South Korea is also provided. PMID:23956628

Joshi, Yogesh; Wang, Xin Yu; Lökös, László; Koh, Young Jin

2010-01-01

208

Structure of a tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase containing an iron–sulfur cluster  

PubMed Central

A novel aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase that contains an iron–sulfur cluster in the tRNA anticodon-binding region and efficiently charges tRNA with tryptophan has been found in Thermotoga maritima. The crystal structure of TmTrpRS (tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase; TrpRS; EC 6.1.1.2) reveals an iron–sulfur [4Fe–­4S] cluster bound to the tRNA anticodon-binding (TAB) domain and an l-­tryptophan ligand in the active site. None of the other T. maritima aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARSs) contain this [4Fe–4S] cluster-binding motif (C-x 22-C-x 6-C-x 2-C). It is speculated that the iron–sulfur cluster contributes to the stability of TmTrpRS and could play a role in the recognition of the anticodon. PMID:20944229

Han, Gye Won; Yang, Xiang-Lei; McMullan, Daniel; Chong, Yeeting E.; Krishna, S. Sri; Rife, Christopher L.; Weekes, Dana; Brittain, Scott M.; Abdubek, Polat; Ambing, Eileen; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Carlton, Dennis; Caruthers, Jonathan; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Duan, Lian; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; Miller, Mitchell D.; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Paulsen, Jessica; Reyes, Ron; van den Bedem, Henry; White, Aprilfawn; Wolf, Guenter; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Elsliger, Marc-André; Schimmel, Paul; Wilson, Ian A.

2010-01-01

209

Large methyl halide emissions from south Texas salt marshes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal salt marshes are natural sources of methyl chloride (CH3Cl) and methyl bromide (CH3Br) to the atmosphere, but measured emission rates vary widely by geography. Here we report large methyl halide fluxes from subtropical salt marshes of south Texas. Sites with the halophytic plant, Batis maritima, emitted methyl halides at rates that are orders of magnitude greater than sites containing other vascular plants or macroalgae. B. maritima emissions were generally highest at midday; however, diurnal variability was more pronounced for CH3Br than CH3Cl, and surprisingly high nighttime CH3Cl fluxes were observed in July. Seasonal and intra-site variability were large, even taking into account biomass differences. Overall, these subtropical salt marsh sites show much higher emission rates than temperate salt marshes at similar times of the year, supporting the contention that low-latitude salt marshes are significant sources of CH3Cl and CH3Br.

Rhew, R. C.; Whelan, M. E.; Min, D.-H.

2014-11-01

210

Large methyl halide emissions from south Texas salt marshes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal salt marshes are natural sources of methyl chloride (CH3Cl) and methyl bromide (CH3Br) to the atmosphere, but measured emission rates vary widely by geography. Here we report large methyl halide fluxes from subtropical salt marshes of south Texas. Sites with the halophytic plant, Batis maritima, emitted methyl halides at rates that are orders of magnitude greater than sites containing other vascular plants or macroalgae. B. maritima emissions were generally highest at midday; however, diurnal variability was more pronounced for CH3Br than CH3Cl, and surprisingly high nighttime CH3Cl fluxes were observed in July. Seasonal and intra-site variability were large, even taking into account biomass differences. Overall, these subtropical salt marsh sites show much higher emission rates than temperate salt marshes at similar times of the year, supporting the contention that low-latitude salt marshes are significant sources of CH3Cl and CH3Br.

Rhew, R. C.; Whelan, M. E.; Min, D.-H.

2014-06-01

211

Determination of Substrate Specificities Against ?-Glucosidase A (BglA) from Thermotoga maritime: A Molecular Docking Approach.  

PubMed

Thermostable enzymes derived from Thermotoga maritima have attracted worldwide interest for their potential industrial applications. Structural analysis and docking studies were preformed on T. maritima ?-glucosidase enzyme with cellobiose and pNP-linked substrates. The 3D structure of the thermostable ?-glucosidase was downloaded from the Protein Data Bank database. Substrates were downloaded from the PubCehm database and were minimized using MOE software. Docking of BglA and substrates was carried out using MOE software. After analyzing docked enzyme/substrate complexes, it was found that Glu residues were mainly involved in the reaction, and other important residues such as Asn, Ser, Tyr, Trp, and His were involved in hydrogen bonding with pNP-linked substrates. By determining the substrate recognition pattern, a more suitable ?-glucosidase enzyme could be developed, enhancing its industrial potential. PMID:25179901

Rajoka, Muhammad Ibrahim; Idrees, Sobia; Ashfaq, Usman Ali; Ehsan, Beenish; Haq, Asma

2015-01-28

212

Chromosome Evolution in the Thermotogales: Large-Scale Inversions and Strain Diversification of CRISPR Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the chromosomes of two members of the Thermotogales were compared. A whole-genome alignment of Thermotoga maritima MSB8 and Thermotoga neapolitana NS-E has revealed numerous large-scale DNA rearrangements, most of which are associated with CRISPR DNA repeats and\\/or tRNA genes. These DNA rearrangements do not include the putative origin of DNA replication but move within the same

Robert T. DeBoy; Emmanuel F. Mongodin; Joanne B. Emerson; Karen E. Nelson

2006-01-01

213

Structural insights into the interaction between the bacterial flagellar motor proteins FliF and FliG.  

PubMed

The binding of the soluble cytoplasmic protein FliG to the transmembrane protein FliF is one of the first interactions in the assembly of the bacterial flagellum. Once established, this interaction is integral in keeping the flagellar cytoplasmic ring, responsible for both transmission of torque and control of the rotational direction of the flagellum, anchored to the central transmembrane ring on which the flagellum is assembled. Here we isolate and characterize the interaction between the N-terminal domain of Thermotoga maritima FliG (FliG(N)) and peptides corresponding to the conserved C-terminal portion of T. maritima FliF. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and other techniques, we show that the last ~40 amino acids of FliF (FliF(C)) interact strongly (upper bound K(d) in the low nanomolar range) with FliG(N). The formation of this complex causes extensive conformational changes in FliG(N). We find that T. maritima FliG(N) is homodimeric in the absence of the FliF(C) peptide but forms a heterodimeric complex with the peptide, and we show that this same change in oligomeric state occurs in full-length T. maritima FliG, as well. We relate previously observed phenotypic effects of FliF(C) mutations to our direct observation of binding. Lastly, on the basis of NMR data, we propose that the primary interaction site for FliF(C) is located on a conserved hydrophobic patch centered along helix 1 of FliG(N). These results provide new detailed information about the bacterial flagellar motor and support efforts to understand the cytoplasmic ring's precise molecular structure and mechanism of rotational switching. PMID:22670715

Levenson, Robert; Zhou, Hongjun; Dahlquist, Frederick W

2012-06-26

214

Strandline and sand dune vegetation of coasts of Greece and some other Aegean countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coastal strandline and sand-dune vegetation of Greece has been reviewed. All published relevés available were collected and classified using numerical methods (TWINSPAN). The communities studied belong to three classes, one for strandline vegetation (Cakiletea maritimae), and two for sand-dune vegetation (Ammophiletea and Cisto-Micromerietea). A hierarchical syntaxonomic overview is given. The following communities and associations were distinguished: Salsolo-Matthioletum tricuspidatae, Cakilo-Xanthietum

K. V. Sykora; D. Babalonas; E. S. Papastergiadou

2003-01-01

215

Chromosomenzahlen aus der Schleswig-Holsteinischen Flora. II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung 1.Die Chromosomenzahlen folgender 26 Arten wurden festgestellt2.BeiLathyrus paluster, Luzula multiflora und wahrscheinlichScirpus setaceus werden chromosomale Rassen festgestellt.3.Bei der Variation vonPlantago maritima sind polyploide Rassen wahrscheinlich nicht beteiligt.4.BeiCarpinus betulus, Lathyrus paluster, Peplis portula, Myriophyllum verticillatum, Luzula multiflora, sowie bei den Cyperaceen wird auf die sich aus den Zahlen ergebende Problematik kurz eingegangen.

Hans Scheerer

1940-01-01

216

The crystal structure of spermidine synthase with a multisubstrate adduct inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyamines are essential in all branches of life. Spermidine synthase (putrescine aminopropyltransferase, PAPT) catalyzes the biosynthesis of spermidine, a ubiquitous polyamine. The crystal structure of the PAPT from Thermotoga maritima (TmPAPT) has been solved to 1.5 Angstroms resolution in the presence and absence of AdoDATO (S-adenosyl-1,8-diamino-3-thiooctane), a compound containing both substrate and product moieties. This, the first structure of an

Sergey Korolev; Yoshihiko Ikeguchi; Tatiana Skarina; Steven Beasley; Cheryl Arrowsmith; Alexei Savchenko; Aled Edwards; Andrzej Joachimiak; Anthony E. Pegg

2001-01-01

217

Nectar-carbohydrate production and composition vary in relation to nectary anatomy and location within individual flowers of several species of Brassicaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Nectar-carbohydrate production and composition were investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography and enzymology\\u000a in nine species from five tribes of the Brassicaceae. In six species (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., Brassica napus L., B. rapa L., Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv., Raphanus sativus L., Sinapis arvensis L.) that produced nectar from both lateral nectaries (associated with the short stamens) and median nectaries

Arthur R. Davis; Jeffrey D. Pylatuik; Joelle C. Paradis; Nicholas H. Low

1998-01-01

218

(10E,12E,14E)-9,16-Dioxoocta­deca-10,12,14-trienoic acid  

PubMed Central

The title octa­deca­trienoic acid derivative, C18H26O4, was isolated from Silene maritima With. (Caryophyllaceae), the first time this natural compound has been found in the Caryophyllales order. This fatty acid has an 18-carbon backbone with three double bonds on trans (E) conformation and two carbonyl. In the crystal, molecules are linked via pairs of O—H?O hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers. PMID:22969525

Bréant, Lise; Vonthron-Sénécheau, Catherine; Brelot, Lydia; Lobstein, Annelise

2012-01-01

219

Invasive alien plants in marine protected areas: the Spartina anglica affair in the European Wadden Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common cord-grass Spartina anglica, a fertile hybrid of S. maritima and S. alterniflora, was planted in the European Wadden Sea extensively during the late 1920s and 1930s to promote sediment accretion. After\\u000a establishment, it colonised as a pioneer plant in the upper tidal zone, where it occurs frequently in coherent swards at the\\u000a seaward front of saltmarshes and in patches on

Stefan Nehring; Karl-Jürgen Hesse

2008-01-01

220

Wetland monitoring using classification trees and SPOT5 seasonal time series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiseason reflectance data from radiometrically and geometrically corrected multispectral SPOT-5 images of 10-m resolution were combined with thorough field campaigns and land cover digitizing using a binary classification tree algorithm to estimate the area of marshes covered with common reeds (Phragmites australis) and submerged macrophytes (Potamogeton pectinatus, P. pusillus, Myriophyllum spicatum, Ruppia maritima, Chara sp.) over an area of 145,000ha.

Aurélie Davranche; Gaëtan Lefebvre; Brigitte Poulin

2010-01-01

221

The effect of resource provisioning and sugar composition of foods on longevity of three Gonatocerus spp., egg parasitoids of Homalodisca vitripennis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of dietary supplements on the longevity of male and female Gonatocerus ashmeadi, G. triguttatus and G. fasciatus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), was determined in the laboratory. Treatments included: water only, 3:1 honey–water solution, floral and extra-floral nectars from five different plants (excised stems from Fagopyrum esculentum, Lobularia maritima, Phacelia tanacetifolia, Anethum graveolens and Vicia faba), honeydew from Coccus hesperidum and

Nicola A. Irvin; Mark S. Hoddle; Steven J. Castle

2007-01-01

222

The eVect of resource provisioning and sugar composition of foods on longevity of three Gonatocerus spp., egg parasitoids of Homalodisca vitripennis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eVect of dietary supplements on the longevity of male and female Gonatocerus ashmeadi, G. triguttatus and G. fasciatus (Hyme- noptera: Mymaridae), was determined in the laboratory. Treatments included: water only, 3:1 honey-water solution, Xoral and extra- Xoral nectars from Wve diVerent plants (excised stems from Fagopyrum esculentum, Lobularia maritima, Phacelia tanacetifolia, Anethum graveolens and Vicia faba), honeydew from Coccus

Nicola A. Irvin; Mark S. Hoddle; Steven J. Castle

2007-01-01

223

Stratigraphic and Ecophysical Characterizations of Salt Pools: Dynamic Landforms of the Webhannet Salt Marsh, Wells, ME, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt pools are water-filled depressions common to north-temperate salt marshes. In Wells, ME, USA, cores reveal a unique salt\\u000a pool signature consisting of water-saturated dark-gray mud often containing fragments of Ruppia maritima. Cores through pool sediment reenter salt marsh peat, not tidal flat sediment, demonstrating that most pools are of secondary\\u000a origin. A principal component analysis of attribute data collected

Kristin R. Wilson; Joseph T. Kelley; Arie Croitoru; Michele Dionne; Daniel F. Belknap; Robert Steneck

2009-01-01

224

Heavy metal uptake by selected marsh plant species grown in hydroponic cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight marsh plant species (Cyperus esculentus, Scirpus validus, Spartina patens, Scirpus robustus, Triglochin maritima, Distichlis spicata, Spartina alterniflora, and Spartina foliosa) were grown under greenhouse conditions in chemically controlled nutrient solutions. Heavy metals (zinc, cadmium, nickel, chromium, and lead) were added to the nutrient solutions at levels of 0, 0.5, and 1.0 mg\\/l. Plant parts (leaves, rhizomes, tubers, and roots)

C. R. Lee; T. C. Sturgis; M. C. Landin

1975-01-01

225

Abundance of wigeongrass during winter and use by herbivorous waterbirds in a texas coastal marsh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wigeongrass (Ruppia maritima), a submerged aquatic plant inhabiting estuarine wetlands, is an important winter food for waterbirds along the Texas Gulf\\u000a Coast. We examined availability of wigeongrass at Mad Island Wildlife Management Area, Texas, USA by estimating aboveground\\u000a biomass from October through January, 1998–1999 and 2001–2002. We also used an exclosure experiment to determine the extent\\u000a to which herbivory by

Kevin M. Hartke; Kevin H. Kriegel; G. Matt Nelson; M. Todd Merendino

2009-01-01

226

Niche expansion, body size, and survival in Galápagos marine iguanas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foraging theory predicts that dietary niche breadth should expand as resource availability decreases. However, Galpagos marine\\u000a iguanas often die during algae shortages (El Nios) although land plants abound where they rest and reproduce. On Seymour\\u000a Norte island, a subpopulation of iguanas exhibited unique foraging behavior: they consistently included the succulent beach\\u000a plant B. maritima in their diet. We investigated the

Martin Wikelski; Peter H. Wrege

2000-01-01

227

Accumulation, distribution and cellular partitioning of mercury in several halophytes of a contaminated salt marsh.  

PubMed

This work evaluates the role of a plant community in mercury (Hg) stabilization and mobility in a contaminated Portuguese salt marsh. With this aim, the distribution of Hg in below and aboveground tissues, as well as the metal partitioning between cellular fractions (soluble and insoluble) in four different species (Triglochin maritima L., Juncus maritimus Lam, Sarcocornia perennis (Miller) A.J. Scott, and Halimione portulacoides (L.) Aellen) was assessed. Mercury accumulation, translocation and compartmentation between organs and cellular fractions were related to the plant species. Results showed that the degree of Hg absorption and retention was influenced both by environmental parameters and metal translocation/partitioning strategies. Different plant species presented different allocation patterns, with marked differences between monocots (T. maritima and J. maritimus) and dicots (S. perennis, H. portulacoides). Overall, the two monocots, in particular T. maritima showed higher Hg retention in the belowground organs whereas the dicots, particularly S. perennis presented a more pronounced translocation to the aboveground tissues. Considering cellular Hg partitioning, all species showed a higher Hg binding to cell walls and membranes rather than in the soluble fractions. This strategy can be related to the high degree of tolerance observed in the studied species. These results indicate that the composition of salt marsh plant communities can be very important in dictating the Hg mobility within the marsh ecosystem and in the rest of the aquatic system as well as providing important insights to future phytoremediation approaches in Hg contaminated salt marshes. PMID:19595432

Castro, Rita; Pereira, Sofia; Lima, Ana; Corticeiro, Sofia; Válega, Mónica; Pereira, Eduarda; Duarte, Armando; Figueira, Etelvina

2009-09-01

228

Anatomical and ultrastructural adaptations of seagrass leaves: an evaluation of the southern Atlantic groups.  

PubMed

Seagrasses, which form an integral part of the worldwide coastal habitat, are considered highly relevant from an ecological point of view. Due to the scarcity of anatomical information, the present study analyzed the morphoanatomy, histochemistry, and ultrastructure of Halophila decipiens, Halodule wrightii, and Ruppia maritima leaves, discussing their adaptations to the marine environments observed throughout the southwestern tropical and subtropical Atlantic coast. The leaves of these three species feature a uniseriate epidermis with the presence of chloroplasts in large quantities and absence of stomata. The vascular system consists of a central vascular bundle with sieve tube elements of the phloem and protoxylem lacunae, as well as small vascular bundles near the leaf margins. The leaves of H. decipiens possess trichomes, but no mesophyll in the leaf margins. The mesophyll of H. wrightii and R. maritima is homogeneous with chlorenchyma cells and air lacunae scattered throughout the leaf. The histochemistry analysis revealed the absence of amyloplasts and the presence of proteins in the outer periclinal walls of ordinary epidermal cells of the three species. It was also possible to detect the presence of idioblasts containing phenolic compounds in H. decipiens and R. maritima. The ultrastructural analysis of the three species revealed many elliptical chloroplasts, with organized thylakoids, expansion of the epidermal cell wall into the cytoplasm, and a thin cuticle. Hydropoten were also observed in the three specimens. The results show that the species analyzed have important adaptations which enable their survival in the marine environment. PMID:24893589

Ferreira, Chirle; Horta, Paulo A; Almeida, Gabriela M; Zitta, Carmen S; de M Oliveira, Eliana; Gueye, Marietou B Y B; Rodrigues, Ana C

2015-01-01

229

Biosynthesis of cyanogenic glucosides: in vitro analysis of the glucosylation step.  

PubMed

The last step in the biosynthesis of cyanogenic glucosides, the glucosylation of the cyanohydrin intermediate, has been investigated in detail using Triglochin maritima seedlings. The glucosyltransferase activity is not associated with membranes and appears to be a "soluble" enzyme. The cyanohydrin intermediate, which is formed by hydroxylation of 4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile by a membrane-bound enzyme, is free to equilibrate in the presence of the glucosyltransferase and UDPG, because it can be trapped very efficiently. This indicates that this intermediate is not channeled (unlike some of the other intermediates), although it is probably the most labile of all of them. The glucosyltransferase of T. maritima responsible for the glucosylation of the cyanohydrin was separated from another glucosyltransferase, which used 4-hydroxybenzylalcohol as a substrate, and purified over 200-fold. It catalyzed the glucose transfer from UDPG to only 4-hydroxymandelonitrile and 3,4-dihydroxymandelonitrile, giving rise to the respective cyanogenic glucosides. Although the activities with these two substrates behaved differently in certain respects (e.g., extent of inactivation during purification and difference in activation by higher salt concentrations), most of the data acquired favor the view that only one enzyme in T. maritima is responsible for the glucosylation of both substrates. PMID:6230992

Hösel, W; Schiel, O

1984-02-15

230

Salt marsh vegetation as a carbonyl sulfide (COS) source to the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is the most abundant and longest-lived reduced sulfur compound in the atmosphere; changes in its atmospheric concentration could significantly affect global climate and the biogeochemical sulfur cycle. The largest sink of COS in the troposphere is its destruction in plant leaves by the enzymes involved in photosynthesis. In this study, net fluxes of COS were measured from a coastal salt marsh on a subtropical barrier island on the Texas shore of the Gulf of Mexico. We find net emissions from sites with the common salt marsh plant Batis maritima compared to the net uptake from vegetated plots of most previously investigated biomes. The magnitude of the COS production from vegetated plots in this study was twice the emissions of soil-only salt marsh plots. This is the first time that emissions of COS have been found to be significantly enhanced by the presence of vegetation compared to soil alone. COS fluxes exceeded +110 pmol m-2 s-1 for non-inundated plots during daytime hours and were correlated with soil temperature at the depth of 5 cm. Tidal flooding inhibited soil COS exchange; however, we found continued net emissions from emergent B. maritima. This study suggests that emissions of COS resulted from interactions with the plants themselves, which would mean that B. maritima can mediate the production of atmospheric COS.

Whelan, Mary E.; Min, Dong-Ha; Rhew, Robert C.

2013-07-01

231

A floral-derived compound attractive to the tephritid fruit fly parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).  

PubMed

Many adult hymenopteran parasitoids, even host-feeding species, consume the nectar of flowering plants. Previous field studies had identified plants attractive (Lobularia maritima L.) and unattractive (Spermacoce verticillata L) to certain opiine braconids (Hymenoptera). Under laboratory conditions, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), a parasitoid of tephritid fruit fly larvae and representative opiine, responded in flight tunnels to L. maritima but not to S. verticillata. Volatile chemicals of the two flowers were collected and analyzed by using capillary gas liquid chromatography and mass spectral analysis. Acetophenone was isolated from L. maritima but not from S. verticillata. In flight tunnels, D. longicaudata were exposed to 10 concentrations (doses) of acetophenone. Female parasitoids showed a significant attraction to several acetophenone doses, with concentrations of 25 and 50 ng the most attractive. No odor source, either floral or floral-derived, was attractive to male parasitoids. Reliable trapping systems for parasitoid species, particularly species such as D. longicaudata used for augmentative biological control, would be a valuable monitoring tool. At present, there are few, if any, florally derived synthetic lures for attracting hymenopteran parasitoids. PMID:18343976

Rohrig, Eric; Sivinski, John; Teal, Peter; Stuhl, Charles; Aluja, Martin

2008-04-01

232

Beneficial Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tutorials on insect predators that feed on insect and mite pests. Each tutorial has 50 questions; incorrect answers lead to additional information. Covers brown lacewings, ambush bugs, dragonflies, damselflies, paper wasps, earwigs, long-legged flies, predaceous mites, damsel bugs, minute pirate bug, tiger beetles, tachnid flies, parasitic nematodes, entomopathogenic fungi and viruses. Requires Windows. SOme illustrations may be most apporopriate for the southern U.S. A couple of the questions have rather arbitrary answers; in general, the tutorials are well constructed and the information is accurate. Requires Windows operating system; program must be downloaded to the comptuer's hard drive, but once loaded is easy to launch and use. $15. Part number SW 154.

0000-00-00

233

Woolly apple aphid Eriosoma lanigerum Hausmann ecology and its relationship with climatic variables and natural enemies in Mediterranean areas.  

PubMed

A multilateral approach that includes both biotic and climatic data was developed to detect the main variables that affect the ecology and population dynamics of woolly apple aphid Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann). Crawlers migrated up and down the trunk mainly from spring to autumn and horizontal migration through the canopy was observed from May to August. Winter temperatures did not kill the canopy colonies, and both canopy and root colonies are the source of reinfestations in Mediterranean areas. Thus, control measures should simultaneously address roots and canopy. European earwigs Forficula auricularia (Linnaeus) were found to reduce the survival of overwintering canopy colonies up to June, and this can allow their later control by the parasitoid Aphelinus mali (Haldeman) from summer to fall. Preliminary models to predict canopy infestations were developed. PMID:25335497

Lordan, Jaume; Alegre, Simó; Gatius, Ferran; Sarasúa, M José; Alins, Georgina

2015-02-01

234

Recent horizontal transfer of mellifera subfamily mariner transposons into insect lineages representing four different orders shows that selection acts only during horizontal transfer.  

PubMed

We report the isolation and sequencing of genomic copies of mariner transposons involved in recent horizontal transfers into the genomes of the European earwig, Forficula auricularia; the European honey bee, Apis mellifera; the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata; and a blister beetle, Epicauta funebris, insects from four different orders. These elements are in the mellifera subfamily and are the second documented example of full-length mariner elements involved in this kind of phenomenon. We applied maximum likelihood methods to the coding sequences and determined that the copies in each genome were evolving neutrally, whereas reconstructed ancestral coding sequences appeared to be under selection, which strengthens our previous hypothesis that the primary selective constraint on mariner sequence evolution is the act of horizontal transfer between genomes. PMID:12654937

Lampe, David J; Witherspoon, David J; Soto-Adames, Felipe N; Robertson, Hugh M

2003-04-01

235

Structure of ovaries and oogenesis in dermapterans. II. The nurse cells, nuage aggregates and sponge bodies.  

PubMed

In three studied dermapteran species, Doru lineare, Opisthocosmia silvestris and Forficula auricularia, ovarian follicles are composed of two cells only, the oocyte and a single nurse cell. The nuclei of the nurse cells are large, ameboid and contain highly active nucleoli. RER elements, ribosomes, mitochondria and electron-dense aggregations of nuage material are present in the cytoplasm. Immunolocalization analysis revealed that in earwigs the nuage does not contain snRNAs. In one of the studied species, Doru lineare, apart from "canonical" nuage aggregations, characteristic RER/nuage complexes were found. These structures are morphologically similar to the sponge bodies present in the cytoplasm of the Drosophila germline cells. We suggest that RER/nuage complexes in Doru, as sponge bodies in Drosophila, are implicated in mRNA translocation. PMID:20420198

Tworzyd?o, Wac?aw; Kisiel, Elzbieta

2010-01-01

236

Prokaryotes in salt marsh sediments of Ria de Aveiro: Effects of halophyte vegetation on abundance and diversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of monospecific colonization of sediment stands by Spartina maritima or Halimione portulacoides on benthic prokaryote assemblages in a salt marsh located in Ria de Aveiro (Portugal). The distribution of Bacteria, Archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in sediments with monospecific plant stands and in unvegetated sediments was characterized by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH). Total prokaryote abundance (0.4 × 109-1.7 × 109 cells gdw-1) was highest in sediments from the surface layer. The domain Bacteria comprised approximately 40% of total prokaryote communities with the highest percentages occurring in the surface layer. Archaeal cells corresponded to an average of 25% of total prokaryote population, with higher abundance in the vegetation banks, and displaying homogeneous vertical distribution. The relative abundance of SRB represented approximately 3% of total 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) stained cells at unvegetated sediment and H. portulacoides stand and 7% at S. maritima stand. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (GC × GC-ToFMS) was used to analyse the volatile and semi-volatile fraction of root exudates. A total of 171 compounds were identified and Principal Component Analysis showed a clear separation between the chemical composition (volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds) of the exudates of the two plants. The patterns of vertical distribution and differences in the proportion of SRB and Archaea in the prokaryote communities developing in sediments colonized by Spartina maritima or Halimione portulacoides suggest the existence of plant-specific interactions between halophyte vegetation and estuarine sediment bacteria in Ria de Aveiro salt marshes, exerted via sediment lithology and root-derived exudates.

Oliveira, Vanessa; Santos, Ana L.; Aguiar, Claúdia; Santos, Luisa; Salvador, Ângelo C.; Gomes, Newton C. M.; Silva, Helena; Rocha, Sílvia M.; Almeida, Adelaide; Cunha, Ângela

2012-09-01

237

Genes for the major structural components of Thermotogales species' togas revealed by proteomic and evolutionary analyses of OmpA and OmpB homologs  

SciTech Connect

The unifying structural characteristic of members of the bacterial order Thermotogales is an unusual cell envelope that includes a loose-fitting sheath around each cell, often called a toga. Only two toga-associated structural proteins have been identified in Thermotoga maritima: the anchor protein OmpA1 (previously termed Omp?) and the porin OmpB (previously termed Omp?). The gene encoding OmpA (ompA1) was assigned in the genome sequence to TM0477, but because no peptide sequence was available for OmpB, its gene (ompB) was not annotated. Here we identify the ompB gene as TM0476, determined by LC/MS/MS analysis of the native OmpB protein purified from T. maritima cells. The purified Omp? had ?-sheet secondary structure as determined by circular dichroism. Analysis of the sequence of ompB product shows it has porin characteristics including a carboxy terminus anchoring motif and a porin-specific amino acid composition. Orthologs of ompB were found in the genomes of some, but not all, Thermotogales. Those without orthologs have putative analogs. Phylogenetic analyses of OmpA1 revealed that each species of the Thermotogales has one to three OmpA homologs. T. maritima has two OmpA homologs, encoded by ompA1(TM0477) and ompA2 (TM1729), both of which were found in the toga protein-enriched cell extracts. These annotations of the genes encoding toga structural proteins will guide future examinations of the structure and function of this unusual lineage-defining cell sheath.

Petrus, Amanda K.; Swithers, Kristen S.; Ranjit, Chaman R.; Wu, Si; Brewer, Heather M.; Gogarten, J Peter; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Noll, Kenneth M.

2012-06-29

238

Induced Changes in the Amino Acid Profile of Biomphalaria alexandrina Molluscan Host to Schistosoma mansoni Using Sublethal Concentrations of Selected Plant Molluscicides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino acid profiles of control and Solanum nigrum, Ambrosia maritima, Thymelaea hirsute, Sinapis arvensis, Peganum haramala and Callistemon lanceolatus-treated Biomphalaria alexandrina snails were investigated in a trial to correlate the amino acid profile of treated snails to their previously reported molluscicidal and biological effects. Amino acid profiles of the snails were greatly manipulated with the treatment of dry powdered sublethal concentrations of the six studied plant molluscicides. The disturbed amino acid profiles of treated snails were discussed in relation to the decrease in snail's egg laying capacity, reduction of their compatibility for the development of the schistosome larvae and cercarial penetration of mammalian skin.

Sanad Soliman, Mahmoud; El-Ansary, Afaf

239

A redescription of Rhysida celeris (Humbert & Saussure, 1870), with a proposal of eight new synonyms (Scolopendromorpha, Scolopendridae, Otostigminae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Seven species of the genus Rhysida Wood, 1862 from Venezuela and one subspecies from Peru described by Manuel Angel González Sponga and Wolfgang Bücherl respectively, are revised. Rhysida caripensis González-Sponga, 2002, Rhysida neoespartana González-Sponga, 2002, Rhysida guayanica González-Sponga, 2002, Rhysida maritima González-Sponga, 2002, Rhysida monaguensis González-Sponga, 2002, Rhysida porlamarensis González-Sponga 2002, Rhysida sucupanensis González-Sponga, 2002 and Rhysida celeris andina Bücherl, 1953 are junior synonyms of Rhysida celeris (Humbert & Saussure, 1870), which is redescribed and illustrated for the first time. Its geographic distribution is updated and a map showing its distribution is presented. PMID:23653497

Chagas-Júnior, Amazonas

2013-01-01

240

Ability of salt marsh plants for TBT remediation in sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The capability of Halimione portulacoides, Spartina maritima, and Sarcocornia fruticosa (halophytes very commonly found in salt marshes from Mediterranean areas) for enhancing remediation of tributyltin (TBT)\\u000a from estuarine sediments was investigated, using different experimental conditions.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The influence of H. portulacoides on degradation of the butyltin compounds was assessed in two different ways: (1) a 9-month ex situ study carried out

Pedro N. Carvalho; M. Clara P. Basto; Manuela F. G. M. Silva; Ana Machado; A. A. Bordalo; M. Teresa S. D. Vasconcelos

2010-01-01

241

Crystal Structure of the First Eubacterial Mre11 Nuclease Reveals Novel Features that may Discriminate Substrates During DNA Repair  

PubMed Central

Mre11 nuclease plays a central role in the repair of cytotoxic and mutagenic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). As x-ray structural information has only been available for the Pyrococcus furiosus enzyme (PfMre11), the conserved and variable features of this nuclease across the domains of life have not been experimentally defined. Our crystal structure and biochemical studies demonstrate that TM1635 from Thermotoga maritima, originally annotated as a putative nuclease, is the Mre11 endo/exonuclease from T. maritima (TmMre11) and the first such structure from eubacteria. TmMre11 and PfMre11 display similar overall structures, despite sequence identity in the twilight zone of only ?20%. However, they differ substantially in their DNA specificity domains and in their dimeric organization. Residues in the nuclease domain are highly conserved, but those in the DNA specificity domain are not. The structural differences likely affect how Mre11s from different organisms recognize and interact with single-stranded DNA, double-stranded DNA and DNA hairpin structures during DNA repair. The TmMre11 nuclease active site has no bound metal ions, but is conserved in sequence and structure with exception of a histidine that is important in PfMre11 nuclease activity. Nevertheless, biochemical characterization confirms that TmMre11 possesses both endonuclease and exonuclease activities on ssDNA and dsDNA substrates, respectively. PMID:20122942

Das, Debanu; Moiani, Davide; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Miller, Mitchell D.; McMullan, Daniel; Jin, Kevin K.; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Burra, Prasad; Carlton, Dennis; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Ernst, Dustin; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Anna; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Paulsen, Jessica; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; Sefcovic, Natasha; Tien, Henry J.; Trame, Christine B.; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Tainer, John A.; Wilson, Ian A.

2010-01-01

242

Tidally driven N, P, Fe and Mn exchanges in salt marsh sediments of Tagus estuary (SW Europe).  

