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Sample records for eases traditional hurdles

  1. Remediation of Groundwater Contaminated with Organics and Radionuclides - An Innovative Approach Eases Traditional Hurdles

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J.; Case, N.; Coltman, K.

    2003-02-25

    Traditional approaches to the remediation of contaminated groundwater, such as pump-and-treat, have been used for many years for the treatment of groundwater contaminated with various organics. However the treatment of groundwater contaminated with organics and radionuclides has been considerably more challenging. Safety and Ecology Corporation (SEC) was recently faced with these challenges while designing a remediation system for the remediation of TCE-contaminated groundwater and soil at the RMI Extrusion Plant in Ashtabula, OH. Under contract with RMI Environmental Services (RMIES), SEC teamed with Regenesis, Inc. to design, implement, and execute a bioremediation system to remove TCE and associated organics from groundwater and soil that was also contaminated with uranium and technetium. The SEC-Regenesis system involved the injection of Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC), a natural attenuation accelerant that has been patented, designed, and produced by Regenesis, to stimulate the reductive dechlorination and remediation of chlorinated organics in subsurface environments. The compound was injected using direct-push Geoprobe rods over a specially designed grid system through the zone of contaminated groundwater. The innovative approach eliminated the need to extract contaminated groundwater and bypassed the restrictive limitations listed above. The system has been in operation for roughly six months and has begun to show considerable success at dechlorinating and remediating the TCE plume and in reducing the radionuclides into insoluble precipitants. The paper will provide an overview of the design, installation, and initial operation phase of the project, focusing on how traditional design challenges of remediating radiologically contaminated groundwater were overcome. The following topics will be specifically covered: a description of the mechanics of the HRC technology; an assessment of the applicability of the HRC technology to contaminated groundwater plumes

  2. Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Elizabeth

    Abstract words such as "tradition" are like ancient coins whose concrete images have worn away. Traditions can be of two forms--either alive, amendable, and expandable (such as those in a family's annual Christmas celebration), or dead, empty formalities. An example of an empty tradition is the strict rule in freshman composition classes that…

  3. Tohoku Women's Hurdling Project: Science Angels (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuki, Kotoe; Watanabe, Mayuko

    2009-04-01

    Tohoku University was the first National University to admit three women students in Japan in 1913. To support the university's traditional ``open-door'' policy, various projects have been promoted throughout the university since its foundation. A government plan, the Third-Stage Basic Plan for Science and Technology, aims to increase the women scientist ratio up to 25% nationwide. In order to achieve this goal, the Tohoku Women's Hurdling Project, funded by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), was adopted in 2006. This project is threefold: support for child/family, improvement of facilities, and support for the next generation, which includes our Science Angels program. ``Science Angels'' are women PhD students appointed by the university president, with the mission to form a strong support system among each other and to become role-models to inspire younger students who want to become researchers. Currently, 50 women graduate students of the natural sciences are Science Angels and are encouraged to design and deliver lectures in their areas of specialty at their alma maters. Up to now, 12 lectures have been delivered and science events for children in our community have been held-all with great success.

  4. Defining the critical hurdles in cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Scientific discoveries that provide strong evidence of antitumor effects in preclinical models often encounter significant delays before being tested in patients with cancer. While some of these delays have a scientific basis, others do not. We need to do better. Innovative strategies need to move into early stage clinical trials as quickly as it is safe, and if successful, these therapies should efficiently obtain regulatory approval and widespread clinical application. In late 2009 and 2010 the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC), convened an "Immunotherapy Summit" with representatives from immunotherapy organizations representing Europe, Japan, China and North America to discuss collaborations to improve development and delivery of cancer immunotherapy. One of the concepts raised by SITC and defined as critical by all parties was the need to identify hurdles that impede effective translation of cancer immunotherapy. With consensus on these hurdles, international working groups could be developed to make recommendations vetted by the participating organizations. These recommendations could then be considered by regulatory bodies, governmental and private funding agencies, pharmaceutical companies and academic institutions to facilitate changes necessary to accelerate clinical translation of novel immune-based cancer therapies. The critical hurdles identified by representatives of the collaborating organizations, now organized as the World Immunotherapy Council, are presented and discussed in this report. Some of the identified hurdles impede all investigators; others hinder investigators only in certain regions or institutions or are more relevant to specific types of immunotherapy or first-in-humans studies. Each of these hurdles can significantly delay clinical translation of promising advances in immunotherapy yet if overcome, have the potential to improve outcomes of patients with cancer. PMID:22168571

  5. Hurdles in therapy with regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Trzonkowski, Piotr; Bacchetta, Rosa; Battaglia, Manuela; Berglund, David; Bohnenkamp, Hermann Richard; ten Brinke, Anja; Bushell, Andrew; Cools, Nathalie; Geissler, Edward K; Gregori, Silvia; Marieke van Ham, S; Hilkens, Catharien; Hutchinson, James A; Lombardi, Giovanna; Madrigal, J Alejandro; Marek-Trzonkowska, Natalia; Martinez-Caceres, Eva M; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia; Sanchez-Ramon, Silvia; Saudemont, Aurore; Sawitzki, Birgit

    2015-09-01

    Improper activation of the immune system contributes to a variety of clinical conditions, including autoimmune and allergic diseases as well as solid organ and bone marrow transplantation. One approach to counteract this activation is through adoptive therapy with regulatory T cells (Tregs). Efforts to manufacture these cells have led to good maunfacturing practice-compliant protocols, and Treg products are entering early clinical trials. Here, we report the stance of the European Union Cooperation in Science and Technology Action BM1305, "Action to Focus and Accelerate Cell-based Tolerance-inducing Therapies-A FACTT," which identifies hurdles hindering Treg clinical applications in Europe and provides possible solutions. PMID:26355029

  6. Articulation Agreements Ease the Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Articulation agreements between secondary and postsecondary institutions often provide for granting college credit for course work completed at another institution. They have been described as programs designed to create pathways of learning that ease the transition of students from secondary to postsecondary levels. (JOW)

  7. Tularemia vaccines: recent developments and remaining hurdles.

    PubMed

    Conlan, J Wayne

    2011-04-01

    Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen of humans and other mammals. Its inhaled infectious dose is very low and can result in very high mortality. Historically, subsp. tularensis was developed as a biological weapon and there are now concerns about its abuse as such by terrorists. A live attenuated vaccine developed pragmatically more than half a century ago from the less virulent holarctica subsp. is the sole prophylactic available, but it remains unlicensed. In recent years several other potential live, killed and subunit vaccine candidates have been developed and tested in mice for their efficacy against respiratory challenge with subsp. tularensis. This article will review these vaccine candidates and the development hurdles they face. PMID:21526941

  8. Artificial insemination history: hurdles and milestones

    PubMed Central

    Ombelet, W.; Van Robays, J.

    2015-01-01

    Artificial insemination with homologous (AIH) or donor semen (AID) is nowadays a very popular treatment procedure used for many subfertile women worldwide. The rationale behind artificial insemination is to increase gamete density at the site of fertilisation. The sequence of events leading to today’s common use of artificial insemination traces back to scientific studies and experimentation many centuries ago. Modern techniques used in human artificial insemination programmes are mostly adapted from the work on cattle by dairy farmers wishing to improve milk production by using artificial insemination with sperm of selected bulls with well chosen genetic traits. The main reason for the renewed interest in artificial insemination in human was associated with the refinement of techniques for the preparation of washed motile spermatozoa in the early years of IVF. The history of artificial insemination is reviewed with particular interest to the most important hurdles and milestones. PMID:26175891

  9. Artificial insemination history: hurdles and milestones.

    PubMed

    Ombelet, W; Van Robays, J

    2015-01-01

    Artificial insemination with homologous (AIH) or donor semen (AID) is nowadays a very popular treatment procedure used for many subfertile women worldwide. The rationale behind artificial insemination is to increase gamete density at the site of fertilisation. The sequence of events leading to today's common use of artificial insemination traces back to scientific studies and experimentation many centuries ago. Modern techniques used in human artificial insemination programmes are mostly adapted from the work on cattle by dairy farmers wishing to improve milk production by using artificial insemination with sperm of selected bulls with well chosen genetic traits. The main reason for the renewed interest in artificial insemination in human was associated with the refinement of techniques for the preparation of washed motile spermatozoa in the early years of IVF. The history of artificial insemination is reviewed with particular interest to the most important hurdles and milestones. PMID:26175891

  10. Hurdles in low k1 mass production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Donggyu; Yang, Hyunjo; Park, Chanha; Hong, Jongkyun; Choi, Jaeseung

    2005-05-01

    As the optical lithography pushes toward its theoretical resolution limit 0.25k1, the application of aggressive Resolution Enhancement Techniques (RETs) are required in order to ensure necessary resolution, sufficient process window, and reasonable MEEF in critical layers. When chip makers are adopting RETs in low k1 device, there are a lot of crucial factors to take into account in the development and mass production. Those hurdles are not only difficult to overcome but also highly risky to the company, which adopts low k1 mass production strategy. But, low k1 production strategy is very attractive to all chip makers, owing to improving production capacity and cost of ownership. So, low k1 technology has been investigated by many lithography engineers. Lots of materials have been introduced. Most of them are just in RnD level. In this study, low k1 mass production issues shall be introduced, mainly. The definition of low k1 in mass production shall be suggested. And, a lot of low_k1 issues shall be introduced, also. Most of them were investigated/experienced in RnD development stage and final mass production line. Low k1 mass production, is some what different from only RnD development.

  11. Examining Teachers' Hurdles to `Science for All'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southerland, Sherry; Gallard, Alejandro; Callihan, Laurie

    2011-11-01

    The goal of this research is to identify science teachers' beliefs and conceptions that play an important role in shaping their understandings of and attempts to enact inclusive science teaching practices. We examined the work products, both informal (online discussions, email exchanges) and formal (papers, unit plans, peer reviews), of 14 teachers enrolled in a master's degree course focused on diversity in science teaching and learning. These emerging understandings were member-checked via a series of interviews with a subset of these teachers. Our analysis was conducted in two stages: (1) describing the difficulties the teachers identified for themselves in their attempts to teach science to a wide range of students in their classes and (2) analyzing these self-identified barriers for underlying beliefs and conceptions that serve to prohibit or allow for the teachers' understanding and enactment of equitable science instruction. The teachers' self-identified barriers were grouped into three categories: students, broader social infrastructure, and self. The more fundamental barriers identified included teacher beliefs about the ethnocentrism of the mainstream, essentialism/individualism, and beliefs about the meritocracy of schooling. The implications of these hurdles for science teacher education are discussed.

  12. Global Studies: Hurdles to Program Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Patricia J.; Masters, Paul E.; Goolsby, Amy

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we examine a new global studies program that departs from the traditional state-centric approach and uses a geocentric, or earth-centered, approach that emphasizes the roles of individuals, grassroots organizations, cultural groups, and international organizations in an attempt to help students conceptualize global events and…

  13. Gender is another hurdle for S. Africa.

    PubMed

    Hill, M

    1993-11-01

    Gender equality remains an unacceptable concept to traditional tribal leaders in the new South Africa. Representative of this opposition to an equality for women provision in the new Constitution is Mwelo Nonkonyana, chief of the Amabhala clan of the Xhosa tribe in South Africa's Transkei region. Chief Nonkonyana has insisted, "Women are not inferior. It's just that they perform a special function." A ban on sex discrimination in South Africa would enable daughters to sue the eldest son for the right to assume power and pose many challenges to the institution of polygamy. Traditional leaders have proposed a separate parliamentary body composed of kings and chiefs to examine instances where proposed laws conflict with tribal practices, a step that could delay action on the gender equality plank for 5 years. They are being opposed by the African National Congress, which insists on the inclusion of human rights for all in the new Constitution. The Congress is committed to accommodating the tribal rulers, many of whom received financial support from the apartheid government, but is determined to avoid the existence of two parallel ruling structures in the new South Africa. PMID:12318516

  14. Easing Chronic Pain: Better Treatments and Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Easing Chronic Pain: Better Treatments and Medications Past Issues / Fall 2007 ... this page please turn Javascript on. What Is Pain? You know it at once. It may be ...

  15. Mindfulness Therapy May Help Ease Recurrent Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... 158537.html Mindfulness Therapy May Help Ease Recurrent Depression Review of 9 studies suggests it helps patients ... help reduce the risk of repeated bouts of depression, researchers report. One expert not connected to the ...

  16. Electroacupuncture Helped Ease Carpal Tunnel in Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159240.html Electroacupuncture Helped Ease Carpal Tunnel in Study But experts say finding is preliminary, didn't ... condition known as carpal tunnel syndrome. In the study, electroacupuncture helped carpal tunnel patients with long-lasting ...

  17. New Drug Eases Huntington's Disease Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159766.html New Drug Eases Huntington's Disease Symptoms: Study Experimental med ... anxiety or nausea, the researchers said. For the new study, Frank and his colleagues randomly assigned 90 ...

  18. New Drug Eases Huntington's Disease Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159766.html New Drug Eases Huntington's Disease Symptoms: Study Experimental med ... anxiety or nausea, the researchers said. For the new study, Frank and his colleagues randomly assigned 90 ...

  19. Quantifying the Ease of Scientific Discovery.

    PubMed

    Arbesman, Samuel

    2011-02-01

    It has long been known that scientific output proceeds on an exponential increase, or more properly, a logistic growth curve. The interplay between effort and discovery is clear, and the nature of the functional form has been thought to be due to many changes in the scientific process over time. Here I show a quantitative method for examining the ease of scientific progress, another necessary component in understanding scientific discovery. Using examples from three different scientific disciplines - mammalian species, chemical elements, and minor planets - I find the ease of discovery to conform to an exponential decay. In addition, I show how the pace of scientific discovery can be best understood as the outcome of both scientific output and ease of discovery. A quantitative study of the ease of scientific discovery in the aggregate, such as done here, has the potential to provide a great deal of insight into both the nature of future discoveries and the technical processes behind discoveries in science. PMID:22328796

  20. Neuromuscular characteristics of drop and hurdle jumps with different types of landings.

    PubMed

    Cappa, Dario F; Behm, David G

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare drop (DJ) and hurdle jumps using a preferred, flat foot (FLAT) and forefoot (FORE) landing technique. Countermovement jump height was used to establish the hurdle and the DJ heights. The subjects performed forward hurdles and vertical DJs on a force plate. Measures included vertical ground reaction force (VGRF), contact time, leg stiffness, and rate of force development (RFD). Electromyographic (EMG) activity was measured in the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius during 3 phases: preactivity, eccentric phase, and concentric phase. All the kinetic variables favored hurdles over DJs. Specifically, hurdle-preferred technique and FORE exhibited the shortest contact time and DJ FLAT the longest. The VGRF was higher in hurdle preferred and FORE than in DJ preferred, FLAT, and FORE. For stiffness and RFD, hurdle preferred and FORE were higher than DJ preferred and FLAT. Hurdle jumps showed higher rectus femoris EMG activity than DJ did during preactivity and eccentric phases but lower activity during the concentric phase. Considering the type of landing, FLAT generally demonstrated the greatest EMG activity. During the concentric phase, DJ exhibited higher rectus femoris EMG activity. Biceps femoris activity was higher with hurdles in all the phases. Gastrocnemius showed the highest EMG activity during the concentric phase, and during the eccentric phase, hurdle preferred and FORE showed the highest results. In conclusion, the hurdle FORE technique was the most powerful type of jump. PMID:23442288

  1. Oil prices vs hurdle rates for upstream petroleum operations

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, T.A.

    1986-08-01

    The relationship between rising or falling oil prices and general levels of interest rates is graphically evident in the capital market moves for energy securities of 1973-1974, 1979-1980, and 1986. In turn, the resulting overall changes in the cost of capital became the determining basis for hurdle rates on new drilling exploration and exploitation. The relationships are complicated by lag time considerations in capital markets as well as by the dynamics of public policy with respect to energy and tax matters. Nevertheless, recent evidence of markedly higher volatility in commodity values suggests greater return cushions will be required by investment funds in the energy sector.

  2. Hurdles in anticancer drug development from a regulatory perspective.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Bertil; Bergh, Jonas

    2012-04-01

    Between January 2001 and January 2012, 48 new medicinal products for cancer treatment were licensed within the EU, and 77 new indications were granted for products already licensed. In some cases, a major improvement to existing therapies was achieved, for example, trastuzumab in breast cancer. In other cases, new fields for effective drug therapy opened up, such as in chronic myeloid leukemia, and renal-cell carcinoma. In most cases, however, the benefit-risk balance was considered to be only borderline favorable. Based on our assessment of advice procedures for marketing authorization, 'need for speed' seems to be the guiding principle in anticancer drug development. Although, for drugs that make a difference, early licensure is of obvious importance to patients, this is less evident in the case of borderline drugs. Without proper incentives and with hurdles inside and outside companies, a change in drug development cannot be expected; drugs improving benefit-risk modestly over available therapies will be brought forward towards licensure. In this Perspectives article, we discuss some hurdles to biomarker-driven drug development and provide some suggestions to overcome them. PMID:22349015

  3. Technological hurdles to the application of intercalated graphite fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Before intercalated graphite fibers can be developed as an effective power material, there are several technological hurdles which must be overcome. These include the environmental stability, homogeneity and bulk properties, connection procedures, and costs. Strides were made within the last several years in stability and homogeneity of intercalated graphite fibers. Bulk properties and connection procedures are areas of active research now. Costs are still prohibitive for all but the most demanding applications. None of these problems, however, appear to be unsolvable, and their solution may result in wide spread GOC application. The development of a relatively simple technology application, such as EMI shielding, would stimulate the solution of scale-up problems. Once this technology is developed, then more demanding applications, such as power bus bars, may be possible.

  4. Nerve Zap Eased Rheumatoid Arthritis in Small Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_159838.html Nerve Zap Eased Rheumatoid Arthritis in Small Study Treatment worked some for patients ... the gut may help ease stubborn symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, preliminary research suggests. The study, of 17 adults ...

  5. Neutral Buoyancy Simulator - EASE Project (NB32)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Once the United States' space program had progressed from Earth's orbit into outerspace, the prospect of building and maintaining a permanent presence in space was realized. To accomplish this feat, NASA launched a temporary workstation, Skylab, to discover the effects of low gravity and weightlessness on the human body, and also to develop tools and equipment that would be needed in the future to build and maintain a more permanent space station. The structures, techniques, and work schedules had to be carefully designed to fit this unique construction site. The components had to be lightweight for transport into orbit, yet durable. The station also had to be made with removable parts for easy servicing and repairs by astronauts. All of the tools necessary for service and repairs had to be designed for easy manipulation by a suited astronaut. Construction methods had to be efficient due to the limited time the astronauts could remain outside their controlled environment. In lieu of all the specific needs for this project, an environment on Earth had to be developed that could simulate a low gravity atmosphere. A Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) was constructed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in 1968. Since then, NASA scientists have used this facility to understand how humans work best in low gravity and also provide information about the different kinds of structures that can be built. Pictured is a Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) student working in a spacesuit on the Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity (EASE) project which was developed as a joint effort between MFSC and MIT. The EASE experiment required that crew members assemble small components to form larger components, working from the payload bay of the space shuttle. The MIT student in this photo is assembling two six-beam tetrahedrons.

  6. Therapeutic antisense oligonucleotides against cancer: hurdling to the clinic

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Pedro M. D.; Pêgo, Ana P.

    2014-01-01

    Under clinical development since the early 90's and with two successfully approved drugs (Fomivirsen and Mipomersen), oligonucleotide-based therapeutics has not yet delivered a clinical drug to the market in the cancer field. Whilst many pre-clinical data has been generated, a lack of understanding still exists on how to efficiently tackle all the different challenges presented for cancer targeting in a clinical setting. Namely, effective drug vectorization, careful choice of target gene or synergistic multi-gene targeting are surely decisive, while caution must be exerted to avoid potential toxic, often misleading off-target-effects. Here a brief overview will be given on the nucleic acid chemistry advances that established oligonucleotide technologies as a promising therapeutic alternative and ongoing cancer related clinical trials. Special attention will be given toward a perspective on the hurdles encountered specifically in the cancer field by this class of therapeutic oligonucleotides and a view on possible avenues for success is presented, with particular focus on the contribution from nanotechnology to the field. PMID:25353019

  7. Chronopharmaceutical Drug Delivery Systems: Hurdles, Hype or Hope?⊗

    PubMed Central

    Youan, Bi-Botti C.

    2010-01-01

    The current advances in chronobiology and the knowledge gained from chronotherapy of selected diseases strongly suggest that “the one size fits all at all times” approach to drug delivery is no longer substantiated, at least for selected bioactive agents and disease therapy or prevention. Thus, there is a critical and urgent need for chronopharmaceutical research (e.g., design and evaluation of robust, spatially and temporally controlled drug delivery systems that would be clinically intended for chronotherapy by different routes of administration). This review provides a brief overview of current delivery system intended for chronotherapy. In theory, such an ideal “magic pill” preferably with affordable cost, would improve the safety, efficacy and patient compliance of old and new drugs. However, currently, there are three major hurdles for the successful transition of such system from laboratory to patient bedside. These include the challenges to identify adequate (i) rhythmic biomaterials and systems, (ii) rhythm engineering modeling, perhaps using system biology and (iii) regulatory guidance. PMID:20438781

  8. Therapeutic Antisense Oligonucleotides against Cancer: Hurdling to the Clinic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Pedro; Pêgo, Ana

    2014-10-01

    Under clinical development since the early 90’s and with two successfully approved drugs (Fomivirsen and Mipomersen), oligonucleotide-based therapeutics have not yet delivered a clinical drug to the market in the cancer field. Whilst many pre-clinical data has been generated, a lack of understanding still exists on how to efficiently tackle all the different challenges presented for cancer targeting in a clinical setting. Namely, effective drug vectorization, careful choice of target gene or synergistic multi-gene targeting are surely decisive, while caution must be exerted to avoid potential toxic, often misleading off-target-effects. Here a brief overview will be given on the nucleic acid chemistry advances that established oligonucleotide technologies as a promising therapeutic alternative and ongoing cancer related clinical trials. Special attention will be given towards a perspective on the hurdles encountered specifically in the cancer field by this class of therapeutic oligonucleotides and a view on possible avenues for success is presented, with particular focus on the contribution from nanotechnology to the field.

  9. Hurdling barriers through market uncertainty: Case studies ininnovative technology adoption

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Christopher T.; Radspieler Jr., Anthony; Payne, Jack

    2002-08-18

    The crisis atmosphere surrounding electricity availability in California during the summer of 2001 produced two distinct phenomena in commercial energy consumption decision-making: desires to guarantee energy availability while blackouts were still widely anticipated, and desires to avoid or mitigate significant price increases when higher commercial electricity tariffs took effect. The climate of increased consideration of these factors seems to have led, in some cases, to greater willingness on the part of business decision-makers to consider highly innovative technologies. This paper examines three case studies of innovative technology adoption: retrofit of time-and-temperature signs on an office building; installation of fuel cells to supply power, heating, and cooling to the same building; and installation of a gas-fired heat pump at a microbrewery. We examine the decision process that led to adoption of these technologies. In each case, specific constraints had made more conventional energy-efficient technologies inapplicable. We examine how these barriers to technology adoption developed over time, how the California energy decision-making climate combined with the characteristics of these innovative technologies to overcome the barriers, and what the implications of hurdling these barriers are for future energy decisions within the firms.

  10. Comprehensive Software Eases Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    To help air traffic control centers improve the safety and the efficiency of the National Airspace System, Ames Research Center developed the Future Air Traffic Management Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET) software, which won NASA's 2006 "Software of the Year" competition. In 2005, Ames licensed FACET to Flight Explorer Inc., for integration into its Flight Explorer (version 6.0) software. The primary FACET features incorporated in the Flight Explorer software system alert airspace users to forecasted demand and capacity imbalances. Advance access to this information helps dispatchers anticipate congested sectors (airspace) and delays at airports, and decide if they need to reroute flights. FACET is now a fully integrated feature in the Flight Explorer Professional Edition (version 7.0). Flight Explorer Professional offers end-users other benefits, including ease of operation; automatic alerts to inform users of important events such as weather conditions and potential airport delays; and international, real-time flight coverage over Canada, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, and sections of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Flight Explorer Inc. recently broadened coverage by partnering with Honeywell International Inc.'s Global Data Center, Blue Sky Network, Sky Connect LLC, SITA, ARINC Incorporated, Latitude Technologies Corporation, and Wingspeed Corporation, to track their aircraft anywhere in the world.

  11. Low Temperature and Modified Atmosphere: Hurdles for Antibiotic Resistance Transfer?

    PubMed

    Van Meervenne, Eva; Van Coillie, Els; Van Weyenberg, Stephanie; Boon, Nico; Herman, Lieve; Devlieghere, Frank

    2015-12-01

    Food is an important dissemination route for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Factors used during food production and preservation may contribute to the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes, but research on this subject is scarce. In this study, the effect of temperature (7 to 37°C) and modified atmosphere packaging (air, 50% CO2-50% N2, and 100% N2) on antibiotic resistance transfer from Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei to Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated. Filter mating was performed on nonselective agar plates with high-density inocula. A more realistic setup was created by performing modified atmosphere experiments on cooked ham using high-density and low-density inocula. Plasmid transfer was observed between 10 and 37°C, with plasmid transfer also observed at 7°C during a prolonged incubation period. When high-density inocula were used, transconjugants were detected, both on agar plates and cooked ham, under the three atmospheres (air, 50% CO2-50% N2, and 100% N2) at 7°C. This yielded a median transfer ratio (number of transconjugants/number of recipients) with an order of magnitude of 10(-4) to 10(-6). With low-density inocula, transfer was only detected under the 100% N2 atmosphere after 10-day incubation at 7°C, yielding a transfer ratio of 10(-5). Under this condition, the highest bacterial density was obtained. The results indicate that low temperature and modified atmosphere packaging, two important hurdles in the food industry, do not necessarily prevent plasmid transfer from Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei to Listeria monocytogenes. PMID:26613914

  12. Using Fermentation to Ease the Glycerol Conundrum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The demand for alternative fuels is becoming more pronounced as the cost of petroleum rises. Biodiesel, a renewable fuel derived from oils and fats, is quickly being established as a safe, dependable option in many applications where petroleum has traditionally been used. However, the rapid growth...

  13. Movement Activity Levels on Traditional and Contemporary Playground Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl P.; LeBlanc, Elizabeth

    This study investigated playground activity levels of children in grades K-4 and compared levels of use of traditional and creative playground apparatus. The traditional playground area consisted of climbing bars, slides, ladders, chin bars, swings, see saws, and a merry-go-round. The creative playground contained tire hurdles, tire walk, tire…

  14. Italy makes U-turn on nuclear power, but hurdles remain

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-15

    A consortium consisting of ENEL and EDF in partnership with others including Edison, a major generator, and possibly a number of heavy industrial electricity users could invest in nuclear plants. But many technical, political, regulatory, and financial hurdles remain.

  15. Estimation of hurdle clearance parameters using a monocular human motion tracking method.

    PubMed

    Krzeszowski, Tomasz; Przednowek, Krzysztof; Wiktorowicz, Krzysztof; Iskra, Janusz

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a method of monocular human motion tracking for estimation of hurdle clearance kinematic parameters. The analysis involved 10 image sequences of five hurdlers at various training levels. Recording of the sequences was carried out under simulated starting conditions of a 110 m hurdle race. The parameters were estimated using the particle swarm optimization algorithm and they are based on analysis of the images recorded with a 100 Hz camera. The proposed method does not involve using any special clothes, markers, inertial sensors, etc. As the quality criteria, the mean absolute error and mean relative error were used. The level of computed errors justifies the use of this method to estimate hurdle clearance parameters. PMID:26838547

  16. Simple Steps Can Ease Care of Loved One with Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Steps Can Ease Care of Loved One With Alzheimer's Limit their choices and distractions and always keep ... 2016 FRIDAY, March 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- As Alzheimer's disease progresses, patients find that simple tasks become ...

  17. Acupuncture May Ease Hot Flashes for Breast Cancer Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_157996.html Acupuncture May Ease Hot Flashes for Breast Cancer Patients Italian trial finds ... News) -- Acupuncture can help alleviate the often-debilitating hot flashes that afflict many breast cancer patients, new ...

  18. Could Inducing Brief, Mild 'Fever' Help Ease Depression?

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Could Inducing Brief, Mild 'Fever' Help Ease Depression? Small study suggests heating the body might alter ... brain region is less active in people with depression, the researchers explained. "Our hope is to find ...

  19. Could Talk Therapy Ease Chemo-Related Memory Issues?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 158606.html Could Talk Therapy Ease Chemo-Related Memory Issues? Researchers suggest their approach could improve survivors' ... developed a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) program called Memory and Attention Adaptation Training to help cancer survivors ...

  20. Pet Pooch May Help Ease PTSD in Veterans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pet Pooch May Help Ease PTSD in Veterans Dogs also helped reduce depression and loneliness, researchers found ... 27, 2016 FRIDAY, May 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Dogs may be more than best friends for military ...

  1. Meditation May Help Ease Chronic Low Back Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157895.html Meditation May Help Ease Chronic Low Back Pain Study found it ... critical, he said. According to Cherkin, MBSR can help people acknowledge how they are feeling -- physically and ...

  2. Jewish tradition in death and dying.

    PubMed

    Ross, H M

    1998-10-01

    Death is often a spiritually difficult time for the dying and their families. Judaism approaches dying with some unique views that can differ from other religious traditions. Through an understanding of Jewish tradition, nurses can ease the dying process for Jewish patients and their families. PMID:10036429

  3. College Education and the Poor in China: Documenting the Hurdles to Educational Attainment and College Matriculation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiaobing; Liu, Chengfang; Zhang, Linxiu; Luo, Renfu; Glauben, Thomas; Shi, Yaojiang; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Although universities have expanded in size, it is unclear whether the poor have benefited. If there are high returns to college education, then increasing access of the poor to college has important welfare implications. The objective of this paper is to document the rates of enrollment into college of the poor and to identify the hurdles to…

  4. Difficult OptEase Filter Retrievals After Prolonged Indwelling Times

    SciTech Connect

    Van Ha, Thuong G. Kang, Lisa; Lorenz, Jonathan; Zangan, Steven; Navuluri, Rakesh; Straus, Christopher; Funaki, Brian

    2013-08-01

    PurposeThe OptEase vena cave filter (Cordis, Piscataway, NJ) is commercially available as a retrievable or permanent filter with short recommended indwelling time, presumably due to extensive contact of the filter side struts with the inferior vena cava wall and subsequent neointimal hyperplasia leading to incorporation. Our purpose was to evaluate OptEase filter retrievals with a long indwelling time period that required unconventional retrieval techniques.Materials and MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent OptEase filter retrieval with long undwelling times requiring additional maneuvers for retrieval. Techniques used included rigid endobronchial forceps dissection and wire-through-loop snare. Each patient underwent postretrieval venogram to evaluate for possible complications. In addition, patients had clinical follow-up 2 weeks after the retrieval procedure.ResultsThere were three patients (2 women, 1 man; average age 64 years) who underwent OptEase filter retrieval. The mean indwelling time was 6.4 months. The indwelling filters were successfully retrieved. There were no complications. Postprocedural follow-up showed no clinical pathology.ConclusionUnconventional techniques aided in the retrieval of OptEase filters with long indwelling times.

  5. Facilities, breed and experience affect ease of sheep handling: the livestock transporter's perspective.

    PubMed

    Burnard, C L; Pitchford, W S; Hocking Edwards, J E; Hazel, S J

    2015-08-01

    An understanding of the perceived importance of a variety of factors affecting the ease of handling of sheep and the interactions between these factors is valuable in improving profitability and welfare of the livestock. Many factors may contribute to animal behaviour during handling, and traditionally these factors have been assessed in isolation under experimental conditions. A human social component to this phenomenon also exists. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the importance of a variety of factors affecting ease of handling, and the interactions between these from the perspective of the livestock transporter. Qualitative interviews were used to investigate the factors affecting sheep behaviour during handling. Interview transcripts underwent thematic analysis. Livestock transporters discussed the effects of attitudes and behaviours towards sheep, helpers, facilities, distractions, environment, dogs and a variety of sheep factors including breed, preparation, experience and sex on sheep behaviour during handling. Transporters demonstrated care and empathy and stated that patience and experience were key factors determining how a person might deal with difficult sheep. Livestock transporters strongly believed facilities (ramps and yards) had the greatest impact, followed by sheep experience (naivety of the sheep to handling and transport) and breed. Transporters also discussed the effects of distractions, time of day, weather, dogs, other people, sheep preparation, body condition and sheep sex on ease of handling. The concept of individual sheep temperament was indirectly expressed. PMID:25874817

  6. An overview of the EASE/ACCESS space construction demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, George M.; Ross, Jerry L.; Spring, Sherwood C.

    1988-01-01

    Consideration is given to the development of the Experimental Assembly of Structures in EVA/Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (EASE/ACCESS) space construction demonstration, which was performed during Space Shuttle mission 61-B. The mission equipment is described and illustrated and the EASE/ACCESS mission management structure is outlined. Simulations of the assembly and disassembly in the NASA neutral buoyancy simulators were used to test the mission plans. In addition, EVA training and crew performance for the mission are discussed.

  7. A Reconsideration of Achebe's "No Longer at Ease".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babalola, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    Offers a new perspective on the novel, "No Longer at Ease," and comments on its sub-themes: the clash of two civilizations, the antipathy between youth and old age, human fallibility, social and moral decadence. In contrast with his earlier novel, Achebe writes topical satire for educated Africans. (LHW)

  8. Growing with EASE: Eating, Activity, and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huettig, Carol; Rich, Shannon; Engelbrecht, Jo Ann; Sanborn, Charlotte; Essery, Eve; DiMarco, Nancy; Velez, Luisa; Levy, Luba

    2006-01-01

    A diverse group of professionals associated with Texas Woman's University's Institute for Women's Health, working collaboratively with school administrators, teachers, family support teams, and family members, developed Growing with EASE: Eating, Activity, and Self-Esteem, a nutrition program for young children and their families. In tracking the…

  9. Help Children Move from Preschool to Elementary School with Ease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappel, Margot

    2012-01-01

    Each year, families across the country take the leap from an early-childhood learning program to elementary school. Prepared families take a poised step forward, confident and knowledgeable about how their child will ease into the school system and develop along his or her learning path. Unprepared families anxiously tiptoe ahead, unsure of what…

  10. Clothing Fasteners: Ease of Manipulation and Preference among Arthritic Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forcese, Valeria L.; Shannon, Elizabeth

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a study that determined type of clothing fastener preferred by arthritic women when both function and aesthetics were considered. Results revealed appearance was more important than ease of manipulation, and clothing fastener types must be considered when selecting or modifying garments for arthritics. (Availability: CHEA National…

  11. Education: New Programs Aim to Ease Shortage of Qualified Toxicologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Ward

    1983-01-01

    Discusses programs designed to ease shortage of qualified toxicologists including one leading to a bachelor's degree in toxicology at the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science. Also considered are emerging attitudes toward toxicology and educational issues extending beyond the education of students (such as educating the public,…

  12. Hurdle-rate measurement for non-U. S. projects in the energy industry

    SciTech Connect

    Chua, J.; Woodward, R. )

    1992-04-01

    Over the past few years, U.S. energy producers have shifted exploration activities to areas outside the U.S. This paper focuses on which hurdle rate is appropriate for the evaluation of these particular oil and gas energy projects. While conventional wisdom may suggest that these projects are riskier than equivalent domestic projects and therefore should be evaluated with a higher discount rate.

  13. Hurdles to the introduction of new therapies for immune-mediated kidney diseases.

    PubMed

    Anders, Hans-Joachim; Jayne, David R W; Rovin, Brad H

    2016-04-01

    Innovative immunotherapies continue to markedly benefit many disciplines in clinical medicine but disappointingly, these benefits have not translated to the treatment of kidney diseases despite encouraging findings from preclinical models of kidney dysfunction. This lack of progress in nephrology might relate to the unique biology of the kidney. More likely, this lack of progress relates to conceptual hurdles in the application of newer therapies to renal disease. In this Review we discuss seven hurdles that must be addressed in order to appropriately assess and introduce immunologic therapies for immune-mediated kidney disease: the use of appropriate criteria to define disease categories; issues relating to the heterogeneity of kidney diseases and how this heterogeneity affects approaches to treatment; issues related to the rarity of most kidney diseases; the paucity of good animal models of human kidney disease; issues relating to trial design; problems with current approaches to the identification and use of appropriate and feasible study end points; and a lack of adequate biomarkers of intrarenal inflammation and parenchymal injury. We suggest that overcoming these hurdles, in addition to searching for better therapeutic targets, will be necessary to progress the treatment of immune-mediated kidney disease into a new age of drug therapy. PMID:26804020

  14. STS-61B Astronaut Spring During EASE Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O'Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission's primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Spring was working on the EASE during an Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The primary objective of this experiment was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  15. OptEase and TrapEase Vena Cava Filters: A Single-Center Experience in 258 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Onat, Levent Ganiyusufoglu, Ali Kursat; Mutlu, Ayhan; Sirvanci, Mustafa; Duran, Cihan; Ulusoy, Onur Levent; Hamzaoglu, Azmi

    2009-09-15

    We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the OptEase and TrapEase (both from Cordis, Roden, Netherlands) vena cava filters in the prevention of pulmonary embolism (PE). Between May 2004 and December 2008, OptEase (permanent/retrievable; n = 228) or TrapEase (permanent; n = 30) vena cava filters were placed in 258 patients (160 female and 98 male; mean age 62 years [range 22 to 97]). Indications were as follows: prophylaxis for PE (n = 239), contraindication for anticoagulation in the presence of PE or DVT (n = 10), and development of PE or DVT despite anticoagulation (n = 9). Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for indications, clinical results, and procedure-related complications during placement and retrieval. Clinical PE did not develop in any of the patients. However, radiologic signs of segmental PE were seen in 6 of 66 patients with follow-up imaging data. Migration or fracture of the filter or cava perforation was not seen in any of the patients. Except for a single case of asymptomatic total cava thrombosis, no thrombotic occlusion was observed. One hundred forty-one patients were scheduled to undergo filter removal; however, 17 of them were not suitable for such based on venography evaluation. Removal was attempted in 124 patients and was successful in 115 of these (mean duration of retention 11 days [range 4 to 23]). Nine filters could not be removed. Permanent/retrievable vena cava filters are safe and effective devices for PE prophylaxis and for the management of venous thromboembolism by providing the option to be left in place.

  16. How to cross immunogenetic hurdles to human embryonic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    de Rham, Casimir; Villard, Jean

    2011-11-01

    Implantation of human embryonic stem cells (hES), derived progenitors or mature cells derived from hES has great therapeutic potential for many diseases. If hES would come from genetically unrelated individuals, it would be probably rejected by the immune system of the recipient. Blood groups, MHC and minor antigens are the immunogenetic hurdles that have to be crossed for successful transplantation. Autologous transplantation with adult stem cells would be the best approach but several elements argue against this option. Classical immunosuppression, depleting antibody, induction of tolerance and stem cell banking are alternative methods that could be proposed to limit the risk of rejection. PMID:21461719

  17. Chromosome 3p microsatellite allelotyping in neuroblastoma: a report on the technical hurdles.

    PubMed

    Hoebeeck, Jasmien; De Wilde, Bram; Michels, Evi; Combaret, Valérie; Yigit, Nurten; De Smet, Els; Van Roy, Nadine; Stanbridge, Eric; Ru, Ning; Laureys, Geneviève; De Paepe, Anne; Speleman, Frank; Vandesompele, Jo

    2009-10-01

    Pinpointing critical regions of recurrent loss may help localize tumor suppressor genes. To determine the regions of loss on chromosome 3p in neuroblastoma, we performed loss of heterozygosity analysis using 16 microsatellite markers in a series of 65 primary tumors and 29 neuroblastoma cell lines. In this study, we report the results and discuss the technical hurdles that we encountered during data generation and interpretation that are of relevance for current studies or tests employing microsatellites. To provide functional support for the implication of 3p tumor suppressor genes in this childhood malignancy, we performed a microcell-mediated chromosome 3 transfer in neuroblastoma cells. PMID:19544108

  18. States leverage telepsychiatry solutions to ease ED crowding, accelerate care.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    Many states are having success turning to telepsychiatry-based solutions to connect mental health patients with needed care while also decompressing crowded EDs. Just one year into a statewide telepsychiatry initiative in North Carolina (NC-STeP), administrators say the approach has saved as much as $7 million, and hospital demand for the service is higher than anticipated. In Texas, mental health emergency centers (MHEC) that use telepsychiatry to connect patients in rural areas with needed psychiatric care are freeing up EDs to focus on medical care. In just 11 months, 91 North Carolina hospitals have at least started the process to engage in NC-STeP. Much of the savings from NC-STeP come from involuntary commitment orders being overturned as a result of the telepsychiatry consults, reducing the need for expensive inpatient care. Implementing NC-STeP has involved multiple hurdles including credentialing difficulties and technical/firewall challenges. The Texas model provides 24/7 availability of psychiatrists via telemedicine through a network of MHECs. In-person staff at the MHECs perform basic screening tests and blood draws so that medical clearance can be achieved without the need for an ED visit in most cases. Funding for the MHECs comes from the state, hospitals in the region, and local governmental authorities that reap savings or benefits from the initiative. PMID:25688413

  19. A behavioural scale to measure ease of farrowing in sows.

    PubMed

    Mainau, E; Dalmau, A; Ruiz-de-la-Torre, J L; Manteca, X

    2010-10-15

    Farrowing is one of the most critical phases in pig production, as it has an impact on neonatal pig survival. Assessing the ease of farrowing can improve the management of sows and thus increase litter survival. The aims of this study were: 1) to develop an ease of farrowing score (EFS) in sows based on the behaviour of the sows and their piglets, and 2) to determine the relationship between the EFS and productive, physiological, and subjective parameters. Eighty hybrid (Large White × Landrace) sows from first to seventh parity housed in individual crates were used. An EFS was constructed using the total duration of farrowing, the birth interval, the total time standing or sitting, the number of position changes during the day before and the day of farrowing, the sow posture at birth, the viability and the position of the piglets at birth (head or back born). Moreover, rectal temperature at 90 min after farrowing, a four categorical subjective visual assessment (VA) of farrowing and litter size (piglets born alive, stillborn and mummified foetus) were recorded. A common factor analysis model yielded five factors with an eigenvalue higher than 0.95 that accounted for 75.05% of the total variation between individuals. The three main factors were "farrowing duration", "sow posture", and "sow activity" of sows and explained 23.44%, 15.67%, and 14.23% of the variance, respectively. Primiparous sows had higher values for factor 3 (sow activity) than multiparous sows (P = 0.02). Sows without stillborn or mummification foetus showed higher values of EFS than sows with at least one stillborn or mummification foetus (P = 0.06 and 0.01, respectively). Sows that received a visual assessment of 3 and 4 showed higher values of EFS than sows that received a VA of 1 and 2 (P = 0.0017). The EFS appears to be a good behavioural scale to measure ease of farrowing in sows kept in individual farrowing crates. Duration of farrowing, sow position, and presence of stillborn piglets and