PubMed

Short-sediment cores and flooding water were collected at 0, 5, 15, 25 and 50 min of tidal inundation in the two sites colonised by pure stands of Spartina maritima (low marsh) and Sarcocornia fruticosa (high marsh) from the Rosário salt marsh (Tagus estuary, SW Europe). Concentrations of NH(4)(+), NO(3)(-) + NO(2)(-) and HPO (4)(2-), Fe and Mn were measured in tidal flooding water and pore water. Flooding water is enriched in nutrients, particularly ammonium due to local discharge of untreated urban effluents. Nevertheless, NH(4)(+) and NO(3)(-) + NO(2)(-) concentrations in flooding waters at t = 5 min (NH(4)(+) = 246 ± 7 ?M, NO(3)(-) + NO(2)(-) = 138 ± 1 ?M for S. fruticosa and NH(4)(+) = 256 ± 8 ?M, NO(3)(-) + NO(2)(-) = 138 ± 1 ?M for S. maritima) rose sharply at both vegetated sites. An increase was also registered for HPO(4)(2-) and total dissolved Fe although the subsequent decrease was smoother. Advective transport induced by the two daily pulses of inundation is several orders of magnitude higher than the diffusive fluxes during submerged periods. In addition, solutes are exported from the sediment with the inundation and imported in submerged periods. The exported amount of inorganic nitrogen during tidal inundation (export of 3,200 ?mol N m(-2) day(-1)to the water column), is not counterbalanced by the sink of -290 ?mol N m(-2) day(-1) occurred during the submerged period. PMID:22086267

Caetano, M; Bernárdez, P; Santos-Echeandia, J; Prego, R; Vale, C

2012-11-01

243

Phylogeny, biogeography and evolution of Triglochin L. (Juncaginaceae) - Morphological diversification is linked to habitat shifts rather than to genetic diversification.  

PubMed

A species-level phylogeny is presented for Triglochin, the largest genus of Juncaginaceae (Alismatales) comprising about 30 species of annual and perennial herbs. Triglochin has an almost cosmopolitan distribution with Australia as centre of species diversity. Trans-Atlantic and trans-African disjunctions exist in the genus. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted based on molecular data obtained from nuclear (ITS, internal transcribed spacer) and chloroplast sequence data (psbA-trnH spacer, matK gene). Based on the phylogeny of the group divergence times were estimated and ancestral distribution areas reconstructed. Our data confirm the monophyly of Triglochin and resolve relationships between the major lineages of the genus. The sister group relationship between the Mediterranean/African T. bulbosa complex and the American T. scilloides (formerly Lilaea s.) is strongly supported. This clade is sister to the rest of the genus which contains two main clades. In the first, the widespread T. striata is sister to a clade comprising annual Triglochin species from Australia. The second clade comprises T. palustris as sister to the T. maritima complex, of which the latter is further divided into a Eurasian and an American subclade. Taxonomic diversity in some clades appears to be linked to habitat shifts and is not present in old but ecologically invariable lineages such as the non-monophyletic T. maritima. Diversification in Triglochin began in the Miocene or Oligocene, and most disjunctions in Triglochin were dated to the Miocene. PMID:25450100

von Mering, Sabine; Kadereit, Joachim W

2014-11-13

244

Accumulation and soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides in the Nile Delta coastal black sand habitats.  

PubMed

The radionuclide content was estimated in the soil of three black sand habitats in the Mediterranean coast of Egypt, namely, sand mounds and coastal sand planes and dunes. In addition, a total of 14 heavy minerals found in the soils were characterized. The soil to plant transfer of uranium and thorium was tested on three black sand species, namely, Cakile maritima Scop., Senecio glaucus L. and Rumex Pictus Forssk. The transfer of thorium and uranium radionuclides from the soil to plant is complex process that is subjected to many variables; among which are the organic matter and clay content of the soil, the type of radionuclides and plant species. The study revealed a strong negative relationship between uranium and thorium uptake by S. glaucus and R. pictus and the clay and organic matter content of soil. Concentration of thorium in the soil has a negative correlation with soil-to-plant transfer factor. The study results suggest the possibility of using black sand species for phytoremediation of soils contaminated with radioactive elements. The potentiality of S. glaucus as phytoremediator of radionuclides polluted soils is greater than R. pictus which in turn outweigh C. maritima. PMID:21598782

Hegazy, A K; Emam, M H

2011-02-01

245

Evidence showing duplication and recombination of cel genes in tandem from hyperthermophilic Thermotoga sp.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to assess the gene duplication and diversification of tandem cellulase genes in thermophilic bacteria. The tandem cellulase genes cel5C and cel5D were cloned from Thermotoga maritima MSB8, and a survey of the thermophilic bacterial genome for tandem cel genes from the databases was carried out. A clone having 2.3 kb fragment from T. maritima MSB8 showed cellulase activity, which had two open reading frames in tandem (cel5C and cel5D). The cel5C gene has 954 bp, which encodes a protein of 317 amino acid residues with a signal peptide of 23 amino acids, and the other gene cel5D consisting of 990 bp encoding a protein of 329 amino acid residues. These two proteins have similarity with the enzymes of glycosyl hydrolase family 5. From the enzyme assay, it was observed that Cel5C was extracellular and Cel5D was intracellular cellulase. Phylogenetic and homology matrix analyses of DNA and protein sequences revealed that family 12 cellulase enzymes Cel12A and Cel12B displayed higher homology (>50 %), but Cel5C and Cel5D enzymes belong to family 5 displayed lower homology (<30 %). In addition, repeated and mirror sequences in tandem genes are supposed to show the existence of gene duplication and recombination. PMID:23001531

Kim, Min Keun; Kang, Tae Ho; Kim, Jungho; Kim, Hoon; Yun, Han Dae

2012-12-01

246

Responses of halophytes to high salinities and low water potentials.  

PubMed

The effects of nonsaline polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000 and saline seawater solutions of comparable osmotic potential on the concentrations of organic solutes and inorganic ions in the tissues of halophytes (Plantago maritima L., Triglochin maritima L., Limonium vulgare Mill., Halimione portulacoides (L.) Aell) have been investigated. Studies were made to determine whether high salinities induce specific ion effects that are absent in plants grown in nonsaline solutions of comparable osmotic potential. Over-all, the responses of each species to the two different treatments (seawater or PEG) are similar; the accumulation of organic solutes (compatible osmotica) in tissues is primarily correlated with a decrease in the osmotic potential of culture solutions. Depending on the species, sorbitol, proline, reducing sugars, quaternary ammonium compounds, and alpha-amino nitrogen accumulate in tissues as the water potential of the tissues falls. Within a species there are differences in the concentrations of inorganic ions and organic solutes between roots and shoots of plants grown at high salinities or at high concentrations of PEG. PMID:16661119

Jefferies, R L; Rudmik, T; Dillon, E M

1979-12-01

247

Responses of Halophytes to High Salinities and Low Water Potentials 1  

PubMed Central

The effects of nonsaline polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000 and saline seawater solutions of comparable osmotic potential on the concentrations of organic solutes and inorganic ions in the tissues of halophytes (Plantago maritima L., Triglochin maritima L., Limonium vulgare Mill., Halimione portulacoides (L.) Aell) have been investigated. Studies were made to determine whether high salinities induce specific ion effects that are absent in plants grown in nonsaline solutions of comparable osmotic potential. Over-all, the responses of each species to the two different treatments (seawater or PEG) are similar; the accumulation of organic solutes (compatible osmotica) in tissues is primarily correlated with a decrease in the osmotic potential of culture solutions. Depending on the species, sorbitol, proline, reducing sugars, quaternary ammonium compounds, and ?-amino nitrogen accumulate in tissues as the water potential of the tissues falls. Within a species there are differences in the concentrations of inorganic ions and organic solutes between roots and shoots of plants grown at high salinities or at high concentrations of PEG. PMID:16661119

Jefferies, Robert L.; Rudmik, Tony; Dillon, Eva M.

1979-01-01

248

The functional exchangeability of pk- and k-turns in RNA structure  

PubMed Central

Ribonuclease P RNA requires a sharply kinked RNA helix to make a loop-receptor interaction that creates the binding site for the substrate. In some forms of the ribozyme, this is accomplished by a k-turn, while others have a different element called the pk-turn. The structure of the pk-turn in RNase P of Thermotoga maritima is globally very similar to a k-turn, but lacks all the standard features of that structure, including long-range hydrogen bonds between the two helical arms. We show here that in an isolated RNA duplex, the pk-turn fails to adopt a tightly kinked structure, but rather is a flexible element. This suggests that the tertiary contacts of RNase P assist its folding into the required kinked structure. We find that we can replace the k-turn of the SAM-I riboswitch with the pk-turn, such that the resulting RNA retains its ability to bind SAM, although with lower affinity. We also find that we can replace the pk-turn of T. maritima RNase P with a standard k-turn (in either orientation) with retention of ribozyme activity. Thus, although the pk-turn cannot intrinsically fold into the kinked structure, it can be induced to fold correctly in context. And the pk-turn and k-turns can substitute functionally for one another. PMID:23364423

Daldrop, Peter; Masquida, Benoît; Lilley, David M.J.

2013-01-01

249

The functional exchangeability of pk- and k-turns in RNA structure.  

PubMed

Ribonuclease P RNA requires a sharply kinked RNA helix to make a loop-receptor interaction that creates the binding site for the substrate. In some forms of the ribozyme, this is accomplished by a k-turn, while others have a different element called the pk-turn. The structure of the pk-turn in RNase P of Thermotoga maritima is globally very similar to a k-turn, but lacks all the standard features of that structure, including long-range hydrogen bonds between the two helical arms. We show here that in an isolated RNA duplex, the pk-turn fails to adopt a tightly kinked structure, but rather is a flexible element. This suggests that the tertiary contacts of RNase P assist its folding into the required kinked structure. We find that we can replace the k-turn of the SAM-I riboswitch with the pk-turn, such that the resulting RNA retains its ability to bind SAM, although with lower affinity. We also find that we can replace the pk-turn of T. maritima RNase P with a standard k-turn (in either orientation) with retention of ribozyme activity. Thus, although the pk-turn cannot intrinsically fold into the kinked structure, it can be induced to fold correctly in context. And the pk-turn and k-turns can substitute functionally for one another. PMID:23364423

Daldrop, Peter; Masquida, Benoît; Lilley, David M J

2013-03-01

250

Age-specific, density-dependent and environment-based mortality of a short-lived perennial herb.  

PubMed

Density-independent and density-dependent processes affect plant mortality. Although less well understood, age-specific mortality can also play an important role in plant mortality. The goal of this study was to analyse several factors accounting for mortality in the Mediterranean short-lived perennial herb Lobularia maritima. We followed three cohorts of plants (from emergence to death) during 4 years in field conditions. We collected data on plant mortality of the effect of biotic agents (moth larvae and mycoplasma-like organisms, MLOs) and environmental variables. We also estimated density-dependent relationships affecting the fate of seedlings and adults. Results show that cohorts differed in their survival curves and ageing significantly increased mortality risk. Seedling mortality was density-dependent whereas adult mortality was not affected by density. MLO infection led to higher plant mortality whereas moth larvae attack did not affect plant mortality. In general, seedlings and adult plants experienced the highest mortality events in summer. We found, however, weak relationships between weather records and plant mortality. Age and size structures were not correlated. Overall, this study provides a comprehensive review of age-specific, density-dependent and density-independent factors that account for mortality of L. maritima plants throughout their life cycle in field conditions, highlighting the fact that age is an important factor in determining plant population dynamics. PMID:18426484

Picó, F X; Retana, J

2008-05-01

251

Structure-Based Activity Prediction for an Enzyme of Unknown Function  

SciTech Connect

With many genomes sequenced, a pressing challenge in biology is predicting the function of the proteins that the genes encode. When proteins are unrelated to others of known activity, bioinformatics inference for function becomes problematic. It would thus be useful to interrogate protein structures for function directly. Here, we predict the function of an enzyme of unknown activity, Tm0936 from Thermotoga maritima, by docking high-energy intermediate forms of thousands of candidate metabolites. The docking hit list was dominated by adenine analogues, which appeared to undergo C6-deamination. Four of these, including 5-methylthioadenosine and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), were tested as substrates, and three had substantial catalytic rate constants (10{sup 5} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}). The X-ray crystal structure of the complex between Tm0936 and the product resulting from the deamination of SAH, S-inosylhomocysteine, was determined, and it corresponded closely to the predicted structure. The deaminated products can be further metabolized by T. maritima in a previously uncharacterized SAH degradation pathway. Structure-based docking with high-energy forms of potential substrates may be a useful tool to annotate enzymes for function.

Hermann,J.; Marti-Arbona, R.; Fedorov, A.; Fedorov, E.; Almo, S.; Shoichet, B.; Raushel, F.

2007-01-01

252

Estimation of climate change impacts on river flow and catchment hydrological connectivity incorporating uncertainty from multiple climate models, stochastic downscaling and hydrological model parameterisation error sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When estimating climate change impacts, there are many sources of uncertainty which must be considered. The main sources of uncertainty arise from the structure and parameterisation of physically based simulation models, downscaling methods, stochastic realisations of future weather time series and the underlying emission scenarios. This work focuses on the uncertainties resulting from the use of multiple climate models and the joint impact of the stochastic realisations of future weather time series from a weather generator, EARWIG, and from parameter estimation uncertainty of a hydrological model, CAS-Hydro. These tools have been applied to the River Rye, Yorkshire. A suite of model parameter sets and weather realisations have been used to project likely changes to the hydrological functioning under climate change. Results are presented on the projected changes in flow duration curves and the potential changes in the hydrological connectivity by overland flow within the catchment. The statistical sensitivity of the impact predictions to these sources of uncertainty and the use of a multi-model ensemble to enable the production of probabilistic estimates of change is assessed. These estimates of potential changes in flow can then be used to inform the adaptation of water resources design and management.

Reaney, S. M.; Fowler, H. J.

2008-12-01

253

Diet of western Burrowing Owls wintering in southern Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Winter diets of the western Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) are little known. We determined the diet of western Burrowing Owls wintering in southern Texas by analyzing the contents of 182 pellets collected over four winters (1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2002-2003, and 2003-2004) in three habitat types (agricultural, mainland grassland, and barrier island). Remains of a total of 7476 prey items were recovered, 98% of which were arthropods. Gryllidae (crickets) formed the largest component (50%) of the prey, followed by lepidopteran larvae (13%), beetles (8%), spiders (7%), and earwigs (6%). Although vertebrates, primarily small mammals and birds, represented only 2% of prey items by number, they represented most (71%) of the biomass. Northern pygmy mice (Baiomys taylori) and fulvous harvest mice (Reithrodontomys fulveccens) were the two most frequently consumed vertebrate species. In all habitats, arthropods, especially orthopterans, were the primary prey item by number, whereas vertebrates, primarily small mammals, were the most important by biomass. Greater consumption of arthropods by Burrowing Owls in agricultural areas may be a factor contributing to owl use of these highly altered environments. ?? 2007 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

Littles, C.J.; Williford, D.; Skoruppa, M.K.; Woodin, M.C.; Hickman, G.C.

2007-01-01

254

Elastic joints in dermapteran hind wings: materials and wing folding.  

PubMed

Representatives of Dermaptera probably have the most unusual hind wing venation and folding pattern among insects. Both correlate with unusual wing folding mechanics, in which folding is achieved from within the wing and unfolding is done by the cerci. In this account, the hind wings of the earwig Forficula auricularia were studied by means of bright field and fluorescence microscopy. Resilin, a rubber-like protein, was revealed in several, clearly defined patches. It occurs dorsally in the radiating veins, but ventrally in the intercalary vein. This distribution determines the folding direction, and resilin is the major driving mechanism for wing folding. Resilin stores elastic energy in broadened vein patches and along the folds. At the other locations, the mid-wing mechanism and central area, the primary function of resilin is suggested to be prevention of material failure. The arrangement of resilin patches is such that the wing cannot be unfolded from the thorax proper but must be unfolded by the cerci. In Dermaptera, the antagonistic movements of folding and unfolding are achieved in two different ways, resilin and cerci. To our knowledge this is unique. PMID:18088922

Haas, F; Gorb, S; Wootton, R J

2000-04-01

255

Electron microscopic localization of chitin using colloidal gold labelled with wheat germ agglutinin.  

PubMed

The lectin wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) has a binding site which is able to bind a sequence of three N-acetyl-glucosamine residues. Therefore, it has a very strong affinity for the polymers of this sugar, especially chitin. Colloidal gold can be labelled with WGA and used as a specific electron-dense marker for the electron-microscopic localization of chitin. The specificity of the WGA-gold binding can be checked by competitive inhibition with 5-10 mM triacetyl chitotriose. The reliability of this method was tested in three species. In the formation zone of the radula of the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata Say, chitin or chitin precursors were localized in vesicles of the odontoblasts, outside the extremely long microvilli of odontoblasts and in the newly formed teeth. The inner peritrophic envelope of the earwig, Forficula auricularia L., is characterized by an orthogonal texture of bundles of microfibrils that are thought to contain chitin. The presence of chitin was proved using the present method. In the peritrophic membranes of the blowfly, Calliphora erythrocephala Meigen, it was possible to differentiate between chitin and glycoproteins which have N-acetylglucosamine residues. PMID:3754855

Peters, W; Latka, I

1986-01-01

256

Population density drives the local evolution of a threshold dimorphism.  

PubMed

Evolution can favour more than one reproductive tactic among conspecifics of the same sex. Under the conditional evolutionarily stable strategy, individuals adopt the tactic that generates the highest fitness return for their status: large males guard females, whereas small males sneak copulations. Tactics change at the status at which fitness benefits switch from favouring one tactic to favouring the alternative. This 'switchpoint' is expressed in many species as a threshold between divergent morphologies. Environmental and demographic parameters that influence the relative fitness of male tactics are predicted to determine a population's switchpoint and consequently whether the population is monomorphic or dimorphic. Here we show threshold evolution in the forceps dimorphism of the European earwig Forficula auricularia and document the transition from completely monomorphic to classical male-dimorphic populations over a distance of only 40 km. Because the superior fighting ability of the dominant morph will be more frequently rewarded at high encounter rates, population density is likely to be a key determinant of the relative fitness of the alternative tactics, and consequently the threshold. We show that, as predicted, population density correlates strongly with the shift in threshold, and that this factor drives the local evolution of the male dimorphism in these island populations. Our data provide evidence for the origin of phenotypic diversity within populations, through the evolution of a switchpoint in a conditional strategy that has responded to local population density. PMID:15510148

Tomkins, Joseph L; Brown, Gordon S

2004-10-28

257

A chemical signal of offspring quality affects maternal care in a social insect  

PubMed Central

Begging signals of offspring are condition-dependent cues that are usually predicted to display information about the short-term need (i.e. hunger) to which parents respond by allocating more food. However, recent models and experiments have revealed that parents, depending on the species and context, may respond to signals of quality (i.e. offspring reproductive value) rather than need. Despite the critical importance of this distinction for life history and conflict resolution theory, there is still limited knowledge of alternative functions of offspring signals. In this study, we investigated the communication between offspring and caring females of the common earwig, Forficula auricularia, hypothesizing that offspring chemical cues display information about nutritional condition to which females respond in terms of maternal food provisioning. Consistent with the prediction for a signal of quality we found that mothers exposed to chemical cues from well-fed nymphs foraged significantly more and allocated food to more nymphs compared with females exposed to solvent (control) or chemical cues from poorly fed nymphs. Chemical analysis revealed significant differences in the relative quantities of specific cuticular hydrocarbon compounds between treatments. To our knowledge, this study demonstrates for the first time that an offspring chemical signal reflects nutritional quality and influences maternal care. PMID:19439438

Mas, Flore; Haynes, Kenneth F.; Kölliker, Mathias

2009-01-01

258

Patterns of threshold evolution in polyphenic insects under different developmental models.  

PubMed

Two hypotheses address the evolution of polyphenic traits in insects. Under the developmental reprogramming model, individuals exceeding a threshold follow a different developmental pathway from individuals below the threshold. This decoupling is thought to free selection to independently hone alternative morphologies, increasing phenotypic plasticity and morphological diversity. Under the alternative model, extreme positive allometry explains the existence of alternative phenotypes and divergent phenotypes are developmentally coupled by a continuous reaction norm, such that selection on either morph acts on both. We test the hypothesis that continuous reaction norm polyphenisms, evolve through changes in the allometric parameters of even the smallest males with minimal trait expression, whereas threshold polyphenisms evolve independent of the allometric parameters of individuals below the threshold. We compare two polyphenic species; the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus, whose allometry has been modeled both as a threshold polyphenism and a continuous reaction norm and the earwig Forficula auricularia, whose allometry is best modeled with a discontinuous threshold. We find that across populations of both species, variation in forceps or horn allometry in minor males are correlated to the population's threshold. These findings suggest that regardless of developmental mode, alternative morphs do not evolve independently of one another. PMID:19154360

Tomkins, Joseph L; Moczek, Armin P

2009-02-01

259

Phenotypic plasticity in the developmental integration of morphological trade-offs and secondary sexual trait compensation.  

PubMed

Trait exaggeration through sexual selection will tale place alongside other changes in phenotype. Exaggerated morphology might be compensated by parallel changes in traits that support, enhance or facilitate exaggeration: 'secondary sexual trait compensation' (SSTC). Alternatively, exaggeration might be realized at the expense of other traits through morphological trade-offs. For the most part, SSTC has only been examined interspecifically. For these phenomena to be important intraspecifically, the sexual trait must be developmentally integrated with the compensatory or competing trait. We studied developmental integration in two species with different development: the holometabolous beetle Onthophagus taurus and the hemimetabolous earwig Forficula auricularia. Male-dimorphic variation in trait exaggeration was exploited to expose both trade-offs and SSTC. We found evidence for morphological trade-offs in O. taurus, but no F. auricularia, supporting the notion that trade-offs are more likely in closed developmetal systems. However, we found these trade-offs were not limited solely to traits growing close together. Developmental integration of structures involved in SSTC were detected in both species. The developmental integration of SSTC was phenotypically plastic, such that the compensation for relatively larger sexual traits was greater in the exasperated male morphs. Evidence of intraspecific SSTC demands studies of the selective, genetic and developmental architecture of phenotypic integration. PMID:15799950

Tomkins, Joseph L; Kotiaho, Janne S; Lebas, Natasha R

2005-03-01

260

A chemical signal of offspring quality affects maternal care in a social insect.  

PubMed

Begging signals of offspring are condition-dependent cues that are usually predicted to display information about the short-term need (i.e. hunger) to which parents respond by allocating more food. However, recent models and experiments have revealed that parents, depending on the species and context, may respond to signals of quality (i.e. offspring reproductive value) rather than need. Despite the critical importance of this distinction for life history and conflict resolution theory, there is still limited knowledge of alternative functions of offspring signals. In this study, we investigated the communication between offspring and caring females of the common earwig, Forficula auricularia, hypothesizing that offspring chemical cues display information about nutritional condition to which females respond in terms of maternal food provisioning. Consistent with the prediction for a signal of quality we found that mothers exposed to chemical cues from well-fed nymphs foraged significantly more and allocated food to more nymphs compared with females exposed to solvent (control) or chemical cues from poorly fed nymphs. Chemical analysis revealed significant differences in the relative quantities of specific cuticular hydrocarbon compounds between treatments. To our knowledge, this study demonstrates for the first time that an offspring chemical signal reflects nutritional quality and influences maternal care. PMID:19439438

Mas, Flore; Haynes, Kenneth F; Kölliker, Mathias

2009-08-01

261

[Pests at Baltic Sea coast. II. Summary of most important groups on insects besides Coleoptera and Diptera].  

PubMed

In the special holiday situations at the Baltic coast of GDR, species of very different insect groups may become annoying to man. Own experiences in this field are reported (excepting Coleoptera and Diptera). The earwig, Forficula auricularia, has many varying aspects of a health pest (also in the respect of social hygiene). This species, too, may pinch painfully with his pincers. The lice species Pediculus capitis and Pthirus pubis are met with sometimes. Limothrips cerealium may be annoying not only when swarming in mass, but also individual specimens (crawling on the skin or piercing it). Ants may be a pest in varying manners. A special example of this is if they invade sand castles [sun bathing places on the beaches surrounded by sand walls]. Wasps are attracted by different ways to childrens' holiday camps. In 1973, they were even aggressive on the beach of Hiddensee. Caterpillars of Thaumatopaea pinivora may become a serious health pest in individual cases. The real cause is not always detected by laymen. Fleas occur more or less regularly. Sometimes they are incorrectly diagnosed or reported. PMID:984495

Eichler, W

1976-05-01

262

Phenotypic plasticity in the developmental integration of morphological trade-offs and secondary sexual trait compensation  

PubMed Central

Trait exaggeration through sexual selection will take place alongside other changes in phenotype. Exaggerated morphology might be compensated by parallel changes in traits that support, enhance or facilitate exaggeration: ‘secondary sexual trait compensation’ (SSTC). Alternatively, exaggeration might be realized at the expense of other traits through morphological trade-offs. For the most part, SSTC has only been examined interspecifically. For these phenomena to be important intraspecifically, the sexual trait must be developmentally integrated with the compensatory or competing trait. We studied developmental integration in two species with different development: the holometabolous beetle Onthophagus taurus and the hemimetabolous earwig Forficula auricularia. Male-dimorphic variation in trait exaggeration was exploited to expose both trade-offs and SSTC. We found evidence for morphological trade-offs in O. taurus, but not F. auricularia, supporting the notion that trade-offs are more likely in closed developmental systems. However, we found these trade-offs were not limited solely to traits growing close together. Developmental integration of structures involved in SSTC were detected in both species. The developmental integration of SSTC was phenotypically plastic, such that the compensation for relatively larger sexual traits was greater in the exaggerated male morphs. Evidence of intraspecific SSTC demands studies of the selective, genetic and developmental architecture of phenotypic integration. PMID:15799950

Tomkins, Joseph L; Kotiaho, Janne S; LeBas, Natasha R

2005-01-01

263

Genes for the major structural components of Thermotogales species' togas revealed by proteomic and evolutionary analyses of OmpA and OmpB homologs.  

PubMed

The unifying structural characteristic of members of the bacterial order Thermotogales is their toga, an unusual cell envelope that includes a loose-fitting sheath around each cell. Only two toga-associated structural proteins have been purified and characterized in Thermotoga maritima: the anchor protein OmpA1 (or Omp?) and the porin OmpB (or Omp?). The gene encoding OmpA1 (ompA1) was cloned and sequenced and later assigned to TM0477 in the genome sequence, but because no peptide sequence was available for OmpB, its gene (ompB) was not annotated. We identified six porin candidates in the genome sequence of T. maritima. Of these candidates, only one, encoded by TM0476, has all the characteristics reported for OmpB and characteristics expected of a porin including predominant ?-sheet structure, a carboxy terminus porin anchoring motif, and a porin-specific amino acid composition. We highly enriched a toga fraction of cells for OmpB by sucrose gradient centrifugation and hydroxyapatite chromatography and analyzed it by LC/MS/MS. We found that the only porin candidate that it contained was the TM0476 product. This cell fraction also had ?-sheet character as determined by circular dichroism, consistent with its enrichment for OmpB. We conclude that TM0476 encodes OmpB. A phylogenetic analysis of OmpB found orthologs encoded in syntenic locations in the genomes of all but two Thermotogales species. Those without orthologs have putative isofunctional genes in their place. Phylogenetic analyses of OmpA1 revealed that each species of the Thermotogales has one or two OmpA homologs. T. maritima has two OmpA homologs, encoded by ompA1 (TM0477) and ompA2 (TM1729), both of which were found in the toga protein-enriched cell extracts. These annotations of the genes encoding toga structural proteins will guide future examinations of the structure and function of this unusual lineage-defining cell sheath. PMID:22768259

Petrus, Amanda K; Swithers, Kristen S; Ranjit, Chaman; Wu, Si; Brewer, Heather M; Gogarten, J Peter; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Noll, Kenneth M

2012-01-01

264

Inorganic pyrophosphatases: one substrate, three mechanisms.  

PubMed

Soluble inorganic pyrophosphatases (PPases) catalyse an essential reaction, the hydrolysis of pyrophosphate to inorganic phosphate. In addition, an evolutionarily ancient family of membrane-integral pyrophosphatases couple this hydrolysis to Na(+) and/or H(+) pumping, and so recycle some of the free energy from the pyrophosphate. The structures of the H(+)-pumping mung bean PPase and the Na(+)-pumping Thermotoga maritima PPase solved last year revealed an entirely novel membrane protein containing 16 transmembrane helices. The hydrolytic centre, well above the membrane, is linked by a charged "coupling funnel" to the ionic gate about 20Å away. By comparing the active sites, fluoride inhibition data and the various models for ion transport, we conclude that membrane-integral PPases probably use binding of pyrophosphate to drive pumping. PMID:23684653

Kajander, Tommi; Kellosalo, Juho; Goldman, Adrian

2013-06-27

265

The structure and catalytic cycle of a sodium-pumping pyrophosphatase.  

PubMed

Membrane-integral pyrophosphatases (M-PPases) are crucial for the survival of plants, bacteria, and protozoan parasites. They couple pyrophosphate hydrolysis or synthesis to Na(+) or H(+) pumping. The 2.6-angstrom structure of Thermotoga maritima M-PPase in the resting state reveals a previously unknown solution for ion pumping. The hydrolytic center, 20 angstroms above the membrane, is coupled to the gate formed by the conserved Asp(243), Glu(246), and Lys(707) by an unusual "coupling funnel" of six ? helices. Comparison with our 4.0-angstrom resolution structure of the product complex suggests that helix 12 slides down upon substrate binding to open the gate by a simple binding-change mechanism. Below the gate, four helices form the exit channel. Superimposing helices 3 to 6, 9 to 12, and 13 to 16 suggests that M-PPases arose through gene triplication. PMID:22837527

Kellosalo, Juho; Kajander, Tommi; Kogan, Konstantin; Pokharel, Kisun; Goldman, Adrian

2012-07-27

266

Taxonomic synopsis of invasive and native Spartina (Poaceae, Chloridoideae) in the Pacific Northwest (British Columbia, Washington and Oregon), including the first report of Spartina ×townsendii for British Columbia, Canada  

PubMed Central

Abstract Five species of the grass genus Spartina are invading salt marshes along the Pacific coast of North America, of which three have been documented in British Columbia, Canada, in only the last decade. A taxonomic synopsis of the two native (Spartina gracilis, Spartina pectinata) and five introduced Spartina taxa (Spartina anglica, Spartina alterniflora, Spartina densiflora, Spartina patens, Spartina ×townsendii) in the Pacific Northwest is presented to facilitate their identification, including nomenclature, a new taxonomic key, new descriptions for a subset of taxa, and representative specimens. Spartina ×townsendii is newly reported for the flora of British Columbia. The non-coastal species Spartina pectinata is reported from an urban site in British Columbia, the first confirmed report of the taxon for the province. Lectotypes are newly designated for Spartina anglica C.E. Hubb., Spartina maritima subvar. fallax St.-Yves, and Spartina cynosuroides f. major St.-Yves. PMID:22461730

Saarela, Jeffery M.

2012-01-01

267

Genomic analysis of the F3031 Brazilian purpuric fever clone of Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius by PCR-based subtractive hybridization.  

PubMed

PCR-based subtractive genome hybridization produced clones harboring inserts present in Brazilian purpuric fever (BPF) prototype strain F3031 but absent in noninvasive Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius isolate F1947. Some of these inserts have no matches in the GenBank database, while others are similar to genes encoding either known or hypothetical proteins. One insert represents a 2.3-kb locus with similarity to a Thermotoga maritima hypothetical protein, while another is part of a 7.6-kb locus that contains predicted genes encoding hypothetical, phage-related, and carotovoricin Er-like proteins. The presence of DNA related to these loci is variable among BPF isolates and nontypeable H. influenzae strains, while neither of them was detected in strains of types a to f. The data indicate that BPF-causing strain F3031 harbors unique chromosomal regions, most of which appear to be acquired from unrelated microbial sources. PMID:11953414

Smoot, Laura M; Franke, Deanna D; McGillivary, Glen; Actis, Luis A

2002-05-01

268

The class III ribonucleotide reductase from Neisseria bacilliformis can utilize thioredoxin as a reductant.  

PubMed

The class III anaerobic ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) studied to date couple the reduction of ribonucleotides to deoxynucleotides with the oxidation of formate to CO2. Here we report the cloning and heterologous expression of the Neisseria bacilliformis class III RNR and show that it can catalyze nucleotide reduction using the ubiquitous thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase/NADPH system. We present a structural model based on a crystal structure of the homologous Thermotoga maritima class III RNR, showing its architecture and the position of conserved residues in the active site. Phylogenetic studies suggest that this form of class III RNR is present in bacteria and archaea that carry out diverse types of anaerobic metabolism. PMID:25157154

Wei, Yifeng; Funk, Michael A; Rosado, Leonardo A; Baek, Jiyeon; Drennan, Catherine L; Stubbe, JoAnne

2014-09-01

269

Upon Further Review: VI. An Examination of Previous Lightcurve Analysis from the Palmer Divide Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Updated results of lightcurve analysis are given for 31 asteroids previously reported from the Palmer Divide Observatory (PDO). The original images were remeasured to obtain new data sets using the latest version of MPO Canopus photometry software, analysis tools, and revised techniques for linking observing runs that ranged from several days to several weeks. Moderately to significantly different results were found for: 301 Bavaria, 436 Patricia, 507 Laodica, 549 Jessonda, 585 Bilkis, 596 Scheila, 607 Jenny, 630 Euphemia, 875 Nymphe, 912 Maritima, 926 Imhilde, 1177 Gonnessia, 1203 Nanna, 1333 Cevenola, 1679 Nevanlinna, 1796 Riga, 2000 Herschel, 2266 Tchaikovsky, 2460 Mitlincoln, 2494 Inge, 3915 Fukushima, 3940 Larion, 4091 Lowe, 4209 Briggs, 4431 Holeungholee, 4690 Strasbourg, 5390 Huichiming, 5940 Feliksobolev, (16558) 1991 VQ2, (18108) 2000 NT5, and (45646) 2000 EE45. This is expected to be the final paper in a current series that has examined results obtained during the initial years of the asteroid lightcurve program at PDO.

Warner, Brian D.