  20. The Number of Trials Required to Obtain a Representative Movement Pattern During a Hurdle Hop Exercise.

    PubMed

    Gore, Shane J; Marshall, Brendan M; Franklyn-Miller, Andrew D; Falvey, Eanna C; Moran, Kieran A

    2016-06-01

    When reporting a subject's mean movement pattern, it is important to ensure that reported values are representative of the subject's typical movement. While previous studies have used the mean of 3 trials, scientific justification of this number is lacking. One approach is to determine statistically how many trials are required to achieve a representative mean. This study compared 4 methods of calculating the number of trials required in a hopping movement to achieve a representative mean. Fifteen males completed 15 trials of a lateral hurdle hop. Range of motion at the trunk, pelvis, hip, knee, and ankle, in addition to peak moments for the latter 3 joints were examined. The number of trials required was computed using a peak intraclass correlation coefficient method, sequential analysis with a bandwidth of acceptable variance in the mean, and a novel method based on the standard error of measurement (SEMind). The number of trials required across all variables ranged from 2 to 12 depending on method, joint, and anatomical plane. The authors advocate the SEMind method as it demonstrated fewer limitations than the other methods. Using the SEMind, the required number of trials for a representative mean during the lateral hurdle hop is 6. PMID:26667614

  1. Hurdles in stroke thrombolysis: Experience from 100 consecutive ischemic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Badachi, Sagar; Mathew, Thomas; Prabhu, Arvind; Nadig, Raghunandan; Sarma, Gosala R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute management of ischemic stroke involves thrombolysis within 4.5 h. For a successful outcome, early recognition of stroke, transportation to the hospital emergency department immediately after stroke, timely imaging, proper diagnosis, and thrombolysis within 4.5 h is of paramount importance. Aim: To analyze the obstacles for thrombolysis in acute stroke patients. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a tertiary care center in South India. A total of hundred consecutive patients of acute ischemic stroke who were not thrombolysed, but otherwise fulfilled the criteria for thrombolysis were evaluated prospectively for various factors that prevented thrombolysis. The constraints to thrombolysis were categorized into: i) Failure of patient to recognize stroke symptoms, ii) patient's awareness of thrombolysis as a treatment modality for stroke, iii) failure of patient's relative to recognize stroke, iv) failure of primary care physician to recognize stroke, v) transport delays, vi) lack of neuroimaging and thrombolysis facility, and vii) nonaffordability. Results: The biggest hurdle for early hospital presentation is failure of patients to recognize stroke (73%), followed by lack of neuroimaging facility (58%), nonaffordability (56%), failure of patient's relative to recognize stroke (38%), failure of the primary care physician to recognize stroke (21%), and transport problems (13%). Awareness of thrombolysis as a treatment modality for stroke was seen only in 2%. Conclusion: Considering the urgency of therapeutic measures in acute stroke, there is necessity and room for improvement to overcome various hurdles that prevent thrombolysis. PMID:26713013

  2. Moving with Ease: Feldenkrais Method Classes for People with Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cofré Lizama, Luis Eduardo; Galea, Mary P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of Feldenkrais Method classes on gait, balance, function, and pain in people with osteoarthritis. Design. Prospective study with pre-/postmeasures. Setting. Community. Participants. Convenience sample of 15 community-dwelling adults with osteoarthritis (mean age 67 years) attending Feldenkrais Method classes. Intervention. Series of Feldenkrais Method classes, two classes/week for 30 weeks. Main outcome measures: Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis scale, Human Activity Profile, stair climbing test, 6-minute walk test, timed up-and-go test, Four Square Step Test (4SST), gait analysis, and assessment of quality of life (AQoL). Results. Participants improved on the 4SST and on some gait parameters. They also reported a greater ease of movement. Conclusions. A 30-week series of Feldenkrais classes held twice per week was feasible in the community setting. The lessons led to improvements in performance of the four square step test and changes in gait. PMID:24078825

  3. Palm: Easing the Burden of Analytical Performance Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Tallent, Nathan R.; Hoisie, Adolfy

    2014-06-01

    Analytical (predictive) application performance models are critical for diagnosing performance-limiting resources, optimizing systems, and designing machines. Creating models, however, is difficult because they must be both accurate and concise. To ease the burden of performance modeling, we developed Palm, a modeling tool that combines top-down (human-provided) semantic insight with bottom-up static and dynamic analysis. To express insight, Palm defines a source code modeling annotation language. By coordinating models and source code, Palm's models are `first-class' and reproducible. Unlike prior work, Palm formally links models, functions, and measurements. As a result, Palm (a) uses functions to either abstract or express complexity (b) generates hierarchical models (representing an application's static and dynamic structure); and (c) automatically incorporates measurements to focus attention, represent constant behavior, and validate models. We discuss generating models for three different applications.

  4. Neutral Buoyancy Simulator-EASE Project (NB32)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Once the United States' space program had progressed from Earth's orbit into outerspace, the prospect of building and maintaining a permanent presence in space was realized. To accomplish this feat, NASA launched a temporary workstation, Skylab, to discover the effects of low gravity and weightlessness on the human body, and also to develop tools and equipment that would be needed in the future to build and maintain a more permanent space station. The structures, techniques, and work schedules had to be carefully designed to fit this unique construction site. The components had to be lightweight for transport into orbit, yet durable. The station also had to be made with removable parts for easy servicing and repairs by astronauts. All of the tools necessary for service and repairs had to be designed for easy manipulation by a suited astronaut. Construction methods had to be efficient due to the limited time the astronauts could remain outside their controlled environment. In lieu of all the specific needs for this project, an environment on Earth had to be developed that could simulate a low gravity atmosphere. A Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) was constructed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in 1968. Since then, NASA scientists have used this facility to understand how humans work best in low gravity and also provide information about the different kinds of structures that can be built. Pictured is a Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) student working in a spacesuit on the Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity (EASE) project which was developed as a joint effort between MFSC and MIT. The EASE experiment required that crew members assemble small components to form larger components, working from the payload bay of the space shuttle. The MIT student in this photo is assembling two six-beam tetrahedrons.

  5. Integrated Computational Materials Engineering and Modelling of Shape Casting Processes - Needs, Benefits, Limitations and Hurdles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, M. C.; Sturm, J. C.; Schaefer, W.; Hepp, E.; Gurevich, V.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the industrial needs and potential benefits of ICME for shape castings are described from the point of view of a commercial provider of casting process simulation tools. At the same time, the paper addresses the challenges, limitations, and hurdles regarding the extent to which ICME is or can be adopted on an industrial scale for shape cast components. The discussion is backed by concrete examples illustrating the advantages and limitations of integrating models and simulation in the design chain of cast components, in the design and analysis of the processing route of a casting, as well as over the different length scales through which the structures and corresponding behaviorof the cast material are determined. The biggest impact of the ICME approach will only be apparent when the increased accuracy or level of detail provided by the methodology is truly necessary, because it leads to changes in design decisions for the product or manufacturing process.

  6. Hurdles and delays in access to anti-cancer drugs in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Ades, F; Zardavas, D; Senterre, C; de Azambuja, E; Eniu, A; Popescu, R; Piccart, M; Parent, F

    2014-01-01

    Demographic changes in the world population will cause a significant increase in the number of new cases of cancer. To handle this challenge, societies will need to adapt how they approach cancer prevention and treatment, with changes to the development and uptake of innovative anticancer drugs playing an important role. However, there are obstacles to implementing innovative drugs in clinical practice. Prior to being incorporated into daily practice, the drug must obtain regulatory and reimbursement approval, succeed in changing the prescription habits of physicians, and ultimately gain the compliance of individual patients. Developing an anticancer drug and bringing it into clinical practice is, therefore, a lengthy and complex process involving multiple partners in several areas. To optimize patient treatment and increase the likelihood of implementing health innovation, it is essential to have an overview of the full process. This review aims to describe the process and discuss the hurdles arising at each step. PMID:25525460

  7. Clinical Hurdles and Possible Solutions in the Implementation of Closed-Loop Control in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Zisser, Howard

    2011-01-01

    From an engineering perspective, controlling blood glucose appears to be a fairly straightforward single input (glucose), single output (insulin) control problem. Unfortunately, mimicking Mother Nature turns out to be a complex endeavor. The primary hurdle in developing a useful, safe closed-loop control algorithm for an artificial pancreas is the time delays associated with current continuous glucose monitors and subcutaneously delivered insulins. This article will provide a brief history of the artificial pancreas, outline the main clinical hurdles restricting its current implementation, and list possible solutions for success. PMID:22027329

  8. Adaptive response of bacteria: Multiple hurdles, cross-tolerance and tools to illustrate underlying mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramythiotis, Spyridon; Skandamis, Panagiotis N.

    2015-01-01

    A basic principle in the bacterial resistance against lethal stresses is that exposure of microbial cells to a sublethal hurdle (e.g., pH 5.0, 3% NaCl, or 48°C) may induce resistance to lethal level of the same or different stress. The latter is called "cross-tolerance" and the bacteria experiencing such situations are termed "stress-hardened". The majority of scientific reports on the adaptive responses of bacteria to stresses have recently addressed the need to elucidate the underlying mechanisms controlling bacterial stress response. This in turn, will assist in the efficient application of the multiple hurdle approach, e.g., by selecting specific sanitizers, combining stress treatments or antimicrobials, especially in mild processing, against specific cellular targets, eliminating the possibility of the development of stress adapted cells. Common scientific approaches for studying the link between phenotype (e.g., inactivation, survival, or growth) and physiology is the assessment of global transcriptional changes (up- or down-regulation) or those of certain genes, as well as of proteins involved in certain metabolic pathways, occurring during exposure to stress. This may also be performed in parallel to comparative evaluation of the phenotypic response of wild and mutant strains. The post-genomics research on foodborne pathogens has extended our knowledge beyond their phenotypic behavior and may offer mechanistic insights in the following: (i) the top-down approach (induction), which is the search of the underlying mechanisms (low level) responsible for a specific phenotype based on "-omic" studies; and (ii) the bottom-up approach (deduction), which starts from intracellular level and forms a mechanistic (functional) basis for the cellular response. All these may eventually enable the development of mechanistic microbial models and efficient strategies for controlling survival and growth of pathogens in foods.

  9. Weighted hurdle regression method for joint modeling of cardiovascular events likelihood and rate in the US dialysis population.

    PubMed

    Sentürk, Damla; Dalrymple, Lorien S; Mu, Yi; Nguyen, Danh V

    2014-11-10

    We propose a new weighted hurdle regression method for modeling count data, with particular interest in modeling cardiovascular events in patients on dialysis. Cardiovascular disease remains one of the leading causes of hospitalization and death in this population. Our aim is to jointly model the relationship/association between covariates and (i) the probability of cardiovascular events, a binary process, and (ii) the rate of events once the realization is positive-when the 'hurdle' is crossed-using a zero-truncated Poisson distribution. When the observation period or follow-up time, from the start of dialysis, varies among individuals, the estimated probability of positive cardiovascular events during the study period will be biased. Furthermore, when the model contains covariates, then the estimated relationship between the covariates and the probability of cardiovascular events will also be biased. These challenges are addressed with the proposed weighted hurdle regression method. Estimation for the weighted hurdle regression model is a weighted likelihood approach, where standard maximum likelihood estimation can be utilized. The method is illustrated with data from the United States Renal Data System. Simulation studies show the ability of proposed method to successfully adjust for differential follow-up times and incorporate the effects of covariates in the weighting. PMID:24930810

  10. Consequences of selection for yield traits on calving ease performance.

    PubMed

    López de Maturana, E; Ugarte, E; Komen, J; van Arendonk, J A M

    2007-05-01

    The impact of different breeding goals on the genetic response for calving ease (CE) and yield traits was studied in the Basque Holstein cattle population. The economic value for CE was estimated with a bioeconomic model, using Basque production and market circumstances and taking into account the categorical nature of CE. The economic value for CE was -18.03 euros/cow per calving interval per liability unit. This value was relatively insensitive to changes in the market price of animals but was more sensitive to changes in the incidence of dystocia. Records from parities between 1995 and 2002 were used for the estimation of genetic parameters for yield (actual milk, fat, and protein yield) and CE using a multivariate model. Linear sire models for yield traits and a threshold sire-maternal grandsire model for CE were used. A Holstein population was simulated to determine the consequences of including CE in the breeding goal. Three selection strategies were considered: 1) selection only on yield traits, 2) selection on yield and direct CE (DCE), and 3) selection on yield, DCE, and maternal CE (MCE). Selection on yield traits only resulted in a slight reduction of dystocia. Selection strategies in which DCE or DCE and MCE were included in the breeding goal did not improve the genetic response for DCE and MCE obtained with the first selection strategy. Genetic responses were also calculated using the 2.5th, 50th, and 97.5th percentiles of posterior densities of genetic correlations between DCE and MCE and yield traits. Because responses in CE were sensitive to deviations in estimates of genetic parameters, the inclusion of CE in the monitoring scheme is recommended. Genetic evaluation of bulls for CE is of considerable value because it provides farmers with the opportunity to use assortative matings of sires with favorable estimated breeding values for DCE to primiparous cows. PMID:17430954

  11. Unexpectedly ease surgery for a worrisome abdominal mass: Pedunculated GISTs☆

    PubMed Central

    Baskiran, Adil; Otan, Emrah; Aydin, Cemalettin; Kayaalp, Cuneyt

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Discovery of abdominal masses often poses significant diagnostic difficulties. GISTs are mesenchymal masses, with specific histological features. Dimensions may vary from millimeters to giant tumours. We would like to present our case, which had an unexpectedly easy operative course which was easily handled with a simple surgical excision with a short operative duration. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 38 years old female patient was diagnosed to have an abdominal heterogen mass of 15 cm × 12 cm × 10 cm in dimension. Abdominal computed tomography revealed the solid mass between the stomach and pancreas corpus and tail, possibly orginating from the pancreas. With the preoperative diagnosis of locally invasive distal pancreas cancer the patient underwent laparotomy, following the dissection, the mass was observed to be originating from the posterior gastric Wall, extending exophytically with a peduncle of 5 cm in width, without any visual evidence for peritoneal invasion and metastasis. The tumour and the peduncle was resected with stapler device. Total operation time was 30 min. Postoperative course was uneventful. Pathologic diagnosis was gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST). DISCUSSION Pedunculated large GISTs are not frequent and they can enlarge as 15 cm in diameter and compress the neighbouring organs. When they were huge, it is difficult to differentiate the origin of the masses. GISTs should be considered in differential diagnosis of giant abdominal masses. CONCLUSION When GISTs are huge and pedunculated, it can be difficult to differentiate the origin of the masses. This case report presents unexpectedly ease surgery for a worrysome abdominal mass. PMID:23999120

  12. Hurdle technology applied to prickly pear beverages for inhibiting Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    García-García, R; Escobedo-Avellaneda, Z; Tejada-Ortigoza, V; Martín-Belloso, O; Valdez-Fragoso, A; Welti-Chanes, J

    2015-06-01

    The effect of pH reduction (from 6·30-6·45 to 4·22-4·46) and the addition of antimicrobial compounds (sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate) on the inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli in prickly pear beverages formulated with the pulp and peel of Villanueva (V, Opuntia albicarpa) and Rojo Vigor (RV, Opuntia ficus-indica) varieties during 14 days of storage at 25°C, was evaluated. RV variety presented the highest microbial inhibition. By combining pH reduction and preservatives, reductions of 6·2-log10 and 2·3-log10 for E. coli and S. cerevisiae were achieved respectively. Due to the low reduction of S. cerevisiae, pulsed electric fields (PEF) (11-15 μs/25-50 Hz/27-36 kV cm(-1)) was applied as another preservation factor. The combination of preservatives, pH reduction and PEF at 13-15 μs/25-50 Hz for V variety, and 11 μs/50 Hz, 13-15 μs/25-50 Hz for RV, had a synergistic effect on S. cerevisiae inhibition, achieving at least 3·4-log10 of microbial reduction immediately after processing, and more than 5-log10 at fourth day of storage at 25°C maintained this reduction during 21 days of storage (P > 0·05). Hurdle technology using PEF in combination with other factors is adequate to maintain stable prickly pear beverages during 21 days/25°C. Significance and impact of the study: Prickly pear is a fruit with functional value, with high content of nutraceuticals and antioxidant activity. Functional beverages formulated with the pulp and peel of this fruit represent an alternative for its consumption. Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are micro-organisms that typically affect fruit beverage quality and safety. The food industry is looking for processing technologies that maintain quality without compromising safety. Hurdle technology, including pulsed electric fields (PEF) could be an option to achieve this. The combination of PEF, pH reduction and preservatives is an alternative to obtain safe and minimally processed

  13. Integrating Omic Technologies into Aquatic Ecological Risk Assessment and Environmental Monitoring: Hurdles, Achievements, and Future Outlook

    PubMed Central

    Van Aggelen, Graham; Ankley, Gerald T.; Baldwin, William S.; Bearden, Daniel W.; Benson, William H.; Chipman, J. Kevin; Collette, Tim W.; Craft, John A.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Embry, Michael R.; Falciani, Francesco; George, Stephen G.; Helbing, Caren C.; Hoekstra, Paul F.; Iguchi, Taisen; Kagami, Yoshi; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Kille, Peter; Liu, Li; Lord, Peter G.; McIntyre, Terry; O’Neill, Anne; Osachoff, Heather; Perkins, Ed J.; Santos, Eduarda M.; Skirrow, Rachel C.; Snape, Jason R.; Tyler, Charles R.; Versteeg, Don; Viant, Mark R.; Volz, David C.; Williams, Tim D.; Yu, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    Background In this commentary we present the findings from an international consortium on fish toxicogenomics sponsored by the U.K. Natural Environment Research Council (Fish Toxicogenomics—Moving into Regulation and Monitoring, held 21–23 April 2008 at the Pacific Environmental Science Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada). Objectives The consortium from government agencies, academia, and industry addressed three topics: progress in ecotoxicogenomics, regulatory perspectives on roadblocks for practical implementation of toxicogenomics into risk assessment, and dealing with variability in data sets. Discussion Participants noted that examples of successful application of omic technologies have been identified, but critical studies are needed to relate molecular changes to ecological adverse outcome. Participants made recommendations for the management of technical and biological variation. They also stressed the need for enhanced interdisciplinary training and communication as well as considerable investment into the generation and curation of appropriate reference omic data. Conclusions The participants concluded that, although there are hurdles to pass on the road to regulatory acceptance, omics technologies are already useful for elucidating modes of action of toxicants and can contribute to the risk assessment process as part of a weight-of-evidence approach. PMID:20056575

  14. Australia's 'fourth hurdle' drug review comparing costs and benefits holds lessons for the United States.

    PubMed

    Lopert, Ruth; Elshaug, Adam G

    2013-04-01

    Two decades ago Australia introduced an assessment of value as a prerequisite for adding new medicines to its national drug formulary. Australia's program--a "fourth hurdle" process after a drug is assessed for safety, efficacy, and quality--stands in stark contrast to the situation in the United States, where comparing the clinical and economic value of a proposed new drug to those of existing ones only rarely plays a role in the drug coverage determination process. This article describes the role that Australia's Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee, a statutory independent expert committee, plays in determining which new drugs the government will help pay for in the nation's pharmaceutical benefit program. The program does not directly control drug prices or ration prescription drugs-policy options that are widely opposed in the United States. Australia's program supports patients' access to important, innovative medications deemed to be cost-effective. The US system could benefit if policy makers examined Australia's experience and adopted a comparative clinical and value review suited to the US political and economic landscape. PMID:23569059

  15. Effect of non-thermal hurdles in extending shelf life of cut apples.

    PubMed

    Shayanfar, Shima; Chauhan, O P; Toepfl, Stefan; Heinz, Volker

    2014-12-01

    Pulsed electric fields (PEF), high pressure processing (HPP) and conventional method of heating (90 °C, 60s) were evaluated as blanching methods for fresh cut apples. The settings employed for PEF and HPP were 1.5 kV/cm, 100 pulses, 4 Hz and 600 MPa for 2 min respectively. The blanched samples were soaked in sucrose solution (60°Brix, 60 min) containing ascorbic acid, citric acid, sodium benzoate, and potassium sorbate. The treated samples were packed and pasteurized using either hot water (90 °C, 15 min) or HPP (600 MPa, 10 min). These samples were analyzed for physicochemical and microbiological attributes immediately after treatment and after 2 months of cold storage. The combination of different hurdles in all groups completely inhibited microbial growth. However, in terms of color values and texture retention, the apple cuts treated with PEF followed by hot water pasteurization were of a better quality when compared to HPP pasteurized ones (P < 0.05). PMID:25477677

  16. Regulatory hurdles for genome editing: process- vs. product-based approaches in different regulatory contexts.

    PubMed

    Sprink, Thorben; Eriksson, Dennis; Schiemann, Joachim; Hartung, Frank

    2016-07-01

    Novel plant genome editing techniques call for an updated legislation regulating the use of plants produced by genetic engineering or genome editing, especially in the European Union. Established more than 25 years ago and based on a clear distinction between transgenic and conventionally bred plants, the current EU Directives fail to accommodate the new continuum between genetic engineering and conventional breeding. Despite the fact that the Directive 2001/18/EC contains both process- and product-related terms, it is commonly interpreted as a strictly process-based legislation. In view of several new emerging techniques which are closer to the conventional breeding than common genetic engineering, we argue that it should be actually interpreted more in relation to the resulting product. A legal guidance on how to define plants produced by exploring novel genome editing techniques in relation to the decade-old legislation is urgently needed, as private companies and public researchers are waiting impatiently with products and projects in the pipeline. We here outline the process in the EU to develop a legislation that properly matches the scientific progress. As the process is facing several hurdles, we also compare with existing frameworks in other countries and discuss ideas for an alternative regulatory system. PMID:27142995

  17. Psychosocial Variables and Time to Injury Onset: A Hurdle Regression Analysis Model

    PubMed Central

    Sibold, Jeremy; Zizzi, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Context: Psychological variables have been shown to be related to athletic injury and time missed from participation in sport. We are unaware of any empirical examination of the influence of psychological variables on time to onset of injury. Objective: To examine the influence of orthopaedic and psychosocial variables on time to injury in college athletes. Patients or Other Participants: One hundred seventy-seven (men  =  116, women  =  61; age  =  19.45 ± 1.39 years) National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II athletes. Main Outcome Measure(s): Hurdle regression analysis (HRA) was used to determine the influence of predictor variables on days to first injury. Results: Worry (z  =  2.98, P  =  .003), concentration disruption (z  =  −3.95, P < .001), and negative life-event stress (z  =  5.02, P < .001) were robust predictors of days to injury. Orthopaedic risk score was not a predictor (z  =  1.28, P  =  .20). Conclusions: These findings support previous research on the stress-injury relationship, and our group is the first to use HRA in athletic injury data. These data support the addition of psychological screening as part of preseason health examinations for collegiate athletes. PMID:23068591

  18. Neutron generators with size scalability, ease of fabrication and multiple ion source functionalities

    DOEpatents

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M

    2014-11-18

    A neutron generator is provided with a flat, rectilinear geometry and surface mounted metallizations. This construction provides scalability and ease of fabrication, and permits multiple ion source functionalities.

  19. The Next Hurdle in Cancer Immunotherapy: Overcoming the Non-T-Cell-Inflamed Tumor Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Gajewski, Thomas F

    2015-08-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that a major subset of patients with advanced solid tumors shows evidence for a T-cell-inflamed tumor microenvironment. This phenotype has positive prognostic value for several types of early stage cancer, suggesting that the attempt by the host to generate an anti-tumor immune response reflects a biologic process associated with improved patient outcomes. In metastatic disease, the presence of this phenotype appears to be associated with clinical response to several immunotherapies, including cancer vaccines, checkpoint blockade, and adoptive T-cell transfer. With the high rate of clinical response to several of these therapies, along with early data indicating that combination immunotherapies may be even more potent, it seems likely that effective immune-based therapies will become a reality for patients with a range of different cancers that physiologically support the T-cell-inflamed tumor microenvironment in a subset of individuals. Therefore, one of the next significant hurdles will be to develop new therapeutic interventions that will enable these immunotherapies to be effective in patients with the non-T-cell-inflamed phenotype. Rational development of such interventions will benefit from a detailed molecular understanding of the mechanisms that explain the presence or absence of the T-cell-inflamed tumor microenvironment, which in turn will benefit from focused interrogation of patient samples. This iterative "reverse-translational" research strategy has already identified new candidate therapeutic targets and approaches. It is envisioned that the end result of these investigations will be an expanded array of interventions that will broaden the fraction of patients benefitting from immunotherapies in the clinic. PMID:26320069

  20. Machine learning and hurdle models for improving regional predictions of stream water acid neutralizing capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povak, Nicholas A.; Hessburg, Paul F.; Reynolds, Keith M.; Sullivan, Timothy J.; McDonnell, Todd C.; Salter, R. Brion

    2013-06-01

    In many industrialized regions of the world, atmospherically deposited sulfur derived from industrial, nonpoint air pollution sources reduces stream water quality and results in acidic conditions that threaten aquatic resources. Accurate maps of predicted stream water acidity are an essential aid to managers who must identify acid-sensitive streams, potentially affected biota, and create resource protection strategies. In this study, we developed correlative models to predict the acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of streams across the southern Appalachian Mountain region, USA. Models were developed using stream water chemistry data from 933 sampled locations and continuous maps of pertinent environmental and climatic predictors. Environmental predictors were averaged across the upslope contributing area for each sampled stream location and submitted to both statistical and machine-learning regression models. Predictor variables represented key aspects of the contributing geology, soils, climate, topography, and acidic deposition. To reduce model error rates, we employed hurdle modeling to screen out well-buffered sites and predict continuous ANC for the remainder of the stream network. Models predicted acid-sensitive streams in forested watersheds with small contributing areas, siliceous lithologies, cool and moist environments, low clay content soils, and moderate or higher dry sulfur deposition. Our results confirmed findings from other studies and further identified several influential climatic variables and variable interactions. Model predictions indicated that one quarter of the total stream network was sensitive to additional sulfur inputs (i.e., ANC < 100 µeq L-1), while <10% displayed much lower ANC (<50 µeq L-1). These methods may be readily adapted in other regions to assess stream water quality and potential biotic sensitivity to acidic inputs.

  1. Multitrait evaluation for calving ease and stillbirth with separate genetic effects by parity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic evaluations for calving ease and stillbirth were calculated with Holstein and Brown Swiss data from 14,164,522 calving reports in the USDA national dairy database. Calving ease was measured on a scale of 1 (no difficulty) to 5 (difficult birth); stillbirth status was designated as live or de...

  2. Evaluation of WebEase: An Epilepsy Self-Management Web Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiIorio, Colleen; Escoffery, Cam; McCarty, Frances; Yeager, Katherine A.; Henry, Thomas R.; Koganti, Archana; Reisinger, Elizabeth L.; Wexler, Bethany

    2009-01-01

    People with epilepsy have various education needs and must adopt many self-management behaviors in order to control their condition. This study evaluates WebEase, an Internet-based, theory-driven, self-management program for adults with epilepsy. Thirty-five participants took part in a 6-week pilot implementation of WebEase. The main components of…

  3. Weighted Hurdle Regression Method for Joint Modeling of Cardiovascular Events Likelihood and Rate in the U.S. Dialysis Population

    PubMed Central

    Şentürk, Damla; Dalrymple, Lorien S.; Mu, Yi; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY We propose a new weighted hurdle regression method for modeling count data, with particular interest in modeling cardiovascular events in patients on dialysis. Cardiovascular disease remains one of the leading causes of hospitalization and death in this population. Our aim is to jointly model the relationship/association between covariates and (a) the probability of cardiovascular events, a binary process and (b) the rate of events once the realization is positive - when the ‘hurdle’ is crossed - using a zero-truncated Poisson distribution. When the observation period or follow-up time, from the start of dialysis, varies among individuals the estimated probability of positive cardiovascular events during the study period will be biased. Furthermore, when the model contains covariates, then the estimated relationship between the covariates and the probability of cardiovascular events will also be biased. These challenges are addressed with the proposed weighted hurdle regression method. Estimation for the weighted hurdle regression model is a weighted likelihood approach, where standard maximum likelihood estimation can be utilized. The method is illustrated with data from the United States Renal Data System. Simulation studies show the ability of proposed method to successfully adjust for differential follow-up times and incorporate the effects of covariates in the weighting. PMID:24930810

  4. Palliative Care Eases Symptoms, Enhances Lives | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Palliative Care Palliative Care Eases Symptoms, Enhances Lives Past Issues / Spring 2014 ... pharmacists, nutritionists, and others. When do I need palliative care? Many adults and children living with serious diseases ...

  5. Marshall Space Flight Center's role in EASE/ACCESS mission management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, Gerald W.

    1987-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Spacelab Payload Project Office was responsible for the mission management and development of several successful payloads. Two recent space construction experiments, the Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity (EASE) and the Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (ACCESS), were combined into a payload managed by the center. The Ease/ACCESS was flown aboard the Space Shuttle Mission 61-B. The EASE/ACCESS experiments were the first structures assembled in space, and the method used to manage this successful effort will be useful for future space construction missions. The MSFC mission management responsibilities for the EASE/ACCESS mission are addressed and how the lessons learned from the mission can be applied to future space construction projects are discussed.

  6. Study: Longer-Term Antibiotics Won't Ease 'Chronic Lyme Disease'

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158042.html Study: Longer-Term Antibiotics Won't Ease 'Chronic Lyme Disease' Dutch trial ... are unlikely to find relief from longer-term antibiotic therapy, according to a new Dutch study. Although ...

  7. After Pregnancy-Linked Diabetes, Healthy Diet May Ease Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy-Linked Diabetes, Healthy Diet May Ease Blood Pressure Eating nutritious foods seems to counter higher risk, ... to reduce their future risk of high blood pressure by eating a healthy diet, researchers report. Their ...

  8. A synopsis of the EVA training conducted on EASE/ACCESS for STS-61-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havens, Kathryn A.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental Assembly of Structure in EVA (EASE)/Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (ACCESS) training problems; photography/television coverage; training schedules; flight data file (FDF), and flight rules production are summarized.

  9. EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in EVA) overview of selected results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akin, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental Assembly of Structures in EVA (EASE) objectives, experimental protocol, neutral buoyancy simulation, task time distribution, assembly task performance, metabolic rate/biomedical readouts are summarized. This presentation is shown in charts, figures, and graphs.

  10. Easing Arthritis: Research offers new hope for people with common joint disease.

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Easing Arthritis: Research offers new hope for people with common joint disease Past ... knees, pain plagued her every step. Living in New York City, Saisselin relied on walking and public ...

  11. Exploring Hurdles to Transfer: Student Experiences of Applying Knowledge across Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappalainen, Jouni; Rosqvist, Juho

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the ways students perceive the transfer of learned knowledge to new situations -- often a surprisingly difficult prospect. The novel aspect compared to the traditional transfer studies is that the learning phase is not a part of the experiment itself. The intention was only to activate acquired knowledge relevant to the…

  12. Clearing up the hazy road from bench to bedside: A framework for integrating the fourth hurdle into translational medicine

    PubMed Central

    Rogowski, Wolf H; Hartz, Susanne C; John, Jürgen H

    2008-01-01

    Background New products evolving from research and development can only be translated to medical practice on a large scale if they are reimbursed by third-party payers. Yet the decision processes regarding reimbursement are highly complex and internationally heterogeneous. This study develops a process-oriented framework for monitoring these so-called fourth hurdle procedures in the context of product development from bench to bedside. The framework is suitable both for new drugs and other medical technologies. Methods The study is based on expert interviews and literature searches, as well as an analysis of 47 websites of coverage decision-makers in England, Germany and the USA. Results Eight key steps for monitoring fourth hurdle procedures from a company perspective were determined: entering the scope of a healthcare payer; trigger of decision process; assessment; appraisal; setting level of reimbursement; establishing rules for service provision; formal and informal participation; and publication of the decision and supplementary information. Details are given for the English National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, the German Federal Joint Committee, Medicare's National and Local Coverage Determinations, and for Blue Cross Blue Shield companies. Conclusion Coverage determination decisions for new procedures tend to be less formalized than for novel drugs. The analysis of coverage procedures and requirements shows that the proof of patient benefit is essential. Cost-effectiveness is likely to gain importance in future. PMID:18816378

  13. Characterization of acetic acid bacteria in "traditional balsamic vinegar".

    PubMed

    Gullo, Maria; Caggia, Cinzia; De Vero, Luciana; Giudici, Paolo

    2006-02-01

    This study evaluated the glucose tolerance of acetic acid bacteria strains isolated from Traditional Balsamic Vinegar. The results showed that the greatest hurdle to acetic acid bacteria growth is the high sugar concentration, since the majority of the isolated strains are inhibited by 25% of glucose. Sugar tolerance is an important technological trait because Traditional Balsamic Vinegar is made with concentrated cooked must. On the contrary, ethanol concentration of the cooked and fermented must is less significant for acetic acid bacteria growth. A tentative identification of the isolated strains was done by 16S-23S-5S rDNA PCR/RFLP technique and the isolated strains were clustered: 32 strains belong to Gluconacetobacter xylinus group, two strains to Acetobacter pasteurianus group and one to Acetobacter aceti. PMID:16214251

  14. EASE Guidelines for Authors and Translators of Scientific Articles to be Published in English

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This concise and readable set of editorial guidelines was first published by the European Association of Science Editors (EASE) in 2010 and is updated annually. It is freely available in more than 20 languages at http://ease.org.uk/publications/author-guidelines. The document is aimed to help scientists worldwide in successful presentation of their research results and in correct translation of manuscripts into English. Moreover, it draws attention to ethical issues, like authorship criteria, plagiarism, conflict of interests, etc. Eight appendices provide examples or more detailed information on selected topics (Abstracts, Ambiguity, Cohesion, Ethics, Plurals, Simplicity, Spelling, and Text-tables). Widespread use of EASE Guidelines should increase the efficiency of international scientific communication. PMID:25132718

  15. EASE Guidelines for Authors and Translators of Scientific Articles to be Published in English.

    PubMed

    2014-06-01

    This concise and readable set of editorial guidelines was first published by the European Association of Science Editors (EASE) in 2010 and is updated annually. It is freely available in more than 20 languages at http://ease.org.uk/publications/author-guidelines. The document is aimed to help scientists worldwide in successful presentation of their research results and in correct translation of manuscripts into English. Moreover, it draws attention to ethical issues, like authorship criteria, plagiarism, conflict of interests, etc. Eight appendices provide examples or more detailed information on selected topics (Abstracts, Ambiguity, Cohesion, Ethics, Plurals, Simplicity, Spelling, and Text-tables). Widespread use of EASE Guidelines should increase the efficiency of international scientific communication. PMID:25132718

  16. Marginalized multilevel hurdle and zero-inflated models for overdispersed and correlated count data with excess zeros.

    PubMed

    Kassahun, Wondwosen; Neyens, Thomas; Molenberghs, Geert; Faes, Christel; Verbeke, Geert

    2014-11-10

    Count data are collected repeatedly over time in many applications, such as biology, epidemiology, and public health. Such data are often characterized by the following three features. First, correlation due to the repeated measures is usually accounted for using subject-specific random effects, which are assumed to be normally distributed. Second, the sample variance may exceed the mean, and hence, the theoretical mean-variance relationship is violated, leading to overdispersion. This is usually allowed for based on a hierarchical approach, combining a Poisson model with gamma distributed random effects. Third, an excess of zeros beyond what standard count distributions can predict is often handled by either the hurdle or the zero-inflated model. A zero-inflated model assumes two processes as sources of zeros and combines a count distribution with a discrete point mass as a mixture, while the hurdle model separately handles zero observations and positive counts, where then a truncated-at-zero count distribution is used for the non-zero state. In practice, however, all these three features can appear simultaneously. Hence, a modeling framework that incorporates all three is necessary, and this presents challenges for the data analysis. Such models, when conditionally specified, will naturally have a subject-specific interpretation. However, adopting their purposefully modified marginalized versions leads to a direct marginal or population-averaged interpretation for parameter estimates of covariate effects, which is the primary interest in many applications. In this paper, we present a marginalized hurdle model and a marginalized zero-inflated model for correlated and overdispersed count data with excess zero observations and then illustrate these further with two case studies. The first dataset focuses on the Anopheles mosquito density around a hydroelectric dam, while adolescents' involvement in work, to earn money and support their families or themselves, is

  17. Computational Modeling of Blood Flow in the TrapEase Inferior Vena Cava Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, M A; Henshaw, W D; Wang, S L

    2008-02-04

    To evaluate the flow hemodynamics of the TrapEase vena cava filter using three dimensional computational fluid dynamics, including simulated thrombi of multiple shapes, sizes, and trapping positions. The study was performed to identify potential areas of recirculation and stagnation and areas in which trapped thrombi may influence intrafilter thrombosis. Computer models of the TrapEase filter, thrombi (volumes ranging from 0.25mL to 2mL, 3 different shapes), and a 23mm diameter cava were constructed. The hemodynamics of steady-state flow at Reynolds number 600 was examined for the unoccluded and partially occluded filter. Axial velocity contours and wall shear stresses were computed. Flow in the unoccluded TrapEase filter experienced minimal disruption, except near the superior and inferior tips where low velocity flow was observed. For spherical thrombi in the superior trapping position, stagnant and recirculating flow was observed downstream of the thrombus; the volume of stagnant flow and the peak wall shear stress increased monotonically with thrombus volume. For inferiorly trapped spherical thrombi, marked disruption to the flow was observed along the cava wall ipsilateral to the thrombus and in the interior of the filter. Spherically shaped thrombus produced a lower peak wall shear stress than conically shaped thrombus and a larger peak stress than ellipsoidal thrombus. We have designed and constructed a computer model of the flow hemodynamics of the TrapEase IVC filter with varying shapes, sizes, and positions of thrombi. The computer model offers several advantages over in vitro techniques including: improved resolution, ease of evaluating different thrombus sizes and shapes, and easy adaptation for new filter designs and flow parameters. Results from the model also support a previously reported finding from photochromic experiments that suggest the inferior trapping position of the TrapEase IVC filter leads to an intra-filter region of recirculating

  18. Exploring hurdles to transfer : student experiences of applying knowledge across disciplines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappalainen, Jouni; Rosqvist, Juho

    2015-04-01

    This paper explores the ways students perceive the transfer of learned knowledge to new situations - often a surprisingly difficult prospect. The novel aspect compared to the traditional transfer studies is that the learning phase is not a part of the experiment itself. The intention was only to activate acquired knowledge relevant to the transfer target using a short primer immediately prior to the situation where the knowledge was to be applied. Eight volunteer students from either mathematics or computer science curricula were given a task of designing an adder circuit using logic gates: a new context in which to apply knowledge of binary arithmetic and Boolean algebra. The results of a phenomenographic classification of the views presented by the students in their post-experiment interviews are reported. The degree to which the students were conscious of the acquired knowledge they employed and how they applied it in a new context emerged as the differentiating factors.

  19. Understanding traditional African healing

    PubMed Central

    MOKGOBI, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists. PMID:26594664

  20. Experimental selection for calving ease and postnatal growth in seven cattle populations. II. Phenotypic differences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of selection for 2-yr-old heifer calving ease (reduced calving difficulty score) on phenotypic differences between select and control lines of cattle for birth, growth, yearling hip height, and pelvic measurements were estimated. The selection objective was to decrease calving difficulty sc...

  1. An e-Portfolio Design Supporting Ownership, Social Learning, and Ease of Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    This project attempts to improve electronic portfolio software through the creation of a design model using ownership, ease of use, and social learning variables to predict user adoption. The pilot software attempts to encourage student learning by enhancing peer interaction. The software was used by two groups of students. The first group used it…

  2. Text Genre and Science Content: Ease of Reading, Comprehension, and Reader Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervetti, Gina N.; Bravo, Marco A.; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Pearson, P. David; Jaynes, Carolyn A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined ease of reading, comprehension, and recall and preference for the same scientific content under two conditions: an informational text and a fictional narrative text. Seventy-four third and fourth graders were assessed individually around the reading of fictional narrative and informational texts that were about either snails or…

  3. Easing Access for Lifelong Learners: A Comparison of European Models for University Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Müller, Romina; Remdisch, Sabine; Köhler, Katharina; Marr, Liz; Repo, Saara; Yndigegn, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Easing access to higher education (HE) for those engaging in lifelong learning has been a common policy objective across the European Union since the late 1990s. To reach this goal, the transition between vocational and academic routes must be simplified, but European countries are at different developmental stages. This article maps the…

  4. University of North Carolina Lets Professors Ease Their Way into Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    June, Audrey Williams

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on the University of North Carolina's "phased-retirement" plan, which lets professors formally ease their way into retirement. The challenges of personnel planning in the North Carolina system, made tougher when higher education was stripped of a mandatory retirement age 14 years ago, have lessened because the program has…

  5. Mixed messages. Just as HHS debuts plan to boost accountability, CMS looks to ease inspections.

    PubMed

    Lovern, E

    2001-11-26

    HHS Secretary Tommy Thompson had good news last week for nursing home advocates, then ran into an ambush. He unveiled a long-anticipated proposal for more public accountability in the industry. The problem was, the public had just found out about possible easing of inspection rules. PMID:11765651

  6. Social Influence for Perceived Usefulness and Ease-of-Use of Course Delivery Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Demei; Laffey, James; Lin, Yimei; Huang, Xinxin

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which subjective norm beliefs of online learners shape perceptions of ease-of-use and usefulness for the use of course delivery systems. Subjective norm beliefs represent the influence that instructors, mentors, and peers have on students to use the course delivery system. The results show that instructor and…

  7. Art's False "Ease": Form, Meaning and a Problematic Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldacchino, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that in foregoing the questions that emerge from the dialectical relationship between "form" and "meaning", an intrinsic fallacy mistakes the relationship between the arts and education for a simplistic mechanism of signification--a false "ease"--where empty forms are supposedly given meaning by…

  8. Immigrant Students at School: Easing the Journey towards Integration. OECD Reviews of Migrant Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2015

    2015-01-01

    How school systems respond to immigration has an enormous impact on the economic and social well-being of all members of the communities they serve, whether they have an immigrant background or not. "Immigrant Students at School: Easing the Journey towards Integration" reveals some of the difficulties immigrant students encounter--and…

  9. Recalled Behavior and Ease of Recall as Information in Self-Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Norbert; And Others

    In studies examining the influence of recall on judgments, social psychologists have generally concentrated on the content of recalled material rather than on the process of recall. To investigate the impact of recalled behaviors (content) and the ease with which these behaviors came to mind (process) on assessment of one's own assertiveness, 158…

  10. Does Ease to Block a Ball Affect Perceived Ball Speed? Examination of Alternative Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Jessica K.; Sugovic, Mila

    2012-01-01

    According to an action-specific account of perception, the perceived speed of a ball can be a function of the ease to block the ball. Balls that are easier to stop look like they are moving slower than balls that are more difficult to stop. This was recently demonstrated with a modified version of the classic computer game Pong (Witt & Sugovic,…

  11. Availability of and Ease of Access to Calorie Information on Restaurant Websites

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Gary G.; Steinberg, Dori M.; Lanpher, Michele G.; Askew, Sandy; Lane, Ilana B.; Levine, Erica L.; Goodman, Melody S.; Foley, Perry B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Offering calories on restaurant websites might be particularly important for consumer meal planning, but the availability of and ease of accessing this information are unknown. Methods We assessed websites for the top 100 U.S. chain restaurants to determine the availability of and ease of access to calorie information as well as website design characteristics. We also examined potential predictors of calorie availability and ease of access. Results Eighty-two percent of restaurants provided calorie information on their websites; 25% presented calories on a mobile-formatted website. On average, calories could be accessed in 2.35±0.99 clicks. About half of sites (51.2%) linked to calorie information via the homepage. Fewer than half had a separate section identifying healthful options (46.3%), or utilized interactive meal planning tools (35.4%). Quick service/fast casual, larger restaurants, and those with less expensive entrées and lower revenue were more likely to make calorie information available. There were no predictors of ease of access. Conclusion Calorie information is both available and largely accessible on the websites of America’s leading restaurants. It is unclear whether consumer behavior is affected by the variability in the presentation of calorie information. PMID:23977193

  12. Improved mouse cage provides versatility and ease in handling laboratory mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, N. D.