2011-04-01

270

Emissions of biogenic sulphur compounds from several wetland soils in Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emission rates of the biogenic sulphur gases hydrogen sulphide, dimethyl sulphide, carbon disulphide and dimethyl disulphide have been measured from the exposed soils of five wetland plant communities in Florida. Dimethyl sulphide and hydrogen sulphide were the predominant species emitted. All the studied ecosystems showed diel variation in the emission rates of the biogenic sulphur gases with the highest emissions rates occurring early- to mid-afternoon, and the lowest emission rates occurring during the early morning. The relative magnitude of emissions from the individual ecosystems followed the trend Distichlis spicata > Avicennia germinans > Batis maritima ? Juncus roemerianus ? Cladium jamaicense. Only the emission rates from the peaty D. spicata site are comparable in magnitude to previous emission measurements in wetland ecosystems of Spartina alterniflora and associated mud flats.

Cooper, W. J.; Cooper, D. J.; Saltzman, E. S.; Mello, W. Z. de; Savoie, D. L.; Zika, R. G.; Prospero, J. M.

271

Impacts of oil sands process water on fen plants: implications for plant selection in required reclamation projects.  

PubMed

Fen plant growth in peat contaminated with groundwater discharges of oil sands process water (OSPW) was assessed in a greenhouse over two growing seasons. Three treatments (non-diluted OSPW, diluted OSPW and rainwater) were tested on five vascular plants and four mosses. All vascular plants tested can grow in salinity and naphthenic acids levels currently produced by oil sands activity in northwestern Canada. No stress sign was observed after both seasons. Because of plant characteristics, Carex species (C. atherodes and C. utriculata) and Triglochin maritima would be more useful for rapidly restoring vegetation and creating a new peat-accumulating system. Groundwater discharge of OSPW proved detrimental to mosses under dry conditions and ensuring adequate water levels would be crucial in fen creation following oil sands exploitation. Campylium stellatum would be the best choice to grow in contaminated areas and Bryum pseudotriquetrum might be interesting as it has spontaneously regenerated in all treatments. PMID:22575093

Pouliot, Rémy; Rochefort, Line; Graf, Martha D

2012-08-01

272

In silico method for modelling metabolism and gene product expression at genome scale  

SciTech Connect

Transcription and translation use raw materials and energy generated metabolically to create the macromolecular machinery responsible for all cellular functions, including metabolism. A biochemically accurate model of molecular biology and metabolism will facilitate comprehensive and quantitative computations of an organism's molecular constitution as a function of genetic and environmental parameters. Here we formulate a model of metabolism and macromolecular expression. Prototyping it using the simple microorganism Thermotoga maritima, we show our model accurately simulates variations in cellular composition and gene expression. Moreover, through in silico comparative transcriptomics, the model allows the discovery of new regulons and improving the genome and transcription unit annotations. Our method presents a framework for investigating molecular biology and cellular physiology in silico and may allow quantitative interpretation of multi-omics data sets in the context of an integrated biochemical description of an organism.

Lerman, Joshua A.; Hyduke, Daniel R.; Latif, Haythem; Portnoy, Vasiliy A.; Lewis, Nathan E.; Orth, Jeffrey D.; Rutledge, Alexandra C.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Zengler, Karsten; Palsson, Bernard O.

2012-07-03

273

Influence of biological, environmental and technical factors on phenolic content and antioxidant activities of Tunisian halophytes.  

PubMed

Halophyte ability to withstand salt-triggered oxidative stress is governed by multiple biochemical mechanisms that facilitate retention and/or acquisition of water, protect chloroplast functioning, and maintain ion homeostasis. Most essential traits include the synthesis of osmolytes, specific proteins, and antioxidant molecules. This might explain the utilization of some halophytes as traditional medicinal and dietary plants. The present study aimed at assessing the phenolic content and antioxidant activities of some Tunisian halophytes (Cakile maritima, Limoniastrum monopetalum, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, M. edule, Salsola kali, and Tamarix gallica), depending on biological (species, organ and developmental stage), environmental, and technical (extraction solvent) factors. The total polyphenol contents and antioxidant activities (DPPH and superoxide radicals scavenging activities, and iron chelating and reducing powers) were strongly affected by the above-cited factors. Such variability might be of great importance in terms of valorising these halophytes as a source of naturally secondary metabolites, and the methods for phenolic and antioxidant production. PMID:18940702

Ksouri, Riadh; Megdiche, Wided; Falleh, Hanen; Trabelsi, Nejla; Boulaaba, Mondher; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Abdelly, Chedly

2008-11-01

274

Hydrogenases of the model hyperthermophiles.  

PubMed

Hydrogenases are enzymes found in all domains of life that catalyze a remarkably simple chemistry, the reversible oxidation of molecular hydrogen to protons and electrons. In order to perform this chemistry, cells have evolved, several different times, intricate organometal complexes built around a binuclear Ni-Fe or Fe-Fe center, with bound CO and CN(-) groups, as well as multiple FeS centers. These complicated enzymes have been an area of intense study for many decades, with interest peaking on the occasions of major increases in national energy costs. Interest in biologically generated hydrogen as a potential substitute for fossil fuels is again at the forefront, and the new tools of the postgenomic world available for manipulating these enzymes make it a truly viable possibility. Hydrogenases from hyperthermophilic microorganisms such as Pyrococcus furiosus and Thermotoga maritima, with optimal growth temperatures near 100 degrees C, are of particular interest and promise for elucidating and manipulating these enzymatic mechanisms. PMID:18378597

Jenney, Francis E; Adams, Michael W W

2008-03-01

275

Promiscuous Substrate Recognition in Folding and Assembly Activities of the Trigger Factor Chaperone  

SciTech Connect

Trigger factor (TF) is a molecular chaperone that binds to bacterial ribosomes where it contacts emerging nascent chains, but TF is also abundant free in the cytosol where its activity is less well characterized. In vitro studies show that TF promotes protein refolding. We find here that ribosome-free TF stably associates with and rescues from misfolding a large repertoire of full-length proteins. We identify over 170 members of this cytosolic Escherichia coli TF substrate proteome, including ribosomal protein S7. We analyzed the biochemical properties of a TF:S7 complex from Thermotoga maritima and determined its crystal structure. Thereby, we obtained an atomic-level picture of a promiscuous chaperone in complex with a physiological substrate protein. The structure of the complex reveals the molecular basis of substrate recognition by TF, indicates how TF could accelerate protein folding, and suggests a role for TF in the biogenesis of protein complexes.

Martinez-Hackert, E.; Hendrickson, W

2009-01-01

276

POLYPEPTIDE AND POLYSACCHARIDE PROCESSING IN HYPERTHERMOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS  

SciTech Connect

This project focused on the microbial physiology and biochemistry of heterotrophic hyperthermophiles with respect to mechanisms by which these organisms process polypeptides and polysaccharides under normal and stressed conditions. Emphasis is on two model organisms, for which completed genome sequences are available: Pyrococcus furiosus (growth Topt of 98°C), an archaeon, and Thermotoga maritima (growth Topt of 80°C), a bacterium. Both organisms are obligately anaerobic heterotrophs that reduce sulfur facultatively. Whole genome cDNA spotted microarrays were used to follow transcriptional response to a variety of environmental conditions in order to identify genes encoding proteins involved in the acquisition, synthesis, processing and utilization of polypeptides and polysaccharides. This project provided new insights into the physiological aspects of hyperthermophiles as these relate to microbial biochemistry and biological function in high temperature habitats. The capacity of these microorganisms to produce biohydrogen from renewable feedstocks makes them important for future efforts to develop biofuels.

KELLY, ROBERT M.

2008-12-22

277

Feeding ecology of waterfowl wintering on evaporation ponds in California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the feeding ecology of Northern Pintails (Anas acuta), Northern Shovelers (A. clypeata), and Ruddy Ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis) wintering on drainwater evaporation ponds in California from 1982 through 1984. Pintails primarily consumed midges (Chironomidae) (39.3%) and widegeongrass (Ruppia maritima) nutlets (34.6%). Shovelers and Ruddy Ducks consumed 92.5% and 90.1% animal matter, respectively. Water boatmen (Corixidae) (51.6%), rotifers (Rotatoria) (20.4%), and copepods (Copepoda) (15.2%) were the most important Shoveler foods, and midges (49.7%) and water boatmen (36.0%) were the most important foods of Ruddy Ducks. All three species were opportunistic foragers, shifting their diets seasonally to the most abundant foods given their behavioral and morphological attributes.

Euliss, N.H., Jr.; Jarvis, R.L.; Gilmer, D.S.

1991-01-01

278

Cloning and characterization of the gene for amylosucrase from Neisseria polysaccharea: production of a linear alpha-1,4-glucan.  

PubMed Central

The gene for the amylosucrase from Neisseria polysaccharea (ATCC 43768) was cloned by use of a functional expression system in Escherichia coli XL1-Blue. The deduced amino acid sequence of the protein has homology to the sequences of the alpha-amylase class of enzymes, with the highest similarities being found to the sequences of the trehalose synthase from Pimelobacter sp. strain R48 (17) and amylomaltase from Thermotoga maritima (11). However, the regions of highest homology within the alpha-amylase class of enzymes, which are essential for the catalytic activity, are only scarcely found in the sequence of amylosucrase. By using the enzyme isolated from culture supernatants of transformed E. coli cells, it is possible to synthesize linear alpha-1,4-glucans from sucrose, indicating that the enzyme is not capable of producing alpha-1,6-glycosidic linkages on its own. PMID:9150231

Büttcher, V; Welsh, T; Willmitzer, L; Kossmann, J

1997-01-01

279

Cloning and characterization of the gene for amylosucrase from Neisseria polysaccharea: production of a linear alpha-1,4-glucan.  

PubMed

The gene for the amylosucrase from Neisseria polysaccharea (ATCC 43768) was cloned by use of a functional expression system in Escherichia coli XL1-Blue. The deduced amino acid sequence of the protein has homology to the sequences of the alpha-amylase class of enzymes, with the highest similarities being found to the sequences of the trehalose synthase from Pimelobacter sp. strain R48 (17) and amylomaltase from Thermotoga maritima (11). However, the regions of highest homology within the alpha-amylase class of enzymes, which are essential for the catalytic activity, are only scarcely found in the sequence of amylosucrase. By using the enzyme isolated from culture supernatants of transformed E. coli cells, it is possible to synthesize linear alpha-1,4-glucans from sucrose, indicating that the enzyme is not capable of producing alpha-1,6-glycosidic linkages on its own. PMID:9150231

Büttcher, V; Welsh, T; Willmitzer, L; Kossmann, J

1997-05-01

280

In situ nitrogen generation removes wax from flowlines  

SciTech Connect

Formation of paraffin (wax) in cold deepwater flowlines is a major problem for offshore operators of such facilities. Petrobras faces this problem continuously in its deepwater operations in the Campos basin, offshore Brazil. Since 1990, through its Petrobras Research Center (CENPES), the company has developed, extensively field tested, and recently commercialized, a novel technique for chemically removing such wax depositions. The process involves mixing and introducing to the line, two inorganic salts and organic solvents. The ensuing chemical reaction--which both generates nitrogen and heats the inside of the blocked flowline--allows the solvent to dissolve and dislodge the buildup, which is then flushed from the line. The process is called the Nitrogen Generation System (SGN). Petrobras/CENPES has recently formed a joint venture with the Brazilian service company Maritima Navegacao e Engenharia Ltda. to offer SGN services worldwide.

Khalil, C.N. [Petrobras S.A., Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

1996-07-01

281

Acylated cyanidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucosides in three garden plants of the Cruciferae.  

PubMed

Seven acylated cyanidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucosides were isolated from the flowers of three garden plants in the Cruciferae. Specifically, four pigments were isolated from Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv., together with a known pigment, as well as, three pigments from Lunaria annua L., and two known pigments from Cheiranthus cheiri L. These pigments were determined to be cyanidin 3-O-[2-O-((acyl-II)-(beta-d-xylopyranosyl))-6-O-(acyl-I)-beta-d-glucopyranoside]-5-O-[6-O-(acyl-III)-beta-d-glucopyranoside], in which the acyl-I group is represented by glucosyl-p-coumaric acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid, acyl-II by caffeic acid and ferulic acid, and acyl-III by malonic acid, respectively. The distribution and biosynthesis of acylated cyanidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucosides are discussed according to the variations of acylation and glucosylation at their 3-sambubiose residues. PMID:16777160

Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Saito, Norio; Shinoda, Koichi; Shigihara, Atsushi; Honda, Toshio

2006-06-01

282

Identification of polyunsaturated fatty acid and diterpenoid biosynthesis pathways from draft genome of Aureispira sp. CCB-QB1.  

PubMed

The genus Aureispira consisting of two species, Aureispira marina and Aureispira maritima is an arachidonic acid-producing bacterium and produces secondary metabolites. In this study, we isolated a new Aureispira strain, Aureispira sp. CCB-QB1 from coastal area of Penang, Malaysia and the genome sequence of this strain was determined. The draft genome of this strain is composed of 185 contigs for 7,370,077 bases with 35.6% G+C content and contains 5911 protein-coding genes and 76 RNA genes. Linoleoyl-CoA desaturase, the key gene in arachidonic acid biosynthesis, is present in the genome. It was found that this strain uses mevalonate pathway for the synthesis of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), which is precursor of diterpenoid, and novel pathway via futalosine for the synthesis of menaquinones. This is the first draft genome sequence of a member of the genus Aureispira. PMID:25468060

Furusawa, Go; Lau, Nyok-Sean; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong; Jaya-Ram, Annette; Amirul, Al-Ashraf Abdullah

2014-11-11

283

Nutrient levels modify saltmarsh responses to increased inundation in different soil types.  

PubMed

Saltmarshes have been depleted historically, and cumulative stressors threaten their future persistence. We examined experimentally how nutrient availability (high vs. low) affects the responses of Spartina maritima to increased inundation in two mineral soil types (low vs. medium organic). Increased inundation, one of the effects of accelerated sea level rise, had negative effects on most plant growth parameters, but the magnitude varied with soil and nutrient levels, and between plants from different locations. Average differences between inundation treatments were largest at high nutrient conditions in low organic matter soils. We conclude that saltmarsh vegetation would be more drastically affected by increased inundation in low than in medium organic matter soils, and especially in estuaries already under high nutrient availability. This knowledge enhances the prediction of changes at the foreshore of saltmarshes related to sea level rise, and the development of site-specific conservation strategies. PMID:25594372

Wong, Joanne X W; Van Colen, Carl; Airoldi, Laura

2015-03-01

284

Food habits and distribution of wintering canvasbacks, Aythya valisineria, on Chesapeake Bay  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Baltic clams (Macoma balthica) were the predominant food items of 323 canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) collected throughout Chesapeake Bay during 1970-1979. Natural vegetation constituted 4% of the food volume. Widgeongrass (Ruppia maritima) and redhead grass (Potamogeton perfoliatus) constituted the greatest percent volume and frequency of occurrence among the plant species, whereas wild celery (Vallisneria americana) constituted only a trace of the food volume. These results contrast with historical records of food habits of canvasbacks in Chesapeake Bay. Canvasback population estimates during the 1970?s were examined to detect annual and seasonal changes in distribution. Linear regression analyses of winter canvasback populations in the bay showed a significant decline in the upper-bay and middle-bay populations, but no significant changes in the lower-bay and Potomac River populations. The changes in winter distribution and abundance of the canvasback appear related to changes in natural food availability, which is the result of altered environmental conditions.

Perry, M.C.; Uhler, F.M.

1988-01-01

285

Ligand-induced conformational changes in a thermophilic ribose-binding protein  

SciTech Connect

Members of the periplasmic binding protein (PBP) superfamily are involved in transport and signaling processes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Biological responses are typically mediated by ligand-induced conformational changes in which the binding event is coupled to a hinge-bending motion that brings together two domains in a closed form. In all PBP-mediated biological processes, downstream partners recognize the closed form of the protein. This motion has also been exploited in protein engineering experiments to construct biosensors that transduce ligand binding to a variety of physical signals. Understanding the mechanistic details of PBP conformational changes, both global (hinge bending, twisting, shear movements) and local (rotamer changes, backbone motion), therefore is not only important for understanding their biological function but also for protein engineering experiments. Here we present biochemical characterization and crystal structure determination of the periplasmic ribose-binding protein (RBP) from the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima in its ribose-bound and unliganded state. The T. maritima RBP (tmRBP) has 39% sequence identity and is considerably more resistant to thermal denaturation (appTm value is 108 C) than the mesophilic Escherichia coli homolog (ecRBP) (appTm value is 56 C). Polar ligand interactions and ligand-induced global conformational changes are conserved among ecRBP and tmRBP; however local structural rearrangements involving side-chain motions in the ligand-binding site are not conserved. Although the large-scale ligand-induced changes are mediated through similar regions, and are produced by similar backbone movements in tmRBP and ecRBP, the small-scale ligand-induced structural rearrangements differentiate the mesophile and thermophile. This suggests there are mechanistic differences in the manner by which these two proteins bind their ligands and are an example of how two structurally similar proteins utilize different mechanisms to form a ligand-bound state.

Cuneo, Matthew J.; Beese, Lorena S.; Hellinga, Homme W. (Duke)

2009-05-21

286

Functional analysis of centipede development supports roles for Wnt genes in posterior development and segment generation.  

PubMed

The genes of the Wnt family play important and highly conserved roles in posterior growth and development in a wide range of animal taxa. Wnt genes also operate in arthropod segmentation, and there has been much recent debate regarding the relationship between arthropod and vertebrate segmentation mechanisms. Due to its phylogenetic position, body form, and possession of many (11) Wnt genes, the centipede Strigamia maritima is a useful system with which to examine these issues. This study takes a functional approach based on treatment with lithium chloride, which causes ubiquitous activation of canonical Wnt signalling. This is the first functional developmental study performed in any of the 15,000 species of the arthropod subphylum Myriapoda. The expression of all 11 Wnt genes in Strigamia was analyzed in relation to posterior development. Three of these genes, Wnt11, Wnt5, and WntA, were strongly expressed in the posterior region and, thus, may play important roles in posterior developmental processes. In support of this hypothesis, LiCl treatment of S. maritima embryos was observed to produce posterior developmental defects and perturbations in AbdB and Delta expression. The effects of LiCl differ depending on the developmental stage treated, with more severe effects elicited by treatment during germband formation than by treatment at later stages. These results support a role for Wnt signalling in conferring posterior identity in Strigamia. In addition, data from this study are consistent with the hypothesis of segmentation based on a "clock and wavefront" mechanism operating in this species. PMID:25627713

Hayden, Luke; Schlosser, Gerhard; Arthur, Wallace

2015-01-01

287

Experimental observations on sediment resuspension within submerged model canopies under oscillatory flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effect of submerged aquatic vegetation in sediment resuspension under progressive waves. Three vegetation models (rigid, flexible and real plants of Ruppia maritima), six wave frequencies (in the range F=0.6-1.6 Hz) and four plant densities (Solid Plant Fractions, SPF in the range of 1-10%) were used. The sediment bed properties corresponded to a salt marsh wetland with a bimodal particle size distribution with two particle populations (population 1: particle diameters in the range of 2.5 to 6.0 ?m, and population 2: particle diameters in the range of 6.0 to 100 ?m). Within the canopy, wave velocities were attenuated for all the canopies studied and for all the frequencies analyzed. The change in the TKE (?TKE) compared with the case without plants was studied. For the rigid canopy model, in comparison to the unimpeded experiment, an increase in ?TKE inside the canopy for smaller frequencies (F=0.6-1.2 Hz) was observed together with stem Reynolds numbers Rep above 250. As a result, sediment resuspension for both sediment populations was higher than that of the unimpeded experiment. However, at higher frequencies (F=1.4 and 1.6 Hz) and higher plant densities (SPF=5%, 7.5% and 10%), the ?TKE inside the canopy decreased, coinciding with stem Reynolds number Rep below 250. As a result, sediment resuspension for larger canopy densities and larger frequencies was reduced. For the flexible vegetation model, in comparison with the unimpeded experiment, a reduction in the ?TKE inside the canopy was nearly always found. Resuspended sediment concentrations were found to decrease as flexible canopy densities increased. For the flexible vegetation the stem Reynolds number was Rep<250 and no production of ?TKE was observed. The real case of a canopy of R. maritima behaved similarly to the flexible model canopy.

Ros, Àlex; Colomer, Jordi; Serra, Teresa; Pujol, Dolors; Soler, Marianna; Casamitjana, Xavier

2014-12-01

288

Hyperthermophilic Thermotoga Species Differ with Respect to Specific Carbohydrate Transporters and Glycoside Hydrolases  

PubMed Central

Four hyperthermophilic members of the bacterial genus Thermotoga (T. maritima, T. neapolitana, T. petrophila, and Thermotoga sp. strain RQ2) share a core genome of 1,470 open reading frames (ORFs), or about 75% of their genomes. Nonetheless, each species exhibited certain distinguishing features during growth on simple and complex carbohydrates that correlated with genomic inventories of specific ABC sugar transporters and glycoside hydrolases. These differences were consistent with transcriptomic analysis based on a multispecies cDNA microarray. Growth on a mixture of six pentoses and hexoses showed no significant utilization of galactose or mannose by any of the four species. T. maritima and T. neapolitana exhibited similar monosaccharide utilization profiles, with a strong preference for glucose and xylose over fructose and arabinose. Thermotoga sp. strain RQ2 also used glucose and xylose, but was the only species to utilize fructose to any extent, consistent with a phosphotransferase system (PTS) specific for this sugar encoded in its genome. T. petrophila used glucose to a significantly lesser extent than the other species. In fact, the XylR regulon was triggered by growth on glucose for T. petrophila, which was attributed to the absence of a glucose transporter (XylE2F2K2), otherwise present in the other Thermotoga species. This suggested that T. petrophila acquires glucose through the XylE1F1K1 transporter, which primarily serves to transport xylose in the other three Thermotoga species. The results here show that subtle differences exist among the hyperthermophilic Thermotogales with respect to carbohydrate utilization, which supports their designation as separate species. PMID:22247137

Frock, Andrew D.; Gray, Steven R.

2012-01-01

289

Cover cropping alters the diet of arthropods in a banana plantation: a metabarcoding approach.  

PubMed

Plant diversification using cover crops may promote natural regulation of agricultural pests by supporting alternative prey that enable the increase of arthropod predator densities. However, the changes in the specific composition of predator diet induced by cover cropping are poorly understood. Here, we hypothesized that the cover crop can significantly alter the diet of predators in agroecosystems. The cover crop Brachiaria decumbens is increasingly used in banana plantations to control weeds and improve physical soil properties. In this paper, we used a DNA metabarcoding approach for the molecular analysis of the gut contents of predators (based on mini-COI) to identify 1) the DNA sequences of their prey, 2) the predators of Cosmopolites sordidus (a major pest of banana crops), and 3) the difference in the specific composition of predator diets between a bare soil plot (BSP) and a cover cropped plot (CCP) in a banana plantation. The earwig Euborellia caraibea, the carpenter ant Camponotus sexguttatus, and the fire ant Solenopsis geminata were found to contain C. sordidus DNA at frequencies ranging from 1 to 7%. While the frequencies of predators positive for C. sordidus DNA did not significantly differ between BSP and CCP, the frequency at which E. caraibea was positive for Diptera was 26% in BSP and 80% in CCP; the frequency at which C. sexguttatus was positive for Jalysus spinosus was 14% in BSP and 0% in CCP; and the frequency at which S. geminata was positive for Polytus mellerborgi was 21% in BSP and 3% in CCP. E. caraibea, C. sexguttatus and S. geminata were identified as possible biological agents for the regulation of C. sordidus. The detection of the diet changes of these predators when a cover crop is planted indicates the possible negative effects on pest regulation if predators switch to forage on alternative prey. PMID:24695585

Mollot, Gregory; Duyck, Pierre-François; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Lescourret, Françoise; Martin, Jean-François; Piry, Sylvain; Canard, Elsa; Tixier, Philippe

2014-01-01

290

Cover Cropping Alters the Diet of Arthropods in a Banana Plantation: A Metabarcoding Approach  

PubMed Central

Plant diversification using cover crops may promote natural regulation of agricultural pests by supporting alternative prey that enable the increase of arthropod predator densities. However, the changes in the specific composition of predator diet induced by cover cropping are poorly understood. Here, we hypothesized that the cover crop can significantly alter the diet of predators in agroecosystems. The cover crop Brachiaria decumbens is increasingly used in banana plantations to control weeds and improve physical soil properties. In this paper, we used a DNA metabarcoding approach for the molecular analysis of the gut contents of predators (based on mini-COI) to identify 1) the DNA sequences of their prey, 2) the predators of Cosmopolites sordidus (a major pest of banana crops), and 3) the difference in the specific composition of predator diets between a bare soil plot (BSP) and a cover cropped plot (CCP) in a banana plantation. The earwig Euborellia caraibea, the carpenter ant Camponotus sexguttatus, and the fire ant Solenopsis geminata were found to contain C. sordidus DNA at frequencies ranging from 1 to 7%. While the frequencies of predators positive for C. sordidus DNA did not significantly differ between BSP and CCP, the frequency at which E. caraibea was positive for Diptera was 26% in BSP and 80% in CCP; the frequency at which C. sexguttatus was positive for Jalysus spinosus was 14% in BSP and 0% in CCP; and the frequency at which S. geminata was positive for Polytus mellerborgi was 21% in BSP and 3% in CCP. E. caraibea, C. sexguttatus and S. geminata were identified as possible biological agents for the regulation of C. sordidus. The detection of the diet changes of these predators when a cover crop is planted indicates the possible negative effects on pest regulation if predators switch to forage on alternative prey. PMID:24695585

Mollot, Gregory; Duyck, Pierre-François; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Lescourret, Françoise; Martin, Jean-François; Piry, Sylvain; Canard, Elsa; Tixier, Philippe

2014-01-01

291

Structure of ovaries and oogenesis in dermapterans. I. Origin and functioning of the ovarian follicles.  

PubMed

The ovaries of the studied earwig species (Forficula auricularia, Chelidurella acanthopygia, Doru lineare and Opisthocosmia silvestris) are meroistic-polytrophic and composed of numerous short ovarioles that consist of a terminal filament, germarium and vitellarium. The germaria of adult females comprise meiotic (pachytene) and postmeiotic (differentiating) germ cell clusters, as well as small prefollicular cells. All germ cell clusters consist of two cells that are connected by a single intercellular bridge. In the vitellarium there are usually 2 ovarian follicles only. The individual follicle consists of a transcriptionally dormant oocyte and a single, polyploid nurse cell and is surrounded by a layer of somatic follicular cells (FCs). During previtellogenesis the nurse cell enlarges and becomes highly transcriptionally active. Concurrently its nucleus attains a characteristic, irregular shape. In the nurse cell nucleus of one studied species, F. auricularia, in addition to chromatin aggregations and RNA- and Ag-NOR-positive nucleoli, a single compact DNA-positive body is present. During advanced vitellogenesis the molecules synthesized in the nurse cells (RNAs, proteins, as well as nurse cell organelles) are transferred to the ooplasm via the intercellular bridge. During this transfer the nurse cell nucleus is retained in the cell centre and does not occlude the intercellular bridge. The results of our studies indicate that such position of the nurse cell nucleus is maintained solely by its extended shape. In other words, the rigid extensions keep the nucleus in the cell centre while the cytoplasm flows, in between these extensions, towards the intercellular bridge connecting the nurse cell with the oocyte. PMID:18396462

Tworzyd?o, Wac?aw; Bili?ski, Szczepan M

2008-07-01

292

Parental antagonism and parent–offspring co-adaptation interact to shape family life  

PubMed Central

The family is an arena for conflicts between offspring, mothers and fathers that need resolving to promote the evolution of parental care and the maintenance of family life. Co-adaptation is known to contribute to the resolution of parent–offspring conflict over parental care by selecting for combinations of offspring demand and parental supply that match to maximize the fitness of family members. However, multiple paternity and differences in the level of care provided by mothers and fathers can generate antagonistic selection on offspring demand (mediated, for example, by genomic imprinting) and possibly hamper co-adaptation. While parent–offspring co-adaptation and parental antagonism are commonly considered two major processes in the evolution of family life, their co-occurrence and the evolutionary consequences of their joint action are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate the simultaneous and entangled effects of these two processes on outcomes of family interactions, using a series of breeding experiments in the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, an insect species with uniparental female care. As predicted from parental antagonism, we show that paternally inherited effects expressed in offspring influence both maternal care and maternal investment in future reproduction. However, and as expected from the entangled effects of parental antagonism and co-adaptation, these effects critically depended on postnatal interactions with caring females and maternally inherited effects expressed in offspring. Our results demonstrate that parent–offspring co-adaptation and parental antagonism are entangled key drivers in the evolution of family life that cannot be fully understood in isolation. PMID:22810433

Meunier, Joël; Kölliker, Mathias

2012-01-01

293

Parental antagonism and parent-offspring co-adaptation interact to shape family life.  

PubMed

The family is an arena for conflicts between offspring, mothers and fathers that need resolving to promote the evolution of parental care and the maintenance of family life. Co-adaptation is known to contribute to the resolution of parent-offspring conflict over parental care by selecting for combinations of offspring demand and parental supply that match to maximize the fitness of family members. However, multiple paternity and differences in the level of care provided by mothers and fathers can generate antagonistic selection on offspring demand (mediated, for example, by genomic imprinting) and possibly hamper co-adaptation. While parent-offspring co-adaptation and parental antagonism are commonly considered two major processes in the evolution of family life, their co-occurrence and the evolutionary consequences of their joint action are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate the simultaneous and entangled effects of these two processes on outcomes of family interactions, using a series of breeding experiments in the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, an insect species with uniparental female care. As predicted from parental antagonism, we show that paternally inherited effects expressed in offspring influence both maternal care and maternal investment in future reproduction. However, and as expected from the entangled effects of parental antagonism and co-adaptation, these effects critically depended on postnatal interactions with caring females and maternally inherited effects expressed in offspring. Our results demonstrate that parent-offspring co-adaptation and parental antagonism are entangled key drivers in the evolution of family life that cannot be fully understood in isolation. PMID:22810433

Meunier, Joël; Kölliker, Mathias

2012-10-01

294

Effects of food restriction across stages of juvenile and early adult development on body weight, survival and adult life history.  

PubMed

Organisms have to allocate limited resources among multiple life-history traits, which can result in physiological trade-offs, and variation in environmental conditions experienced during ontogeny can influence reproduction later in life. Food restriction may lead to an adaptive reallocation of the limited resources among traits as a phenotypically plastic adjustment, or it can act as an overall constraint with detrimental effects throughout reproductive life. In this study, we investigated experimentally the effects of food restriction during different stages of the juvenile and early adult development on body weight, survival and reproductive success in females and males of the European earwig Forficula auricularia. Individuals either received limited or unlimited access to food across three different stages of development (fully crossed) allowing us to identify sensitive periods during development and to test both additive and interactive effects of food limitation across stages on development and reproduction. Food restriction during the early and late juvenile stage had additive negative effects on juvenile survival and adult body weight. With regard to reproductive success of females which produce up to two clutches in their lifetime, restriction specifically in the late juvenile stage led to smaller first and second clutch size, lower probability of second clutch production and reduced hatching success in the second clutch. Reproductive success of females was not significantly affected when their male mates experienced food restriction during their development. Our findings in general support the 'silver-spoon' hypothesis in that food restriction during juvenile development poses constraints on development and reproduction throughout life. PMID:25263828

Wong, J W Y; Kölliker, M

2014-11-01

295

Mercury-resistant bacteria from salt marsh of Tagus Estuary: the influence of plants presence and mercury contamination levels.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) contamination of aquatic systems has been recognized as a global, serious problem affecting both wildlife and humans. High levels of Hg, in particular methylmercury (MeHg), were detected in surface sediments of Tagus Estuary. MeHg is neurotoxic and its concentration in aquatic systems is dependent upon the relative efficiency of reduction, methylation, and demethylation processes, which are mediated predominantly by the microbial community, in particular mercury-resistant (HgR) bacteria. Plants in contaminated ecosystems are known to take up Hg via plant roots. Therefore, the aims of this study were to (1) isolate and characterize HgR bacteria from a salt marsh of Tagus Estuary (Rosário) and (2) determine HgR bacteria levels in the rhizosphere and, consequently, their influence in metal cycling. To accomplish this objective, sediments samples were collected during the spring season in an area colonized by Sacocornia fruticosa and Spartina maritima and compared with sediments without plants. From these samples, 13 aerobic HgR bacteria were isolated and characterized morphologically, biochemically, and genetically, and susceptibility to Hg compounds, Hg(2+), and MeHg was assessed by determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). Genetically, the mer operon was searched by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 16S rRNA sequencing was used for bacterial identification. Results showed that the isolates were capable of growing in the presence of high Hg concentration with MIC values for HgCl2 and MeHgCl in the ranges of 1.7-4.2 ?g/ml and 0.1-0.9 ?g/ml, respectively. The isolates from sediments colonized with Sacocornia fruticosa displayed higher resistance levels compared to ones colonized with Spartina maritima. Bacteria isolates showed different capacity of Hg accumulation but all displayed Hg volatilization capabilities (20-50%). Mer operon was found in two isolates, which genetically confirmed their capability to convert Hg compounds by reducing them to Hg(0). Thus, these results are the first evidence of the relevance of interaction between bacteria and plants in Hg cycling in Tagus Estuary. PMID:25072727

Figueiredo, Neusa L L; Areias, Andreia; Mendes, Ricardo; Canário, João; Duarte, Aida; Carvalho, Cristina

2014-01-01

296

Biosynthesis, Translocation, and Accumulation of Betaine in Sugar Beet and Its Progenitors in Relation to Salinity 12  

PubMed Central

Like other halophytic chenopods, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) can accumulate high betaine levels in shoots and roots. N,N,N-trimethylglycine impedes sucrose crystallization and so lowers beet quality. The objective of this research was to examine the genetic variability and physiological significance of betaine accumulation in sugar beet and its relatives. Three cultivated genotypes of B. vulgaris and two genotypes of the wild progenitor B. maritima L. were grown with and without gradual salinization (final NaCl concentration = 150 millimolar). At 6 weeks old, all five genotypes had moderately high betaine levels in shoots and roots when unsalinized (averages for all genotypes: shoots = 108 micromoles per gram dry weight; roots = 99 micromoles per gram dry weight). Salinization raised betaine levels of shoots and roots 2- to 3-fold, but did not greatly depress shoot or root growth. The genotype WB-167—an annual B. maritima type—always had approximately 40% lower betaine levels in roots than the other four genotypes, although the betaine levels in the shoots were not atypically low. The site and pathway of betaine synthesis were investigated in young, salinized sugar beet plants by: (a) supplying 1 micromole [14C]ethanolamine to young leaf blades or to the taproot sink of intact plants; (b) supplying tracer [14C]formate to discs of leaf, hypocotyl, and taproot tissues in darkness. Conversion of both 14C precursors to betaine was active only in leaf tissue. Very little 14C appeared in the phospholipid phosphatidylcholine before betaine was heavily labeled; this was in marked contrast to the labeling patterns in salinized barley. Phosphorylcholine was a prominent early 14C metabolite of both [14C]ethanolamine and [14C]formate in all tissues of sugar beet. Betaine translocation was examined in young plants of sugar beet and WB-167 by applying tracer [methyl-14C]betaine to a young expanded leaf and determining the distribution of 14C after 3 days. In all cases, extensive 14C translocation to young leaves and taproot sink occurred; neither in the fed leaf nor in sink organs were any 14C metabolites of betaine detected. PMID:16662637

Hanson, Andrew D.; Wyse, Roger

1982-01-01

297

Spatial and temporal habitat partitioning by zooplankton in the Bornholm Basin (central Baltic Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deep basins in the Baltic Sea such as the Bornholm Basin (BB) are subject to seasonal changes in the strength of physico-chemical stratification. These depth-related changes in key abiotic factors are strong drivers of habitat partitioning by the autochthonous zooplankton community. Species-specific ecophysiological preferences often result in both seasonal and inter-annual changes in vertical abundance that, when combined with depth-specific water currents, also lead to horizontal differences in spatial distribution. The present study documented the seasonal and depth-specific changes in the abundance and species composition of zooplankton in the BB based upon broad-scale survey data: 832 vertically-resolved (10 m) multinet samples collected at nine stations between March 2002 and May 2003. Changes in the zooplankton community were significantly correlated with changes in ambient hydrography. Each of five taxa (Bosmina coregoni maritima, Acartia spp., Pseudocalanus spp., Temora longicornis, Synchaeta spp.) contributed >10% to the zooplankton community composition. The appearance of cladocerans was mainly correlated with the phenology of thermocline development in the spring. The cladoceran B. coregoni maritima was a dominant member of this community during the warmest periods, preferring the surface waters above the thermocline. Copepods exhibited distinct, ontogenetic and seasonal changes in their distribution. The rotifers (Synchaeta sp.) were the most abundant zooplankton in May. Based on a multivariate approach and the evaluation of vertical distribution patterns, five major habitat utilisation modes were identified that were based, to a large extent, on the dynamics of thermal and haline stratification of the Baltic Sea. Our statistical analysis of one of the most thorough datasets collected on Baltic zooplankton in recent decades reveals some of the factors that make this stratified system highly dynamic with respect to the spatial overlap between predators and prey. As fish and gelatinous plankton often feed in distinct layers and/or exhibit feeding migrations, the inhomogeneous distribution of potential prey can result in a spatial mismatch. Based on the five modes identified at the community level for zooplankton, we discuss how climate-driven hydrographic variability may influence the strength of trophic coupling within the Bornholm Basin.

Schulz, Jan; Peck, Myron A.; Barz, Kristina; Schmidt, Jörn Oliver; Hansen, Frank C.; Peters, Janna; Renz, Jasmin; Dickmann, Miriam; Mohrholz, Volker; Dutz, Jörg; Hirche, Hans-Jürgen

2012-12-01

298

Nectar-carbohydrate production and composition vary in relation to nectary anatomy and location within individual flowers of several species of Brassicaceae.  

PubMed

Nectar-carbohydrate production and composition were investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography and enzymology in nine species from five tribes of the Brassicaceae. In six species (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., Brassica napus L., B. rapa L., Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv., Raphanus sativus L., Sinapis arvensis L.) that produced nectar from both lateral nectaries (associated with the short stamens) and median nectaries (outside the long stamens), on average 95% of the total nectar carbohydrate was collected from the lateral ones. Nectar from these glands possessed a higher glucose/fructose ratio (usually 1.0-1.2) than that from the median nectaries (0.2-0.9) within the same flower. Comparatively little sucrose was detected in any nectar samples except from Matthiola bicornus (Sibth. et Sm.) DC., which possessed lateral nectaries only and produced a sucrose-dominant exudate. The anatomy of the nectarial tissue in nectar-secreting flowers of six species, Hesperis matronalis L., L. maritima, M. bicornus, R. sativus, S. arvensis, and Sisymbrium loeselii L., was studied by light and scanning-electron microscopy. Phloem alone supplied the nectaries. However, in accordance with their overall nectar-carbohydrate production, the lateral glands received relatively rich quantities of phloem that penetrated far into the glandular tissue, whereas median glands were supplied with phloem that often barely innervated them. All nectarial tissue possessed modified stomata (with the exception of the median glands of S. loeselii, which did not produce nectar); further evidence was gathered to indicate that these structures do not regulate nectar flow by guard-cell movements. The numbers of modified stomata per gland showed no relation to nectar-carbohydrate production. Taken together, the data on nectar biochemistry and nectary anatomy indicate the existence of two distinct nectary types in those Brassicacean species that possess both lateral and median nectaries, regardless of whether nectarial tissue is united around the entire receptacle or not. It is proposed that the term "nectarium" be used to represent collectively the multiple nectaries that can be found in individual flowers. PMID:9637073

Davis, A R; Pylatuik, J D; Paradis, J C; Low, N H

1998-06-01

299

Mother and offspring fitness in an insect with maternal care: phenotypic trade-offs between egg number, egg mass and egg care  

PubMed Central

Background Oviparous females have three main options to increase their reproductive success: investing into egg number, egg mass and/or egg care. Although allocating resources to either of these three components is known to shape offspring number and size, potential trade-offs among them may have key impacts on maternal and offspring fitness. Here, we tested the occurrence of phenotypic trade-offs between egg number, egg mass and maternal expenditure on egg care in the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, an insect with pre- and post-hatching forms of maternal care. In particular, we used a series of laboratory observations and experiments to investigate whether these three components non-additively influenced offspring weight and number at hatching, and whether they were associated with potential costs to females in terms of future reproduction. Results We found negative associations between egg number and mass as well as between egg number and maternal expenditure on egg care. However, these trade-offs could only be detected after statistically correcting for female weight at egg laying. Hatchling number was not determined by single or additive effects among the three life-history traits, but instead by pairwise interactions among them. In particular, offspring number was positively associated with the number of eggs only in clutches receiving high maternal care or consisting of heavy eggs, and negatively associated with mean egg mass in clutches receiving low care. In contrast, offspring weight was positively associated with egg mass only. Finally, maternal expenditure on egg care reduced their future reproduction, but this effect was only detected when mothers were experimentally isolated from their offspring at egg hatching. Conclusions Overall, our study reveals simultaneous trade-offs between the number, mass and care of eggs. It also demonstrates that these factors interact in their impact on offspring production, and that maternal expenditure on egg care possibly shapes female future reproduction. These findings emphasize that studying reproductive success requires consideration of phenotypic trade-offs between egg-number, egg mass and egg care in oviparous species. PMID:24913927

2014-01-01

300

Impacts of the 1998 and 2010 mass coral bleaching events on the Western Gulf of Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long-term study of coral reef ecology in the Gulf of Thailand provides a good opportunity to examine the temporal variation on the impact of mass coral bleaching at those reef sites. We compared the bleaching and mortality of corals between the mass bleaching events in 1998 and 2010 at a coral community in the Western Gulf of Thailand. The aim was to identify the coral species which were most likely to suffer from (and to be able to tolerate) changes in seawater temperature. Significant differences in the susceptibility of the coral taxa to bleaching events between the years 1998 and 2010 and among coral species were documented. Bleaching was significantly different between the most dominant corals. Diploastrea heliopora was the most resistant coral to bleaching in both years. Some coral species showed more resistance to bleaching in 2010. The coral mortality following the mass bleaching events in 1998 and 2010 varied significantly between the years and the coral taxa. Mortality of some dominant coral taxa was also lower in 2010. Seven coral species, i.e. Astreopora myriophthalma, Pachyseris rugosa, Turbinaria mesenterina, Goniastrea pectinata, Favia pallida, F. maritima, Favites halicora, Platygyra daedalea and Galaxea fascicularis, were tolerant to the coral bleaching events. An ecosystem-based approach to managing coral reefs in the Gulf of Thailand is needed to identify appropriate marine protected area networks and to strengthen marine and coastal resource policies in order to build coral reef resilience.

Sutthacheep, Makamas; Yucharoen, Mathinee; Klinthong, Wanlaya; Pengsakun, Sittiporn; Sangmanee, Kanwara; Yeemin, Thamasak

2013-11-01

301

Proton/sodium pumping pyrophosphatases: the last of the primary ion pumps.  

PubMed

Membrane-bound pyrophosphatases (M-PPases) are homodimeric enzymes that couple the generation and utilization of membrane potentials to pyrophosphate (PPi) hydrolysis and synthesis. Since the discovery of the link between PPi use and proton transport in purple, non-sulphur bacteria in the 1960s, M-PPases have been found in all three domains of life and have been shown to have a crucial role in stress tolerance and in plant maturation. The discovery of sodium-pumping and sodium/proton-pumping M-PPases showed that the pumping specificity of these enzymes is not limited to protons, further suggesting that M-PPases are evolutionarily very ancient. The recent structures of two M-PPases, the Vigna radiata H(+)-pumping M-PPase and Thermotoga maritima Na(+)-pumping M-PPase, provide the basis for understanding the functional data. They show that M-PPases have a novel fold and pumping mechanism, different to the other primary pumps. This review discusses the current structural understanding of M-PPases and of ion selection among various M-PPases. PMID:24768824

Tsai, Jia-Yin; Kellosalo, Juho; Sun, Yuh-Ju; Goldman, Adrian

2014-08-01

302

Anaerobic High-Throughput Cultivation Method for Isolation of Thermophiles Using Biomass-Derived Substrates  

SciTech Connect

Flow cytometry (FCM) techniques have been developed for sorting mesophilic organisms, but the difficulty increases if the target microbes are thermophilic anaerobes. We demonstrate a reliable, high-throughput method of screening thermophilic anaerobic organisms using FCM and 96-well plates for growth on biomass-relevant substrates. The method was tested using the cellulolytic thermophiles Clostridium ther- mocellum (Topt = 55 C), Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis (Topt = 78 C) and the fermentative hyperthermo- philes, Pyrococcus furiosus (Topt = 100 C) and Thermotoga maritima (Topt = 80 C). Multi-well plates were incubated at various temperatures for approximately 72 120 h and then tested for growth. Positive growth resulting from single cells sorted into individual wells containing an anaerobic medium was verified by OD600. Depending on the growth substrate, up to 80 % of the wells contained viable cultures, which could be transferred to fresh media. This method was used to isolate thermophilic microbes from Rabbit Creek, Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming. Substrates for enrichment cultures including crystalline cellulose (Avicel), xylan (from Birchwood), pretreated switchgrass and Populus were used to cultivate organisms that may be of interest to lignocellulosic biofuel production.

Hamilton-Brehm, Scott [ORNL; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Allman, Steve L [ORNL; Mielenz, Jonathan R [ORNL; Elkins, James G [ORNL

2012-01-01

303

The biological soil crusts of the San Nicolas Island: Enigmatic algae from a geographically isolated ecosystem  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Composite soil samples from 7 sites on San Nicolas Island were evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively for the presence of cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae. Combined data demonstrated a rich algal flora with 19 cyanobacterial and 19 eukaryotic microalgal genera being identified, for a total of 56 species. Nine new species were identified and described among the cyanobacteria and the eukaryotic microalgae that were isolated: Leibleinia edaphica, Aphanothece maritima, Chroococcidiopsis edaphica, Cyanosarcina atroveneta, Hassallia californica, Hassallia pseudoramosissima, Microchaete terrestre, Palmellopsis californiens, and Pseudotetracystis compactis. Distinct distributional patterns of algal taxa existed among sites on the island and among soil algal floras of western North America. Some algal taxa appeared to be widely distributed across many desert regions, including Microcoleus vaginatus, Nostoc punctiforme, Nostoc paludosum, and Tolypothrix distorta, Chlorella vulgaris, Diplosphaera cf. chodatii, Myrmecia astigmatica, Myrmecia biatorellae, Hantzschia amphioxys, and Luticola mutica. Some taxa share a distinctly southern distribution with soil algae from southern Arizona, southern California, and Baja California (e.g., Scenedesmus deserticola and Eustigmatos magnus). The data presented herein support the view that the cyanobacterial and microalgal floras of soil crusts possess significant biodiversity, much of it previously undescribed.

Flechtner, V.R.; Johansen, J.R.; Belnap, J.

2008-01-01

304

Sequencing and analysis of the Thermus thermophilus ribosomal protein gene cluster equivalent to the spectinomycin operon.  

PubMed

To assess the organization of the Thermus thermophilus ribosomal protein genes, a fragment of DNA containing the complete S10 region and ten ribosomal protein genes of the spc region was cloned, using an oligonucleotide coding for the N-terminal amino acid (aa) sequence of T. thermophilus S8 protein as hybridization probe. The nucleotide sequence of a 4290 bp region between the rps17 and rpl15 genes was determined. Comparative analysis of this gene cluster showed that the gene arrangement (S17, L14, L24, L5, S14, S8, L6, L18, S5, L30 and L15) is identical to that of eubacteria. However, T. thermophilus ribosomal protein genes corresponding to the Escherichia coli S10 and spc operons are not resolved into two clusters: the stop codon of the rps17 gene (the last gene of the S10 operon in E. coli) and the start codon of the rpl14 gene (the first gene of the spc operon in E. coli) overlap. Most genes, except the rps14-rps8 intergenic spacer (69 bp), are separated by very short (only 3-7 bp) spacer regions or partially overlapped. The deduced aa sequences of T. thermophilus proteins share about 51-100% identities with the sequences of homologous proteins from thermophile Thermus aquaticus and Thermotoga maritima and 27-70% identities with the sequences of their mesophile counterparts. PMID:9249063

Vysotskaya, V S; Shcherbakov, D V; Garber, M B

1997-07-01

305

Four new gymnophallid digeneans from rice rats, willets, and molluscs in Florida.  

PubMed

Gymnophalloides heardi n. sp. differs from Gymnophalloides tokiensis Fujita, 1925 and Gymnophalloides seoi Lee et al., 1993 in the smaller body size, presence of a single, lobed vitellarium, and elongate seminal vesicle. In contrast with other gymnophallid digeneans that utilize avian and bivalve hosts, G. heardi is the first species to be reported from a rodent Oryzomys palustris (Harlan); its second intermediate host is a pulmonate gastropod, Melampus bidentatus (L.). Three gymnophallid species were found in the willet Catotrophorus semipalmatus. Parvatrema bushi n. sp. differs from Parvatrema borinquenae Cable, 1953 in the sucker ratios, arrangement of the bean-shaped vitellarium overlapping the ventral sucker, and the shallow genital atrium. Paragymnophallus kinsellai n. sp. differs from Paragymnophallus odhneri Ching, 1973 in the smaller body size, smaller sucker ratio, sharp spines, and highly lobed vitellarium. The third species found in willets was P. borinquenae; its metacercaria was found in a new gastropod host Cerithidea scalariformis (Say). The metacercariae, cercariae, and sporocysts of Parvatrema polymesoda n. sp. were found in the digestive gland of the bivalve Polymesoda maritima. The new species differs from both P. bushi and P. borinquenae in the small, bilobed vitellarium, presence of numerous sensory papillae around the oral sucker, a crenulated ventral sucker, and relatively prominent lateral papillae. PMID:8544066

Ching, H L

1995-12-01

306

A peroxiredoxin Q homolog from gentians is involved in both resistance against fungal disease and oxidative stress.  

PubMed

An antifungal protein (GtAFP1) showing antimicrobial activity against phytopathogenic fungi was purified from leaves of Gentiana triflora. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cDNA of the corresponding gene, GtAFP1, showed 94, 75, 72 and 63% amino acid identities with peroxiredoxin Q from Populus balsamifera x P. deltoides subsp. trichocarpa, Sedum lineare, Suaeda maritima and Arabidopsis thaliana, respectively. The GtAFP1 gene is suggested to be present in the genome in one to two copies and was expressed in the leaves, roots and stems. Expression of GtAFP1 was induced by treatment with salicylic acid, but not methyl jasmonate. Recombinant GtAFP1 protein showed not only antifungal activity but also thioredoxin-dependent peroxidase activity. Overexpression of GtAFP1 in tobacco plants improved tolerance not only against fungal diseases but also against oxidative stress. These results indicate that GtAFP1 might act as a disease and oxidative stress defensive gene in plants and could be useful for engineering stress-resistant plants. PMID:15840643

Kiba, Akinori; Nishihara, Masahiro; Tsukatani, Nobue; Nakatsuka, Takashi; Kato, Yoshiaki; Yamamura, Saburo

2005-06-01

307

Why is the GMN motif conserved in the CorA/Mrs2/Alr1 superfamily of magnesium transport proteins?  

PubMed

Members of the CorA/Mrs2/Alr1 superfamily of transport proteins mediate magnesium uptake in all kingdoms of life. Family members have a low degree of sequence conservation but are characterized by a conserved extracellular loop. While the degree of sequence conservation in the loop deviates to some extent between family members, the GMN family signature motif is always present. Structural and functional data imply that the loop plays a central role in magnesium selectivity, and recent biochemical data suggest it is crucial for stabilizing the pentamer in the magnesium-free (putative open) conformation. In this study, we present a detailed structure-function analysis of the extracellular loop of CorA from Thermotoga maritima, which provides molecular insight into how the loop mediates these two functions. The data show that loop residues outside of the GMN motif can be substituted if they support the pentameric state, but the residues of the GMN motif are intolerant to substitution. We conclude that G(312) is absolutely required for magnesium uptake, M(313) is absolutely required for pentamer integrity in the putative open conformation, and N(314) plays a role in both of these functions. These observations suggest a molecular reason why the GMN motif is conserved throughout the CorA/Mrs2/Alr1 superfamily. PMID:23781956

Palombo, Isolde; Daley, Daniel O; Rapp, Mikaela

2013-07-16

308

Structural asymmetry in the magnesium channel CorA points to sequential allosteric regulation.  

PubMed

Magnesium ions (Mg(2+)) are essential for life, but the mechanisms regulating their transport into and out of cells remain poorly understood. The CorA-Mrs2-Alr1 superfamily of Mg(2+) channels represents the most prevalent group of proteins enabling Mg(2+) ions to cross membranes. Thermotoga maritima CorA (TmCorA) is the only member of this protein family whose complete 3D fold is known. Here, we report the crystal structure of a mutant in the presence and absence of divalent ions and compare it with previous divalent ion-bound TmCorA structures. With Mg(2+) present, this structure shows binding of a hydrated Mg(2+) ion to the periplasmic Gly-Met-Asn (GMN) motif, revealing clues of ion selectivity in this unique channel family. In the absence of Mg(2+), TmCorA displays an unexpected asymmetric conformation caused by radial and lateral tilts of protomers that leads to bending of the central, pore-lining helix. Molecular dynamics simulations support these movements, including a bell-like deflection. Mass spectrometric analysis confirms that major proteolytic cleavage occurs within a region that is selectively exposed by such a bell-like bending motion. Our results point to a sequential allosteric model of regulation, where intracellular Mg(2+) binding locks TmCorA in a symmetric, transport-incompetent conformation and loss of intracellular Mg(2+) causes an asymmetric, potentially influx-competent conformation of the channel. PMID:23112165

Pfoh, Roland; Li, Angela; Chakrabarti, Nilmadhab; Payandeh, Jian; Pomès, Régis; Pai, Emil F

2012-11-13

309

Comparison of three ionic liquid-tolerant cellulases by molecular dynamics.  

PubMed

We have employed molecular dynamics to investigate the differences in ionic liquid tolerance among three distinct family 5 cellulases from Trichoderma viride, Thermogata maritima, and Pyrococcus horikoshii. Simulations of the three cellulases were conducted at a range of temperatures in various binary mixtures of the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate with water. Our analysis demonstrates that the effects of ionic liquids on the enzymes vary in each individual case from local structural disturbances to loss of much of one of the enzyme's secondary structure. Enzymes with more negatively charged surfaces tend to resist destabilization by ionic liquids. Specific and unique structural changes in the enzymes are induced by the presence of ionic liquids. Disruption of the secondary structure, changes in dynamical motion, and local changes in the binding pocket are observed in less tolerant enzymes. Ionic-liquid-induced denaturation of one of the enzymes is indicated over the 500 ns timescale. In contrast, the most tolerant cellulase behaves similarly in water and in ionic-liquid-containing mixtures. Unlike the heuristic approaches that attempt to predict enzyme stability using macroscopic properties, molecular dynamics allows us to predict specific atomic-level structural and dynamical changes in an enzyme's behavior induced by ionic liquids and other mixed solvents. Using these insights, we propose specific experimentally testable hypotheses regarding the origin of activity loss for each of the systems investigated in this study. PMID:25692593

Jaeger, Vance; Burney, Patrick; Pfaendtner, Jim

2015-02-17

310

Recognition of the Helical Structure of ?-1,4-Galactan by a New Family of Carbohydrate-binding Modules*  

PubMed Central

The microbial enzymes that depolymerize plant cell wall polysaccharides, ultimately promoting energy liberation and carbon recycling, are typically complex in their modularity and often contain carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs). Here, through analysis of an unknown module from a Thermotoga maritima endo-?-1,4-galactanase, we identify a new family of CBMs that are most frequently found appended to proteins with ?-1,4-galactanase activity. Polysaccharide microarray screening, immunofluorescence microscopy, and biochemical analysis of the isolated module demonstrate the specificity of the module, here called TmCBM61, for ?-1,4-linked galactose-containing ligands, making it the founding member of family CBM61. The ultra-high resolution x-ray crystal structures of TmCBM61 (0.95 and 1.4 ? resolution) in complex with ?-1,4-galactotriose reveal the molecular basis of the specificity of the CBM for ?-1,4-galactan. Analysis of these structures provides insight into the recognition of an unexpected helical galactan conformation through a mode of binding that resembles the recognition of starch. PMID:20826814

Cid, Melissa; Pedersen, Henriette Lodberg; Kaneko, Satoshi; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Henrissat, Bernard; Willats, William G. T.; Boraston, Alisdair B.

2010-01-01

311

Ritual plants of Muslim graveyards in northern Israel  

PubMed Central

This article surveys the botanical composition of 40 Muslim graveyards in northern Israel, accompanied by an ethnobotanical study of the folkloristic traditions of the use of these plants in cemeteries. Three groups of plants were found to be repeated systematically and were also recognized for their ritual importance: aromatics herbs (especially Salvia fruticosa and Rosmarinus officinalis), white flowered plants (mainly Narcissus tazetta, Urginea maritima, Iris spp. and Pancratium spp.) and Cupressus sempervirens as the leading cemetery tree. As endemic use we can indicate the essential role of S. fruticosa as the main plant used in all human rites of passage symbolizing the human life cycle. The rosemary is of European origin while the use of basil is of Indian influence. The use of white flowers as cemeteries plants reflects an old European influence and almost the same species are used or their congeners. Most of the trees and shrubs that are planted in Muslim cemeteries in Israel have the same use in ancient as well in modern European cultures. In conclusion, our findings on the occurrence of plants in graveyards reflect the geographic situation of Israel as a crossroads in the cultural arena between Asia and Europe. Most of the traditions are common to the whole Middle East showing high relatedness to the classical world as well as to the present-day Europe. PMID:16961931

Dafni, Amots; Lev, Efraim; Beckmann, Sabine; Eichberger, Christian

2006-01-01

312

Effects of Posidonia Oceanica Beach-Cast on Germination, Growth and Nutrient Uptake of Coastal Dune Plants  

PubMed Central

Seagrass meadows play an important role in marine ecosystems. A part of seagrass production is also exported to adjacent coastal terrestrial systems, possibly influencing their functioning. In this work we experimentally analyzed the effect of Posidonia oceanica beach-cast on plant germination, growth, and nutrient uptake of two plant species (Cakile maritima and Elymus farctus) that grow on upper beaches and fore dunes along the Mediterranean coasts. We compared plants growing in simple sand (control) with those growing in a substrate enriched with P. oceanica wrack (treatment) in laboratory. P. oceanica wrack doubled the N substrate pool and kept the substrate humid. Plants growing in the treated substrate grew faster, were twice as large as those growing in the control substrate, while tissues were enriched in N and P (Cakile by the 1.3 fold in N and 2.5 fold in P; Elymus by 1.5 fold in N and 2 fold in P). Our results suggest a positive effect of seagrass litter for the enhancing of dune species, highlighting its role for the conservation of coastal dune ecosystems. PMID:23894678

Del Vecchio, Silvia; Marbà, Núria; Acosta, Alicia; Vignolo, Clara; Traveset, Anna

2013-01-01

313

Structural basis of ConM binding with resveratrol, an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant polyphenol.  

PubMed

Resveratrol can also inhibit the activation of proinflammatory mediators and cytokines at the early gene expression stage. It is well known that lectins are sugar-binding proteins that act as both pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules. Thus, the objective of this work was to verify the binding of a polyphenol compound with a lectin of Canavalia maritima (ConM) based on their ability to inhibit pro-inflammatory processes. To accomplish this, ConM was purified and crystallized, and resveratrol was soaked at 5mM for 2h of incubation. The crystal belongs to the monoclinic space group C2, the final refinement resulted in an Rfactor of 16.0% and an Rfree of 25.5%. Resveratrol binds in the rigid ?-sheet through H-bonds and hydrophobic interaction with amino acids that compose the fifth and sixth ?-strands of the rigid ?-sheet of ConM. The ConM and resveratrol inhibited DPPH oxidation, showing synergic activity with the most effective ratio of 2:3 and carbohydrate binding site is not directly related to antioxidant activity. It is the interaction between ConM and resveratrol that indicates the synergism of these two molecules in acting as free radicals scavengers and in reducing the inflammatory process through the inhibition of many pro-inflammatory events. PMID:25192853

Rocha, Bruno A M; Teixeira, Claudener S; Silva-Filho, José C; Nóbrega, Raphael B; Alencar, Daniel B; Nascimento, Kyria S; Freire, Valder N; Gottfried, Carmem J S; Nagano, Celso S; Sampaio, Alexandre H; Saker-Sampaio, Silvana; Cavada, Benildo S; Delatorre, Plínio

2015-01-01

314

Initial Binding of Ions to the Interhelical Loops of Divalent Ion Transporter CorA: Replica Exchange Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study  

PubMed Central

Crystal structures of Thermotoga maritima magnesium transporter CorA, reported in 2006, revealed its homo-pentameric constructions. However, the structure of the highly conserved extracellular interhelical loops remains unsolved, due to its high flexibility. We have explored the configurations of the loops through extensive replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent model with the presence of either Co(III) Hexamine ions or Mg2+ ions. We found that there are multiple binding sites available on the interhelical loops in which the negatively charged residues, E316 and E320, are located notably close to the positively charged ions during the simulations. Our simulations resolved the distinct binding patterns of the two kinds of ions: Co(III) Hexamine ions were found to bind stronger with the loop than Mg2+ ions with binding free energy ?7.3 kJ/mol lower, which is nicely consistent with the previous data. Our study provides an atomic basis description of the initial binding process of Mg2+ ions on the extracellular interhelical loops of CorA and the detailed inhibition mechanism of Co(III) Hexamine ions on CorA ions transportation. PMID:22952795

Zhang, Tong; Mu, Yuguang

2012-01-01

315

Binding and inhibition of human spermidine synthase by decarboxylated S-adenosylhomocysteine  

SciTech Connect

Aminopropyltransferases are essential enzymes that form polyamines in eukaryotic and most prokaryotic cells. Spermidine synthase (SpdS) is one of the most well-studied enzymes in this biosynthetic pathway. The enzyme uses decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine and a short-chain polyamine (putrescine) to make a medium-chain polyamine (spermidine) and 5'-deoxy-5'-methylthioadenosine as a byproduct. Here, we report a new spermidine synthase inhibitor, decarboxylated S-adenosylhomocysteine (dcSAH). The inhibitor was synthesized, and dose-dependent inhibition of human, Thermatoga maritima, and Plasmodium falciparum spermidine synthases, as well as functionally homologous human spermine synthase, was determined. The human SpdS/dcSAH complex structure was determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.0 {angstrom} resolution and showed consistent active site positioning and coordination with previously known structures. Isothermal calorimetry binding assays confirmed inhibitor binding to human SpdS with K{sub d} of 1.1 {+-} 0.3 {mu}M in the absence of putrescine and 3.2 {+-} 0.1 {mu}M in the presence of putrescine. These results indicate a potential for further inhibitor development based on the dcSAH scaffold.

Š e; #269; kut; #279; , Jolita; McCloskey, Diane E.; Thomas, H. Jeanette; Secrist III, John A.; Pegg, Anthony E.; Ealick, Steven E. (Cornell); (Southern Research); (UPENN-MED)

2011-11-17

316

The crystal structure of spermidine synthase with a multisubstrate adduct inhibitor.  

SciTech Connect

Polyamines are essential in all branches of life. Spermidine synthase (putrescine aminopropyltransferase, PAPT) catalyzes the biosynthesis of spermidine, a ubiquitous polyamine. The crystal structure of the PAPT from Thermotoga maritima (TmPAPT) has been solved to 1.5 Angstroms resolution in the presence and absence of AdoDATO (S-adenosyl-1,8-diamino-3-thiooctane), a compound containing both substrate and product moieties. This, the first structure of an aminopropyltransferase, reveals deep cavities for binding substrate and cofactor, and a loop that envelops the active site. The AdoDATO binding site is lined with residues conserved in PAPT enzymes from bacteria to humans, suggesting a universal catalytic mechanism. Other conserved residues act sterically to provide a structural basis for polyamine specificity. The enzyme is tetrameric; each monomer consists of a C-terminal domain with a Rossmann-like fold and an N-terminal {beta}-stranded domain. The tetramer is assembled using a novel barrel-type oligomerization motif.

Korolev, S.; Ikeguchi, Y.; Skarina, T.; Beasley, S.; Arrowsmith, C.; Edwards, A.; Joachimiak, A.; Pegg, A. E.; Savchenko, A.; Pennsylvania State Univ. Coll. of Medicine; Milton S. Hershey Medical Center; Banting and Best Department of Medical Research; Univ. of Health Network

2002-01-01

317

Paleobiology of the Sand Beneath the Valders Diamicton at Valders, Wisconsin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previously undescribed pollen, plant macrofossils, molluscs, and ostracodes were recovered from a 2.5-m-thick glaciolacustrine unit of silty sand and clay at Valders, Wisconsin. The interstadial sediment was deposited about 12,200 14C yr B.P. after retreat of the Green Bay lobe that deposited diamicton of the Horicon Formation, and before advance of the Lake Michigan lobe that deposited the red-brown diamicton of the Valders Member of the Kewaunee Formation. Fluctuations of abundance of Candona subtriangulata, Cytherissa lacustris,and three other species define four ostracode biozones in the lower 1.7 m, suggesting an open lake environment that oscillated in depth and proximity to glacial ice. Pollen is dominated by Piceaand Artemisia,but the low percentages of many other types of long-distance origin suggest that the terrestrial vegetation was open and far from the forest border. The upper part of the sediment, a massive sand deposited in either a shallow pond or a sluggish stream, contains a local concentration of plant macrofossils. The interpretation of a cold open environment is supported by the plant macrofossils of more than 20 species, dominated by those of open mineral soils ( Arenaria rubella, Cerastium alpinumtype, Silene acaulis, Sibbaldia procumbens, Dryas integrifolia, Vaccinium uliginosumvar. alpinum, Armeria maritima,etc.) that in North America occur largely in the tundra and open tundra-forest ecotone of northern Canada. Ice-wedge casts occur in the sand.

Maher, Louis J.; Miller, Norton G.; Baker, Richard G.; Curry, B. Brandon; Mickelson, David M.

1998-03-01

318

Fluorescence in insects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescent molecules are much in demand for biosensors, solar cells, LEDs and VCSEL diodes, therefore, considerable efforts have been expended in designing and tailoring fluorescence to specific technical applications. However, naturally occurring fluorescence of diverse types has been reported from a wide array of living organisms: most famously, the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, but also in over 100 species of coral and in the cuticle of scorpions, where it is the rule, rather than the exception. Despite the plethora of known insect species, comparatively few quantitative studies have been made of insect fluorescence. Because of the potential applications of natural fluorescence, studies in this field have relevance to both physics and biology. Therefore, in this paper, we review the literature on insect fluorescence, before documenting its occurrence in the longhorn beetles Sternotomis virescens, Sternotomis variabilis var. semi rufescens, Anoplophora elegans and Stellognatha maculata, the tiger beetles Cicindela maritima and Cicindela germanica and the weevil Pachyrrhynchus gemmatus purpureus. Optical features of insect fluorescence, including emitted wavelength, molecular ageing and naturally occurring combinations of fluorescence with bioluminescence and colour-producing structures are discussed.