    1969-01-01

    Mouse cage system provides versatility and ease in handling laboratory mice, cleaning their cages, and collecting uncontaminated metabolic test specimens. The cage, compact and free standing, contains a screened bottom and funnel channel to collect waste. The feed is in the cage top and thereby separates the food and waste.

  13. Tighter Opioid Laws in U.S. Haven't Eased Misuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159503.html Tighter Opioid Laws in U.S. Haven't Eased Misuse Study of ... 2016 WEDNESDAY, June 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- U.S. laws designed to curb abuse of opioid painkillers haven' ...

  14. Perceived Ease of Access to Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Substances in Rural and Urban US Students

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Jacob C.; Smalley, K. Bryant; Barefoot, K. Nikki

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ease of access to substances has been shown to have a direct and significant relationship with substance use for school-aged children. Previous research involving rural samples of middle and high school students reveals that perceived ease of access to substances is a significant predictor of recent use among rural adolescents; however, it is unclear if perceived access to substances varies between rural and urban areas. The purpose of the current study was to examine rural-urban differences in perceived ease of access to alcohol, smoking and chewing tobacco, marijuana, and seven other substances in order to better inform and promote future substance use prevention and programming efforts in rural areas. Methods Data were analyzed from the 2013 Georgia Student Health Survey II, administered in all public and interested private/charter schools in the state of Georgia. A total of 513,909 students (18.2% rural) indicated their perceived ease of access to 11 substances on a 4-point Likert-type scale. Rural-urban differences were investigated using chi-square analysis. Results In general, it appeared the rural-urban differences fell along legal/illicit lines. For middle school students, a significant difference in perceived ease of access was found for each substance, with rural students reporting greater access to smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and steroids, and urban students reporting greater access to alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, inhalants, ecstasy, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, and prescription drugs. Rural high school students reported higher access to alcohol, smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and steroids, with urban students reporting higher access to marijuana, cocaine, inhalants, ecstasy, and hallucinogens. Perceptions of ease of access more than doubled for each substance in both geographies between middle and high school. Conclusions In summary, the current study found multiple and fairly consistent differences between rural and urban

  15. Development of an ease-of-use remote healthcare system architecture using RFID and networking technologies.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Sung; Hung, Min-Hsiung; Tsai, Chang-Lung; Chou, Li-Ping

    2012-12-01

    The study aims to provide an ease-of-use approach for senior patients to utilize remote healthcare systems. An ease-of-use remote healthcare system (RHS) architecture using RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) and networking technologies is developed. Specifically, the codes in RFID tags are used for authenticating the patients' ID to secure and ease the login process. The patient needs only to take one action, i.e. placing a RFID tag onto the reader, to automatically login and start the RHS and then acquire automatic medical services. An ease-of-use emergency monitoring and reporting mechanism is developed as well to monitor and protect the safety of the senior patients who have to be left alone at home. By just pressing a single button, the RHS can automatically report the patient's emergency information to the clinic side so that the responsible medical personnel can take proper urgent actions for the patient. Besides, Web services technology is used to build the Internet communication scheme of the RHS so that the interoperability and data transmission security between the home server and the clinical server can be enhanced. A prototype RHS is constructed to validate the effectiveness of our designs. Testing results show that the proposed RHS architecture possesses the characteristics of ease to use, simplicity to operate, promptness in login, and no need to preserve identity information. The proposed RHS architecture can effectively increase the willingness of senior patients who act slowly or are unfamiliar with computer operations to use the RHS. The research results can be used as an add-on for developing future remote healthcare systems. PMID:22382524

  16. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

  17. Joint longitudinal hurdle and time-to-event models: an application related to viral load and duration of the first treatment regimen in patients with HIV initiating therapy.

    PubMed

    Brilleman, Samuel L; Crowther, Michael J; May, Margaret T; Gompels, Mark; Abrams, Keith R

    2016-09-10

    Shared parameter joint models provide a framework under which a longitudinal response and a time to event can be modelled simultaneously. A common assumption in shared parameter joint models has been to assume that the longitudinal response is normally distributed. In this paper, we instead propose a joint model that incorporates a two-part 'hurdle' model for the longitudinal response, motivated in part by longitudinal response data that is subject to a detection limit. The first part of the hurdle model estimates the probability that the longitudinal response is observed above the detection limit, whilst the second part of the hurdle model estimates the mean of the response conditional on having exceeded the detection limit. The time-to-event outcome is modelled using a parametric proportional hazards model, assuming a Weibull baseline hazard. We propose a novel association structure whereby the current hazard of the event is assumed to be associated with the current combined (expected) outcome from the two parts of the hurdle model. We estimate our joint model under a Bayesian framework and provide code for fitting the model using the Bayesian software Stan. We use our model to estimate the association between HIV RNA viral load, which is subject to a lower detection limit, and the hazard of stopping or modifying treatment in patients with HIV initiating antiretroviral therapy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27027882

  18. Hurdles to herd immunity: Distrust of government and vaccine refusal in the US, 2002-2003.

    PubMed

    Lee, Charlotte; Whetten, Kathryn; Omer, Saad; Pan, William; Salmon, Daniel

    2016-07-25

    High rates of nonmedical exemptions (NMEs) from required childhood vaccinations have contributed to outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases, such as measles and pertussis. Understanding the parental decision to obtain an NME could help health professionals and public health programs improve vaccination rates in areas with high vaccine refusal. Using a 2002-2003 multi-state survey of parents of school age children (​n=2445), this study found that parental distrust of the government and of healthcare providers is a significant factor related to a number of vaccine-related beliefs and behaviors. The odds that parents who distrust the government have seen a complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) provider were 2.11 times greater than those of parents who trust the government (70.1% vs 52.6%; OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.59-2.84; P<0.01). Parents who distrust the government had increased odds of trusting vaccine information from CAM providers compared to trusting parents (57.9% vs 46.3%; OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.16-2.01; P<0.01). Parents who distrust the government also had increased odds of distrusting vaccine information acquired at their healthcare providers' offices (12.6% vs 4.7%; OR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.64-4.24; P<0.01). Distrustful parents had increased odds of thinking government sources of information about vaccines were unreliable, categorizing the CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), or local and state health departments as poor or very poor sources (distrust government vs trust government: 25.2% vs 11.7%; OR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.70-3.36; P<0.01; distrust healthcare providers vs trust healthcare providers: 24.4% vs 11.4%; OR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.75-3.38; P<0.01). These findings indicate that distrustful parent populations may need to be reached through modalities outside of traditional government and healthcare provider communications. Research into new and more effective techniques for delivering pro-vaccine messages is warranted. PMID:27344291

  19. Hurdles in tissue engineering/regenerative medicine product commercialization: a pilot survey of governmental funding agencies and the financial industry.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Timothy A; Tentoff, Edward; Johnson, Peter C; Tawil, Bill; Van Dyke, Mark; Hellman, Kiki B

    2012-11-01

    The Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine International Society of the Americas (TERMIS-AM) Industry Committee conducted a semiquantitative opinion survey in 2010 to delineate potential hurdles to commercialization perceived by the TERMIS constituency groups that participate in the stream of technology commercialization (academia, start-up companies, development-stage companies, and established companies). A significant hurdle identified consistently by each group was access to capital for advancing potential technologies into development pathways leading to commercialization. A follow-on survey was developed by the TERMIS-AM Industry Committee to evaluate the financial industry's perspectives on investing in regenerative medical technologies. The survey, composed of 15 questions, was developed and provided to 37 investment organizations in one of three sectors (governmental, private, and public investors). The survey was anonymous and confidential with sector designation the only identifying feature of each respondent's organization. Approximately 80% of the survey was composed of respondents from the public (n=14) and private (n=15) sectors. Each respondent represents one investment organization with the potential of multiple participants participating to form the organization's response. The remaining organizations represented governmental agencies (n=8). Results from this survey indicate that a high percentage (<60%) of respondents (governmental, private, and public) were willing to invest >$2MM into regenerative medical companies at the different stages of a company's life cycle. Investors recognized major hurdles to this emerging industry, including regulatory pathway, clinical translation, and reimbursement of these new products. Investments in regenerative technologies have been cyclical over the past 10-15 years, but investors recognized a 1-5-year investment period before the exit via Merger and Acquisition (M&A). Investors considered

  20. Easing the Burden: Describing the Role of Social, Emotional and Spiritual Support in Research Families with Li-Fraumeni Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Peters, June A; Kenen, Regina; Bremer, Renee; Givens, Shannon; Savage, Sharon A; Mai, Phuong L

    2016-06-01

    This study presents findings of a mixed-method descriptive exploration of the role of friends and spirituality/religiosity in easing the burden of families with the rare inherited disorder, Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS). LFS is caused by germline mutations in the TP53 gene and is associated with very high lifetime risk of developing one or more malignancies. During the first clinical visit we assessed several types of social support among a subset of study participants (N = 66) using an established interactive research tool called the Colored Eco-Genetic Relationship Map (CEGRM). We performed both quantitative and qualitative analyses of social relationships with LFS family members and close non-kin. Distress scores (N = 59) were mostly low normal, with some outliers. We found that reported friendships varied widely, that the friendships were often deep and enduring, and were important sources of informational, tangible, emotional and spiritual support. Confidantes tended to be best friends and/or spouses. Organized religion was important in selected families, typically from mainstream traditions. However, a number of people identified themselves as "spiritual" and reported spiritual and humanist explorations. Our results shed preliminary light on how some people in families with LFS cope in the face of tremendous medical, social and emotional challenges. PMID:26621765

  1. Interset: A natural language interface for teleoperated robotic assembly of the EASE space structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boorsma, Daniel K.

    1989-01-01

    A teleoperated robot was used to assemble the Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extra-vehicular activity (EASE) space structure under neutral buoyancy conditions, simulating a telerobot performing structural assembly in the zero gravity of space. This previous work used a manually controlled teleoperator as a test bed for system performance evaluations. From these results several Artificial Intelligence options were proposed. One of these was further developed into a real time assembly planner. The interface for this system is effective in assembling EASE structures using windowed graphics and a set of networked menus. As the problem space becomes more complex and hence the set of control options increases, a natural language interface may prove to be beneficial to supplement the menu based control strategy. This strategy can be beneficial in situations such as: describing the local environment, maintaining a data base of task event histories, modifying a plan or a heuristic dynamically, summarizing a task in English, or operating in a novel situation.

  2. Impact of three biological decontamination methods on filtering facepiece respirator fit, odor, comfort, and donning ease.

    PubMed

    Viscusi, Dennis J; Bergman, Michael S; Novak, Debra A; Faulkner, Kimberly A; Palmiero, Andrew; Powell, Jeffrey; Shaffer, Ronald E

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), moist heat incubation (MHI), or microwave-generated steam (MGS) decontamination affects the fitting characteristics, odor, comfort, or donning ease of six N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) models. For each model, 10 experienced test subjects qualified for the study by passing a standard OSHA quantitative fit test. Once qualified, each subject performed a series of fit tests to assess respirator fit and completed surveys to evaluate odor, comfort, and donning ease with FFRs that were not decontaminated (controls) and with FFRs of the same model that had been decontaminated. Respirator fit was quantitatively measured using a multidonning protocol with the TSI PORTACOUNT Plus and the N95 Companion accessory (designed to count only particles resulting from face to face-seal leakage). Participants' subjective appraisals of the respirator's odor, comfort, and donning ease were captured using a visual analog scale survey. Wilcoxon signed rank tests compared median values for fit, odor, comfort, and donning ease for each FFR and decontamination method against their respective controls for a given model. Two of the six FFRs demonstrated a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.05) in fit after MHI decontamination. However, for these two FFR models, post-decontamination mean fit factors were still ≥ 100. One of the other FFRs demonstrated a relatively small though statistically significant increase (p < 0.05) in median odor response after MHI decontamination. These data suggest that FFR users with characteristics similar to those in this study population would be unlikely to experience a clinically meaningful reduction in fit, increase in odor, increase in discomfort, or increased difficulty in donning with the six FFRs included in this study after UVGI, MHI, or MGS decontamination. Further research is needed before decontamination of N95 FFRs for purposes of reuse can be

  3. On-Demand Mobility (ODM) Technical Pathway: Enabling Ease of Use and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Ken; Moore, Mark

    2015-01-01

    On-demand mobility (ODM) through aviation refers to the ability to quickly and easily move people or equivalent cargo without delays introduced by lack of, or infrequently, scheduled service. A necessary attribute of ODM is that it be easy to use, requiring a minimum of special training, skills, or workload. Fully-autonomous vehicles would provide the ultimate in ease-of-use (EU) but are currently unproven for safety-critical applications outside of a few, situationally constrained applications (e.g. automated trains operating in segregated systems). Applied to aviation, the current and near-future state of the art of full-autonomy, may entail undesirable trade-offs such as very conservative operational margins resulting in reduced trip reliability and transportation utility. Furthermore, acceptance by potential users and regulatory authorities will be challenging without confidence in autonomous systems in developed in less critical, but still challenging applications. A question for the aviation community is how we can best develop practical ease-of-use for aircraft that are sized to carry a small number of passengers (e.g. 1-9) or equivalent cargo. Such development is unlikely to be a single event, but rather a managed, evolutionary process where responsibility and authority transitions from human to automation agents as operational experience is gained with increasingly intelligent systems. This talk presents a technology road map being developed at NASA Langley, as part of an overall strategy to foster ODM, for the development of ease-of-use for ODM aviation.

  4. Source Memory for Mental Imagery: Influences of the Stimuli’s Ease of Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Krefeld-Schwalb, Antonia; Ellis, Andrew W.; Oswald, Margit E.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated how ease of imagery influences source monitoring accuracy. Two experiments were conducted in order to examine how ease of imagery influences the probability of source confusions of perceived and imagined completions of natural symmetric shapes. The stimuli consisted of binary pictures of natural objects, namely symmetric pictures of birds, butterflies, insects, and leaves. The ease of imagery (indicating the similarity of the sources) and the discriminability (indicating the similarity of the items) of each stimulus were estimated in a pretest and included as predictors of the memory performance for these stimuli. It was found that confusion of the sources becomes more likely when the imagery process was relatively easy. However, if the different processes of source monitoring—item memory, source memory and guessing biases—are disentangled, both experiments support the assumption that the effect of decreased source memory for easily imagined stimuli is due to decision processes and misinformation at retrieval rather than encoding processes and memory retention. The data were modeled with a Bayesian hierarchical implementation of the one high threshold source monitoring model. PMID:26606752

  5. The cytotoxic and immunogenic hurdles associated with non-viral mRNA-mediated reprogramming of human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Drews, Katharina; Tavernier, Geertrui; Demeester, Joseph; Lehrach, Hans; De Smedt, Stefaan C; Rejman, Joanna; Adjaye, James

    2012-06-01

    Delivery of reprogramming factor-encoding mRNAs by means of lipofection in somatic cells is a desirable method for deriving integration-free iPSCs. However, the lack of reproducibility implies there are major hurdles to overcome before this protocol becomes universally accepted. This study demonstrates the functionality of our in-house synthesized mRNAs expressing the reprogramming factors (OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, c-MYC) within the nucleus of human fibroblasts. However, upon repeated transfections, the mRNAs induced severe loss of cell viability as demonstrated by MTT cytotoxicity assays. Microarray-derived transcriptome data revealed that the poor cell survival was mainly due to the innate immune response triggered by the exogenous mRNAs. We validated the influence of mRNA transfection on key immune response-associated transcript levels, including IFNB1, RIG-I, PKR, IL12A, IRF7 and CCL5, by quantitative real-time PCR and directly compared these with the levels induced by other methods previously published to mediate reprogramming in somatic cells. Finally, we evaluated chemical compounds (B18R, chloroquine, TSA, Pepinh-TRIF, Pepinh-MYD), known for their ability to suppress cellular innate immune responses. However, none of these had the desired effect. The data presented here should provide the basis for further investigations into other immunosuppressing strategies that might facilitate efficient mRNA-mediated cellular reprogramming in human cells. PMID:22381475

  6. Hurdle Effect of Antimicrobial Activity Achieved by Time Differential Releasing of Nisin and Chitosan Hydrolysates from Bacterial Cellulose.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hui-Ling; Lin, Shih-Bin; Chen, Li-Chen; Chen, Hui-Huang

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the combined antimicrobial effect of nisin and chitosan hydrolysates (CHs) by regulating the antimicrobial reaction order of substances due to differential releasing rate from hydroxypropylmethylcellulose-modified bacterial cellulose (HBC). The minimum inhibitory concentration of nisin against Staphylococcus aureus and that of CHs against Escherichia coli were 6 IU and 200 μg/mL, respectively. Hurdle and additive effects in antimicrobial tests were observed when nisin was used 6 h before CH treatment against S. aureus; similar effects were observed when CH was used before nisin treatment against E. coli. Simultaneously combined treatment of nisin and CHs exhibited the low antimicrobial effect. HBC was then selected as the carrier for the controlled release of nisin and CHs. A 90% inhibition in the growth of S. aureus and E. coli was achieved when 30 IU-nisin-containing HBC and 62.5 μg/mL-CH-containing HBC were used simultaneously. The controlled release of nisin and CHs by using HBC minimized the interaction between nisin and CHs as well as increased the number of microbial targets. PMID:27074534

  7. Sharing Stories: Multicultural Traditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imdieke, Sandra J.

    As more emphasis is placed on helping children gain a global perspective and understanding of the world, children's literature seems to be a natural vehicle for fostering that understanding. By studying the storyteller, educators can learn about literary traditions of communities, particularly traditions which reflect the use of stories. An…

  8. Mathematics: Montessori of Traditional?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woessner, Ruth

    1995-01-01

    Compares and contrasts the approaches to mathematics in Montessori schools and traditional schools. Suggests that in a traditional curriculum, math is studied as a separate subject and isolated discipline, in an abstract format, with the entire group of children moving together through the prescribed curriculum. In contrast, the Montessori school…

  9. Traditional Native Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Agnes

    1985-01-01

    While Native myths and legends were educational tools to transmit tribal beliefs and history, traditional American Indian poetry served a ritualistic function in everyday life. Few traditional Native songs, which all poems were, survive; only Mayan and Aztec poems were written, and most of these were burned by a Spanish bishop. In addition, many…

  10. Rethinking the "Western Tradition"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enslin, Penny; Horsthemke, Kai

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the "Western tradition" has increasingly come under attack in anti-colonialist and postmodernist discourses. It is not difficult to sympathise with the concerns that underlie advocacy of historically marginalised traditions, and the West undoubtedly has a lot to answer for. Nonetheless, while arguing a qualified yes to…

  11. Family Customs and Traditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGregor, Cynthia

    Recognizing the importance of maintaining open communication with immediate and extended family members, this book provides a compilation of ideas for family traditions and customs that are grounded in compassion and human kindness. The traditions were gathered from families in the United States and Canada who responded to advertisements in…

  12. Clearing the NCLB Hurdle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Ted

    2003-01-01

    Displays findings from a fall 2002 survey of all states to determine how they were progressing in meeting No Child Left Behind Act's list of requirements. Generally, states and local districts are stronger developing accountability systems but a significant gap remains between the federal law's demands and the capacity to meet them. (Author/MLF)

  13. Cumulative t-link threshold models for the genetic analysis of calving ease scores

    PubMed Central

    Kizilkaya, Kadir; Carnier, Paolo; Albera, Andrea; Bittante, Giovanni; Tempelman, Robert J

    2003-01-01

    In this study, a hierarchical threshold mixed model based on a cumulative t-link specification for the analysis of ordinal data or more, specifically, calving ease scores, was developed. The validation of this model and the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm was carried out on simulated data from normally and t4 (i.e. a t-distribution with four degrees of freedom) distributed populations using the deviance information criterion (DIC) and a pseudo Bayes factor (PBF) measure to validate recently proposed model choice criteria. The simulation study indicated that although inference on the degrees of freedom parameter is possible, MCMC mixing was problematic. Nevertheless, the DIC and PBF were validated to be satisfactory measures of model fit to data. A sire and maternal grandsire cumulative t-link model was applied to a calving ease dataset from 8847 Italian Piemontese first parity dams. The cumulative t-link model was shown to lead to posterior means of direct and maternal heritabilities (0.40 ± 0.06, 0.11 ± 0.04) and a direct maternal genetic correlation (-0.58 ± 0.15) that were not different from the corresponding posterior means of the heritabilities (0.42 ± 0.07, 0.14 ± 0.04) and the genetic correlation (-0.55 ± 0.14) inferred under the conventional cumulative probit link threshold model. Furthermore, the correlation (> 0.99) between posterior means of sire progeny merit from the two models suggested no meaningful rerankings. Nevertheless, the cumulative t-link model was decisively chosen as the better fitting model for this calving ease data using DIC and PBF. PMID:12939202

  14. Long-Term Safety and Effectiveness of the 'OptEase' Vena Cava Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Kalva, Sanjeeva P.; Marentis, Theodore C.; Yeddula, Kalpana; Somarouthu, Bhanusupriya; Wicky, Stephan; Stecker, Michael S.

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: To assess the long-term safety and effectiveness of the OptEase inferior vena cava (IVC) filter. Materials and Methods: In this Institutional Review Board-approved, retrospective study, we reviewed data of 71 patients who received an OptEase filter at our institution from 2002 to 2007. Thirty-nine (55%) patients had symptoms of venous thromboembolism before filter placement. The indications for filter included contraindication to anticoagulation in 31 (44%) patients, prophylaxis against pulmonary embolism (PE) in 29 (41%) patients, and failure of anticoagulation in 11 (15%) patients. Procedure-related complications, such as symptomatic post-filter PE, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), IVC occlusion, and incidental imaging-evident filter-related complications, were recorded. Safety was assessed by the occurrence of filter-related complications during placement and follow-up. Effectiveness was assessed by the occurrence of post-filter PE. Results: Sixty-five (92%) filters were placed under fluoroscopy, and 6 (8%) were placed using intravascular ultrasound guidance. Seventy (99%) filters were placed successfully. Seven (10%) filters were placed in the suprarenal cava. Retrieval was attempted in 14 (20%) patients, and 12 filters were successfully retrieved. Clinical follow-up was available for 20 {+-} 21 months. Symptoms of postfilter PE and DVT occurred in 15% (n = 11) and 10% (n = 7) patients, respectively. None of these patients had computed tomography (CT)-proven PE, and only one had ultrasound-proven new DVT. One patient had symptomatic IVC occlusion. Follow-up abdominal CT in 20 patients showed thrombus in the filter in two of them. There were no instances of filter migration, filter tilt, or caval wall penetration. Conclusion: The OptEase filter appears to have an acceptable long-term safety profile. The filter was effective against PE.

  15. A double-hurdle model estimation of cocoa farmers' willingness to pay for crop insurance in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Okoffo, Elvis Dartey; Denkyirah, Elisha Kwaku; Adu, Derick Taylor; Fosu-Mensah, Benedicta Yayra

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is an important sector in Ghana's economy, however, with high risk due to natural factors like climate change, pests and diseases and bush fires among others. Farmers in the Brong-Ahafo region of Ghana which is known as one of the major cocoa producing regions, face these risks which sometimes results in crop failure. The need for farmers to therefore insure their farms against crop loss is crucial. Insurance has been a measure to guard against risk. The aim of this study was to assess cocoa farmers' willingness to access crop insurance, the factors affecting willingness to pay (WTP) for crop insurance scheme and insurance companies' willingness to provide crop insurance to cocoa farmers. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to sample 240 farmers from four communities in the Dormaa West District in Brong-Ahafo Region. The double-hurdle model shows that age, marital status and education significantly and positively influenced cocoa farmer's willingness to insure their farms whiles household size and cropped area negatively influenced farmers' willingness to insure their farms. Similarly, age, household size and cropped area significantly and positively influenced the premium cocoa farmers were willing to pay whiles marital status and cocoa income negatively influenced the premium farmers were willing to pay. The contingent valuation method shows that the maximum, minimum and average amounts cocoa farmers are willing to pay for crop insurance per production cost per acre was GH¢128.40, GH¢32.10 and GH¢49.32 respectively. Insurance companies do not have crop insurance policy but willing to provide crop insurance policy to cocoa farmers on a condition that farmers adopt modern cultivation practices to reduce the level of risk. The study recommends that cocoa farmers should be well educated on crop insurance and should be involved in planning the crop insurance scheme in order to conclude on the premium to be paid by them. PMID:27386322

  16. Black African Traditional Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslavsky, Claudia

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the traditional number systems and the origin of the number names used by several African peoples living south of the Sahara. Also included are limitations in African mathematical development, and possible topics for research. (RP)

  17. Comparison of efficacy and ease of handling of salmeterol and terbutaline powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Burdon, J; Droszcz, W; Jones, R; Johnston, P R; Trowell, S J

    1998-03-01

    A multicentre, randomised, open, parallel-group study was performed to compare the efficacy, tolerability and ease of handling of salmeterol xinafoate 50 micrograms twice daily via the Diskus inhaler with terbutaline sulphate 500 micrograms four times daily via the Turbuhaler inhaler. Two hundred and sixty-three patients (aged 18-79 years, baseline FEV1 50-90% predicted, mean PEFR 85% of response to salbutamol) were randomised to treatment with salmeterol (n = 136) or terbutaline (n = 127). A statistically significant difference in favour of salmeterol was seen between treatment groups for the primary efficacy variable, mean morning PEFR (difference in adjusted means 25.4 l/min, p < 0.001). Within the groups randomised to each device, ease of handling assessments favoured the Diskus inhaler over the Turbuhaler inhaler. More patients liked the Diskus inhaler than the Turbuhaler inhaler (98% vs 72%, p < 0.001). The Diskus inhaler received better scores than the Turbuhaler inhaler for all features assessed in the device questionnaire. PMID:9624787

  18. The impact of specific exertion on the efficiency and ease of the voice: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bagnall, Alison D; McCulloch, Kirsty

    2005-09-01

    Even though most singers and other professional voice users are encouraged to relax to optimize the quality and performance of the voice, observations of acclaimed singers, actors, and public speakers would suggest otherwise. These successful vocal performers appear to be energized, actively working and exerting themselves. For this reason, a study was designed to explore the role of exertion in maintaining and optimizing the voice. The focus of this study was the possibility that increasing exertion could improve the voice and might result in the voice user experiencing less strain and, therefore, more comfort and ease. Ten subjects were recorded before and after completing a workshop to develop their skills with precise use of effort involving selected parameters of the larynx and vocal tract. Self-reported ratings of degree of exertion and level of comfort were collected at the time of each recording. The preworkshop and postworkshop recordings were analyzed acoustically and perceptually to compare the degree of noise in the signal that corresponds with the efficiency of the voice. The results indicated that, for all subjects, the quality of the voice improved with an increase in the use of specific exertion. Furthermore, ease and comfort also significantly increased. PMID:16102665

  19. Adapting to Water Shortages in a Mediterranean Climate: Institutional Hurdles to Establishing Groundwater Reserves as a Hedge Against Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langridge, R.

    2011-12-01

    and institutional issues. It addresses the broad legal requirements affecting groundwater recharge, storage and recovery, as well as the specific issues that would be encountered at each stage of setting up a reserve. These include: establishing the source of water for the reserve, its transmission to the storage site, recharge of the storage site, withdrawal of the stored water and transmission to the user. Local sources of water to develop a reserve can include for example: precipitation - recycled water - desalinated water - captured storm water - flood control releases. Each of these water sources implicates different legal requirements with respect to water rights, groundwater recharge and final use. The goal of this paper is to provide a legal road map that illuminates the main hurdles to overcome in establishing a reserve. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of potential legal and policy options that could encourage the development of drought reserves in the state.

  20. EASE-MM: Sequence-Based Prediction of Mutation-Induced Stability Changes with Feature-Based Multiple Models.

    PubMed

    Folkman, Lukas; Stantic, Bela; Sattar, Abdul; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2016-03-27

    Protein engineering and characterisation of non-synonymous single nucleotide variants (SNVs) require accurate prediction of protein stability changes (ΔΔGu) induced by single amino acid substitutions. Here, we have developed a new prediction method called Evolutionary, Amino acid, and Structural Encodings with Multiple Models (EASE-MM), which comprises five specialised support vector machine (SVM) models and makes the final prediction from a consensus of two models selected based on the predicted secondary structure and accessible surface area of the mutated residue. The new method is applicable to single-domain monomeric proteins and can predict ΔΔGu with a protein sequence and mutation as the only inputs. EASE-MM yielded a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.53-0.59 in 10-fold cross-validation and independent testing and was able to outperform other sequence-based methods. When compared to structure-based energy functions, EASE-MM achieved a comparable or better performance. The application to a large dataset of human germline non-synonymous SNVs showed that the disease-causing variants tend to be associated with larger magnitudes of ΔΔGu predicted with EASE-MM. The EASE-MM web-server is available at http://sparks-lab.org/server/ease. PMID:26804571

  1. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  2. A cognition-based method to ease the computational load for an extended Kalman filter.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanpeng; Li, Xiang; Deng, Bin; Wang, Hongqiang; Qin, Yuliang

    2014-01-01

    The extended Kalman filter (EKF) is the nonlinear model of a Kalman filter (KF). It is a useful parameter estimation method when the observation model and/or the state transition model is not a linear function. However, the computational requirements in EKF are a difficulty for the system. With the help of cognition-based designation and the Taylor expansion method, a novel algorithm is proposed to ease the computational load for EKF in azimuth predicting and localizing under a nonlinear observation model. When there are nonlinear functions and inverse calculations for matrices, this method makes use of the major components (according to current performance and the performance requirements) in the Taylor expansion. As a result, the computational load is greatly lowered and the performance is ensured. Simulation results show that the proposed measure will deliver filtering output with a similar precision compared to the regular EKF. At the same time, the computational load is substantially lowered. PMID:25479332

  3. A Cognition-Based Method to Ease the Computational Load for an Extended Kalman Filter

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanpeng; Li, Xiang; Deng, Bin; Wang, Hongqiang; Qin, Yuliang

    2014-01-01

    The extended Kalman filter (EKF) is the nonlinear model of a Kalman filter (KF). It is a useful parameter estimation method when the observation model and/or the state transition model is not a linear function. However, the computational requirements in EKF are a difficulty for the system. With the help of cognition-based designation and the Taylor expansion method, a novel algorithm is proposed to ease the computational load for EKF in azimuth predicting and localizing under a nonlinear observation model. When there are nonlinear functions and inverse calculations for matrices, this method makes use of the major components (according to current performance and the performance requirements) in the Taylor expansion. As a result, the computational load is greatly lowered and the performance is ensured. Simulation results show that the proposed measure will deliver filtering output with a similar precision compared to the regular EKF. At the same time, the computational load is substantially lowered. PMID:25479332

  4. Ball Bearing (BB) Guns, Ease of Purchase and Potential for Significant Injury

    PubMed Central

    Grocock, C; McCarthy, R; Williams, DJ

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Ball bearing guns are used in the UK for war games, but they have the potential to cause severe injury if used incorrectly. MATERIALS AND METHODS A search was made for availability of these weapons, the ease of purchase and the potential for tissue damage. RESULTS These weapons are widely available on the Internet and are easy to purchase with no security checks. Once fully charged, an electric BB gun is capable of penetrating a cadaveric animal model at distances up to 5 m (1 m = 25 mm penetration, 3 m = 20 mm penetration, 5 m = 15 mm penetration). CONCLUSIONS BB guns are not toys and have a significant potential to cause injury. PMID:16834864

  5. Family traditions and generations.

    PubMed

    Schneiderman, Gerald; Barrera, Maru

    2009-01-01

    Currently, traditional family values that have been passed down through generations appear to be at risk. This has significant implications for the stability and health of individuals, families, and communities. This article explores selected issues related to intergenerational transmission of family values and cultural beliefs, with particular reference to Western culture and values that are rooted in Jewish and Christian traditions. It also examines family values and parenting styles as they influence the developing perspective of children and the family's adaptation to a changing world. PMID:19752638

  6. Traditional Cherokee Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Janey B.

    A collection for children and teachers of traditional Cherokee recipes emphasizes the art, rather than the science, of cooking. The hand-printed, illustrated format is designed to communicate the feeling of Cherokee history and culture and to encourage readers to collect and add family recipes. The cookbook could be used as a starting point for…

  7. Tradition in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisenberg, Werner

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the influence of tradition in science on selection of scientific problems and methods and on the use of concepts as tools for research work. Indicates that future research studies will be directed toward the change of fundamental concepts in such fields as astrophysics, molecular biology, and environmental science. (CC)

  8. Tradition and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyre, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Honors programs, like the institutions that host them, need to exercise constant re-examination to remain effective and to serve their students the best they can. As a private, liberal arts institution, in the tradition of the Irish Catholic Christian Brothers, Iona College provides many avenues to enhance student learning, and paramount to the…

  9. The Traditional Rebel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemansky, Janet

    1993-01-01

    Outlines the Linden, New Jersey, schools' introduction and use of electronic musical technology and contemporary instruments in the orchestral music program, which has broadened the musical repertoire and the recruitment of talented students not schooled in the classical tradition. Four applications of technology for rehearsals and instrumental…

  10. GLOBECORP: Simulation versus Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spelman, Mary Dean

    2002-01-01

    Describes an empirical study conducted at the University of Central Oklahoma that investigated the differences in learning outcomes between English as a second language composition courses taught with two different methods, one based on a simulation called GLOBECORP and one on traditional instruction. Discusses progress measured by mandated…

  11. In Defense of Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekich, John

    A disturbing trend is developing in higher education which may jeopardize the quality and importance of the classical tradition in education. This trend is exemplified by demands that the liberal arts be made relevant and comprehensible to the student and that they be related in some way to the search for a good job. The great classical…

  12. Traditional healers formalised?

    PubMed

    Van Niekerk, Jp

    2012-03-01

    Traditional healers are the first to be called for help when illness strikes the majority of South Africans. Their communities have faith in their ability to cure or alleviate conditions managed by doctors, and much more. A visit to such practitioners' websites (they are up with the latest advertising technology!) shows that they promise help with providing more power, love, security or money, protection from evil people and spirits, enhancing one's sex life with penis enlargement and vagina tightening spells, etc. Contemplating such claims, it is easy to be dismissive of traditional healers. But in this issue of the SAMJ Nompumelelo Mbatha and colleagues1 argue that the traditional healers' regulatory council, promised by an Act of Parliament, should be established, followed by (or preferably preceded by) formal recognition by employers of sick certificates issued by traditional healers. Can matters be so simply resolved? What does this mean for doctors and other formally recognised healthcare professionals, and how to respond to such claims and social pressures? PMID:22380886

  13. Reinventing the Rhetorical Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Aviva, Ed.; Pringle, Ian, Ed.

    The 19 conference papers in this collection deal with the relationship of various rhetorical theories and their practical applications to the rhetorical traditions that they are superseding. The papers deal with many topics, including the following: (1) a multidisciplinary approach to writing instruction; (2) the importance of writing as a human…

  14. Teaching Traditional Tropical Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clawson, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Maintains that the teaching of traditional tropical agriculture through the presentation of large numbers of categories or types tends to overemphasize superficial differences at the expense of comprehending the inner essence of life as it exists for the majority of the world's farmers. Offers an alternative approach which claims to foster greater…

  15. Non-Traditional Wraps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Buffy

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a recipe for non-traditional wraps. In this article, the author describes how adults and children can help with the recipe and the skills involved with this recipe. The bigger role that children can play in the making of the item the more they are apt to try new things and appreciate the texture and taste.

  16. Challenging tradition in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Supriya, K E

    1991-01-01

    In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs. PMID:12284522

  17. Characterising smoking cessation smartphone applications in terms of behaviour change techniques, engagement and ease-of-use features.

    PubMed

    Ubhi, Harveen Kaur; Michie, Susan; Kotz, Daniel; van Schayck, Onno C P; Selladurai, Abiram; West, Robert

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether or not behaviour change techniques (BCTs) as well as engagement and ease-of-use features used in smartphone applications (apps) to aid smoking cessation can be identified reliably. Apps were coded for presence of potentially effective BCTs, and engagement and ease-of-use features. Inter-rater reliability for this coding was assessed. Inter-rater agreement for identifying presence of potentially effective BCTs ranged from 66.8 to 95.1 % with 'prevalence and bias adjusted kappas' (PABAK) ranging from 0.35 to 0.90 (p < 0.001). The intra-class correlation coefficients between the two coders for scores denoting the proportions of (a) a set of engagement features and (b) a set of ease-of-use features, which were included, were 0.77 and 0.75, respectively (p < 0.001). Prevalence estimates for BCTs ranged from <10 % for medication advice to >50 % for rewarding abstinence. The average proportions of specified engagement and ease-of-use features included in the apps were 69 and 83 %, respectively. The study found that it is possible to identify potentially effective BCTs, and engagement and ease-of-use features in smoking cessation apps with fair to high inter-rater reliability. PMID:27528530

  18. Traditional Chinese drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Borchardt, John K

    2003-12-01

    More than 4,000 years old, traditional Chinese medicine continues to be widely practiced in China and in western countries. Traditional Chinese medicine teaches that good health is the result of harmony and balance between five basic elements: earth, water, fire, wood and metal. Also important to health are the two types of energy Yin and Yang, constituting a vital substance that circulates through the body. Drug therapy has been one of the means used in Chinese medicine to keep these elements and the flow of energy in balance. Many of the same herbs used thousands of years ago in China could be the source of new pharmaceuticals in Western medicine. PMID:14747850

  19. [West African childbirth traditions].

    PubMed

    Hallgren, R

    1983-11-01

    Religious and medical practices are steeped in the traditions of West African culture vis-a-vis childbirth. It is customary for delivery to occur with the woman squatting on the ground surrounded by sisters and female relatives, some of whom function as midwives. Midwives get paid only if delivery is successful. A stool is also often used in childbirth. The name given to a child in the Yoruba tribe in Nigeria has to refer to the circumstances of the individual's birth. The contact with the earth (as in the squatting position) has religious overtones--it indicates the fecundity of the earth, and the mother's contact with it. Infertility is considered the greatest tragedy in traditional African society. In Senegal, a childless woman pays a fertile one a certain sum in return for bearing her a child who would be raised as her own (this tradition is not unlike surrogate motherhood in Western countries). Men are never present at birth; however, in urban settings this practice is changing. The burial of the placenta and umbilical cord is thought to restore the woman's fertility and help heal her womb. This practice was even recorded in 19th century Sweden harkening back to heathen times. In Ghana, an infertile woman urinates on the ground where the placenta is buried in the belief that her fertility will be restored. The birth of twins is regarded as a great blessing, and as a sign of fertility; however, the inability of the mother to breast-feed both twins may result in the death of the weaker child. The harmony of nature, animals, and human beings is paramount in traditional West Africa religion and life, and undoubtedly Western culture could learn from some of these beliefs. PMID:6558064

  20. Effect of InspirEase on the deposition of metered-dose aerosols in the human respiratory tract

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, S.P.; Woodman, G.; Clarke, S.W.; Sackner, M.A.

    1986-04-01

    A radiotracer technique has been used to assess the effects of a 700-ml collapsible holding chamber (InspirEase, Key Pharmaceuticals Inc.) on the deposition of metered-dose aerosols in ten patients with obstructive airways disease (mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), 64.5 percent of predicted). Patterns of deposition obtained by patients' usual techniques with the metered-dose inhaler (MDI) were compared with those by correct MDI technique (actuation coordinated with slow deep inhalation and followed by ten seconds of breath-holding) and with those by InspirEase. Deposition of aerosol was assessed by placing Teflon particles labelled with 99mTc inside placebo canisters, and inhaling maneuvers were monitored by respiratory inductive plethysmography (Respitrace). Nine of the ten patients had imperfect technique with the MDI, the most prevalent errors being rapid inhalation and failure to hold their breath adequately. With patients' usual MDI techniques, 6.5 +/- 1.2 percent (mean +/- SE) of the dose reached the lungs. This was increased to 11.2 +/- 1.3 percent (p less than 0.02) with correct technique and increased further to 14.8 +/- 1.4 percent (p less than 0.05) with InspirEase. Oropharyngeal deposition exceeded 80 percent of the dose for the MDI alone but was only 9.5 +/- 0.9 percent with InspirEase (p less than 0.01); 59.2 +/- 2.1 percent of the dose was retained within InspirEase itself. It is concluded that InspirEase gives whole lung deposition of metered-dose aerosols greater than that from a correctly used MDI, while oropharyngeal deposition is reduced approximately nine times.