Welch, Victoria L.; Van Hooijdonk, Eloise; Intrater, Nurit; Vigneron, Jean-Pol

2012-10-01

319

Structure and mechanism of an intramembrane liponucleotide synthetase central for phospholipid biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Phospholipids are elemental building-block molecules for biological membranes. Biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylserine requires a central liponucleotide intermediate named cytidine-diphosphate diacylglycerol (CDP-DAG). The CDP-DAG synthetase (Cds) is an integral membrane enzyme catalysing the formation of CDP-DAG, an essential step for phosphoinositide recycling during signal transduction. Here we report the structure of the Cds from Thermotoga maritima (TmCdsA) at 3.4?Å resolution. TmCdsA forms a homodimer and each monomer contains nine transmembrane helices arranged into a novel fold with three domains. An unusual funnel-shaped cavity penetrates half way into the membrane, allowing the enzyme to simultaneously accept hydrophilic substrate (cytidine 5?-triphosphate (CTP)/deoxy-CTP) from cytoplasm and hydrophobic substrate (phosphatidic acid) from membrane. Located at the bottom of the cavity, a Mg2+-K+ hetero-di-metal centre coordinated by an Asp-Asp dyad serves as the cofactor of TmCdsA. The results suggest a two-metal-ion catalytic mechanism for the Cds-mediated synthesis of CDP-DAG at the membrane–cytoplasm interface. PMID:24968740

Liu, Xiuying; Yin, Yan; Wu, Jinjun; Liu, Zhenfeng

2014-01-01

320

Structure of the Rad50 DNA double-strand break repair protein in complex with DNA.  

PubMed

The Mre11-Rad50 nuclease-ATPase is an evolutionarily conserved multifunctional DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair factor. Mre11-Rad50's mechanism in the processing, tethering, and signaling of DSBs is unclear, in part because we lack a structural framework for its interaction with DNA in different functional states. We determined the crystal structure of Thermotoga maritima Rad50(NBD) (nucleotide-binding domain) in complex with Mre11(HLH) (helix-loop-helix domain), AMPPNP, and double-stranded DNA. DNA binds between both coiled-coil domains of the Rad50 dimer with main interactions to a strand-loop-helix motif on the NBD. Our analysis suggests that this motif on Rad50 does not directly recognize DNA ends and binds internal sites on DNA. Functional studies reveal that DNA binding to Rad50 is not critical for DNA double-strand break repair but is important for telomere maintenance. In summary, we provide a structural framework for DNA binding to Rad50 in the ATP-bound state. PMID:25349191

Rojowska, Anna; Lammens, Katja; Seifert, Florian U; Direnberger, Carolin; Feldmann, Heidi; Hopfner, Karl-Peter

2014-12-01

321

X-ray snapshots of possible intermediates in the time course of synthesis and degradation of protein-bound Fe4S4 clusters.  

PubMed

Fe4S4 clusters are very common versatile prosthetic groups in proteins. Their redox property of being sensitive to O2-induced oxidative damage is, for instance, used by the cell to sense oxygen levels and switch between aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms, as exemplified by the fumarate, nitrate reduction regulator (FNR). Using the hydrogenase maturase HydE from Thermotoga maritima as a template, we obtained several unusual forms of FeS clusters, some of which are associated with important structural changes. These structures represent intermediate states relevant to both FeS cluster assembly and degradation. We observe one Fe2S2 cluster bound by two cysteine persulfide residues. This observation lends structural support to a very recent Raman study, which reported that Fe4S4-to-Fe2S2 cluster conversion upon oxygen exposure in FNR resulted in concomitant production of cysteine persulfide as cluster ligands. Similar persulfide ligands have been observed in vitro for several other Fe4S4 cluster-containing proteins. We have also monitored FeS cluster conversion directly in our protein crystals. Our structures indicate that the Fe4S4-to-Fe2S2 change requires large structural modifications, which are most likely responsible for the dimer-monomer transition in FNR. PMID:23596207

Nicolet, Yvain; Rohac, Roman; Martin, Lydie; Fontecilla-Camps, Juan C

2013-04-30

322

A thermostable exo-?-fructosidase immobilised through rational design.  

PubMed

Thermotoga maritima exo-?-fructosidase (BfrA) secreted by a recombinant Pichia pastoris strain was optimally immobilised on Glyoxyl-Sepharose CL 4B using the Rational Design of Immobilised Derivatives (RDID) strategy. Covalent attachment of the N-glycosylated BfrA onto the activated support at pH 10 allowed total recovery of the loaded enzyme and its activity. The immobilisation process caused no variation in the catalytic properties of the enzyme and allowed further enhancement of the thermal stability. Complete inversion of cane sugar (2.04 M) in a batch stirred tank reactor at 60 °C was achieved with a productivity of 22.2 g of substrate hydrolysed/gram of biocatalyst/hour. Half-life of the immobilised enzyme of 5 days at 60 °C was determined in a continuously operated fixed-bed column reactor. Our results promote the applicability of the BfrA-immobilised biocatalyst for the complete hydrolysis of concentrated sucrose solutions under industrial conditions, especially at a high reaction temperature. PMID:24128552

Martínez, Duniesky; Cutiño-Avila, Bessy; Pérez, Enrique Rosendo; Menéndez, Carmen; Hernández, Lázaro; Del Monte-Martínez, Alberto

2014-02-15

323

Palynological analysis of camelid coprolites: seasonality in the use of the site Cerro Casa de Piedra 7 (Santa Cruz, Argentina)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Palynological, palaeoparasitological and paleobotanical studies of coprolites found in archaeological sites from Perito Moreno National Park (47°57?S72°05?W) yielded information on diet, palaeoenvironment and health. These studies allowed adding evidence to the reconstruction of life history of the hunter-gatherers that inhabited Patagonia during the Holocene. We examined the season of the year when camelid Lama guanicoe coprolites (5400 ± 64 yr 14C BP to 9640 ± 190 yr 14C BP) were deposited at Cerro Casa de Piedra 7 (site CCP7). The study used palynological evidence and comparison with pollen spectra of modern feces collected during summer, fall, winter and spring of 2010. The dominant types were: pollen of Nothofagus, Empetrum rubrum, Asteraceae subfam. Asteroideae, Nassauvia, Caryophyllaceae and Poaceae; fern spores; remains of Eimeria macusaniensis; and plant remains of Poaceae, Festuca pallescens, Stipa speciosa, Armeria maritima, Gaultheria mucronata and E. rubrum. Pollen spectra of modern and fossil feces were used for multivariate analysis. Coprolites associated to fall and winter modern feces. These results and those obtained from pollen concentration values and the presence of pollen types indicators of seasonality, allowed the determination of summer, fall and winter coprolites. However, caution must be taken with the seasonality results of coprolites dated earlier than 9000 years BP since the environmental conditions differed from now. The site was probably a camelid shelter during the unfavorable seasons.

Velázquez, Nadia Jimena; Burry, Lidia Susana; Fugassa, Martín Horacio; Civalero, María Teresa; Aschero, Carlos Alberto

2014-01-01

324

Binding and inhibition of human spermidine synthase by decarboxylated S-adenosylhomocysteine.  

PubMed

Aminopropyltransferases are essential enzymes that form polyamines in eukaryotic and most prokaryotic cells. Spermidine synthase (SpdS) is one of the most well-studied enzymes in this biosynthetic pathway. The enzyme uses decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine and a short-chain polyamine (putrescine) to make a medium-chain polyamine (spermidine) and 5'-deoxy-5'-methylthioadenosine as a byproduct. Here, we report a new spermidine synthase inhibitor, decarboxylated S-adenosylhomocysteine (dcSAH). The inhibitor was synthesized, and dose-dependent inhibition of human, Thermatoga maritima, and Plasmodium falciparum spermidine synthases, as well as functionally homologous human spermine synthase, was determined. The human SpdS/dcSAH complex structure was determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.0 Å resolution and showed consistent active site positioning and coordination with previously known structures. Isothermal calorimetry binding assays confirmed inhibitor binding to human SpdS with K(d) of 1.1 ± 0.3 ?M in the absence of putrescine and 3.2 ± 0.1 ?M in the presence of putrescine. These results indicate a potential for further inhibitor development based on the dcSAH scaffold. PMID:21898642

Se?kut?, Jolita; McCloskey, Diane E; Thomas, H Jeanette; Secrist, John A; Pegg, Anthony E; Ealick, Steven E

2011-11-01

325

Structure and electrostatic property of cytoplasmic domain of ZntB transporter.  

SciTech Connect

ZntB is the distant homolog of CorA Mg{sup 2+} transporter within the metal ion transporter superfamily. It was early reported that the ZntB from Salmonella typhimurium facilitated efflux of Zn{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+}, but not Mg{sup 2+}. Here, we report the 1.90 {angstrom} crystal structure of the intracellular domain of ZntB from Vibrio parahemolyticus. The domain forms a funnel-shaped homopentamer that is similar to the full-length CorA from Thermatoga maritima, but differs from two previously reported dimeric structures of truncated CorA intracellular domains. However, no Zn{sup 2+} or Cd{sup 2+} binding sites were identified in the high-resolution structure. Instead, 25 well-defined Cl{sup -} ions were observed and some of these binding sites are highly conserved within the ZntB family. Continuum electrostatics calculations suggest that the central pore of the funnel is highly attractive for cations, especially divalents. The presence of the bound Cl{sup -} ions increases the stability of cations along the pore suggesting they could be important in enhancing cation transport.

Tan, K.; Sather, A.; Robertson, J. L.; Moy, S.; Roux, B.; Joachimiak, A.; Biosciences Division; Cornell Univ.; Univ. of Chicago

2009-10-01

326

FtsA forms actin-like protofilaments  

PubMed Central

FtsA is an early component of the Z-ring, the structure that divides most bacteria, formed by tubulin-like FtsZ. FtsA belongs to the actin family of proteins, showing an unusual subdomain architecture. Here we reconstitute the tethering of FtsZ to the membrane via FtsA's C-terminal amphipathic helix in vitro using Thermotoga maritima proteins. A crystal structure of the FtsA:FtsZ interaction reveals 16 amino acids of the FtsZ tail bound to subdomain 2B of FtsA. The same structure and a second crystal form of FtsA reveal that FtsA forms actin-like protofilaments with a repeat of 48?Å. The identical repeat is observed when FtsA is polymerized using a lipid monolayer surface and FtsAs from three organisms form polymers in cells when overexpressed, as observed by electron cryotomography. Mutants that disrupt polymerization also show an elongated cell division phenotype in a temperature-sensitive FtsA background, demonstrating the importance of filament formation for FtsA's function in the Z-ring. PMID:22473211

Szwedziak, Piotr; Wang, Qing; Freund, Stefan MV; Löwe, Jan

2012-01-01

327

Ex-527 inhibits Sirtuins by exploiting their unique NAD+-dependent deacetylation mechanism.  

PubMed

Sirtuins are protein deacetylases regulating metabolism and stress responses. The seven human Sirtuins (Sirt1-7) are attractive drug targets, but Sirtuin inhibition mechanisms are mostly unidentified. We report the molecular mechanism of Sirtuin inhibition by 6-chloro-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazole-1-carboxamide (Ex-527). Inhibitor binding to potently inhibited Sirt1 and Thermotoga maritima Sir2 and to moderately inhibited Sirt3 requires NAD(+), alone or together with acetylpeptide. Crystal structures of several Sirtuin inhibitor complexes show that Ex-527 occupies the nicotinamide site and a neighboring pocket and contacts the ribose of NAD(+) or of the coproduct 2'-O-acetyl-ADP ribose. Complex structures with native alkylimidate and thio-analog support its catalytic relevance and show, together with biochemical assays, that only the coproduct complex is relevant for inhibition by Ex-527, which stabilizes the closed enzyme conformation preventing product release. Ex-527 inhibition thus exploits Sirtuin catalysis, and kinetic isoform differences explain its selectivity. Our results provide insights in Sirtuin catalysis and inhibition with important implications for drug development. PMID:23840057

Gertz, Melanie; Fischer, Frank; Nguyen, Giang Thi Tuyet; Lakshminarasimhan, Mahadevan; Schutkowski, Mike; Weyand, Michael; Steegborn, Clemens

2013-07-23

328

A study of antioxidant activity, enzymatic inhibition and in vitro toxicity of selected traditional sudanese plants with anti-diabetic potential  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease with life-threatening complications. Despite the enormous progress in conventional medicine and pharmaceutical industry, herbal-based medicines are still a common practice for the treatment of diabetes. This study evaluated ethanolic and aqueous extracts of selected Sudanese plants that are traditionally used to treat diabetes. Methods Extraction was carried out according to method described by Sukhdev et. al. and the extracts were tested for their glycogen phosphorylase inhibition, Brine shrimp lethality and antioxidant activity using (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and iron chelating activity. Extracts prepared from the leaves of Ambrosia maritima, fruits of Foeniculum vulgare and Ammi visnaga, exudates of Acacia Senegal, and seeds of Sesamum indicum and Nigella sativa. Results Nigella sativa ethanolic extract showed no toxicity on Brine shrimp Lethality Test, while its aqueous extract was toxic. All other extracts were highly toxic and ethanolic extracts of Foeniculum vulgare exhibited the highest toxicity. All plant extracts with exception of Acacia senegal revealed significant antioxidant activity in DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Conclusions These results highly agree with the ethnobotanical uses of these plants as antidiabetic. This study endorses further studies on plants investigated, to determine their potential for type 2 diabetes management. Moreover isolation and identification of active compounds are highly recommended. PMID:24885334

2014-01-01

329

Persistent organochlorine levels in six prey species of the gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus in Iceland.  

PubMed

Our previous investigations have revealed very high levels of organochlorines (OCs) in the Icelandic gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus, a resident top predator. We now examine six potential prey species of birds, both resident and migratory, in order to elucidate the most likely route of the OCs to the gyrfalcon. The ptarmigan Lagopus mutus, the most important prey of the gyrfalcon, contained very low levels of OCs. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs in mallards Anas platyrhynchos, tufted ducks Aythya fuligula, golden plovers Pluvialis apricaria, purple sandpipers Calidris maritima, and black guillemots Cepphus grylle reflected their position in the foodchain. The differences in OC-levels seem nevertheless too high just to reflect the different food-chain levels of these species in Iceland. The winter grounds of the migratory golden plovers and tufted ducks appear to be more contaminated than the Icelandic terrestrial habitat of ptarmigans or the freshwater habitat as reflected in mallards, both resident species. However, spending the winter on the coast in Iceland, results in high levels of contaminants in purple sandpipers and black guillemots. Our results indicate OC contamination of the marine ecosystem in Iceland while the terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems are little affected. It is postulated that gyrfalcons receive the major part of the observed contamination from prey other than ptarmigan, especially birds associated with the marine ecosystem and also from migratory birds. PMID:11234542

Olafsdóttir, K; Petersen, A E; Magnúsdóttir, E V; Björnsson, T; Jóhannesson, T

2001-01-01

330

Crystal structure of a 4-thiouridine synthetase–RNA complex reveals specificity of tRNA U8 modification  

PubMed Central

In prokaryotes and archaea transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) stability as well as cellular UV protection relies on the post-transcriptional modification of uracil at position 8 (U8) of tRNAs by the 4-thiouridine synthetase ThiI. Here, we report three crystal structures of ThiI from Thermotoga maritima in complex with a truncated tRNA. The RNA is mainly bound by the N-terminal ferredoxin-like domain (NFLD) and the THUMP domain of one subunit within the ThiI homo-dimer thereby positioning the U8 close to the catalytic center in the pyrophosphatase domain of the other subunit. The recognition of the 3’-CCA end by the THUMP domain yields a molecular ruler defining the specificity for U8 thiolation. This first structure of a THUMP/NFLD-RNA complex might serve as paradigm for the RNA recognition by THUMP domains of other proteins. The ternary ThiI–RNA–ATP complex shows no significant structural changes due to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding, but two different states of active site loops are observed independent of the nucleotide loading state. Thereby conformational changes of the active site are coupled with conformational changes of the bound RNA. The ThiI–RNA complex structures indicate that full-length tRNA has to adopt a non-canonical conformation upon binding to ThiI. PMID:24705700

Neumann, Piotr; Naumann, Peter-Thomas; Erwin, Whitney M.; Lauhon, Charles T.; Ficner, Ralf

2014-01-01

331

Molecular details of ligand selectivity determinants in a promiscuous ?-glucan periplasmic binding protein  

PubMed Central

Background Members of the periplasmic binding protein (PBP) superfamily utilize a highly conserved inter-domain ligand binding site that adapts to specifically bind a chemically diverse range of ligands. This paradigm of PBP ligand binding specificity was recently altered when the structure of the Thermotoga maritima cellobiose-binding protein (tmCBP) was solved. The tmCBP binding site is bipartite, comprising a canonical solvent-excluded region (subsite one), adjacent to a solvent-filled cavity (subsite two) where specific and semi-specific ligand recognition occur, respectively. Results A molecular level understanding of binding pocket adaptation mechanisms that simultaneously allow both ligand specificity at subsite one and promiscuity at subsite two has potentially important implications in ligand binding and drug design studies. We sought to investigate the determinants of ligand binding selectivity in tmCBP through biophysical characterization of tmCBP in the presence of varying ?-glucan oligosaccharides. Crystal structures show that whilst the amino acids that comprise both the tmCBP subsite one and subsite two binding sites remain fixed in conformation regardless of which ligands are present, the rich hydrogen bonding potential of water molecules may facilitate the ordering and the plasticity of this unique PBP binding site. Conclusions The identification of the roles these water molecules play in ligand recognition suggests potential mechanisms that can be utilized to adapt a single ligand binding site to recognize multiple distinct ligands. PMID:24090243

2013-01-01

332

Na+-pyrophosphatase: a novel primary sodium pump.  

PubMed

Membrane-bound pyrophosphatase (PPase) is commonly believed to couple pyrophosphate (PPi) hydrolysis to H+ transport across the membrane. Here, we demonstrate that two newly isolated bacterial membrane PPases from the mesophile Methanosarcina mazei (Mm-PPase) and the moderate thermophile Moorella thermoacetica and a previously described PPase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima catalyze Na+ rather than H+ transport into Escherichia coli inner membrane vesicles (IMV). When assayed in uncoupled IMV, the three PPases exhibit an absolute requirement for Na+ but display the highest hydrolyzing activity in the presence of both Na+ and K+. Steady-state kinetic analysis of PPi hydrolysis by Mm-PPase revealed two Na+ binding sites. One of these sites can also bind K+, resulting in a 10-fold increase in the affinity of the other site for Na+ and a 2-fold increase in maximal velocity. PPi-driven 22Na+ transport into IMV containing Mm-PPase was unaffected by the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, inhibited by the Na+ ionophore monensin, and activated by the K+ ionophore valinomycin. The Na+ transport was accompanied by the generation of a positive inside membrane potential as reported by Oxonol VI. These findings define Na+-dependent PPases as electrogenic Na+ pumps. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that ancient gene duplication preceded the split of Na+- and H+-PPases. PMID:17605473

Malinen, Anssi M; Belogurov, Georgiy A; Baykov, Alexander A; Lahti, Reijo

2007-07-31

333

Crystal structure of stable protein CutA1 from psychrotrophic bacterium Shewanella sp. SIB1.  

PubMed

CutA1 is widely found in bacteria, plants and animals, including humans. The functions of CutA1, however, have not been well clarified. It is known that CutA1s from Pyrococcus horikoshii, Thermus thermophilus and Oryza sativa unfold at temperatures remarkably higher than the growth temperatures of the host organisms. In this work the crystal structure of CutA1 from the psychrotrophic bacterium Shewanella sp. SIB1 (SIB1-CutA1) in a trimeric form was determined at 2.7?Å resolution. This is the first crystal structure of a psychrotrophic CutA1. The overall structure of SIB1-CutA1 is similar to those of CutA1 from Homo sapiens, Escherichia coli, Pyrococcus horikoshii, Thermus thermophilus, Termotoga maritima, Oryza sativa and Rattus norvergicus. A peculiarity is observed in the ?2 strand. The ?2 strand is divided into two short ? strands, ?2a and ?2b, in SIB1-CutA1. A thermal denaturation experiment revealed that SIB1-CutA1 does not unfold completely at 363?K at pH 7.0, although Shewanella sp. SIB1 cannot grow at temperatures exceeding 303?K. These results indicate that the trimeric structural motif of CutA1 is the critical factor in its unusually high stability and suggest that CutA1 needs to maintain its high stability in order to function, even in psychrotrophs. PMID:21169681

Sato, Aya; Yokotani, Sonoko; Tadokoro, Takashi; Tanaka, Shun-ichi; Angkawidjaja, Clement; Koga, Yuichi; Takano, Kazufumi; Kanaya, Shigenori

2011-01-01

334

A role for [Fe4S4] clusters in tRNA recognition—a theoretical study  

PubMed Central

Over the past several years, structural studies have led to the unexpected discovery of iron–sulfur clusters in enzymes that are involved in DNA replication/repair and protein biosynthesis. Although these clusters are generally well-studied cofactors, their significance in the new contexts often remains elusive. One fascinating example is a tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase from the thermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima, TmTrpRS, that has recently been structurally characterized. It represents an unprecedented connection among a primordial iron–sulfur cofactor, RNA and protein biosynthesis. Here, a possible role of the [Fe4S4] cluster in tRNA anticodon-loop recognition is investigated by means of density functional theory and comparison with the structure of a human tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNA complex. It turns out that a cluster-coordinating cysteine residue, R224, and polar main chain atoms form a characteristic structural motif for recognizing a putative 5? cytosine or 5? 2-thiocytosine moiety in the anticodon loop of the tRNA molecule. This motif provides not only affinity but also specificity by creating a structural and energetical penalty for the binding of other bases, such as uracil. PMID:24753428

Stiebritz, Martin T.

2014-01-01

335

Structure of a bacterial ribonuclease P holoenzyme in complex with tRNA  

PubMed Central

Ribonuclease (RNase) P is the universal ribozyme responsible for 5?-end tRNA processing. We report the crystal structure of the Thermotoga maritima RNase P holoenzyme in complex with tRNAPhe. The 154 kDa complex consists of a large catalytic RNA (P RNA), a small protein cofactor, and mature tRNA. The structure shows that RNA-RNA recognition occurs through shape complementarity, specific intermolecular contacts, and base pairing interactions. Soaks with a pre-tRNA 5? leader sequence with and without metal help identify the 5? substrate path and potential catalytic metal ions. The protein binds on top of a universally conserved structural module in P RNA and interacts with the leader, but not with mature tRNA. The active site is composed of phosphate backbone moieties, a universally conserved uridine nucleobase, and at least two catalytically important metal ions. The active site structure and conserved RNase P/tRNA contacts suggest a universal mechanism of catalysis by RNase P. PMID:21076397

Reiter, Nicholas J.; Osterman, Amy; Torres-Larios, Alfredo; Swinger, Kerren K.; Pan, Tao; Mondragón, Alfonso

2010-01-01

336

Use of digital multispectral videography to assess seagrass distribution in San Quinti??n Bay, Baja California, Mexico [Uso de videografi??a multiespectral digital para evaluar la distributio??n del pasto marino en Bahi??a San Quinti??n, Baja California, Me??xico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Apparent threats to the spatial distribution of seagrass in San Quinti??n Bay prompted us to make a detailed assessment of habitats in the bay. Six coastal habitats and three seagrass subclasses were delineated using airborne digital multispectral videography (DMSV), Eelgrass, Zostera marina, was the predominant seagrass and covered 40% (1949 ha) of the areal extent of the bay in 1999. Eelgrass grew over a wide range of tidal depths from about -3.0 in mean lower low water (MLLW) to about 1.0 m MLLW, but greatest spatial extent occurred in intertidal areas -0.6 m to 1.0 m MLLW. Exposed-continuous (i.e., high density) eelgrass was the most abundant habitat in the bay. Widgeongrass, Ruppia maritima, was the only other seagrass present and covered 3% (136 ha) of the areal extent of the entire bay. Widgeongrass grew in single species stands in the upper intertidal (??? 0.4 MLLW) and intermixed with eelgrass at lower tidal depths. Overall accuracy of the six habitat classes and three subclasses in the DMSV map was relatively high at 84%. Our detailed map of San Quintin Bay can be used in future change detection analyses to monitor the health of seagrasses in the bay.

Ward, D.H.; Tibbitts, T.L.; Morton, A.; Carrera-Gonzalez, E.; Kempka, R.

2004-01-01

337

Kinetic and Structural Characterization of Human Mortalin  

PubMed Central

Human mortalin is an Hsp70 chaperone that has been implicated in cancer, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, and involvement has been suggested in cellular iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis. However, study of this important human chaperone has been hampered by a lack of active material sufficient for biochemical characterization. Herein, we report the successful purification and characterization of recombinant human mortalin in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein was expressed in the form of inclusion bodies and purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The subsequently refolded protein was confirmed to be active by its ATPase activity, a characteristic blue-shift in the fluorescence emission maximum following the addition of ATP, and its ability to bind to a likely physiological substrate. Single turnover kinetic experiments of mortalin were performed and compared with another Hsp70 chaperone, Thermotoga maritima DnaK; with each exhibiting slow ATP turnover rates. Secondary structures for both chaperones were similar by circular dichroism criteria. This work describes an approach to functional expression of human mortalin that provides sufficient material for detailed structure-function studies of this important Hsp70 chaperone. PMID:20152901

Luo, Wen-I; Dizin, Eric; Yoon, Taejin; Cowan, James A.

2010-01-01

338

Interactions of Endoglucanases with Amorphous Cellulose Films Resolved by Neutron Reflectometry and Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

A study of the interaction of four endoglucanases with amorphous cellulose films by neutron reflectometry (NR) and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) is reported. The endoglucanases include a mesophilic fungal endoglucanase (Cel45A from H. insolens), a processive endoglucanase from a marine bacterium (Cel5H from S. degradans), and two from thermophilic bacteria (Cel9A from A. acidocaldarius and Cel5A from T. maritima). The use of amorphous cellulose is motivated by the promise of ionic liquid pretreatment as a second generation technology that disrupts the native crystalline structure of cellulose. The endoglucanases displayed highly diverse behavior. Cel45A and Cel5H, which possess carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs), penetrated and digested within the bulk of the films to a far greater extent than Cel9A and Cel5A, which lack CBMs. While both Cel45A and Cel5H were active within the bulk of the films, striking differences were observed. With Cel45A, substantial film expansion and interfacial broadening were observed, whereas for Cel5H the film thickness decreased with little interfacial broadening. These results are consistent with Cel45A digesting within the interior of cellulose chains as a classic endoglucanase, and Cel5H digesting predominantly at chain ends consistent with its designation as a processive endoglucanase.

Cheng, Gang [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Liu, Zelin [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Kent, Michael S [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Majewski, Jaroslaw [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Michael, Jablin [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Jaclyn, Murton K [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Halbert, Candice E [ORNL; Datta, Supratim [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Chao, Wang [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Brown, Page [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)

2012-01-01

339

Allosteric Inhibitors at the Heterodimer Interface of Imidazole Glycerol Phosphate Synthase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase (IGPS) from Thermotoga maritima is a heterodimeric enzyme composed of the HisH and HisF proteins. It is attractive as a pathological target since it is absent in mammals but found in plant and opportunistic human pathogens. IGPS was experimentally determined to be a V-type allosteric enzyme that is involved in an essential biosynthetic pathway of microorganisms. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of glutamine to form NH3 in the HisH protein, followed by cyclization of NH3 with N'-[(5'-phosphoribulosyl)imino]-5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-ribonucleotide (PRFAR) in the HisF subunit, forming imidazole glycerol phosphate (IGP) and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribotide (AICAR) that enter the histidine and purine biosynthetic pathways. Allosteric motions induced upon the binding of the effector PRFAR to HisF propagate through the non-covalent HisH/HisF interface and synchronize catalytic activity at the two distant active sites. However, the nature of the allosteric pathway and the feasibility of manipulating signal transduction by using allosteric drug-like molecules remain to be established. Molecular docking studies of commercial drugs at the HisH/HisF interface were used to identify stable candidates with a potential allosteric effect on the reaction mechanism. Molecular dynamic simulations and calculations of NMR chemical shifts were combined to elucidate the allosteric pathway of IGPS.

Snoeberger, Ning-Shiuan Nicole

340

Comparison of three thermostable ?-glucosidases for application in the hydrolysis of soybean isoflavone glycosides.  

PubMed

A novel thermostable ?-glucosidase (Te-BglA) from Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus JW200 was cloned, characterized and compared for its activity against isoflavone glycosides with two ?-glucosidases (Tm-BglA, Tm-BglB) from Thermotoga maritima. Te-BglA exhibited maximum hydrolytic activity toward pNP-?-d-glucopyranoside (pNPG) at 80 °C and pH 7.0, was stable for a pH range of 4.6-7.8 and at 65 °C for 3 h, and had the lowest K(m) for the natural glycoside salicin and the highest relative substrate specificity (k(cat)/K(m))((salicin))/(k(cat)/K(m))((pNPG)) among the three enzymes. It converted isoflavone glycosides, including malonyl glycosides, in soybean flour to their aglycons more efficiently than Tm-BglA and Tm-BglB. After 3 h of incubation at 65 °C, Te-BglA produced complete hydrolysis of four isoflavone glycosides (namely, daidzin, genistin and their malonylated forms), exhibiting higher productivity of genistein and daidzein than the other two ?-glucosidases. Our results suggest that Te-BglA is preferable to Tm-BglA and Tm-BglB, but all three enzymes have great potential applications in converting isoflavone glycosides into their aglycons. PMID:21294581

Song, Xiangfei; Xue, Yemin; Wang, Qilei; Wu, Xixi

2011-03-01

341

Structure-based design and screening of inhibitors for an essential bacterial GTPase, Der.  

PubMed

Der is an essential and widely conserved GTPase that assists assembly of a large ribosomal subunit in bacteria. Der associates specifically with the 50S subunit in a GTP-dependent manner and the cells depleted of Der accumulate the structurally unstable 50S subunit, which dissociates into an aberrant subunit at a lower Mg(2+) concentration. As Der is an essential and ubiquitous protein in bacteria, it may prove to be an ideal cellular target against which new antibiotics can be developed. In the present study, we describe our attempts to identify novel antibiotics specifically targeting Der GTPase. We performed the structure-based design of Der inhibitors using the X-ray crystal structure of Thermotoga maritima Der (TmDer). Virtual screening of commercially available chemical library retrieved 257 small molecules that potentially inhibit Der GTPase activity. These 257 chemicals were tested for their in vitro effects on TmDer GTPase and in vivo antibacterial activities. We identified three structurally diverse compounds, SBI-34462, -34566 and -34612, that are both biologically active against bacterial cells and putative enzymatic inhibitors of Der GTPase homologs. We also presented the possible interactions of each compound with the Der GTP-binding site to understand the mechanism of inhibition. Therefore, our lead compounds inhibiting Der GTPase provide scaffolds for the development of novel antibiotics against antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria. PMID:22377538

Hwang, Jihwan; Tseitin, Vladimir; Ramnarayan, Kal; Shenderovich, Mark D; Inouye, Masayori

2012-05-01

342

Structural dynamics of the magnesium-bound conformation of CorA in a lipid bilayer.  

PubMed

The transmembrane conformation of Thermotoga maritima CorA, a magnesium transport system, has been studied in its Mg(2+)-bound form by site-directed spin labeling and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Probe mobility together with accessibility data were used to evaluate the overall dynamics and relative arrangement of individual transmembrane segments TM1 and TM2. TM1 extends toward the cytoplasmic side creating a water-filled cavity, while TM2 is located in the periphery of the oligomer, contacting the lipid bilayer. A structural model for the conserved extracellular loop was generated based on EPR data and MD simulations, in which residue E316 is located toward the five-fold symmetry axis in position to electrostatically influence divalent ion translocation. Electrostatic analysis of our model suggest that, in agreement with the crystal structure, Mg(2+) -bound CorA is in a closed conformation. The present results suggest that long-range structural rearrangements are necessary to allow Mg(2+) translocation. PMID:20637423

Dalmas, Olivier; Cuello, Luis G; Jogini, Vishwanath; Cortes, D Marien; Roux, Benoit; Perozo, Eduardo

2010-07-14

343

Flexibility, conformational diversity and two dimerization modes in complexes of ribosomal protein L12  

PubMed Central

Protein L12, the only multicopy component of the ribosome, is presumed to be involved in the binding of translation factors, stimulating factor-dependent GTP hydrolysis. Crystal structures of L12 from Thermotoga maritima have been solved in two space groups by the multiple anomalous dispersion method and refined at 2.4 and 2.0 ? resolution. In both crystal forms, an asymmetric unit comprises two full-length L12 molecules and two N–terminal L12 fragments that are associated in a specific, hetero-tetrameric complex with one non-crystallographic 2–fold axis. The two full-length proteins form a tight, symmetric, parallel dimer, mainly through their N–terminal domains. Each monomer of this central dimer additionally associates in a different way with an N–terminal L12 fragment. Both dimerization modes are unlike models proposed previously and suggest that similar complexes may occur in vivo and in situ. The structures also display different L12 monomer conformations, in accord with the suggested dynamic role of the protein in the ribosomal translocation process. The structures have been submitted to the Protein Databank (http://www.rcsb.org/pdb) under accession numbers 1DD3 and 1DD4. PMID:10637222

Wahl, Markus C.; Bourenkov, Gleb P.; Bartunik, Hans D.; Huber, Robert

2000-01-01

344

A model for the effect of submerged aquatic vegetation on turbulence induced by an oscillating grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to model, under controlled laboratory conditions, the effect of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) on turbulence generated in a water column by an oscillating grid turbulence (OGT). Velocity profiles have been measured by an acoustic Doppler velocimeter (MicroADV). Experimental conditions are analysed in two canopy models (rigid and semi-rigid), using nine plant-to-plant distances (ppd), three stem diameters (d), four types of natural SAV (Cladium mariscus, Potamogeton nodosus, Myriophyllum verticillatum and Ruppia maritima) and two oscillation grid frequencies (f). To quantify this response, we have developed a non-dimensional model, with a specific turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), f, stroke (s), d, ppd, distance from the virtual origin to the measurement (zm) and space between grid bars (M). The experimental data show that, at zm/zc < 1 the turbulent kinetic energy decays with zm, according to the well-known power law, zm-2, and does not depend on the vegetation characteristics. In contrast, at zm/zc > 1, TKE decreases faster with zm and scales to the model variables according to TKE/(f·s)?(·(. Therefore, at zm/zc > 1 the TKE is affected by the geometric characteristics of the plants (both diameter and plant-to-plant distance), an effect called sheltering. Results from semi-rigid canopies and natural SAV are found to scale with the non-dimensional model proposed for rigid canopies. We also discuss the practical implications for field conditions (wind and natural SAV).

Pujol, Dolors; Colomer, Jordi; Serra, Teresa; Casamitjana, Xavier

2012-12-01

345

Long-term effects of mercury in a salt marsh: hysteresis in the distribution of vegetation following recovery from contamination.  

PubMed

During four decades, the Ria de Aveiro was subjected to the loading of mercury from a chlor-alkali industry, resulting in the deposition of several tons of mercury in the sediments. The present study evaluates the impact of this disturbance and the recovery processes, temporally and spatially, by means of examining the richness of the species of salt marsh plants and mercury concentrations in sediments over the last fifty years. The temporal assessment showed that the mercury loading induced a shift in the species composition of the salt marsh from a non-disturbed salt marsh with higher species richness to an alternative state dominated by Phragmites australis. The horizontal assessment, through a mercury gradient, presents the same trend, indicating that P. australis is the species most tolerant to higher mercury concentrations, comparative to Halimione portulacoides, Arthrocnemum fruticosum, Triglochin maritima, Juncus maritimus and Scirpus maritimus. After the reduction of mercury discharges in 1994, the salt marsh shows a slowly return path recovery response. The hysteresis in the response results in the temporal gap between the reduction in mercury concentrations in the sediment and the salt marsh species richness response, comparatively to the existing diversity in the local reference marsh. PMID:18061237

Válega, M; Lillebø, A I; Pereira, M E; Duarte, A C; Pardal, M A

2008-03-01

346

A survey of zinc, copper and cadmium concentrations in salt marsh plants along the Dutch coast.  

PubMed

In autumn 1986, plants and soil were collected from the lower and the higher salt marsh zones of salt marshes along the Dutch coast. The main purpose was to get an overview of Zn, Cu and Cd concentrations in six dominant species of salt marsh plants. The roots and shoots of the plants were analysed for Zn, Cu and Cd. The highest heavy metal concentrations were found in plants collected from salt marshes near harbour areas and/or that are known to receive contaminated fluvial sediment. Dicotyledonous plant species tended to have similar heavy metal concentrations in roots and shoots, whereas in monocotyledonous species the concentrations in the roots were two to three times higher than in the shoots. Differences in accumulation in the roots between elements and between plant species were found. Cd was accumulated more than Zn or Cu. Triglochin maritima shows a low Cd uptake by roots, whereas Spartina anglica and Scirpus maritimus tend to accumulate it. The fraction of soil particles smaller than 63 microm, loss on ignition and Zn, Cu and Cd concentrations were determined in soil samples. The highest Zn, Cu and Cd concentrations in the soil were found at salt marshes in the Western Scheldt area and were nine, five and 20 times higher than background levels, respectively. PMID:15092100

Otte, M L; Bestebroer, S J; van der Linden, J M; Rozema, J; Broekman, R A

1991-01-01

347

Ligand Binding in the Conserved Interhelical Loop of CorA, a Magnesium Transporter from Mycobacterium tuberculosis*  

PubMed Central

CorA is a constitutively expressed magnesium transporter in many bacteria. The crystal structures of Thermotoga maritima CorA provide an excellent structural framework for continuing studies. Here, the ligand binding properties of the conserved interhelical loop, the only portion of the protein exposed to the periplasmic space, are characterized by solution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Through titration experiments performed on the isolated transmembrane domain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis CorA, it was found that two CorA substrates (Mg2+ and Co2+) and the CorA-specific inhibitor (Co(III) hexamine chloride) bind in the loop at the same binding site. This site includes the glutamic acid residue from the conserved “MPEL” motif. The relatively large dissociation constants indicate that such interactions are weak but not atypical for channels. The present data support the hypothesis that the negatively charged loop could act as an electrostatic ring, increasing local substrate concentrations before transport across the membrane. PMID:19346249

Hu, Jian; Sharma, Mukesh; Qin, Huajun; Gao, Fei Philip; Cross, Timothy A.

2009-01-01

348

The Root-Knot Nematode Producing Galls on Spartina alterniflora Belongs to the Genus Meloidogyne: Rejection of Hypsoperine and Spartonema spp.  

PubMed Central

Root-knot nematodes are a major group of plant-parasitic nematodes, but their sister group within the Tylenchida remains to be identified. To find the sister group and for any investigation of the evolutionary biology of the genus Meloidogyne, it would be useful to identify the most basal species within Meloidogyninae. Meloidogyne spartinae, a root-knot nematode parasitic on cordgrass (Spartina spp.), constitutes a potentially interesting early diverging (or at least highly divergent) root-knot nematode because it was originally described in a different genus, Hypsoperine (and later Spartonema), due to its unique anatomy and biology (although it was later put in synonymy by some, but not all, taxonomists). We have sequenced the whole 18S rDNA of this species and compared it to other sequences of this region that are available in GenBank for numerous Meloidogyne species. Phylogenetic analysis unambiguously locates the branch corresponding to M. spartinae as a lately diverging species, more closely related to M. maritima, M. duytsi or the M. ardenensis-hapla group. Thus, the distinction of a separate genus (Hypsoperine or Spartonema) for this species is not justified. PMID:19259481

Plantard, Olivier; Valette, Sylvie; Gross, Michael F.

2007-01-01

349

Phylogenetic Analyses of Meloidogyne Small Subunit rDNA.  

PubMed

Phylogenies were inferred from nearly complete small subunit (SSU) 18S rDNA sequences of 12 species of Meloidogyne and 4 outgroup taxa (Globodera pallida, Nacobbus abberans, Subanguina radicicola, and Zygotylenchus guevarai). Alignments were generated manually from a secondary structure model, and computationally using ClustalX and Treealign. Trees were constructed using distance, parsimony, and likelihood algorithms in PAUP* 4.0b4a. Obtained tree topologies were stable across algorithms and alignments, supporting 3 clades: clade I = [M. incognita (M. javanica, M. arenaria)]; clade II = M. duytsi and M. maritima in an unresolved trichotomy with (M. hapla, M. microtyla); and clade III = (M. exigua (M. graminicola, M. chitwoodi)). Monophyly of [(clade I, clade II) clade III] was given maximal bootstrap support (mbs). M. artiellia was always a sister taxon to this joint clade, while M. ichinohei was consistently placed with mbs as a basal taxon within the genus. Affinities with the outgroup taxa remain unclear, although G. pallida and S. radicicola were never placed as closest relatives of Meloidogyne. Our results show that SSU sequence data are useful in addressing deeper phylogeny within Meloidogyne, and that both M. ichinohei and M. artiellia are credible outgroups for phylogenetic analysis of speciations among the major species. PMID:19265950

De Ley, Irma Tandingan; De Ley, Paul; Vierstraete, Andy; Karssen, Gerrit; Moens, Maurice; Vanfleteren, Jacques

2002-12-01

350

Phylogenetic Analyses of Meloidogyne Small Subunit rDNA  

PubMed Central

Phylogenies were inferred from nearly complete small subunit (SSU) 18S rDNA sequences of 12 species of Meloidogyne and 4 outgroup taxa (Globodera pallida, Nacobbus abberans, Subanguina radicicola, and Zygotylenchus guevarai). Alignments were generated manually from a secondary structure model, and computationally using ClustalX and Treealign. Trees were constructed using distance, parsimony, and likelihood algorithms in PAUP* 4.0b4a. Obtained tree topologies were stable across algorithms and alignments, supporting 3 clades: clade I = [M. incognita (M. javanica, M. arenaria)]; clade II = M. duytsi and M. maritima in an unresolved trichotomy with (M. hapla, M. microtyla); and clade III = (M. exigua (M. graminicola, M. chitwoodi)). Monophyly of [(clade I, clade II) clade III] was given maximal bootstrap support (mbs). M. artiellia was always a sister taxon to this joint clade, while M. ichinohei was consistently placed with mbs as a basal taxon within the genus. Affinities with the outgroup taxa remain unclear, although G. pallida and S. radicicola were never placed as closest relatives of Meloidogyne. Our results show that SSU sequence data are useful in addressing deeper phylogeny within Meloidogyne, and that both M. ichinohei and M. artiellia are credible outgroups for phylogenetic analysis of speciations among the major species. PMID:19265950

De Ley, Irma Tandingan; De Ley, Paul; Vierstraete, Andy; Karssen, Gerrit; Moens, Maurice; Vanfleteren, Jacques

2002-01-01

351

Physics and evolution of thermophilic adaptation.  

PubMed

Analysis of structures and sequences of several hyperthermostable proteins from various sources reveals two major physical mechanisms of their thermostabilization. The first mechanism is "structure-based," whereby some hyperthermostable proteins are significantly more compact than their mesophilic homologues, while no particular interaction type appears to cause stabilization; rather, a sheer number of interactions is responsible for thermostability. Other hyperthermostable proteins employ an alternative, "sequence-based" mechanism of their thermal stabilization. They do not show pronounced structural differences from mesophilic homologues. Rather, a small number of apparently strong interactions is responsible for high thermal stability of these proteins. High-throughput comparative analysis of structures and complete genomes of several hyperthermophilic archaea and bacteria revealed that organisms develop diverse strategies of thermophilic adaptation by using, to a varying degree, two fundamental physical mechanisms of thermostability. The choice of a particular strategy depends on the evolutionary history of an organism. Proteins from organisms that originated in an extreme environment, such as hyperthermophilic archaea (Pyrococcus furiosus), are significantly more compact and more hydrophobic than their mesophilic counterparts. Alternatively, organisms that evolved as mesophiles but later recolonized a hot environment (Thermotoga maritima) relied in their evolutionary strategy of thermophilic adaptation on "sequence-based" mechanism of thermostability. We propose an evolutionary explanation of these differences based on physical concepts of protein designability. PMID:16120678

Berezovsky, Igor N; Shakhnovich, Eugene I

2005-09-01

352

Physics and evolution of thermophilic adaptation  

PubMed Central

Analysis of structures and sequences of several hyperthermostable proteins from various sources reveals two major physical mechanisms of their thermostabilization. The first mechanism is “structure-based,” whereby some hyperthermostable proteins are significantly more compact than their mesophilic homologues, while no particular interaction type appears to cause stabilization; rather, a sheer number of interactions is responsible for thermostability. Other hyperthermostable proteins employ an alternative, “sequence-based” mechanism of their thermal stabilization. They do not show pronounced structural differences from mesophilic homologues. Rather, a small number of apparently strong interactions is responsible for high thermal stability of these proteins. High-throughput comparative analysis of structures and complete genomes of several hyperthermophilic archaea and bacteria revealed that organisms develop diverse strategies of thermophilic adaptation by using, to a varying degree, two fundamental physical mechanisms of thermostability. The choice of a particular strategy depends on the evolutionary history of an organism. Proteins from organisms that originated in an extreme environment, such as hyperthermophilic archaea (Pyrococcus furiosus), are significantly more compact and more hydrophobic than their mesophilic counterparts. Alternatively, organisms that evolved as mesophiles but later recolonized a hot environment (Thermotoga maritima) relied in their evolutionary strategy of thermophilic adaptation on “sequence-based” mechanism of thermostability. We propose an evolutionary explanation of these differences based on physical concepts of protein designability. PMID:16120678

Berezovsky, Igor N.; Shakhnovich, Eugene I.

2005-01-01

353

Biomimetic assembly and activation of [FeFe]-hydrogenases.  

PubMed

Hydrogenases are the most active molecular catalysts for hydrogen production and uptake, and could therefore facilitate the development of new types of fuel cell. In [FeFe]-hydrogenases, catalysis takes place at a unique di-iron centre (the [2Fe] subsite), which contains a bridging dithiolate ligand, three CO ligands and two CN(-) ligands. Through a complex multienzymatic biosynthetic process, this [2Fe] subsite is first assembled on a maturation enzyme, HydF, and then delivered to the apo-hydrogenase for activation. Synthetic chemistry has been used to prepare remarkably similar mimics of that subsite, but it has failed to reproduce the natural enzymatic activities thus far. Here we show that three synthetic mimics (containing different bridging dithiolate ligands) can be loaded onto bacterial Thermotoga maritima HydF and then transferred to apo-HydA1, one of the hydrogenases of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii algae. Full activation of HydA1 was achieved only when using the HydF hybrid protein containing the mimic with an azadithiolate bridge, confirming the presence of this ligand in the active site of native [FeFe]-hydrogenases. This is an example of controlled metalloenzyme activation using the combination of a specific protein scaffold and active-site synthetic analogues. This simple methodology provides both new mechanistic and structural insight into hydrogenase maturation and a unique tool for producing recombinant wild-type and variant [FeFe]-hydrogenases, with no requirement for the complete maturation machinery. PMID:23803769

Berggren, G; Adamska, A; Lambertz, C; Simmons, T R; Esselborn, J; Atta, M; Gambarelli, S; Mouesca, J-M; Reijerse, E; Lubitz, W; Happe, T; Artero, V; Fontecave, M

2013-07-01

354

Effect of pycnogenol on glucose transport in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  

PubMed

Pycnogenol, a procyanidins-enriched extract of Pinus maritima bark, possesses antidiabetic properties, which improves the altered parameters of glucose metabolism that are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Since the insulin-stimulated antidiabetic activities of natural bioactive compounds are mediated by GLUT4 via the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and/or p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) pathway, the effects of pycnogenol were examined on the molecular mechanism of glucose uptake by the glucose transport system. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with various concentrations of pycnogenol, and glucose uptake was examined using a non-radioisotope enzymatic assay and by molecular events associated with the glucose transport system using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results show that pycnogenol increased glucose uptake in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and increased the relative abundance of both GLUT4 and Akt mRNAs through the PI3K pathway in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, pycnogenol restored the PI3K antagonist-induced inhibition of glucose uptake in the presence of wartmannin, an inhibitor of the PI3K. Overall, these results indicate that pycnogenol may stimulate glucose uptake via the PI3K dependent tyrosine kinase pathways involving Akt. Further the results suggest that pycnogenol might be useful in maintaining blood glucose control. PMID:20658573

Lee, Hee-Hyun; Kim, Kui-Jin; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Lee, Boo-Yong

2010-08-01

355

Pycnogenol: a blend of procyanidins with multifaceted therapeutic applications?  

PubMed

Great interest is currently centred on the biologic activities of pycnogenol a standardized plant extract obtained from the bark of the French maritime pine Pinus pinaster (formerly known as Pinus maritima), Aiton, subspecies Atlantica des Villar (Pycnogenol, Horphag Research Ltd., UK, Geneve, Switzerland), which grows in the coastal southwest France. The quality of this extract is specified in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP 28). Between 65% and 75% of Pycnogenol are procyanidins comprising of catechin and epicatechin subunits with varying chain lengths. Other constituents are polyphenolic monomers, phenolic or cinnamic acids and their glycosides. As many studies indicate, pycnogenol components are highly bioavailable. Uniquely, pycnogenol displays greater biologic effects as a mixture than its purified components do individually indicating that the components interact synergistically. Pycnogenol is now utilized throughout the world as a nutritional supplement and as a phytochemical remedy for various diseases ranging from chronic inflammation to circulatory dysfunction, including several impaired psycho-physiological functions. Owing to the basic chemical structure of its components, the most obvious feature of pycnogenol is its strong antioxidant activity. In fact, phenolic acids, polyphenols, and in particular flavonoids, are composed of one (or more) aromatic rings bearing one or more hydroxyl groups and are therefore potentially able to quench free radicals by forming resonance-stabilized phenoxyl radicals. In this review, emphasizing the molecular, cellular, and functional bases of therapy, data appearing in the peer-reviewed literature and focussing the main therapeutic applications of pycnogenol will be summarized and critically evaluated. PMID:20598812

D'Andrea, Gabriele

2010-10-01

356

Effects of Posidonia oceanica beach-cast on germination, growth and nutrient uptake of coastal dune plants.  

PubMed

Seagrass meadows play an important role in marine ecosystems. A part of seagrass production is also exported to adjacent coastal terrestrial systems, possibly influencing their functioning. In this work we experimentally analyzed the effect of Posidonia oceanica beach-cast on plant germination, growth, and nutrient uptake of two plant species (Cakile maritima and Elymus farctus) that grow on upper beaches and fore dunes along the Mediterranean coasts. We compared plants growing in simple sand (control) with those growing in a substrate enriched with P. oceanica wrack (treatment) in laboratory. P. oceanica wrack doubled the N substrate pool and kept the substrate humid. Plants growing in the treated substrate grew faster, were twice as large as those growing in the control substrate, while tissues were enriched in N and P (Cakile by the 1.3 fold in N and 2.5 fold in P; Elymus by 1.5 fold in N and 2 fold in P). Our results suggest a positive effect of seagrass litter for the enhancing of dune species, highlighting its role for the conservation of coastal dune ecosystems. PMID:23894678

Del Vecchio, Silvia; Marbà, Núria; Acosta, Alicia; Vignolo, Clara; Traveset, Anna

2013-01-01

357

Determination of 5-methylcytosine from plant DNA by high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

The relative amounts of the five nucleosides (deoxycytidine, 5-methyldeoxycytidine, deoxyadenosine, deoxyguanosine and thymidine) in the DNA of nine plant species, one plant satellite DNA, and one animal species were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The method allows the clean separation of the nucleosides from 10 microgram samples with 15 min. The following values for the proportion of methylated cytosines among all cytosines were obtained: Lobularia maritima 18.5%, Nicotiana tabacum 32.6%, Pisum sativum 23.2%, Rhinanthus minor 29.2%, Sinapsis alba 12.2%, Vicia faba 30.5%, Viscum album 23.2%, Cymbidium pumilum 18.8%, Cymbidium pumilum AT-rich satellite DNA 15.8%, Triticum aestivum 22.4%. DNA of an animal, the gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus, had a methylation percentage of 3.1%. An estimate of the GC content based on the buoyant density of DNA tends to be lower than the actual value, an estimate based on the melting temperature tends to be higher. This supports the finding by other authors that DNA methylation decreases the buoyant density and may increase the melting temperature at high m5C concentration. PMID:7272310

Wagner, I; Capesius, I

1981-06-26

358

Response of some common annual bedding plants to three species of meloidogyne.  

PubMed

Twelve ornamental bedding plant cultivars were grown in soil infested with isolates of Meloidogyne incognita race 1, M. javanica, or M. arenaria race 1 in a series of tests in containers in a growth room. Root galling (0-5 scale) and eggs/plant were evaluated 8-10 weeks after soil infestation and seedling transplantation. Snapdragon, Antirrhinum majus cv. First Ladies, was extensively galled and highly susceptible (mean gall rating >/=4.2 and >/=14,500 eggs/plant), and Celosia argentea cv. Century Mix and Coleus blumei cv. Rainbow were susceptible (>1,500 eggs/plant) to all three Meloidogyne isolates. Response of Petunia x hybrida varied with cultivar and nematode isolate. Little or no galling or egg production from any Meloidogyne isolate was observed on Ageratum houstonianum cv. Blue Mink, Lobularia maritima cv. Rosie O'Day, or Tagetes patula cv. Dwarf Primrose. Galling was slight (mean rating 4.0 and >/=7,900 eggs/plant) by M. javanica and M. arenaria but was nearly free of galling from M. incognita. Zinna elegans cv. Scarlet was nearly free of galling from M. incognita and M. arenaria but was susceptible (mean gall rating = 2.9; 3,400 eggs/plant) to M. javanica. PMID:19279963

McSorley, R; Frederick, J J

1994-12-01

359

Different status of the gene for ribosomal protein S16 in the chloroplast genome during evolution of the genus Arabidopsis and closely related species.  

PubMed

The ribosomal protein S16 (RPS16), the product of the rps16, is generally encoded in the chloroplast genomes of flowering plants. However, it has been reported that chloroplast-encoded RPS16 in mono- and dicotyledonous plants has been substituted by the product of nuclear-encoded rps16, which was transferred from the mitochondria to the nucleus before the early divergence of angiosperms. Current databases show that the chloroplast-encoded rps16 has become a pseudogene in four species of the Brassicaceae (Aethionema grandiflorum, Arabis hirsuta, Draba nemorosa, and Lobularia maritima). Further analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana and its close relatives has shown that pseudogenization has also occurred via the loss of its splicing capacity (Arabidopsis thaliana and Olimarabidopsis pumila). In contrast, the spliced product of chloroplast-encoded rps16 is observed in close relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis arenosa, Arabidopsis lyrata, and Crucihimalaya lasiocarpa). In this study, we identified the different functional status of rps16 in several chloroplast genomes in the genus Arabidopsis and its close relatives. Our results strongly suggest that nuclear- and chloroplast-encoded rps16 genes coexisted for at least 126 million years. We raise the possibility of the widespread pseudogenization of rps16 in the angiosperm chloroplast genomes via the loss of its splicing capacity, even when the rps16 encoded in the chloroplast genome is transcriptionally active. PMID:21317544

Roy, Shradha; Ueda, Minoru; Kadowaki, Koh-ichi; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro

2010-01-01

360

Response of Some Common Annual Bedding Plants to Three Species of Meloidogyne  

PubMed Central

Twelve ornamental bedding plant cultivars were grown in soil infested with isolates of Meloidogyne incognita race 1, M. javanica, or M. arenaria race 1 in a series of tests in containers in a growth room. Root galling (0-5 scale) and eggs/plant were evaluated 8-10 weeks after soil infestation and seedling transplantation. Snapdragon, Antirrhinum majus cv. First Ladies, was extensively galled and highly susceptible (mean gall rating ?4.2 and ?14,500 eggs/plant), and Celosia argentea cv. Century Mix and Coleus blumei cv. Rainbow were susceptible (>1,500 eggs/plant) to all three Meloidogyne isolates. Response of Petunia x hybrida varied with cultivar and nematode isolate. Little or no galling or egg production from any Meloidogyne isolate was observed on Ageratum houstonianum cv. Blue Mink, Lobularia maritima cv. Rosie O'Day, or Tagetes patula cv. Dwarf Primrose. Galling was slight (mean rating ?2.0) but varied with nematode species on Dianthus chinensis cv. Baby Doll Mix, Salvia splendens cv. Bonfire, and Vinca rosea cv. Little Bright Eye. Verbena × hybrida cv. Florist was heavily infected (gall rating >4.0 and ?7,900 eggs/plant) by M. javanica and M. arenaria but was nearly free of galling from M. incognita. Zinna elegans cv. Scarlet was nearly free of galling from M. incognita and M. arenaria but was susceptible (mean gall rating = 2.9; 3,400 eggs/plant) to M. javanica. PMID:19279963

McSorley, R.; Frederick, J. J.

1994-01-01

361

New compatible solutes related to Di-myo-inositol-phosphate in members of the order Thermotogales.  

PubMed Central

The accumulation of intracellular organic solutes was examined in six species of the order Thermotogales by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The newly discovered compounds di-2-O-beta-mannosyl-di-myo-inositol-1,1'(3,3')-phosphate and di-myo-inositol-1,3'-phosphate were identified in Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga neapolitana. In the latter species, at the optimum temperature and salinity the organic solute pool was composed of di-myo-inositol-1,1'(3,3')-phosphate, beta-glutamate, and alpha-glutamate in addition to di-myo-inositol-1,3'-phosphate and di-2-O-beta-mannosyl-di-myo-inositol-1,1'(3,3')-phosphate. The concentrations of the last two solutes increased dramatically at supraoptimal growth temperatures, whereas beta-glutamate increased mainly in response to a salinity stress. Nevertheless, di-myo-inositol-1,1'(3,3')-phosphate was the major compatible solute at salinities above the optimum for growth. The amino acids alpha-glutamate and proline were identified under optimum growth conditions in Thermosipho africanus, and beta-mannosylglycerate, trehalose, and glycine betaine were detected in Petrotoga miotherma. Organic solutes were not detected, under optimum growth conditions, in Thermotoga thermarum and Fervidobacterium islandicum, which have a low salt requirement or none. PMID:8824608

Martins, L O; Carreto, L S; Da Costa, M S; Santos, H

1996-01-01

362

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of membrane-bound pyrophosphatases.  

PubMed

Membrane-bound pyrophosphatases (M-PPases) are enzymes that enhance the survival of plants, protozoans and prokaryotes in energy constraining stress conditions. These proteins use pyrophosphate, a waste product of cellular metabolism, as an energy source for sodium or proton pumping. To study the structure and function of these enzymes we have crystallized two membrane-bound pyrophosphatases recombinantly produced in Saccharomyces cerevisae: the sodium pumping enzyme of Thermotoga maritima (TmPPase) and the proton pumping enzyme of Pyrobaculum aerophilum (PaPPase). Extensive crystal optimization has allowed us to grow crystals of TmPPase that diffract to a resolution of 2.6 Å. The decisive step in this optimization was in-column detergent exchange during the two-step purification procedure. Dodecyl maltoside was used for high temperature solubilization of TmPPase and then exchanged to a series of different detergents. After extensive screening, the new detergent, octyl glucose neopentyl glycol, was found to be the optimal for TmPPase but not PaPPase. PMID:22881431

Kellosalo, Juho; Kajander, Tommi; Honkanen, Riina; Goldman, Adrian

2013-02-01

363

Structural Dynamics of the Magnesium-bound Conformation of CorA in a lipid bilayer  

PubMed Central

Summary The transmembrane conformation of Thermotoga maritima CorA, a Magnesium transport system, has been studied in it’s Mg2+-bound form by site-directed spin labeling and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Probe mobility together with accessibility data were used to evaluate the overall dynamics and relative arrangement of individual transmembrane segments TM1 and TM2. TM1 extends toward the cytoplasmic side creating a water filled cavity, while TM2 is located in the periphery of the oligomer, contacting the lipid bilayer. A structural model for the conserved extracellular loop was generated based on EPR data and MD simulations, in which residue E316 is located towards the fivefold symmetry axis in position to electrostatically influence divalent ion translocation. Electrostatic analyses of our model suggest that, in agreement with the crystal structure, Mg2+ -bound CorA is in a close conformation. The present results suggest that long-range structural rearrangements are necessary to allow Mg2+ translocation. PMID:20637423

Dalmas, Olivier; Cuello, Luis G.; Jogini, Vishwanath; Cortes, D. Marien; Roux, Benoit; Perozo, Eduardo

2010-01-01

364

Mapping of the SecA·SecY and SecA·SecG Interfaces by Site-directed in Vivo Photocross-linking  

PubMed Central

The two major components of the Eubacteria Sec-dependent protein translocation system are the heterotrimeric channel-forming component SecYEG and its binding partner, the SecA ATPase nanomotor. Once bound to SecYEG, the preprotein substrate, and ATP, SecA undergoes ATP-hydrolytic cycles that drive the stepwise translocation of proteins. Although a previous site-directed in vivo photocross-linking study (Mori, H., and Ito, K. (2006) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 16159–16164) elucidated residues of SecY needed for interaction with SecA, no reciprocal study for SecA protein has been reported to date. In the present study we mapped residues of SecA that interact with SecY or SecG utilizing this approach. Our results show that distinct domains of SecA on two halves of the molecule interact with two corresponding SecY partners as well as with the central cytoplasmic domain of SecG. Our data support the in vivo relevance of the Thermotoga maritima SecA·SecYEG crystal structure that visualized SecYEG interaction for only one-half of SecA as well as previous studies indicating that SecA normally binds two molecules of SecYEG. PMID:21317284

Das, Sanchaita; Oliver, Donald B.

2011-01-01

365

Ex-527 inhibits Sirtuins by exploiting their unique NAD+-dependent deacetylation mechanism  

PubMed Central

Sirtuins are protein deacetylases regulating metabolism and stress responses. The seven human Sirtuins (Sirt1–7) are attractive drug targets, but Sirtuin inhibition mechanisms are mostly unidentified. We report the molecular mechanism of Sirtuin inhibition by 6-chloro-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazole-1-carboxamide (Ex-527). Inhibitor binding to potently inhibited Sirt1 and Thermotoga maritima Sir2 and to moderately inhibited Sirt3 requires NAD+, alone or together with acetylpeptide. Crystal structures of several Sirtuin inhibitor complexes show that Ex-527 occupies the nicotinamide site and a neighboring pocket and contacts the ribose of NAD+ or of the coproduct 2’-O-acetyl-ADP ribose. Complex structures with native alkylimidate and thio-analog support its catalytic relevance and show, together with biochemical assays, that only the coproduct complex is relevant for inhibition by Ex-527, which stabilizes the closed enzyme conformation preventing product release. Ex-527 inhibition thus exploits Sirtuin catalysis, and kinetic isoform differences explain its selectivity. Our results provide insights in Sirtuin catalysis and inhibition with important implications for drug development. PMID:23840057

Gertz, Melanie; Fischer, Frank; Nguyen, Giang Thi Tuyet; Lakshminarasimhan, Mahadevan; Schutkowski, Mike; Weyand, Michael; Steegborn, Clemens

2013-01-01

366

Nomenclatural changes, new country records and range extensions of Baridinae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) from China.  

PubMed

Thirteen relatively frequently collected species of baridine weevils from mainland China were mapped to improve our understanding of biogeographic patterns and distributional ranges of Baridinae in the Palaearctic and Oriental regions. This simple case study showed that taxonomists tend to underestimate the spatial scope required in regional investigations and descriptive works often resulting in widespread species being described numerous times. Several apparently uncommon species with uncertain relationships, known previously only from moderately high latitudes in the Palaearctic region, showed Oriental affinities. In each region, species may occur over many thousands of kilometers not only in East-West but also in North-South directions. New synonyms are Mimophilus Faust (=Baridiomorphus Voss), Acythopeus inflatirostris Voss (=Acythopeus proximus Voss), Baris albisquama Zaslavskij (=Baris ljaodunensis Zaslavskij), Mimophilus tragicus Faust (=Baridiomorphus conicollis Voss), Moreobaris deplanata (Roelofs) (=Acythopeus patruelis Voss), Baris pilosa Roelofs (=Baris blennus Marshall, =Baris piliventris Zaslavskij, =Baris pygidialis Voss, =Baris suvorovi Reitter), Baris artemisiae (Panzer) (=Baris corvina Voss), Pellobaris melancholica (Roelofs) (=Paracythopeus collaris Voss), Pteridobaris maritima (Roelofs) (=Baris quinquecarinata Zaslavskij) and Ulobaris kuchenbeisseri Hartmann (=Baris pseudospitzyi Zaslavskij, =Baris ussuriensis ussuriensis Zaslavskij, =Baris ussuriensis chinganensis Zaslavskij). New combinations are Athesapeuta gracilis (Voss) (from Eumycterus Schönherr), Athesapeuta inornata (Voss) (from Baris Germar) and Nespilobaris inflatirostris (Voss) (from Acythopeus Pascoe). Baridius vestitus Perris (not Boheman) and Baris pygidialis Hustache (not Voss) are newly recognized primary homonyms. A lectotype is designated for Moreobaris deplanata. Twenty-four species are recorded newly from China.  PMID:25082044

Prena, Jens; Yang, Jiani; Ren, Li; Wang, Zhiliang; Liu, Ning; Zhang, Runzhi

2014-01-01

367

The Periplasmic Loop Provides Stability to the Open State of the CorA Magnesium Channel*  

PubMed Central

Crystal structures of the CorA Mg2+ channel have suggested that metal binding in the cytoplasmic domain stabilizes the pentamer in a closed conformation. The open “metal free” state of the channel is, however, still structurally uncharacterized. Here, we have attempted to map conformational states of CorA from Thermotoga maritima by determining which residues support the pentameric structure in the presence or absence of Mg2+. We find that when Mg2+ is present, the pentamer is stabilized by the putative gating sites (M1/M2) in the cytoplasmic domain. Strikingly however, we find that the conserved and functionally important periplasmic loop is vital for the integrity of the pentamer when Mg2+ is absent from the M1/M2 sites. Thus, although the periplasmic loops were largely disordered in the x-ray structures of the closed channel, our data suggests a prominent role for the loops in stabilizing the open conformation of the CorA channels. PMID:22722933

Palombo, Isolde; Daley, Daniel O.; Rapp, Mikaela

2012-01-01

368

Screening of 18 species for digestate phytodepuration.  

PubMed

This experiment assesses the aptitude of 18 species in treating the digestate liquid fraction (DLF) in a floating wetland treatment system. The pilot system was created in NE Italy in 2010 and consists of a surface-flow system with 180 floating elements (Tech-IA®) vegetated with ten halophytes and eight other wetland species. The species were transplanted in July 2011 in basins filled with different proportions of DLF/water (DLF/w); periodic increasing of the DLF/w ratio was imposed after transplanting, reaching the worst conditions for plants in summer 2012 (highest EC value 7.3 mS cm/L and NH4-N content 225 mg/L). It emerged that only Cynodon dactylon, Typha latifolia, Elytrigia atherica, Halimione portulacoides, Salicornia fruticosa, Artemisia caerulescens, Spartina maritima and Puccinellia palustris were able to survive under the system conditions. Halophytes showed higher dry matter production than other plants. The best root development (up to 40-cm depth) was recorded for Calamagrostis epigejos, Phragmites australis, T. latifolia and Juncus maritimus. The highest nitrogen (10-15 g/m(2)) and phosphorus (1-4 g/m(2)) uptakes were obtained with P. palustris, Iris pseudacorus and Aster tripolium. In conclusion, two halophytes, P. palustris and E. atherica, present the highest potential to be used to treat DLF in floating wetlands. PMID:25005162

Pavan, Francesca; Breschigliaro, Simone; Borin, Maurizio

2015-02-01

369

Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.  