  1. Hurdles to the global antipolio campaign in Pakistan: an outline of the current status and future prospects to achieve a polio free world.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tariq; Qazi, Javaria

    2013-08-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative to eradicate polio completely by the year 2000 has been successful, except for three endemic and some non-endemic countries. Pakistan, one of the three endemic polio reservoirs, is posing a serious threat to the success of the initiative. Currently, the expanded programme on immunisation has been geared to win the race over polio virus in Pakistan. After the remarkable decrease in polio cases from 198 in 2011 to only 58 in 2012, Pakistan seemed to be at the verge of success. However, hurdles continue to retard the campaign. The war against terrorism, misconceptions about polio vaccine, religious misinterpretations, frustration among vaccinators, lack of awareness, social considerations, natural calamities, inaccessibility, and inefficient vaccines and so on are continually rupturing the foundations of the worldwide initiative in the country. Weak health management is found at the hub of majority of the challenges. Stricter policies, well managed and supervised plans and strategic actions, risk analysis and enhanced communication may help giving the final punch to polio virus in the country. Analysis suggested that there is some literature available on the challenges to polio elimination, yet there is not a single publication up to date that considers all the possible hurdles in a single manuscript. This paper sorts out the breaches that hamper the goal of eliminating polio from Pakistan. We have evaluated all the possible barriers and explained them with a perspective that will help develop area specific strategies against polio virus and thus eradicate polio virus from the world. PMID:23685730

  2. Modeling Flow Past a TrapEase Inferior Vena Cava Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Michael; Henshaw, William; Wang, Stephen

    2008-11-01

    This study uses three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics to evaluate the efficacy of the TrapEase inferior vena cava (IVC) filter. Hemodynamics of the unoccluded and partially occluded filter are examined, and the clinical implications are assessed. The IVC, which is the primary vein that drains the legs, is modeled as a straight pipe, and a geometrically accurate model of the filter is constructed using computer aided design. Blood is modeled as a homogeneous, incompressible, Newtonian fluid, and the method of overset grids is used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations. Results are corroborated with in-vitro studies. Flow around the unoccluded filter demonstrates minimal disruption, but spherical clots in the downstream trapping position lead to regions of stagnant and recirculating flow that may promote further clotting. The volume of stagnant flow and the peak wall shear stress increase with clot volume. For clots trapped in the upstream trapping position, flow is disrupted along the cava wall downstream of the clot and within the filter. The shape and location of trapped clots also effect the peak wall shear stress and may impact the efficacy of the filter.

  3. Validation of Modifications to the ANSR® Salmonella Method for Improved Ease of Use.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Oscar; Alles, Susan; Walton, Kayla; Gray, R Lucas; Mozola, Mark; Rice, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study to validate minor reagent formulation and procedural changes to the ANSR® Salmonella method, AOAC Performance Tested Method™ 061203. In order to improve ease of use and diminish risk of amplicon contamination, the lyophilized reagent components were reformulated for increased solubility, thus eliminating the need to mix by pipetting. In the alternative procedure, an aliquot of the lysate is added to lyophilized ANSR reagents, immediately capped, and briefly mixed by vortex. Results of the validation study with ice cream, peanut butter, dry dog food, raw ground turkey, raw ground beef, and sponge samples from a stainless steel surface showed no statistically significant differences in performance between the ANSR method and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual or U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Services Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook reference culture procedures. Results of inclusivity and exclusivity testing were unchanged from those of the original validation study; exclusivity was 100% and inclusivity was 99.1% with only a single strain of Salmonella Weslaco testing negative. Robustness testing was also conducted, with variations to lysis buffer volume, lysis time, and sample volume having no demonstrable effect on assay results. PMID:26086257

  4. Exploiting Volunteered Geographic Information to Ease Land Use Mapping of AN Urban Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokar Arsanjani, J.; Helbich, M.; Bakillah, M.

    2013-05-01

    Remote sensing techniques have eased land use/cover mapping substantially by observing the earth remotely through diminishing field surveying and in-site data collection. However, field measurement is still required to identify training sites for defining the existing land use classes, which requires visiting the study area. This paper is intended to utilize volunteered geographic information (VGI) contributions to the OpenStreetMap (OSM) project as an alternative data source instead of gathering training sites through insite visits and to evaluate how accurate land use patterns can be mapped. High resolution imagery of RapidEye with 5 meter spatial resolution is selected to derive land use patterns of Koblenz, Germany through a maximum likelihood classification technique. The achieved land use map is compared with the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security Urban Atlas (GMESUA) and a Kappa Index of 89% is achieved. The outcomes prove that VGI can be integrated within remote sensing processes to facilitate the process of earth observation and monitoring.

  5. The Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model: theoretical, empirical, and clinical advances

    PubMed Central

    Rönnberg, Jerker; Lunner, Thomas; Zekveld, Adriana; Sörqvist, Patrik; Danielsson, Henrik; Lyxell, Björn; Dahlström, Örjan; Signoret, Carine; Stenfelt, Stefan; Pichora-Fuller, M. Kathleen; Rudner, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Working memory is important for online language processing during conversation. We use it to maintain relevant information, to inhibit or ignore irrelevant information, and to attend to conversation selectively. Working memory helps us to keep track of and actively participate in conversation, including taking turns and following the gist. This paper examines the Ease of Language Understanding model (i.e., the ELU model, Rönnberg, 2003; Rönnberg et al., 2008) in light of new behavioral and neural findings concerning the role of working memory capacity (WMC) in uni-modal and bimodal language processing. The new ELU model is a meaning prediction system that depends on phonological and semantic interactions in rapid implicit and slower explicit processing mechanisms that both depend on WMC albeit in different ways. It is based on findings that address the relationship between WMC and (a) early attention processes in listening to speech, (b) signal processing in hearing aids and its effects on short-term memory, (c) inhibition of speech maskers and its effect on episodic long-term memory, (d) the effects of hearing impairment on episodic and semantic long-term memory, and finally, (e) listening effort. New predictions and clinical implications are outlined. Comparisons with other WMC and speech perception models are made. PMID:23874273

  6. Increasing 'ease of sliding' also increases friction: when is a lubricant effective?

    PubMed

    Annunziata, M A; Baldassarri, A; Dalton, F; Petri, A; Pontuale, G

    2016-04-01

    We investigate experimentally the effective Coulomb friction exerted by a granular medium on a shearing plate, varying the medium depth. The plate is driven by a spring connected to a motor turning at a constant speed and, depending on the system configuration, performs continuous sliding or stick and slip in different proportions. We introduce an order parameter which discriminates between the different regimes expressing the fraction of time spent in slipping. At low driving speed, starting from zero layers of interstitial granular material, the average friction coefficient decreases when a few layers are added, while the order parameter stays close to zero. By further increasing the granular depth, the friction undergoes a sudden increase but the order parameter does not change notably. At an intermediate driving speed, however, both the friction and the order parameter undergo a sudden increase, which for the order parameter amounts to several orders of magnitude, indicating that the plate is more braked but nevertheless keeps sliding more easily. For medium-high driving speeds, full sliding is obtained for only one layer of interstitial matter, where friction has a minimum, and is maintained for all increasing depths while friction increases. These observations show that the ease of slipping is not determined by friction alone, rather by the highly complex interplay between driving velocity, friction, and the depth of the medium. PMID:26931379

  7. Increasing ‘ease of sliding’ also increases friction: when is a lubricant effective?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annunziata, M. A.; Baldassarri, A.; Dalton, F.; Petri, A.; Pontuale, G.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate experimentally the effective Coulomb friction exerted by a granular medium on a shearing plate, varying the medium depth. The plate is driven by a spring connected to a motor turning at a constant speed and, depending on the system configuration, performs continuous sliding or stick and slip in different proportions. We introduce an order parameter which discriminates between the different regimes expressing the fraction of time spent in slipping. At low driving speed, starting from zero layers of interstitial granular material, the average friction coefficient decreases when a few layers are added, while the order parameter stays close to zero. By further increasing the granular depth, the friction undergoes a sudden increase but the order parameter does not change notably. At an intermediate driving speed, however, both the friction and the order parameter undergo a sudden increase, which for the order parameter amounts to several orders of magnitude, indicating that the plate is more braked but nevertheless keeps sliding more easily. For medium-high driving speeds, full sliding is obtained for only one layer of interstitial matter, where friction has a minimum, and is maintained for all increasing depths while friction increases. These observations show that the ease of slipping is not determined by friction alone, rather by the highly complex interplay between driving velocity, friction, and the depth of the medium.

  8. A two-year perspective: who may ease the burden of girls’ loneliness in school?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Loneliness is negatively related to good health and wellbeing, especially among girls. There is little research, however, on factors that may ease the burdens of loneliness in the school setting. Thus, we explored the relationship between girls’ loneliness and later school wellbeing adjusted for other adversities. Furthermore, we assessed the significance of having someone whom the girl trusted by investigating possible modifying influences on the addressed association. Methods Altogether, 119 girls in grades 1–8 provided baseline data and answered the same set of questions two years later. Logistic regression models including perceived academic problems, victimisation by bullying, loneliness and trusted others were tested with bad versus good school wellbeing two years later as outcome using SPSS. Results In the multivariable analysis of loneliness, academic problems, and victimisation, loneliness was the only variable showing a strong and negative contribution to later school wellbeing. Next, demonstrated in separate models; the inclusion of having a trusted class advisor fully attenuated the association of loneliness with later school wellbeing. In contrast, other trusted teachers, trusted parents, or trusted students did not affect the association. Conclusions Loneliness in girls strongly predicted school wellbeing two years later. However, having a class advisor whom the girl trusted to contact in hurtful situations clearly reduced the burden of loneliness. This finding highlights the clinical importance of stability, long-lasting relations, and trust that main teachers may represent for lonely girls. PMID:24712912

  9. Nuss procedure: Technical modifications to ease bending of the support bar and lateral stabilizer placement

    PubMed Central

    Karakuş, Osman Zeki; Ulusoy, Oktay; Hakgüder, Gülce; Ateş, Oğuz; Olguner, Çimen; Olguner, Mustafa; Akgür, Feza Mirac

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Modifications defined to ease bending of the support bar and lateral stabilizer placement during minimal invasive repair of pectus excavatum (MIRPE) have not been reported. We herein report our experience with MIRPE including several technical modifications. METHODS: A total of 87 patients who underwent MIRPE were evaluated retrospectively. Technical modifications are (1) a template drawn preoperatively according to the anthropometric measurements, (2) more laterally placed thoracal incisions, (3) single existing incision for multiple support bars, (4) to secure lateral stabilizers to support bar in inverted position. RESULTS: The mean patient age was 11.2 ± 3.8 years. The mean operating time was 63.7 ± 18.7 min. The mean Haller index was 5.4 ± 2.1. Eight patients necessitated two support bars. The support bars were removed in 69 patients after the completion of treatment. Support bars were left in place 26.8 ± 4.3 months. Final chest contours of the 56 patients were evaluated as 12 months passed after support bar removal and excellent repair results were determined in 84.2%. CONCLUSION: Preoperative bending of the support bar according to anthropometric measurements and fixation of the lateral stabilizers to the support bar in inverted position facilitates bar shaping and lateral stabilizer placement. PMID:27512512

  10. Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and perceived enjoyment as drivers for the user acceptance of interactive mobile maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.; Yusof, Muhammad Mat

    2016-08-01

    This study examines the user perception of usefulness, ease of use and enjoyment as drivers for the users' complex interaction with map on mobile devices. TAM model was used to evaluate users' intention to use and their acceptance of interactive mobile map using the above three beliefs as antecedents. Quantitative research (survey) methodology was employed and the analysis and findings showed that all the three explanatory variables used in this study, explain the variability in the user acceptance of interactive mobile map technology. Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and perceived enjoyment each have significant positive influence on user acceptance of interactive mobile maps. This study further validates the TAM model.

  11. The Search for Trust: Technology, Religion, and Society's Dis-Ease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Franz; Foltz, Frederick

    2005-01-01

    Modern technology, and information technology in particular, has changed the nature of human interaction, which has created a certain "disease" as more and more transactions move from the familiarity of traditional community to the abstractness of modern society. This article explores two studies of trust that emerged in the past decade as a…

  12. Design and usability study of an iconic user interface to ease information retrieval of medical guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Griffon, Nicolas; Kerdelhué, Gaétan; Hamek, Saliha; Hassler, Sylvain; Boog, César; Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Duclos, Catherine; Venot, Alain; Darmoni, Stéfan J

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective Doc'CISMeF (DC) is a semantic search engine used to find resources in CISMeF-BP, a quality controlled health gateway, which gathers guidelines available on the internet in French. Visualization of Concepts in Medicine (VCM) is an iconic language that may ease information retrieval tasks. This study aimed to describe the creation and evaluation of an interface integrating VCM in DC in order to make this search engine much easier to use. Methods Focus groups were organized to suggest ways to enhance information retrieval tasks using VCM in DC. A VCM interface was created and improved using the ergonomic evaluation approach. 20 physicians were recruited to compare the VCM interface with the non-VCM one. Each evaluator answered two different clinical scenarios in each interface. The ability and time taken to select a relevant resource were recorded and compared. A usability analysis was performed using the System Usability Scale (SUS). Results The VCM interface contains a filter based on icons, and icons describing each resource according to focus group recommendations. Some ergonomic issues were resolved before evaluation. Use of VCM significantly increased the success of information retrieval tasks (OR=11; 95% CI 1.4 to 507). Nonetheless, it took significantly more time to find a relevant resource with VCM interface (101 vs 65 s; p=0.02). SUS revealed ‘good’ usability with an average score of 74/100. Conclusions VCM was successfully implemented in DC as an option. It increased the success rate of information retrieval tasks, despite requiring slightly more time, and was well accepted by end-users. PMID:24650636

  13. Using Familiar Contexts to Ease the Transition between A-Level and First-Year Degree-Level Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, John J.

    2013-01-01

    This article endeavours to define how an understanding of the context of chemical principles and processes investigated at A-level (post-16) and earlier can be continued and contribute to easing the tensions and uncertainties encountered by chemistry and chemical engineering students on entry to university. The importance of using chemistry…

  14. Easing Transition and Promoting a Positive Student Experience within an International Partnership Scheme for British and Chinese Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Daguo

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the needs and challenges of a group of Chinese secondary school teachers in their transition to postgraduate studies in the UK in the context of a British-Chinese partnership. The strategies and efforts of the host institution, local community and the Chinese students themselves to help ease the transition and promote a…

  15. Reading Ease Level of D.C. Fire Department Written Materials Required for Entry-Level Job Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Sandra S.

    On the assumption that the verbal complexity of written examination materials used to select personnel for a job should be similar to the verbal complexity of materials that must be read and understood on the job, the Flesch Reading Ease Index was applied to samples of the reading materials required for successful entry-level job performance in…

  16. Exploring the Adoption of a Virtual Reality Simulation: The Role of Perceived Ease of Use, Perceived Usefulness and Personal Innovativeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Mary; Kilmon, Carol; Pandey, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore students' perceptions of a virtual reality simulation that enable nursing students to learn how to use a medical emergency crash cart. Design/methodology/approach: The study was designed to explore how students' perceptions of ease of use and perceived usefulness from the technology acceptance model and the…

  17. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF BOVINE SOMATOTROPIN ON REPRODUCTION AND CALVING EASE IN COMMERCIAL HOLSTEIN HERDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Records involving 134 Holstein herds, having both bovine somatotropin (BST) treated and non treated cows, totaling approximately 100,000 cows in their second, third and fourth lactations from 1994 to 2002, were used to analyze the effect of BST on reproduction and calving ease. Using SAS MIXED and G...

  18. What Role Can Dual Enrollment Programs Play in Easing the Transition between High School and Postsecondary Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Thomas R.; Hughes, Katherine L.; Karp, Melinda Mechur

    Dual enrollment programs allow high school students to enroll in college courses before high school graduation, giving them firsthand exposure to the requirements of college-level work and allowing them to gain high school and college credit simultaneously. The role of dual enrollments in easing the transition between high school and postsecondary…

  19. Derivation of New Readability Formulas (Automated Readability Index, Fog Count and Flesch Reading Ease Formula) for Navy Enlisted Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincaid, J. P.; And Others

    Three readability formulas were recalculated to be more suitable for Navy use. The three formulas are the Automated Readability Index (ARI), Fog Count, and Flesch Reading Ease Formula. They were derived from test results of 531 Navy enlisted personnel enrolled in four technical training schools. Personnel were tested for their reading…

  20. Use of a threshold animal model to estimate calving ease and stillbirth (co)variance components for US Holsteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    (Co)variance components for calving ease and stillbirth in US Holsteins were estimated using a single-trait threshold animal model and two different sets of data edits. Six sets of approximately 250,000 records each were created by randomly selecting herd codes without replacement from the data used...

  1. The Effects of Key Demographic Variables on Markers' Perceived Ease of Use and Acceptance of Onscreen Marking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Zi; Coniam, David

    2014-01-01

    The current study aims to investigate the effects of three key demographic factors -- the language of marking, gender and age -- on markers' reactions to onscreen marking (OSM). A total of 1743 markers completed a post-marking questionnaire consisting of two previously validated scales, i.e. "Ease of Use in the OSM Environment" and…

  2. Imitation, Sign Language Skill and the Developmental Ease of Language Understanding (D-ELU) Model

    PubMed Central

    Holmer, Emil; Heimann, Mikael; Rudner, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Imitation and language processing are closely connected. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model (Rönnberg et al., 2013) pre-existing mental representation of lexical items facilitates language understanding. Thus, imitation of manual gestures is likely to be enhanced by experience of sign language. We tested this by eliciting imitation of manual gestures from deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing and hearing non-signing children at a similar level of language and cognitive development. We predicted that the DHH signing children would be better at imitating gestures lexicalized in their own sign language (Swedish Sign Language, SSL) than unfamiliar British Sign Language (BSL) signs, and that both groups would be better at imitating lexical signs (SSL and BSL) than non-signs. We also predicted that the hearing non-signing children would perform worse than DHH signing children with all types of gestures the first time (T1) we elicited imitation, but that the performance gap between groups would be reduced when imitation was elicited a second time (T2). Finally, we predicted that imitation performance on both occasions would be associated with linguistic skills, especially in the manual modality. A split-plot repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that DHH signers imitated manual gestures with greater precision than non-signing children when imitation was elicited the second but not the first time. Manual gestures were easier to imitate for both groups when they were lexicalized than when they were not; but there was no difference in performance between familiar and unfamiliar gestures. For both groups, language skills at T1 predicted imitation at T2. Specifically, for DHH children, word reading skills, comprehension and phonological awareness of sign language predicted imitation at T2. For the hearing participants, language comprehension predicted imitation at T2, even after the effects of working memory capacity and motor skills were taken into

  3. Imitation, Sign Language Skill and the Developmental Ease of Language Understanding (D-ELU) Model.

    PubMed

    Holmer, Emil; Heimann, Mikael; Rudner, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Imitation and language processing are closely connected. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model (Rönnberg et al., 2013) pre-existing mental representation of lexical items facilitates language understanding. Thus, imitation of manual gestures is likely to be enhanced by experience of sign language. We tested this by eliciting imitation of manual gestures from deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing and hearing non-signing children at a similar level of language and cognitive development. We predicted that the DHH signing children would be better at imitating gestures lexicalized in their own sign language (Swedish Sign Language, SSL) than unfamiliar British Sign Language (BSL) signs, and that both groups would be better at imitating lexical signs (SSL and BSL) than non-signs. We also predicted that the hearing non-signing children would perform worse than DHH signing children with all types of gestures the first time (T1) we elicited imitation, but that the performance gap between groups would be reduced when imitation was elicited a second time (T2). Finally, we predicted that imitation performance on both occasions would be associated with linguistic skills, especially in the manual modality. A split-plot repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that DHH signers imitated manual gestures with greater precision than non-signing children when imitation was elicited the second but not the first time. Manual gestures were easier to imitate for both groups when they were lexicalized than when they were not; but there was no difference in performance between familiar and unfamiliar gestures. For both groups, language skills at T1 predicted imitation at T2. Specifically, for DHH children, word reading skills, comprehension and phonological awareness of sign language predicted imitation at T2. For the hearing participants, language comprehension predicted imitation at T2, even after the effects of working memory capacity and motor skills were taken into

  4. Overview of crew member energy expenditure during Shuttle Flight 61-8 EASE/ACCESS task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horrigan, D. J.; Waligora, J. W.; Stanford, J.; Edwards, B. F.

    1987-01-01

    The energy expenditure of the Shuttle Flight 61-B crewmembers during the extravehicular performance of Experimental Assembly of Structures in EVA (EASE) and Assembly Concept of Construction of Space Structures (ACCESS) construction system tasks are reported. These data consist of metabolic rate time profiles correlated with specific EASE and ACCESS tasks and crew comments. Average extravehicular activity metabolic rates are computed and compared with those reported from previous Apollo, Shylab, and Shuttle flights. These data reflect total energy expenditure and not that of individual muscle groups such as hand and forearm. When correlated with specific EVA tasks and subtasks, the metabolic profile data is expected to be useful in planning future EVA protocols. For example, after experiencing high work rates and apparent overheating during some Gemini EVAs, it was found useful to carefully monitor work rates in subsequent flights to assess the adequacy of cooling garments and as an aid to preplanning EVA procedures. This presentation is represented by graphs and charts.

  5. Traditional versus rule-based programming techniques: Application to the control of optional flight information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, Wendell R.; Abbott, Kathy H.