PubMed

Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use of specific plants. PMID:19429338

Al-Qura'n, S

2009-05-01

370

Structural Analysis of N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate Deacetylase Apoenzyme from Escherichia coli  

SciTech Connect

We report the crystal structure of the apoenzyme of N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcNAc6P) deacetylase from Escherichia coli (EcNAGPase) and the spectrometric evidence of the presence of Zn{sup 2+} in the native protein. The GlcNAc6P deacetylase is an enzyme of the amino sugar catabolic pathway that catalyzes the conversion of the GlcNAc6P into glucosamine 6-phosphate (GlcN6P). The crystal structure was phased by the single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering (SIRAS) method using low-resolution (2.9 Angstroms) iodine anomalous scattering and it was refined against a native dataset up to 2.0 Angstroms resolution. The structure is similar to two other NAGPases whose structures are known from Thermotoga maritima (TmNAGPase) and Bacillus subtilis (BsNAGPase); however, it shows a phosphate ion bound at the metal-binding site. Compared to these previous structures, the apoenzyme shows extensive conformational changes in two loops adjacent to the active site. The E. coli enzyme is a tetramer and its dimer-dimer interface was analyzed. The tetrameric structure was confirmed in solution by small-angle X-ray scattering data. Although no metal ions were detected in the present structure, experiments of photon-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) spectra and of inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) with enzyme that was neither exposed to chelating agents nor metal ions during purification, revealed the presence of 1.4 atoms of Zn per polypeptide chain. Enzyme inactivation by metal-sequestering agents and subsequent reactivation by the addition of several divalent cations, demonstrate the role of metal ions in EcNAGPase structure and catalysis.

Ferreira,F.; Mendoza-Hernandez, G.; Castaneda-Bueno, M.; Aparicio, R.; Fischer, H.; Calcagno, M.; Oliva, G.

2006-01-01

371

Assembly States of FliM and FliG within the Flagellar Switch Complex.  

PubMed

At the base of the bacterial flagella, a cytoplasmic rotor (the C-ring) generates torque and reverses rotation sense in response to stimuli. The bulk of the C-ring forms from many copies of the proteins FliG, FliM, and FliN, which together constitute the switch complex. To help resolve outstanding issues regarding C-ring architecture, we have investigated interactions between FliM and FliG from Thermotoga maritima with X-ray crystallography and pulsed dipolar ESR spectroscopy (PDS). A new crystal structure of an 11-unit FliG:FliM complex produces a large arc with a curvature consistent with the dimensions of the C-ring. Previously determined structures along with this new structure provided a basis to test switch complex assembly models. PDS combined with mutational studies and targeted cross-linking reveal that FliM and FliG interact through their middle domains to form both parallel and antiparallel arrangements in solution. Residue substitutions at predicted interfaces disrupt higher-order complexes that are primarily mediated by contacts between the C-terminal domain of FliG and the middle domain of a neighboring FliG molecule. Spin separations among multi-labeled components fit a self-consistent model that agree well with electron microscopy images of the C-ring. An activated form of the response regulator CheY destabilizes the parallel arrangement of FliM molecules to perturb FliG alignment in a process that may reflect the onset of rotation switching. These data suggest a model of C-ring assembly in which intermolecular contacts among FliG domains provide a template for FliM assembly and cooperative transitions. PMID:25536293

Sircar, Ria; Borbat, Peter P; Lynch, Michael J; Bhatnagar, Jaya; Beyersdorf, Matthew S; Halkides, Christopher J; Freed, Jack H; Crane, Brian R

2015-02-27

372

Ancestral Chromosomal Blocks Are Triplicated in Brassiceae Species with Varying Chromosome Number and Genome Size1  

PubMed Central

The paleopolyploid character of genomes of the economically important genus Brassica and closely related species (tribe Brassiceae) is still fairly controversial. Here, we report on the comparative painting analysis of block F of the crucifer Ancestral Karyotype (AK; n = 8), consisting of 24 conserved genomic blocks, in 10 species traditionally treated as members of the tribe Brassiceae. Three homeologous copies of block F were identified per haploid chromosome complement in Brassiceae species with 2n = 14, 18, 20, 32, and 36. In high-polyploid (n ? 30) species Crambe maritima (2n = 60), Crambe cordifolia (2n = 120), and Vella pseudocytisus (2n = 68), six, 12, and six copies of the analyzed block have been revealed, respectively. Homeologous regions resembled the ancestral structure of block F within the AK or were altered by inversions and/or translocations. In two species of the subtribe Zillineae, two of the three homeologous regions were combined via a reciprocal translocation onto one chromosome. Altogether, these findings provide compelling evidence of an ancient hexaploidization event and corresponding whole-genome triplication shared by the tribe Brassiceae. No direct relationship between chromosome number and genome size variation (1.2–2.5 pg/2C) has been found in Brassiceae species with 2n = 14 to 36. Only two homeologous copies of block F suggest a whole-genome duplication but not the triplication event in Orychophragmus violaceus (2n = 24), and confirm a phylogenetic position of this species outside the tribe Brassiceae. Chromosome duplication detected in Orychophragmus as well as chromosome rearrangements shared by Zillineae species demonstrate the usefulness of comparative cytogenetics for elucidation of phylogenetic relationships. PMID:17720758

Lysak, Martin A.; Cheung, Kwok; Kitschke, Michaela; Bureš, Petr

2007-01-01

373

Reining in Polyoma Virus Associated Nephropathy: Design and Characterization of a Template Mimicking BK Viral Coat Protein Cellular Binding  

PubMed Central

The BK polyoma virus is a leading cause of chronic post kidney transplantation rejection. One target for therapeutic intervention is the initial association of the BK virus with the host cell. We hypothesize that the rate of BKV infection can be curbed by competitively preventing viral binding to cells. The x-ray structures of homologous viruses complexed with N-terminal glycoproteins suggest that the BC and HI loops of the viral coat are determinant for binding and thereby, infection of the host cell. The large size of the viral coat precludes it from common biophysical and small molecule screening studies. Hence, we sought to develop a smaller protein template incorporating the identified binding loops of the BK viral coat in a manner that adequately mimics the binding activity of the BK virus coat protein to cells. Such a mimic may serve as a tool for the identification of inhibitors of BK viral progression. Herein, we report the design and characterization of a reduced-size and soluble template derived from a four helix protein—TM1526 of Thermatoga maritima archaea bacteria—which maintains the topological display of the BC and HI loops as found in the viral coat protein, VP1, of BKV. We demonstrate that the GT1b and GD1b sialogangliosides, which bind to the VP1 of BKV, also associate with our BKV-template. Employing a GFP-tagged template, we show host cell association that is dose dependent and that can be reduced by neuraminidase treatment. These data demonstrate that the BKV-template mimics the host-cell binding observed for the wild-type virus coat protein, VP1. PMID:23002929

Audu, Christopher O.; O’Hara, Bethany; Pellegrini, Maria; Wang, Lei; Atwood, Walter J.; Mierke, Dale F.

2012-01-01

374

Frankia populations in soil and root nodules of sympatrically grown Alnus taxa.  

PubMed

The genetic diversity of Frankia populations in soil and in root nodules of sympatrically grown Alnus taxa was evaluated by rep-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nifH gene sequence analyses. Rep-PCR analyses of uncultured Frankia populations in root nodules of 12 Alnus taxa (n=10 nodules each) growing sympatrically in the Morton Arboretum near Chicago revealed identical patterns for nodules from each Alnus taxon, including replicate trees of the same host taxon, and low diversity overall with only three profiles retrieved. One profile was retrieved from all nodules of nine taxa (Alnus incana subsp. incana, Alnus japonica, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana subsp. tenuifolia, Alnus incana subsp. rugosa, Alnus rhombifolia, Alnus mandshurica, Alnus maritima, and Alnus serrulata), the second was found in all nodules of two plant taxa (A. incana subsp. hirsuta and A. glutinosa var. pyramidalis), and the third was unique for all Frankia populations in nodules of A. incana subsp. rugosa var. americana. Comparative sequence analyses of nifH gene fragments in nodules representing these three profiles assigned these frankiae to different subgroups within the Alnus host infection group. None of these sequences, however, represented frankiae detectable in soil as determined by sequence analysis of 73 clones from a Frankia-specific nifH gene clone library. Additional analyses of nodule populations from selected alders growing on different soils demonstrated the presence of different Frankia populations in nodules for each soil, with populations showing identical sequences in nodules from the same soil, but differences between plant taxa. These results suggest that soil environmental conditions and host plant genotype both have a role in the selection of Frankia strains by a host plant for root nodule formation, and that this selection is not merely a function of the abundance of a Frankia strain in soil. PMID:20838787

Pokharel, Anita; Mirza, Babur S; Dawson, Jeffrey O; Hahn, Dittmar

2011-01-01

375

Ultrafast real-time visualization of active site flexibility of flavoenzyme thymidylate synthase ThyX  

PubMed Central

In many bacteria the flavoenzyme thymidylate synthase ThyX produces the DNA nucleotide deoxythymidine monophosphate from dUMP, using methylenetetrahydrofolate as carbon donor and NADPH as hydride donor. Because all three substrates bind in close proximity to the catalytic flavin adenine dinucleotide group, substantial flexibility of the ThyX active site has been hypothesized. Using femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, we have studied the conformational heterogeneity and the conformational interconversion dynamics in real time in ThyX from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima. The dynamics of electron transfer to excited flavin adenine dinucleotide from a neighboring tyrosine residue are used as a sensitive probe of the functional dynamics of the active site. The fluorescence decay spanned a full three orders of magnitude, demonstrating a very wide range of conformations. In particular, at physiological temperatures, multiple angstrom cofactor-residue displacements occur on the picoseconds timescale. These experimental findings are supported by molecular dynamics simulations. Binding of the dUMP substrate abolishes this flexibility and stabilizes the active site in a configuration where dUMP closely interacts with the flavin cofactor and very efficiently quenches fluorescence itself. Our results indicate a dynamic selected-fit mechanism where binding of the first substrate dUMP at high temperature stabilizes the enzyme in a configuration favorable for interaction with the second substrate NADPH, and more generally have important implications for the role of active site flexibility in enzymes interacting with multiple poly-atom substrates and products. Moreover, our data provide the basis for exploring the effect of inhibitor molecules on the active site dynamics of ThyX and other multisubstrate flavoenzymes. PMID:23671075

Laptenok, Sergey P.; Bouzhir-Sima, Latifa; Lambry, Jean-Christophe; Myllykallio, Hannu; Liebl, Ursula; Vos, Marten H.

2013-01-01

376

Depositional History of a Saline Blue Hole on Eleuthera Island, Bahamas: Implications for Sea Level History and Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical, chemical and biological properties of Duck Pond Blue Hole (DPBH), located on the southern portion of Eleuthera Island, Bahamas, were examined to analyze its depositional history and the record of climate and anthropogenic changes on the island. DPBH is a small (.001 km2), circular inland blue hole with average salinity ranging from 20-28 ppt and a maximum depth of ~8 m. Sediment cores were recovered using standard piston coring techniques along a transect consisting of three sites yielding cores of varying lengths--170, 155 and 151 cm, respectively. Radiocarbon dating, x-ray fluorescence (XRF), grain size analysis, loss on ignition (LOI), smear slide and mollusk processing and identification were performed on the cores. The sediment recovered is dominated by brown, tan and white carbonate sand with varying amounts of organic matter. Sedimentation rates vary between 0.1-0.5 mm/year. Mollusks are found throughout the cores but gastropods dominate in the upper portions, which date from 2000 years BP to present day. Bivalves are abundant in intervals dating between 5000 and 2500 years BP. The most common bivalve species were Polymesoda maritima, Anomalocardis auberiana and Ervilia concentrica. The most common gastropods were Cerithidea costata and Cerithium lutosum. Drill holes made by predaceous gastropods occur on some of the gastropods, but on most of the bivalves. Drilling frequency is highest between 5000 and 2500 years BP even though gastropods are rarely preserved in that interval. Through smear slide analysis, diatoms, forams and ostracodes were also found to occur throughout the core record. Peaks in Fe and Sr from XRF scans at 0.5 cm intervals may represent records of high atmospheric dust concentrations and sea level fluctuations, respectively. Plotting mollusk bed depths versus calibrated age reveals a sea level rise over the last 6000 years that includes a rapid rise and subsequent fall at ~2500 year BP.

Brady, K.; Bernard, M.; Bender, S.; Roy, Z.; Boush, L. E.; Myrbo, A.; Brown, E. T.; Buynevich, I. V.; Berman, M.; Gnivecki, P.

2013-12-01

377

Primary production dynamics in a pristine groundwater influenced coastal lagoon of the Yucatan Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dzilam lagoon is a shallow (0.6 m mean depth) ecosystem with 9.4 km 2 surface area, located in the north coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, and connected to the Gulf of Mexico through a permanent inlet. Freshwater input is possible through numerous sinkholes distributed throughout the lagoon, which also represent a continuous source of nitrate and silicate. The low anthropogenic influence has maintained a pristine condition in Dzilam lagoon, manifested in a spatial heterogeneity of water quality and primary production strongly related to the environmental fluctuations. To determine the annual variability of primary production and identify the factors controlling it, 12 monthly samplings were undertaken at six stations, from September 1998 to August 1999. Thus, physical-chemical parameters, inorganic nutrients concentrations, chlorophyll- a, phytoplankton production and seagrass biomass were measured. The water residence time in Dzilam lagoon is higher during dry season due to the significant evaporation rate, and shorter in rainy season because of increase in precipitation and volume of groundwater discharge. The multivariate analysis results suggest that the salinity gradient, changes in aquatic vegetation biomass, and the remineralized nutrients in sediments constitute key processes depicting the water quality and net primary production in Dzilam lagoon. Furthermore, the biogeochemical benthic processes, combined with a longer stay of phytoplankton cells within the lagoon, enhanced primary production in the water column during dry season, as opposite as rainy period, when the inferior water residence time yielded lower production values. The seagrasses ( Halodule wrightii and Ruppia maritima) showed the highest biomass (110.5 g dw/m 2/d) in dry season, while the lowest recordings were observed during cold fronts, with a salient belowground contribution (rhizomes and roots). Seagrasses and phytoplankton participation to the total primary production in Dzilam lagoon were seasonally alternated, yielding a high primary productivity along the annual cycle. Despite of this complementary arrangement, the submerged aquatic vegetation displayed an overall higher contribution during the year (65%) relate to phytoplankton.

Medina-Gómez, Israel; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A.

2006-06-01

378

Mobile dunes and eroding salt marshes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with general outlines of salt marsh and dune vegetation in the Ellenbogen and Listland area on Sylt (Schleswig-Holstein, FRG). The composition of current salt marsh vegetation is considered to be mainly the result of a long-lasting process of tidal inundation, grazing, and a permanent influence of groundwater seepage from the surrounding dunes. The lower salt marsh communities have shown constancy for 67 years, due to the effect of heavy grazing. The mid-upper salt marsh communities demonstrated a succession from a Puccinellia maritima-dominated community of the lower marsh to a Juncus gerardii-dominated community of the mid-upper salt marsh, which may be due to the transport of sand — over a short time — on the surface of the marsh. The area covered by plant communities of annuals below Mean High Water (MHW) seemed to diminish. Salt marsh soils, especially of the mid-upper marsh, indicate sandy layers resulting from sand drift of the dunes. Dry and wet successional series of the dunes in the Listland/Ellenbogen area both show grassy stages shifting to dwarf shrubs as final stages. White primary dunes can only be found on the accreting shoreline of the Ellenbogen, which is also grazed by sheep; vegetation cover therefore remains dominated by grasses, mosses and lichens. Three mobile dunes (as the most prominent features of this landscape) have been left unaffected by seeding and planting by local authorities. Grazing is considered to be an inadequate tool in nature conservation as long as natural processes are to prevail in the landscape as major determinants.

Neuhaus, R.

1994-06-01

379

The response of primary producers to nutrient enrichment in a shallow estuary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Shallow coastal systems worldwide are exhibiting increased algal growth in response to nutrient enrichment. This study evaluates primary production patterns in an estuarine system (Bass Harbor Marsh, Maine) receiving low levels of anthropogenic nitrogen. Biomass, areal coverage and in situ oxygen production of green macroalgae, Ruppia maritima, and phytoplankton were measured over a growing season to determine net ecosystem production. Macroalgae and Ruppia exhibited strong seasonal biomass curves with early summer peaks; however, peak biomass of macroalgae (150 g dwt m-2) was substantially greater than Ruppia (33 g dwt m-2). Phytoplankton biomass, measured as chlorophyll a, was low (<1 ug l-1) early in the season and peaked (11 ug l-1) following a mid-summer decline in macroalgal biomass, suggesting a competitive interaction with macroalgae. Instantaneous net production rates varied over the growing season for all three primary producers. Ruppia net production ranged from near zero to 3.7 mg C g dwt-1 h-1, with higher rates during summer and much of the seasonal variability explained by temperature. Macroalgal (0.88 - 5.0 mg C g dwt-1 h-1) and phytoplankton (0 - 28 mg C m-3 h-1) net production did not exhibit any clear seasonal signal. Net primary production calculated on an areal basis demonstrated macroalgae's dominance in the lower basin of Bass Harbor Marsh, with peak summer rates (400 mg C m-2 h-1) greatly exceeding maximum rates for both Ruppia (70 mg C m-2 h-1) and phytoplankton (12 mg C m-2 h-1). When compared to other New England estuarine sites with short residence times, nutrient loading and peak green macroalgal biomass in Bass Harbor Marsh is relatively low; however, the strong dominance of opportunistic green macroalgae is a pattern that is characteristic of shallow coastal systems undergoing eutrophication.

Kinney, E.H.; Roman, C.T.

1998-01-01

380

Ageing effects in an iteroparous plant species with a variable life span  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Ageing effects may be due to dysfunction leading to decreasing reproduction and survival with age. In plants, however, other (physiological) causes, associated with size for example, may also play a role. Iteroparous plants with genetically variable life spans can be helpful in unravelling these two aspects of changes associated with growing older. Methods In a long-term experiment, Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima (sea beet) plants from the same set of populations but with different ages were compared for flowering date over several years. Flowering date, root growth and seed production were measured in a synthetic population and in progenies derived from reciprocal crosses over three consecutive years and analysed with respect to the number of years yet to live. Heritabilities of these three characters and of life span were estimated. Key Results Flowering occurred on average 1·3 d later each year over a plant's whole lifetime. In the year before dying, plants flowered on average 3·3 d later and both root investment and seed production decreased significantly compared with plants that remained alive for at least 1 further year. The negative relationship (trade-off) between reproduction and root investment in early life became positive near the end of life, and the positive relationship between flowering date and root growth became negative. Conclusions Effects of ageing – in the sense of a decline in reproduction and root storage – combined with later flowering were particularly pronounced in the year before death. The gradual change in flowering phenology, observed over the whole lifetime, could have a physiological basis unrelated to dysfunction. PMID:19401292

Van Dijk, Henk

2009-01-01

381

Complete sucrose hydrolysis by heat-killed recombinant Pichia pastoris cells entrapped in calcium alginate  

PubMed Central

Background An ideal immobilized biocatalyst for the industrial-scale production of invert sugar should stably operate at elevated temperatures (60-70°C) and high sucrose concentrations (above 60%, w/v). Commercial invertase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is thermolabile and suffers from substrate inhibition. Thermotoga maritima ?-fructosidase (BfrA) is the most thermoactive and thermostable sucrose-hydrolysing enzyme so far identified and allows complete inversion of the substrate in highly concentrated solutions. Results In this study, heat-killed Pichia pastoris cells bearing N-glycosylated BfrA in the periplasmic space were entrapped in calcium alginate beads. The immobilized recombinant yeast showed maximal sucrose hydrolysis at pH 5–7 and 90°C. BfrA was 65% active at 60°C and had no activity loss after incubation without the substrate at this temperature for 15 h. Complete inversion of cane sugar (2.04 M) at 60°C was achieved in batchwise and continuous operation with respective productivities of 4.37 and 0.88 gram of substrate hydrolysed per gram of dry beads per hour. The half-life values of the biocatalyst were 14 and 20 days when operated at 60°C in the stirred tank and the fixed-bed column, respectively. The reaction with non-viable cells prevented the occurrence of sucrose fermentation and the formation of by-products. Six-month storage of the biocatalyst in 1.46 M sucrose (pH 5.5) at 4°C caused no reduction of the invertase activity. Conclusions The features of the novel thermostable biocatalyst developed in this study are more attractive than those of immobilized S. cerevisiae cells for application in the enzymatic manufacture of inverted sugar syrup in batch and fixed-bed reactors. PMID:24943124

2014-01-01

382

Structure of the invertebrate fauna in salt marshes of the Wadden Sea coast of Schleswig-Holstein influenced by sheep-grazing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of investigations on the influence of five different sheep grazing intensities on the invertebrate fauna of two mainland salt marsh sites of the German Wadden Sea coast are presented for the years 1990 and 1991. The investigation of the invertebrate fauna has been carried out since 1989 in the Puccinellia maritima zone, and the Festuca-Puccinellia as well as the Festuca-Armeria zones, with trapping transects arranged along an inundation gradient. Apart from specific biotic effects, grazing causes changes in environmental characteristics. Effects on microclimate comprise higher ranges of variance in soil-surface temperature on grazed sites. Decreasing food resources caused by grazing bring disadvantages to herbivores, the major part of the invertebrate fauna, due to merotope destruction (e. g. inflorescences of Aster tripolium) and the decline of host plant stands (e. g. A. tripolium, Plantago ssp.). Flower visitors and pollen feeding species that depend on A. tripolium have become extinct. Increasing food resources, caused by grazing, lead to higher population densities of a few specialized grass-feeding and surface-grazing invertebrates (e. g. Mayetiola ssp., Psammotettix putoni, Bledius tricornis). Soil characteristics in the lower salt marsh have not been altered significantly by grazing; hence, the direct effect of grazing and trampling leads to a decrease in population density of many species such as Assiminea grayana, Orchestia gammarellus and collembolans. The biomass and abundance of detritivores and many herbivores increased from 1990 to 1991 on the totally grazed fields, whereas predators diminished in numbers at the same time. A descriptive model is presented, involving grazing, winter temperature, and precipitation as basic factors.

Meyer, H.; Fock, H.; Haase, A.; Reinke, H. D.; Tulowitzki, I.

1995-03-01

383

Impacts of summer ozone exposure on the growth and overwintering of UK upland vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of ozone exposure on species of an upland grassland were assessed. Thirty-three species from Snowdonia, North Wales, UK, were exposed for 10 weeks to a weekly episodic ozone regime in solardomes representing predicted future concentrations. Two solardomes were used as controls, with ozone added to charcoal-filtered air to give a continuous ozone concentration of 30 ppb (O 3(30)). A weekly episodic ozone regime was applied to two other solardomes, with concentrations rising for 8 h per day to 80 ppb on day 1, 100 ppb on days 2 and 3, and 80 ppb on day 4; ozone concentrations remained at 30 ppb at all other times (O 3(30+peaks)). The control and background ozone concentrations of 30 ppb were maintained throughout the night as well as during the daytime. During exposure to the episodic ozone regime, some species were sensitive to ozone and showed ozone-specific leaf injury symptoms (e.g . Carex echinata) and/or premature senescence (e.g. Festuca rubra) and/or changes in above-ground biomass (e.g. Armeria maritima), whereas other species (e.g Holcus lanatus and Carex demissa) showed no effects. Some species, although showing no effects during the 10-week ozone exposure, showed carry-over effects on biomass the following spring, after a winter period of ambient ozone exposure (e.g. Galium saxatile, Nardus stricta and Saxifraga stellaris). The carry-over effects shown in this study indicate the potential ecological impact of ozone on semi-natural vegetation species and indicate the importance of longer-term studies on the effects of ozone on plants.

Hayes, Felicity; Mills, Gina; Williams, Philip; Harmens, Harry; Büker, Patrick

384

Insertion of Endocellulase Catalytic Domains into Thermostable Consensus Ankyrin Scaffolds: Effects on Stability and Cellulolytic Activity  

PubMed Central

Degradation of cellulose for biofuels production holds promise in solving important environmental and economic problems. However, the low activities (and thus high enzyme-to-substrate ratios needed) of hydrolytic cellulase enzymes, which convert cellulose into simple sugars, remain a major barrier. As a potential strategy to stabilize cellulases and enhance their activities, we have embedded cellulases of extremophiles into hyperstable ?-helical consensus ankyrin domain scaffolds. We found the catalytic domains CelA (CA, GH8; Clostridium thermocellum) and Cel12A (C12A, GH12; Thermotoga maritima) to be stable in the context of the ankyrin scaffold and to be active against both soluble and insoluble substrates. The ankyrin repeats in each fusion are folded, although it appears that for the C12A catalytic domain (CD; where the N and C termini are distant in the crystal structure), the two flanking ankyrin domains are independent, whereas for CA (where termini are close), the flanking ankyrin domains stabilize each other. Although the activity of CA is unchanged in the context of the ankyrin scaffold, the activity of C12A is increased between 2- and 6-fold (for regenerated amorphous cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose substrates) at high temperatures. For C12A, activity increases with the number of flanking ankyrin repeats. These results showed ankyrin arrays to be a promising scaffold for constructing designer cellulosomes, preserving or enhancing enzymatic activity and retaining thermostability. This modular architecture will make it possible to arrange multiple cellulase domains at a precise spacing within a single polypeptide, allowing us to search for spacings that may optimize reactivity toward the repetitive cellulose lattice. PMID:23974146

Cunha, Eva S.; Hatem, Christine L.

2013-01-01

385

Maltose Metabolism in the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Thermococcus litoralis: Purification and Characterization of Key Enzymes  

PubMed Central

Maltose metabolism was investigated in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus litoralis. Maltose was degraded by the concerted action of 4-?-glucanotransferase and maltodextrin phosphorylase (MalP). The first enzyme produced glucose and a series of maltodextrins that could be acted upon by MalP when the chain length of glucose residues was equal or higher than four, to produce glucose-1-phosphate. Phosphoglucomutase activity was also detected in T. litoralis cell extracts. Glucose derived from the action of 4-?-glucanotransferase was subsequently metabolized via an Embden-Meyerhof pathway. The closely related organism Pyrococcus furiosus used a different metabolic strategy in which maltose was cleaved primarily by the action of an ?-glucosidase, a p-nitrophenyl-?-d-glucopyranoside (PNPG)-hydrolyzing enzyme, producing glucose from maltose. A PNPG-hydrolyzing activity was also detected in T. litoralis, but maltose was not a substrate for this enzyme. The two key enzymes in the pathway for maltose catabolism in T. litoralis were purified to homogeneity and characterized; they were constitutively synthesized, although phosphorylase expression was twofold induced by maltodextrins or maltose. The gene encoding MalP was obtained by complementation in Escherichia coli and sequenced (calculated molecular mass, 96,622 Da). The enzyme purified from the organism had a specific activity for maltoheptaose, at the temperature for maximal activity (98°C), of 66 U/mg. A Km of 0.46 mM was determined with heptaose as the substrate at 60°C. The deduced amino acid sequence had a high degree of identity with that of the putative enzyme from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 (66%) and with sequences of the enzymes from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima (60%) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (31%) but not with that of the enzyme from E. coli (13%). The consensus binding site for pyridoxal 5?-phosphate is conserved in the T. litoralis enzyme. PMID:10348846

Xavier, Karina B.; Peist, Ralf; Kossmann, Marina; Boos, Winfried; Santos, Helena

1999-01-01

386

Aquatic insects of New York salt marsh associated with mosquito larval habitat and their potential utility as bioindicators.  

PubMed

The aquatic insect fauna of salt marshes is poorly characterized, with the possible exception of biting Diptera. Aquatic insects play a vital role in salt marsh ecology, and have great potential importance as biological indicators for assessing marsh health. In addition, they may be impacted by measures to control mosquitoes such as changes to the marsh habitat, altered hydrology, or the application of pesticides. Given these concerns, the goals of this study were to conduct the first taxonomic survey of salt marsh aquatic insects on Long Island, New York, USA and to evaluate their utility for non-target pesticide impacts and environmental biomonitoring. A total of 18 species from 11 families and five orders were collected repeatedly during the five month study period. Diptera was the most diverse order with nine species from four families, followed by Coleoptera with four species from two families, Heteroptera with three species from three families, then Odonata and the hexapod Collembola with one species each. Water boatmen, Trichocorixa verticalis Fieber (Heteroptera: Corixidae) and a shore fly, Ephydra subopaca Loew (Diptera: Ephydridae), were the two most commonly encountered species. An additional six species; Anurida maritima Guérin-Méneville (Collembola: Neanuridae), Mesovelia mulsanti White (Heteroptera: Mesovelidae), Enochrus hamiltoni Horn (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae), Tropisternus quadristriatus Horn (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae), Dasyhelea pseudocincta Waugh and Wirth (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), and Brachydeutera argentata Walker (Diptera: Ephydridae), were found regularly. Together with the less common Erythrodiplax berenice Drury (Odonata: Libellulidae), these nine species were identified as the most suitable candidates for pesticide and environmental impact monitoring due to abundance, position in the food chain, and extended seasonal occurrence. This study represents a first step towards developing an insect-based index of biological integrity for salt marsh health assessment. PMID:22957707

Rochlin, Ilia; Dempsey, Mary E; Iwanejko, Tom; Ninivaggi, Dominick V

2011-01-01

387

Seed dormancy distribution: explanatory ecological factors  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Knowledge of those traits that vary with latitude should be helpful in predicting how they may evolve locally under climate change. In the sea beet Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima, seed dormancy largely controls the timing of germination, is highly heritable and varies geographically; it is therefore thought to be selected by climate. The aim here was to characterize the variation in seed dormancy among sea beet populations across the French distribution area, as well as the ecological factors in situ that are correlated with and that could therefore select for seed dormancy. The relative importance of genetic inheritance vs. non-genetic variation is also evaluated. Methods The proportions of dormant seeds from 85 natural populations encompassing different climates over the whole French distribution area were measured under controlled conditions. Germination phenology was observed in a common garden experiment. Dormancy variation of seeds collected in situ was compared with that of seeds collected on plants grown in the greenhouse. Key Results The proportions of dormant seeds in the greenhouse were highly variable, covering almost the entire range from 0 to 1, and followed a geographical pattern from lower dormancy at high latitudes to high dormancy at low latitudes. The distribution of dormancy was positively correlated with yearly temperatures, especially summer temperatures. Minimum temperatures in winter did not significantly explain the trait variation. The genetic component of the total variation was significant and is probably completed by an important adjustment to the local conditions brought about by maternal adaptive phenotypic plasticity. Conclusions Dormancy in sea beet could be interpreted as a way to limit summer germination and spread germination over the first autumn and spring or following autumns. This highly heritable trait has the potential to evolve in the relatively near future because of climate change. PMID:22952378

Wagmann, Kristen; Hautekèete, Nina-Coralie; Piquot, Yves; Meunier, Cécile; Schmitt, S. Eric; Van Dijk, Henk

2012-01-01

388

Vegetation change on a northeast tidal marsh: Interaction of sea-level rise and marsh accretion  

SciTech Connect

Increasing rates of relative sea-level rise (RSL) have been linked to coastal wetland losses along the Gulf of Mexico and elsewhere. Rapidly rising RSL may be affecting New England tidal marshes. Studies of the Wequetequock-Pawcatuck tidal marshes over four decades have documented dramatic changes in vegetation apparently related primarily to differential rates of marsh accretion and sea-level rise though sediment supply and anthropogenic modifications of the system may also be involved. When initially studied in 1947-1948 the high marsh supported a Juncus gerardi-Spartina patens belting pattern typical of many New England salt marshes. On most of the marsh complex the former Juncus belt has now been replaced by forbs, primarily Triglochin maritima, while the former S. patens high marsh is now a complex of vegetation types-stunted Spartina alterniflora, Distichlis spicata, forbs, and relic stands of S. patens. The mean surface elevation of areas where the vegetation has changed is significantly lower than that of areas still supporting the earlier pattern (4.6 vs. 13.9 cm above mean tide level). The differences in surface elevation reflect differences in accretion of marsh peat. Stable areas have been accreting at the rate of local sea-level rise, 2.0-2.5 mm/yr at least since 1938; changed areas have accreted at about one half that rate. Lower surface elevations result in greater frequency and duration of tidal flooding, and thus in increased peat saturation, salinity, and sulfide concentrations, and in decreased redox potential, as directly measured over the growing season at both changed and stable sites. These edaphic changes may have combined to favor establishment of a wetter, more open vegetation type. Similar changes have been observed on other Long Island Sound marshes and may be a model for the potential effects of sea-level rise on New England tidal salt marshes. 39 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Warren, R.S.; Niering, W.A. (Connecticut College, New London (United States))

1993-01-01

389

Analysis of DNA polymorphisms in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and development of an SNP-based map of expressed genes.  

PubMed

A panel of 13 sugar beet lines and one genotype each of the Beta vulgaris cultivars red beet and Swiss chard, and B. vulgaris ssp. maritima were used to identify polymorphisms in alignments of genomic DNA sequences derived from 315 EST- and 43 non-coding RFLP-derived loci. In sugar beet lines, loci of expressed genes showed an average SNP frequency of 1/72 bp, 1 in 58 bp in non-coding sequences, increasing to 1/47 bp upon the addition of the remaining genotypes. Within analysed DNA fragments, alleles at different SNP positions displayed linkage disequilibrium indicative of haplotype structures. On average 2.7 haplotypes were found in sugar beet lines, and haplotype conservation in expressed genes appeared to exceed 500 bp in length. Seven different genotyping techniques including SNP detection by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, pyrosequencing and fluorescence scanning of labelled nucleotides were employed to perform 712 segregation analyses for 538 markers in three F(2) populations. Functions were predicted for 492 mapped sequences. Genetic maps comprised 305 loci covering 599.8 cM in population K1, 241 loci distributed over 636.6 cM in population D2, and 166 loci over 507.1 cM in population K2, respectively. Based on 156 markers common to more than one population an integrated map was constructed with 524 loci covering 664.3 cM. For 377 loci the genome positions of the most similar sequences from A. thaliana were identified, but little evidence for previously presented ancestral genome structures was found. PMID:17622508

Schneider, Katharina; Kulosa, Dagmar; Soerensen, Thomas Rosleff; Möhring, Silke; Heine, Martin; Durstewitz, Gregor; Polley, Andreas; Weber, Eberhard; Jamsari; Lein, Jens; Hohmann, Uwe; Tahiro, Emma; Weisshaar, Bernd; Schulz, Britta; Koch, Georg; Jung, Christian; Ganal, Martin

2007-09-01

390

Involvement of NADH:Acceptor Oxidoreductase and Butyryl Coenzyme A Dehydrogenase in Reversed Electron Transport during Syntrophic Butyrate Oxidation by Syntrophomonas wolfei? †  

PubMed Central

Methanogenic oxidation of butyrate to acetate requires a tight cooperation between the syntrophically fermenting Syntrophomonas wolfei and the methanogen Methanospirillum hungatei, and a reversed electron transport system in S. wolfei was postulated to shift electrons from butyryl coenzyme A (butyryl-CoA) oxidation to the redox potential of NADH for H2 generation. The metabolic activity of butyrate-oxidizing S. wolfei cells was measured via production of formazan and acetate from butyrate, with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride as electron acceptor. This activity was inhibited by trifluoperazine (TPZ), an antitubercular agent known to inhibit NADH:menaquinone oxidoreductase. In cell extracts of S. wolfei, the oxidation of NADH could be measured with quinones, viologens, and tetrazolium dyes as electron acceptors, and also this activity was inhibited by TPZ. The TPZ-sensitive NADH:acceptor oxidoreductase activity appeared to be membrane associated but could be dissociated from the membrane as a soluble protein and was semipurified by anion-exchange chromatography. Recovered proteins were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting, which indicated the presence of an NADH:acceptor oxidoreductase as part of a three-component [FeFe] hydrogenase complex and a selenocysteine-containing formate dehydrogenase. Furthermore, purification of butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (Bcd) activity and peptide mass fingerprinting revealed two Bcd proteins different from the Bcd subunit of the Bcd/electron-transfer flavoprotein complex (Bcd/EtfAB) predicted from the genome sequence of S. wolfei. The results suggest that syntrophic oxidation of butyrate in S. wolfei involves a membrane-associated TPZ-sensitive NADH:acceptor oxidoreductase as part of a hydrogenase complex similar to the recently discovered “bifurcating” hydrogenase in Thermotoga maritima and butyryl-CoA dehydrogenases that are different from Bcd of the Bcd/EtfAB complex. PMID:19648244

Müller, Nicolai; Schleheck, David; Schink, Bernhard

2009-01-01

391

Identification of an Intermediate Methyl Carrier in the Radical SAM Methylthiotransferases, RimO and MiaB  

PubMed Central

RimO and MiaB are radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzymes that catalyze the attachment of methylthio (–SCH3) groups onto macromolecular substrates. RimO attaches a methylthio group at C3 of aspartate 89 of protein S12, a component of the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome. MiaB attaches a methylthio group at C2 of N6-(isopentenyl)adenosine, found at nucleotide 37 in several prokaryotic tRNAs. These two enzymes are prototypical members of a subclass of radical SAM (RS) enzymes called methylthiotransferases (MTTases). It had been assumed that the sequence of steps in MTTase reactions involves initial sulfur insertion into the organic substrate followed by capping of the inserted sulfur atom with a SAM-derived methyl group. In this work, however, we show that both RimO and MiaB from Thermotoga maritima (Tm) catalyze methyl transfer from SAM to an acid/base labile acceptor on the protein in the absence of their respective macromolecular substrates. Consistent with the assignment of the acceptor as an iron–sulfur (Fe/S) cluster, denaturation of the SAM-treated protein with acid results in production of methanethiol. When RimO or MiaB is first incubated with SAM in the absence of substrate and reductant, and then incubated with excess S-adenosyl-l-[methyl-d3]methionine ([methyl-d3]-SAM) in the presence of substrate and reductant, production of the unlabeled product precedes production of the deuterated product, showing that the methylated species is chemically and kinetically competent to be an intermediate. PMID:23991893

Lee, Kyung-Hoon; Booker, Squire J.

2014-01-01

392

Contribution to the knowledge of the veterinary science and of the ethnobotany in Calabria region (Southern Italy)  

PubMed Central

Background A series of preliminary research projects on plants used in Calabria (Southern Italy) in veterinary science and in other ethno-botanical fields (minor nourishment, domestic and handicraft sector) was carried out in the last twenty years. From the ethno-botanical point of view, Calabria is one of the most interesting region, since in the ancient times it was subject to the dominant cultures of several people (Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Normans etc.). Until some decades ago the road network was poorly developed and villages were isolated, so that the culture of the "subsistence" and some archaic customs were kept. Methods Data were collected by means of "open" interviews to farmers, shepherds and housewives in the last twenty years. More than 100 informants were interviewed, mostly over 50 years old. Plants were identified by local informants through gathering in the area or through examination of the fresh plants collected by the researchers. The collected data were compared with pharmacobotanical papers mainly of southern Italy and with other studies, in order to highlight novelties or concordances of uses. Results The use of 62 taxa distributed into 34 families are described. Among these, 8 are or were employed in veterinary science, 8 as anti-parasitic agents, 19 in minor nourishment, 5 as seasoning, 38 for other uses. Some toxic species for cattle are also mentioned. Conclusion Among the major findings: the use of Helleborus bocconei for bronchitis of bovines and of Scrophularia canina for lameness in veterinary science; Nerium oleander and Urginea maritima as anti-parasitic agents; Epilobium angustifolium, Centaurea napifolia L. and C. sphaerocephala L. in minor nourishment. PMID:17156472

Passalacqua, Nicodemo G; De Fine, Giuseppe; Guarrera, Paolo Maria

2006-01-01

393

Handling Temperature Bursts Reaching 464°C: Different Microbial Strategies in the Sisters Peak Hydrothermal Chimney  

PubMed Central

The active venting Sisters Peak (SP) chimney on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge holds the current temperature record for the hottest ever measured hydrothermal fluids (400°C, accompanied by sudden temperature bursts reaching 464°C). Given the unprecedented temperature regime, we investigated the biome of this chimney with a focus on special microbial adaptations for thermal tolerance. The SP metagenome reveals considerable differences in the taxonomic composition from those of other hydrothermal vent and subsurface samples; these could be better explained by temperature than by other available abiotic parameters. The most common species to which SP genes were assigned were thermophilic Aciduliprofundum sp. strain MAR08-339 (11.8%), Hippea maritima (3.8%), Caldisericum exile (1.5%), and Caminibacter mediatlanticus (1.4%) as well as to the mesophilic Niastella koreensis (2.8%). A statistical analysis of associations between taxonomic and functional gene assignments revealed specific overrepresented functional categories: for Aciduliprofundum, protein biosynthesis, nucleotide metabolism, and energy metabolism genes; for Hippea and Caminibacter, cell motility and/or DNA replication and repair system genes; and for Niastella, cell wall and membrane biogenesis genes. Cultured representatives of these organisms inhabit different thermal niches; i.e., Aciduliprofundum has an optimal growth temperature of 70°C, Hippea and Caminibacter have optimal growth temperatures around 55°C, and Niastella grows between 10 and 37°C. Therefore, we posit that the different enrichment profiles of functional categories reflect distinct microbial strategies to deal with the different impacts of the local sudden temperature bursts in disparate regions of the chimney. PMID:24837379

Kurtz, Stefan; LaRoche, Julie

2014-01-01

394

Seasonal occurrence and distribution of submerged aquatic macrophytes in the tidal Potomac River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A systematic survey was conducted in the Tidal Potomac River in 1978 to determine the presence, abundance, and phenology of submersed aquatic macrophytes. The survey covered 81.5 km of main river and 59.3 km of tributary on the Maryland shore. Four regions were selected for the study: (1) Piscataway - Mattawoman Creek region (fresh-tidal river), (2) Nanjemoy Creek-Port Tobacco River region (transition zone), (3) Wicomico River region (estuary), and (4) St. Marys River region (estuary). The Wicomico River region was subdivided into fresh tidal river, transition zone and estuary for purposes of date analysis. Data were gathered by sampling each 15 m along transects running perpendicular to shore for a maximum distance of 300 m. Modified oyster tongs were used to sample both plants and benthic soils from an outboard boat. A total of 131 transects were established with a total of approximately 3500 grabs being taken per sampling period. Sampling was initiated in the spring and repeated in the summer and fall. Highest plant diversity and productivity were measured in the transition zone extending from Lower Cedar Point to beyond Maryland Point, a distance of approximately 30 km, and in the transition zone of the Wicomico River above Chaptico Bay. Fresh tidal areas were devoid of plants. The estuary had a sparse growth of horned pondweed (Zannichellia palustris) and widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) in the spring: horned pondweed was not found in summer or fall. Redhead grass (Potomageton perfoliatus) was the most abundant pondweed; it matured in early summer and died back in mid-to-late summer. Wild celery (Vallisneria americana) and widgeon grass matured in early-to-late fall and were the most abundant plants during that period. Data analysis is being finalized and a publication is in preparation. This research will be continued over the next several seasons as part of the long term USGS effort on the Potomac

Haramis, G.M.; Carter, V.; Gammon, P.; Hupp, C.

1979-01-01

395

Seagrass distribution and abundance in Eastern Gulf of Mexico coastal waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The marine angiosperms Thalassia testudinum, Syringodium filiforme, and Halodule wrightii form two of the largest reported seagrass beds along the northwest and southern coasts of Florida where they cover about 3000 square km in the Big Bend area and about 5500 square km in Florida Bay, respectively. Most of the leaf biomass in the Big Bend area and outer Florida Bay was composed of Thalassia testudinum and Syringodium filiforme which were distributed throughout the beds but which were more abundant in shallow depths. A short-leaved form of Halodule wrightii grew in monotypic stands in shallow water near the inner edges of the beds, while Halophila decipiens and a longer-leaved variety of H. wrightii grew scattered throughout the beds, in monotypic stands near the outer edges of the beds, and in deeper water outside the beds. Halophila engelmanni was observed scattered at various depths throughout the seagrass beds and in monospecific patches in deep water outside the northern bed. Ruppia maritima grew primarily in brackish water around river mouths. The cross-shelf limits of the two major seagrass beds are controlled nearshore by increased water turbidity and lower salinity around river mouths and off-shore by light penetration to depths which receive 10% or more of sea surface photosynthetically active radiation. Seagrasses form large beds only along low energy reaches of the coast. The Florida Bay seagrass bed contained about twice the short-shoot density of both Thalassia testudinum and Syringodium filiforme, for data averaged over all depths, and about four times the average short-shoot density of both species in shallow water compared with the Big Bend seagrass bed. The differences in average seagrass abundance between Florida Bay and the Big Bend area may be a consequence of the effects of greater seasonal solar radiation and water temperature fluctuations experienced by plants in the northern bed, which lies at the northern distribution limit for American Tropical seagrasses.

Iverson, Richard L.; Bittaker, Henry F.

1986-05-01

396

Insights into the nitric oxide reductase mechanism of flavodiiron proteins from a flavin-free enzyme  

PubMed Central

Flavodiiron proteins (FDPs) catalyze reductive scavenging of dioxygen and nitric oxide in air sensitive microorganisms. FDPs contain a distinctive non-heme diiron/flavin mononucleotide (FMN) active site. Alternative mechanisms for the nitric oxide reductase (NOR) activity have been proposed consisting of either protonation of a diiron-bridging hyponitrite or “super-reduction” of a diferrous-dinitrosyl by the proximal FMNH2 in the rate-determining step. In order to test these alternative mechanisms, we examined a deflavinated FDP (deflavo-FDP) from Thermotoga maritima. The deflavo-FDP retains an intact diiron site but does not show multi-turnover NOR or O2 reductase (O2R) activity. Reactions of the reduced (diferrous) deflavo-FDP with nitric oxide were examined by UV-vis absorption, EPR, resonance Raman, and FTIR spectroscopies. Anaerobic addition of nitric oxide up to 1 NO:diferrous deflavo-FDP results in formation of a diiron-mononitrosyl complex characterized by a broad S = 1/2 EPR signal arising from antiferromagnetic coupling of an S = 3/2 {FeNO}7 with an S = 2 Fe(II). Further addition of NO results in two reaction pathways, one of which produces N2O and the diferric site and the other of which produces a stable diiron-dinitrosyl complex. Both NO-treated and as-isolated deflavo-FDPs regain full NOR and O2R activities upon simple addition of FMN. The production of N2O upon addition of NO to the mononitrosyl deflavo-FDP supports the hyponitrite mechanism, but the concomitant formation of a stable diiron-dinitrosyl complex in the deflavo-FDP is consistent with a super-reduction pathway in the flavinated enzyme. We conclude that a diiron-mononitrosyl complex is an intermediate in the NOR catalytic cycle of FDPs. PMID:20669924

Hayashi, Takahiro; Caranto, Jonathan D.; Wampler, David A.; Kurtz, Donald M.; Moënne-Loccoz, Pierre

2010-01-01

397

Ingestion, enzymatic digestion and absorption of particles derived from different vegetal sources by the cockle Cerastoderma edule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ingestion, enzymatic digestion and absorption of particulate detrital matter derived from six different vegetal sources by the common cockle Cerastoderma edule was analyzed in a series of seasonal experiments performed in March, May and October 2005. Two green macroalgae: Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha sp; two vascular plants: Spartina maritima and Juncus maritimus, the red macroalgae Gracilaria gracilis; and the microalgae Isochrysis galbana were used in experiments. Detrital matter was elaborated by freeze-drying, grinding and sieving (< 63 ?m) vegetal tissues. Mono-specific detrital diets of similar organic content (? 60-70%) were elaborated by mixing detritus with ashed silt. We measured i) the biochemical composition of different detritus, ii) physiological components of the absorptive balance (i.e. clearance, ingestion, rejection and absorption rate and absorption efficiency), iii) the capability of the digestive gland to hydrolyze carbohydrates from different detritus (digestibility), as well as iv) glandular cellulase and xylanase activities. Detritus type, season and the interaction detritus-season exerted significant effects upon all the physiological components of absorptive balance. Effects were light at the pre-absorptive level, however, huge variations associated to absorption efficiency promoted large significant differences in absorption rates (AR) of different kind of detritus: irrespective of season, highest values corresponded to cockles fed the green macroalgae ( Ulva and Enteromorpha) and lowest to those fed the vascular plant Juncus maritimus. Recorded significant differences in enzymatic digestibility among detritus were found to explain ? 40% of differences recorded in AR, and the following regression could be fitted: AR = 0.232 (± 0.032) * Digestibility + 0,072 (± 0.015); r 2 = 0.415; F = 51.036; p < 0.001. Digestibility of Ulva and Enteromorpha was found to be significantly correlated with cellulase activity in the digestive gland, whereas digestibility of Juncus, Spartina and Gracilaria was correlated with xylanase activity. Obtained correlations are discussed in the frame of contrasting conclusions in the literature regarding the importance of detritus as a food source for bivalves.

Arambalza, U.; Urrutia, M. B.; Navarro, E.; Ibarrola, I.

2010-10-01

398

Structural Diversity Within the Mononuclear and Binuclear Active Sites of N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine-6-Phosphate Deacetylase  

SciTech Connect

NagA catalyzes the hydrolysis of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-6-phosphate to D-glucosamine-6-phosphate and acetate. X-ray crystal structures of NagA from Escherichia coli were determined to establish the number and ligation scheme for the binding of zinc to the active site and to elucidate the molecular interactions between the protein and substrate. The three-dimensional structures of the apo-NagA, Zn-NagA, and the D273N mutant enzyme in the presence of a tight-binding N-methylhydroxyphosphinyl-D-glucosamine-6-phosphate inhibitor were determined. The structure of the Zn-NagA confirms that this enzyme binds a single divalent cation at the beta-position in the active site via ligation to Glu-131, His-195, and His-216. A water molecule completes the ligation shell, which is also in position to be hydrogen bonded to Asp-273. In the structure of NagA bound to the tight binding inhibitor that mimics the tetrahedral intermediate, the methyl phosphonate moiety has displaced the hydrolytic water molecule and is directly coordinated to the zinc within the active site. The side chain of Asp-273 is positioned to activate the hydrolytic water molecule via general base catalysis and to deliver this proton to the amino group upon cleavage of the amide bond of the substrate. His-143 is positioned to help polarize the carbonyl group of the substrate in conjunction with Lewis acid catalysis by the bound zinc. The inhibitor is bound in the {alpha}-configuration at the anomeric carbon through a hydrogen bonding interaction of the hydroxyl group at C-1 with the side chain of His-251. The phosphate group of the inhibitor attached to the hydroxyl at C-6 is ion paired with Arg-227 from the adjacent subunit. NagA from Thermotoga maritima was shown to require a single divalent cation for full catalytic activity.

Hall,R.; Brown, S.; Fedorov, A.; Fedorov, E.; Xu, C.; Babbitt, P.; Almo, S.; Raushel, F.

2007-01-01

399

Early embryonic determination of the sexual dimorphism in segment number in geophilomorph centipedes  

PubMed Central

Background Most geophilomorph centipedes show intraspecific variability in the number of leg-bearing segments. This intraspecific variability generally has a component that is related to sex, with females having on average more segments than males. Neither the developmental basis nor the adaptive role of this dimorphism is known. Results To determine when this sexual dimorphism in segment number is established, we have followed the development of Strigamia maritima embryos from the onset of segmentation to the first post-embryonic stage where we could determine the sex morphologically. We find that males and females differ in segment number by Stage 6.1, a point during embryogenesis when segment addition pauses while the embryo undergoes large-scale movements. We have confirmed this pattern by establishing a molecular method to determine the sex of single embryos, utilising duplex PCR amplification for Y chromosomal and autosomal sequences. This confirms that male embryos have a modal number of 43 segments visible at Stage 6, while females have 45. In our Strigamia population, adult males have a modal number of 47 leg-bearing segments, and females have 49. This implies that the sexual dimorphism in segment number is determined before the addition of the last leg-bearing segments and the terminal genital segments. Conclusions Sexual dimorphism in segment number is not associated with terminal segment differentiation, but must instead be related to some earlier process during segment patterning. The dimorphism may be associated with a difference in the rate and/or duration of segment addition during the main phase of rapid segment addition that precedes embryonic Stage 6. This suggests that the adaptive role, if any, of the dimorphism is likely to be related to segment number per se, and not to sexual differentiation of the terminal region. PMID:23919293

2013-01-01

400

Photorespiration and Carbon Limitation Determine Productivity in Temperate Seagrasses  

PubMed Central

The gross primary productivity of two seagrasses, Zostera marina and Ruppia maritima, and one green macroalga, Ulva intestinalis, was assessed in laboratory and field experiments to determine whether the photorespiratory pathway operates at a substantial level in these macrophytes and to what extent it is enhanced by naturally occurring shifts in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and O2 in dense vegetation. To achieve these conditions in laboratory experiments, seawater was incubated with U. intestinalis in light to obtain a range of higher pH and O2 levels and lower DIC levels. Gross photosynthetic O2 evolution was then measured in this pretreated seawater (pH, 7.8–9.8; high to low DIC:O2 ratio) at both natural and low O2 concentrations (adjusted by N2 bubbling). The presence of photorespiration was indicated by a lower gross O2 evolution rate under natural O2 conditions than when O2 was reduced. In all three macrophytes, gross photosynthetic rates were negatively affected by higher pH and lower DIC. However, while both seagrasses exhibited significant photorespiratory activity at increasing pH values, the macroalga U. intestinalis exhibited no such activity. Rates of seagrass photosynthesis were then assessed in seawater collected from the natural habitats (i.e., shallow bays characterized by high macrophyte cover and by low DIC and high pH during daytime) and compared with open baymouth water conditions (where seawater DIC is in equilibrium with air, normal DIC, and pH). The gross photosynthetic rates of both seagrasses were significantly higher when incubated in the baymouth water, indicating that these grasses can be significantly carbon limited in shallow bays. Photorespiration was also detected in both seagrasses under shallow bay water conditions. Our findings indicate that natural carbon limitations caused by high community photosynthesis can enhance photorespiration and cause a significant decline in seagrass primary production in shallow waters. PMID:24376754

Buapet, Pimchanok; Rasmusson, Lina M.; Gullström, Martin; Björk, Mats

2013-01-01

401

Ancestral patterning of tergite formation in a centipede suggests derived mode of trunk segmentation in trilobites.  

PubMed

Trilobites have a rich and abundant fossil record, but little is known about the intrinsic mechanisms that orchestrate their body organization. To date, there is disagreement regarding the correspondence, or lack thereof, of the segmental units that constitute the trilobite trunk and their associated exoskeletal elements. The phylogenetic position of trilobites within total-group Euarthropoda, however, allows inferences about the underlying organization in these extinct taxa to be made, as some of the fundamental genetic processes for constructing the trunk segments are remarkably conserved among living arthropods. One example is the expression of the segment polarity gene engrailed, which at embryonic and early postembryonic stages is expressed in extant panarthropods (i.e. tardigrades, onychophorans, euarthropods) as transverse stripes that define the posteriormost region of each trunk segment. Due to its conservative morphology and allegedly primitive trunk tagmosis, we have utilized the centipede Strigamia maritima to study the correspondence between the expression of engrailed during late embryonic to postembryonic stages, and the development of the dorsal exoskeletal plates (i.e. tergites). The results corroborate the close correlation between the formation of the tergite borders and the dorsal expression of engrailed, and suggest that this association represents a symplesiomorphy within Euarthropoda. This correspondence between the genetic and phenetic levels enables making accurate inferences about the dorsoventral expression domains of engrailed in the trunk of exceptionally preserved trilobites and their close relatives, and is suggestive of the widespread occurrence of a distinct type of genetic segmental mismatch in these extinct arthropods. The metameric organization of the digestive tract in trilobites provides further support to this new interpretation. The wider evolutionary implications of these findings suggest the presence of a derived morphogenetic patterning mechanism responsible for the reiterated occurrence of different types of trunk dorsoventral segmental mismatch in several phylogenetically distant, extinct and extant, arthropod groups. PMID:23285116

Ortega-Hernández, Javier; Brena, Carlo

2012-01-01

402

Root of the universal tree of life based on ancient aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase gene duplications.  

PubMed Central

Universal trees based on sequences of single gene homologs cannot be rooted. Iwabe et al. [Iwabe, N., Kuma, K.-I., Hasegawa, M., Osawa, S. & Miyata, T. (1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 9355-9359] circumvented this problem by using ancient gene duplications that predated the last common ancestor of all living things. Their separate, reciprocally rooted gene trees for elongation factors and ATPase subunits showed Bacteria (eubacteria) as branching first from the universal tree with Archaea (archaebacteria) and Eucarya (eukaryotes) as sister groups. Given its topical importance to evolutionary biology and concerns about the appropriateness of the ATPase data set, an evaluation of the universal tree root using other ancient gene duplications is essential. In this study, we derive a rooting for the universal tree using aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase genes, an extensive multigene family whose divergence likely preceded that of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. An approximately 1600-bp conserved region was sequenced from the isoleucyl-tRNA synthetases of several species representing deep evolutionary branches of eukaryotes (Nosema locustae), Bacteria (Aquifex pyrophilus and Thermotoga maritima) and Archaea (Pyrococcus furiosus and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius). In addition, a new valyl-tRNA synthetase was characterized from the protist Trichomonas vaginalis. Different phylogenetic methods were used to generate trees of isoleucyl-tRNA synthetases rooted by valyl- and leucyl-tRNA synthetases. All isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase trees showed Archaea and Eucarya as sister groups, providing strong confirmation for the universal tree rooting reported by Iwabe et al. As well, there was strong support for the monophyly (sensu Hennig) of Archaea. The valyl-tRNA synthetase gene from Tr. vaginalis clustered with other eukaryotic ValRS genes, which may have been transferred from the mitochondrial genome to the nuclear genome, suggesting that this amitochondrial trichomonad once harbored an endosymbiotic bacterium. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7708661

Brown, J R; Doolittle, W F

1995-01-01

403

Organization of FliN Subunits in the Flagellar Motor of Escherichia coli†  

PubMed Central

FliN is a major constituent of the C ring in the flagellar basal body of many bacteria. It is present in >100 copies per flagellum and together with FliM and FliG forms the switch complex that functions in flagellar assembly, rotation, and clockwise-counterclockwise switching. FliN is essential for flagellar assembly and switching, but its precise functions are unknown. The C-terminal part of the protein is best conserved and most important for function; a crystal structure of this C-terminal domain of FliN from Thermotoga maritima revealed a saddle-shaped dimer formed mainly from ? strands (P. N. Brown, M. A. A. Mathews, L. A. Joss, C. P. Hill, and D. F. Blair, J. Bacteriol. 187:2890-2902, 2005). Equilibrium sedimentation studies showed that FliN can form stable tetramers and that a FliM1FliN4 complex is also stable. Here, we have examined the organization of FliN subunits by using targeted cross-linking. Cys residues were introduced at various positions in FliN, singly or in pairs, and disulfide cross-linking was induced by oxidation. Efficient cross-linking was observed for certain positions near the ends of the dimer and for some positions in the structurally uncharacterized N-terminal domain. Certain combinations of two Cys replacements gave a high yield of cross-linked tetramer. The results support a model in which FliN is organized in doughnut-shaped tetramers, stabilized in part by contacts involving the N-terminal domain. Electron microscopic reconstructions show a bulge at the bottom of the C-ring whose size and shape are a close match for the hypothesized FliN tetramer. PMID:16547037

Paul, Koushik; Blair, David F.

2006-01-01

404

Biochemical characterization of uracil processing activities in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum aerophilum.  

PubMed

Deamination of cytosine to uracil and 5-methylcytosine to thymine represents a major mutagenic threat particularly at high temperatures. In double-stranded DNA, these spontaneous hydrolytic reactions give rise to G.U and G.T mispairs, respectively, that must be restored to G.C pairs prior to the next round of DNA replication; if left unrepaired, 50% of progeny DNA would acquire G.C --> A.T transition mutations. The genome of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum aerophilum has been recently shown to encode a protein, Pa-MIG, a member of the endonuclease III family, capable of processing both G.U and G.T mispairs. We now show that this latter activity is undetectable in crude extracts of P. aerophilum. However, uracil residues in G.U mispairs, in A.U pairs, and in single-stranded DNA were efficiently removed in these extracts. These activities were assigned to a approximately 22-kDa polypeptide named Pa-UDG (P. aerophilum uracil-DNA glycosylase). The recombinant Pa-UDG protein is highly thermostable and displays a considerable degree of homology to the recently described uracil-DNA glycosylases from Archaeoglobus fulgidus and Thermotoga maritima. Interestingly, neither Pa-MIG nor Pa-UDG was inhibited by UGI, a generic inhibitor of the UNG family of uracil glycosylases. Yet a small fraction of the total uracil processing activity present in crude extracts of P. aerophilum was inhibited by this peptide. This implies that the hyperthermophilic archaeon possesses at least a three-pronged defense against the mutagenic threat of hydrolytic deamination of cytosines in its genomic DNA. PMID:11399761

Sartori, A A; Schär, P; Fitz-Gibbon, S; Miller, J H; Jiricny, J

2001-08-10

405

Starch biosynthetic genes and enzymes are expressed and active in the absence of starch accumulation in sugar beet tap-root  

PubMed Central

Background Starch is the predominant storage compound in underground plant tissues like roots and tubers. An exception is sugar beet tap-root (Beta vulgaris ssp altissima) which exclusively stores sucrose. The underlying mechanism behind this divergent storage accumulation in sugar beet is currently not fully known. From the general presence of starch in roots and tubers it could be speculated that the lack in sugar beet tap-roots would originate from deficiency in pathways leading to starch. Therefore with emphasis on starch accumulation, we studied tap-roots of sugar beet using parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) as a comparator. Results Metabolic and structural analyses of sugar beet tap-root confirmed sucrose as the exclusive storage component. No starch granules could be detected in tap-roots of sugar beet or the wild ancestor sea beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima). Analyses of parsnip showed that the main storage component was starch but tap-root tissue was also found to contain significant levels of sugars. Surprisingly, activities of four main starch biosynthetic enzymes, phosphoglucomutase, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, starch synthase and starch branching enzyme, were similar in sugar beet and parsnip tap-roots. Transcriptional analysis confirmed expression of corresponding genes. Additionally, expression of genes involved in starch accumulation such as for plastidial hexose transportation and starch tuning functions could be determined in tap-roots of both plant species. Conclusion Considering underground storage organs, sugar beet tap-root upholds a unique property in exclusively storing sucrose. Lack of starch also in the ancestor sea beet indicates an evolved trait of biological importance. Our findings in this study show that gene expression and enzymatic activity of main starch biosynthetic functions are present in sugar beet tap-root during storage accumulation. In view of this, the complete lack of starch in sugar beet tap-roots is enigmatic. PMID:24758347

2014-01-01

406

A New Root-Knot Nematode Parasitizing Sea Rocket from Spanish Mediterranean Coastal Dunes: Meloidogyne dunensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae)  

PubMed Central

High infection rates of European sea rocket feeder roots by an unknown root-knot nematode were found in a coastal dune soil at Cullera (Valencia) in central eastern Spain. Morphometry, esterase and malate dehydrogenase electrophoretic phenotypes and phylogenetic trees demonstrated that this nematode species differs clearly from other previously described root-knot nematodes. Studies of host-parasite relationships showed a typical susceptible reaction in naturally infected European sea rocket plants and in artificially inoculated tomato (cv. Roma) and chickpea (cv. UC 27) plants. The species is herein described and illustrated and named as Meloidogyne dunensis n. sp. The new root-knot nematode can be distinguished from other Meloidogyne spp. by: (i) perineal pattern rounded-oval, formed of numerous fine dorsal and ventral cuticle striae and ridges, lateral fields clearly visible; (ii) female excretory pore at the level of stylet knobs, EP/ST ratio 1.6; (iii) second-stage juveniles with hemizonid located 1 to 2 annuli anteriorly to excretory pore and long, narrow, tapering tail; and (iv) males with lateral fields composed of four incisures anteriorly and posteriorly, while six distinct incisures are observed for large part at mid-body. Phylogenetic trees derived from distance and maximum parsimony analyses based on 18S, ITS1–5.8S-ITS2 and D2-D3 of 28S rDNA showed that M. dunensis n. sp. can be differentiated from all described root-knot nematode species, and it is clearly separated from other species with resemblance in morphology, such as M. duytsi, M. maritima, M. mayaguensis and M. minor. PMID:19259488

Palomares Rius, J. E.; Vovlas, N.; Troccoli, A.; Liébanas, G.; Landa, B. B.; Castillo, P.

2007-01-01

407

Evolution and thermodynamics of the slow unfolding of hyperstable monomeric proteins  

PubMed Central

Background The unfolding speed of some hyperthermophilic proteins is dramatically lower than that of their mesostable homologs. Ribonuclease HII from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakaraensis (Tk-RNase HII) is stabilized by its remarkably slow unfolding rate, whereas RNase HI from the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus (Tt-RNase HI) unfolds rapidly, comparable with to that of RNase HI from Escherichia coli (Ec-RNase HI). Results To clarify whether the difference in the unfolding rate is due to differences in the types of RNase H or differences in proteins from archaea and bacteria, we examined the equilibrium stability and unfolding reaction of RNases HII from the hyperthermophilic bacteria Thermotoga maritima (Tm-RNase HII) and Aquifex aeolicus (Aa-RNase HII) and RNase HI from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus tokodaii (Sto-RNase HI). These proteins from hyperthermophiles are more stable than Ec-RNase HI over all the temperature ranges examined. The observed unfolding speeds of all hyperstable proteins at the different denaturant concentrations studied are much lower than those of Ec-RNase HI, which is in accordance with the familiar slow unfolding of hyperstable proteins. However, the unfolding rate constants of these RNases H in water are dispersed, and the unfolding rate constant of thermophilic archaeal proteins is lower than that of thermophilic bacterial proteins. Conclusions These results suggest that the nature of slow unfolding of thermophilic proteins is determined by the evolutionary history of the organisms involved. The unfolding rate constants in water are related to the amount of buried hydrophobic residues in the tertiary structure. PMID:20615256

2010-01-01

408

Diurnal Fluxes of Carbonyl Sulfide (COS) in a Subtropical Salt Marsh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmospheric sulfur budget has been greatly perturbed, with anthropogenic contributions exceeding natural emissions. Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is the most abundant, longest-lived reduced sulfur compound in the atmosphere, and COS concentration changes could have a significant effect on the global climate and the natural biogeochemical sulfur cycle. Measuring fluxes of COS presents a methodological challenge, and in situ measurements from terrestrial ecosystems are sparse. Terrestrial plants are considered to be the largest sink for COS in the troposphere, although specific species have been reported to act as sources. Here we describe production rates of COS from salt marsh plants on a Texas Gulf coast subtropical barrier island (27.8 °N, 97.1°W). In July 2009, static flux chamber measurements were performed on three sites over the course of 24 hours to capture the temporal and spatial variation of fluxes. Two of the sites were dominated by B. maritima, a common salt marsh plant, while one was a control plot with only marsh soil and no vegetation. Fluxes from the two sites were measured within an hour of each other and showed a very similar pattern with time, indicating that the COS emissions responded to the same environmental factors. Of the environmental parameters measured, fluxes correlated best with soil temperatures at 5 cm depth. The site with the drier of the two soils consistently yielded a 20-30% larger flux. The control plot produced an order of magnitude less COS, but still exhibited a positive flux. These results are part of an ongoing study on how subtropi