    1987-01-01

    To the software design community, the concern over the costs associated with a program's execution time and implementation is great. It is always desirable, and sometimes imperative, that the proper programming technique is chosen which minimizes all costs for a given application or type of application. A study is described that compared cost-related factors associated with traditional programming techniques to rule-based programming techniques for a specific application. The results of this study favored the traditional approach regarding execution efficiency, but favored the rule-based approach regarding programmer productivity (implementation ease). Although this study examined a specific application, the results should be widely applicable.

  6. Traditional and New Influenza Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Sook-San

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The challenges in successful vaccination against influenza using conventional approaches lie in their variable efficacy in different age populations, the antigenic variability of the circulating virus, and the production and manufacturing limitations to ensure safe, timely, and adequate supply of vaccine. The conventional influenza vaccine platform is based on stimulating immunity against the major neutralizing antibody target, hemagglutinin (HA), by virus attenuation or inactivation. Improvements to this conventional system have focused primarily on improving production and immunogenicity. Cell culture, reverse genetics, and baculovirus expression technology allow for safe and scalable production, while adjuvants, dose variation, and alternate routes of delivery aim to improve vaccine immunogenicity. Fundamentally different approaches that are currently under development hope to signal new generations of influenza vaccines. Such approaches target nonvariable regions of antigenic proteins, with the idea of stimulating cross-protective antibodies and thus creating a “universal” influenza vaccine. While such approaches have obvious benefits, there are many hurdles yet to clear. Here, we discuss the process and challenges of the current influenza vaccine platform as well as new approaches that are being investigated based on the same antigenic target and newer technologies based on different antigenic targets. PMID:23824369

  7. Occupational Choice: Do Traditional and Non-Traditional Women Differ?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Roslyn D.; Frazee, Pamela

    A national survey of women in nontraditional, mixed, and traditional occupational training at area vocational technical schools was conducted to determine the factors which influence women to enter nontraditional training and how they differ from those of traditional women. It was found that women have difficulty selecting a nontraditional…

  8. Cherokee Stickball: A Changing Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Ted

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the history of Cherokee stickball, a ball game dating back at least to the 1500s that was once used (as an alternative to war) for resolving grievances between tribes and townships. Describes traditional aspects of Cherokee stickball and notes the steady decline of the game and its traditional rules and ceremonies. (LP)

  9. An Internet-based program for depression using activity and physiological sensors: efficacy, expectations, satisfaction, and ease of use

    PubMed Central

    Botella, Cristina; Mira, Adriana; Moragrega, Inés; García-Palacios, Azucena; Bretón-López, Juana; Castilla, Diana; Riera López del Amo, Antonio; Soler, Carla; Molinari, Guadalupe; Quero, Soledad; Guillén-Botella, Verónica; Miralles, Ignacio; Nebot, Sara; Serrano, Berenice; Majoe, Dennis; Alcañiz, Mariano; Baños, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (CCBT) has been shown to be efficacious. Moreover, CCBT can be enhanced by using physiological and activity sensors, but there is no evidence about the acceptability of all these tools. The objective of this study is to examine the efficacy, expectations, satisfaction, and ease of use of an Internet-based CCBT program for preventing depression, with and without sensors (electroencephalography, electrocardiograhpy ECG, and actigraphy), in a high-risk population (unemployed men). Patients and methods Sixty participants at risk of depression (unemployed men) were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions: 1) intervention program (N=22), 2) intervention program plus sensors (N=19), and 3) control group (N=19). Participants completed depression, anxiety, positive and negative affect, and perceived stress measures. Furthermore, they also completed the measures for expectation, satisfaction, and the ease of use of the program. Results Results showed that the two intervention groups improved significantly more than the control group on the clinical variables, and the improvements were greater in the group that used sensors than in the group that did not use them. Furthermore, participants in both intervention groups scored high on expectations and satisfaction with the CCBT program (with and without sensors). The mean score for usability was 88 out of 100 (standard deviation =12.32). No significant differences were found between groups on any of these variables. Conclusion This is the first study to analyze the efficacy, expectations, satisfaction, and ease of use of an Internet-based program using physiological and activity sensors. These results suggest that an Internet program for depression with or without physiological and activity sensors is effective, satisfactory, and easy to use. PMID:27042067

  10. Immediate Reduction of Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium Viability via Membrane Destabilization following Exposure to Multiple-Hurdle Treatments with Heated, Acidified Organic Acid Salt Solutions▿†

    PubMed Central

    Milillo, S. R.; Martin, E.; Muthaiyan, A.; Ricke, S. C.

    2011-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of organic acids in combination with nonchemical treatments was evaluated for inactivation of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium within 1 min. It was observed that the effectiveness of the multiple-hurdle treatments was temperature (P ≤ 0.05) and pH (P ≤ 0.05) dependent and corresponded to the degree of organic acid lipophilicity (sodium acetate being least effective and sodium propionate being the most effective). This led to the hypothesis that the loss in viability was due at least in part to cell membrane disruption. Evaluation of osmotic response, potassium ion leakage, and transmission electron micrographs confirmed treatment effects on the cell membrane. Interestingly, all treatments, even those with no effect on viability, such as with sodium acetate, resulted in measurable cellular stress. Microarray experiments explored the specific response of S. Typhimurium to sodium acetate and sodium propionate, the most similar of the tested treatments in terms of pKa and ionic strength, and found little difference in the changes in gene expression following exposure to either, despite their very different effects on viability. Taken together, the results reported support our hypothesis that treatment with heated, acidified, organic acid salt solutions for 1 min causes loss of S. Typhimurium viability at least in part by membrane damage and that the degree of effectiveness can be correlated with lipophilicity of the organic acid. Overall, the data presented here indicate that a combined thermal, acidified sodium propionate treatment can provide an effective antimicrobial treatment against Salmonella. PMID:21478311

  11. Approaching Traditional Literature in Non-Traditional Ways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tensen, Tracy Anderson; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents three brief essays that discuss approaching traditional literature (Thornton Wilder's "Our Town," Mark Twain "Adventures of Huckleberry Finn," and Geoffrey Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales") in imaginative ways in high school English and vocational/technical classrooms. (RS)

  12. Traditional Methods for Mineral Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Robert E.; Carpenter, Charles E.

    This chapter describes traditional methods for analysis of minerals involving titrimetric and colorimetric procedures, and the use of ion selective electrodes. Other traditional methods of mineral analysis include gravimetric titration (i.e., insoluble forms of minerals are precipitated, rinse, dried, and weighed) and redox reactions (i.e., mineral is part of an oxidation-reduction reaction, and product is quantitated). However, these latter two methods will not be covered because they currently are used little in the food industry. The traditional methods that will be described have maintained widespread usage in the food industry despite the development of more modern instrumentation such as atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (Chap. 24). Traditional methods generally require chemicals and equipment that are routinely available in an analytical laboratory and are within the experience of most laboratory technicians. Additionally, traditional methods often form the basis for rapid analysis kits (e.g., Quantab®; for salt determination) that are increasingly in demand. Procedures for analysis of minerals of major nutritional or food processing concern are used for illustrative purposes. For additional examples of traditional methods refer to references (1-6). Slight modifications of these traditional methods are often needed for specific foodstuffs to minimize interferences or to be in the range of analytical performance. For analytical requirements for specific foods see the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (5) and related official methods (6).

  13. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  14. Trust, Perceived Risk, Perceived Ease of Use and Perceived Usefulness as Factors Related to mHealth Technology Use.

    PubMed

    Schnall, Rebecca; Higgins, Tracy; Brown, William; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Bakken, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technology use is nearly ubiquitous which affords the opportunity for using these technologies for modifying health related behaviors. At the same time, use of mobile health (mHealth) technology raises privacy and security concerns of consumers. The goal of this analysis was to understand the perceived ease of use, usefulness, risk and trust that contribute to behavioral intention to use a mobile application for meeting the healthcare needs of persons living with HIV (PLWH). To understand these issues, we conducted focus group sessions with 50 persons living with HIV and 30 HIV healthcare providers. We used the e-commerce acceptance model to analyze our focus group data. Findings from the study demonstrated the need for mHealth to be perceived as useful, easy to use, with little perceived risk accompanied by a measure of trust in the creators of the technology. Findings from this work can inform future work on patients and providers' perceptions of risk, trust, ease of use and usefulness of mHealth technology. PMID:26262094

  15. ECR heating power modulation as a means to ease the overcoming of the radiation barrier in fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, D. Kh.; Pshenov, A. A.; Mineev, A. B.

    2010-06-15

    A method is proposed to ease the overcoming of the impurity radiation barrier during current drive in tokamaks, as well as in alternative fusion and plasmochemical systems with ECR plasma heating. The method is based on the fact that the dependence of the ionization rate on the electron temperature is strongly nonlinear and the dependence of the recombination rate on the latter is weaker. The result is that, during temperature oscillations, the effective temperature for ionization-recombination processes is higher than that in a steady state, so the ionization equilibrium is shifted and strongly emitting ions are stripped more rapidly. Thereby, ECR plasma heating in the initial discharge stage can be made more efficient by modulating the heating power at a low frequency. The evolution of the electron temperature in a homogeneous hydrogen plasma with a carbon impurity and in small ISX-scale tokamaks is simulated numerically, as well as the evolution of the electron and ion temperatures and of the current during discharge startup in the ITER device. Numerical simulations of the effect of modulation of the ECR heating power on the rate of heating of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon plasmas were also carried out. The assumption of coronal equilibrium is not used. It is shown that the low-frequency modulation of the heating power can substantially ease the overcoming of the radiation barrier.

  16. Microbial inactivation and shelf life comparison of 'cold' hurdle processing with pulsed electric fields and microfiltration, and conventional thermal pasteurisation in skim milk.

    PubMed

    Walkling-Ribeiro, M; Rodríguez-González, O; Jayaram, S; Griffiths, M W

    2011-01-01

    Thermal pasteurisation (TP) is the established food technology for commercial processing of milk. However, degradation of valuable nutrients in milk and its sensory characteristics occurs during TP due to substantial heat exposure. Pulsed electric fields (PEF) and microfiltration (MF) both represent emerging food processing technologies allowing gentle milk preservation at lower temperatures and shorter treatment times for similar, or better, microbial inactivation and shelf stability when applied in a hurdle approach compared to TP. Incubated raw milk was used as an inoculum for the enrichment of skim milk with native microorganisms before PEF, MF, and TP processing. Inoculated milk was PEF-processed at electric field strengths between 16 and 42 kV/cm for treatment times from 612 to 2105 μs; accounting for energy densities between 407 and 815 kJ/L, while MF was applied with a transmembrane flux of 660 L/h m². Milk was TP-treated at 75°C for 24 s. Comparing PEF, MF, and TP for the reduction of the native microbial load in milk led to a 4.6 log₁₀ CFU/mL reduction in count for TP, which was similar to 3.7 log₁₀ CFU/mL obtained by MF (P≥0.05), and more effective than the 2.5 log₁₀ CFU/mL inactivation achieved by PEF inactivation (at 815 kJ/L (P<0.05)). Combined processing with MF followed by PEF (MF/PEF) produced a 4.1 (at 407 and 632 kJ/L), 4.4 (at 668 kJ/L) and 4.8 (at 815 kJ/L) log₁₀ CFU/mL reduction in count of the milk microorganisms, which was comparable to that of TP (P≥0.05). Reversed processing (PEF/MF) achieved comparable reductions of 4.9, 5.3 and 5.7 log₁₀ CFU/mL (at 407, 632 and 668 kJ/L, respectively (P≥0.05)) and a higher inactivation of 7.1 log₁₀ (at 815 kJ/mL (P<0.05)) in milk than for TP. Microbial shelf life of PEF/MF-treated (815 kJ/L) and TP-treated milk stored at 4°C was analysed over 35 days for total aerobic; enterobacteria; yeasts and moulds; lactobacilli; psychrotroph; thermoduric psychrotroph, mesophilic

  17. One more hurdle for biotech

    SciTech Connect

    Balter, M.

    1991-06-07

    On 20 March, the Monsanto Company received a long-awaited approval from the European Community's (EC) Committee for Veterinary Medicinal Products (CVMP) for its version of recombinant bovine somatotropin (BST), a growth hormone that, when injected into cows, can increase milk production up to 20%. Under normal circumstances, the generally positive recommendation would have meant BST was headed for market. But BST is no ordinary drug. Controversies have raged on both sides of the Atlantic, not only about its safety but whether it is needed at all during a time of surplus milk production - and whether its use would drive many small farmers out of business when cheap, hormone-induced milk from agribusiness floods the market. That concern led the EC's Council of Agricultural Ministers in April 1990 to declare a moratorium on the marketing of BST. The ban, recently extended to the end of this year, is designed to allow completion of several studies - including a look at the effect BST would have on European agriculture.

  18. Shared Medical Appointments: A Promising Innovation to Improve Patient Engagement and Ease the Primary Care Provider Shortage.

    PubMed

    Stults, Cheryl D; McCuistion, Mary H; Frosch, Dominick L; Hung, Dorothy Y; Cheng, Peter H; Tai-Seale, Ming

    2016-02-01

    The Affordable Care Act has extended coverage for uninsured and underinsured Americans, but it could exacerbate existing problems of access to primary care. Shared medical appointments (SMAs) are one way to improve access and increase practice productivity, but few studies have examined the patient's perspective on participation in SMAs. To understand patient experiences, 5 focus group sessions were conducted with a total of 30 people in the San Francisco Bay Area. The sessions revealed that most participants felt that they received numerous tangible and intangible benefits from SMAs, particularly enhanced engagement with other patients and physicians, learning, and motivation for health behavior change. Most importantly, participants noted changes in the power dynamic during SMA visits as they increasingly saw themselves empowered to impart information to the physician. Although SMAs improve access, engagement with physicians and other patients, and knowledge of patients' health, they also help to ease the workload for physicians. PMID:26090793

  19. Comparison of the ease of tracheal intubation by postgraduate residents of anesthesiology using Airtraq™ and Macintosh laryngoscopes: An observational study

    PubMed Central

    Yallapragada, Srivishnu Vardhan; Parasa, Mrunalini; Vemuri, Nagendra Nath; Shaik, Mastan Saheb

    2016-01-01

    Context: Airtraq™ (Prodol Meditec, Vizcaya, Spain) is a recently developed laryngoscope, which facilitates easy visualization of glottis through a matrix of sequentially arranged lenses and mirrors. In this observatory study, we sought to compare the ease of tracheal intubation with Airtraq™ and Macintosh laryngoscope when performed by 2nd year postgraduate residents of Anesthesiology in NRI Medical College, Mangalagiri. Aims: To compare the ease of tracheal intubation by Airtraq™ laryngoscope with that by Macintosh laryngoscope among the 2nd year postgraduate residents of anesthesiology in terms of time taken for intubation and the rise of rate-pressure product (RPP) with intubation. Settings and Design: Prospective randomized observational study. Subjects and Methods: Eighty adult and healthy patients with an easy airway, scheduled for general anesthesia were allocated into two groups A, and M. Patients in Group A were intubated with Airtraq™ laryngoscope and those in Group M were intubated with Macintosh laryngoscope by the 2nd year postgraduate residents of anesthesiology. The time taken for intubation, the RPPs at baseline, after induction of general anesthesia, postintubation, at 3 and 5 min after intubation, the rise of RPP to intubation and the occurrence of a sore throat were compared between the two groups. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to analyze the data. Results: The mean time for intubation in Macintosh group was 28.18 s and was 40.98 s in Airtraq group. The mean rise of RPP to intubation was 4644.83 in Airtraq group and 2829.27 in Macintosh group. The incidence of a sore throat was equal in both the groups. Conclusions: The time for intubation and the sympathetic response to airway instrumentation were more with Airtraq™ laryngoscope than with Macintosh laryngoscope. PMID:27212753

  20. Wheat grain as a prepartal cereal choice to ease metabolic transition from gestation into lactation in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Amanlou, H; Zahmatkesh, D; Nikkhah, A

    2008-10-01

    Wheat grain (WG) is a unique cereal rich in easily fermentable starch and low in cation-anion difference (e.g. 5.3 mEq/100 g). The controlled prepartal dietary inclusion of WG, thus, has the potential to ease adapting the rumen microbes and papillae to the high-starch lactation diets, stimulate feed intake, reduce hypocalcaemia by reducing extracellular alkalinity and a moderate induction of bone resorption, and improve milk yield in periparturient cows. The primary objective was to determine the effects of prepartal feeding of WG compared to barley grain plus wheat bran on metabolic and productive criteria in periparturient Holstein cows. Twenty-four dry cows and 16 pregnant heifers were blocked based on parity and projected calving date and fed a prepartal diet containing either (i) ground WG (18% on a dry matter basis) or (ii) a conventional diet with ground barley grain and wheat bran or control diet, from 28-day prepartum until parturition. All cows were fed the control diet during 21-day postpartum. Prepartal dietary inclusion of WG increased prepartum feed intake, elevated blood glucose and attenuated hypocalcaemia at 7-day prepartum and 1-day postpartum, reduced urine pH, and increased milk fat percent and yield. Blood proteins at 7-day prepartum were higher and placenta tended to be expelled sooner in WG-fed cows than in other cows. Treatments did not affect milk protein, changes in body condition score; total time spent eating, ruminating and chewing; blood levels of urea nitrogen, cholesterol, and phosphorous, fecal pH, and calving difficulty. Therefore, the prepartal dietary use of WG proved effective in the simultaneous improvement of calcium and energy states, and thereby, in easing the metabolic transition from gestation into lactation in Holstein cows. PMID:19012605

  1. Traditional knowledge and intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Brody, Baruch A

    2010-09-01

    Biotechnological inventions are sometimes based upon the traditional knowledge of indigenous communities about the beneficial properties of plants and animals. Some institutions have adopted the uniqueness of traditional knowledge approach, which maintains that the indigenous communities have sui generis rights to a share of the profits from these inventions. Others have adopted the protection of inventive steps approach, which maintains that the inventors are entitled to the full profits from the invention if it involves a non-obvious and novel inventive step. The article analyzes this debate at the Convention on Biological Diversity, at the World Intellectual Property Organization, and at the World Trade Organization. It concludes that the adherents of the uniqueness of traditional knowledge approach have not justified their claims. PMID:21133334

  2. Traditional Literacy and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dando, Priscille

    2016-01-01

    How school librarians focus on activating critical thinking through traditional literacy development can proactively set the stage for the deep thinking that occurs in all literacy development. The critical-thinking skills students build while becoming accomplished readers and writers provide the foundation for learning in a variety of…

  3. Bringing Traditional Teachings to Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Siemthlut Michelle

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine how our Kootegan Yix Meh Towlth (traditional governance) might contribute to the development and implementation of a culturally relevant Sliammon governance model. Our Uk woom he heow (ancestors) lived their everyday lives guided by a complex system of practices and beliefs based on our Ta-ow (traditional…

  4. From Traditional to Virtual Mentoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, James J.; Olinger, Jennifer

    The tradition of a mentoring relationship is embedded in a personal/business relationship between a wise teacher and someone who needs to learn a trade. Learning sessions have occurred over the years in many types of settings, including one-on-one mentoring, conferences, meetings, telephone, and fax. As society looks to technology as a vital…

  5. Traditional Teacher Education Still Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Fresh from teaching his first full school year the author reflects on his traditional teacher preparation path into the classroom and finds he was instilled with a common sense of ethics, compassion, a demand for reflective practice, and a robust guiding philosophy. As a college student, he learned theory and was able to augment that with…

  6. Is Traditional Educational Media Dead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljubic, Milan

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the influence of films on the author and concludes that traditional media has not died out, but rather has changed due to technology. Films are now watched on television as well as at a cinema; radio is more pervasive; and newspapers are still valued. (LRW)

  7. Aspects of Traditional Inupiat Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ongtooguk, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Traditional Inupiat society was, and is, about knowing the right time to be in the right place, with the right tools to take advantage of a temporary abundance of resources. Sharing the necessary knowledge about the natural world with the next generation was critical. The example of learning to hunt is used to demonstrate features of traditional…

  8. Innovating Traditional Nursing Administration Challenges.

    PubMed

    Joseph, M Lindell; Fowler, Debra

    2016-03-01

    The evolving and complex practice environment calls for new mindsets among nurse leaders, academics, and nurse innovators to envision innovative ways to manage and optimize traditional tasks and processes in nursing administration. The purpose of this article is to present 3 case studies that used linear programming and simulation to innovate staffing enterprises, financial management of healthcare systems, and curricula development. PMID:26906516

  9. Individualizing in Traditional Classroom Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornell, John G.

    1980-01-01

    Effective individualized instruction depends primarily on the teacher possessing the skills to implement it. Individualization is therefore quite compatible with the traditional self-contained elementary classroom model, but not with its alternative, departmentalization, which allows teachers neither the time flexibility nor the familiarity with…

  10. Storytelling Figures: A Pueblo Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Nancy

    1997-01-01

    In a collaborative unit on pueblo storytelling figures involving art, music, language arts, and physical education, a teacher describes how she helped second graders understand the Pueblo pottery tradition by reading aloud literature covering the past and present. Lists folklore, fiction, poetry, nonfiction, professional resources, videos, CDs,…

  11. Easing Your Child's Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Child's Allergies For starters, pay attention to pollen levels, FDA advises To use the sharing features ... be caused by outdoor allergens such as plant pollens (seasonal allergies) or indoor allergens such as mold, ...

  12. Easing Your Child's Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... your child has seasonal allergies, pay attention to pollen counts and try to keep him or her inside ... in the fall, the FDA said. Besides monitoring pollen counts, it often helps to keep windows closed in ...

  13. Redistricting Eases Transportation Inflation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Fred; Krasnakevich, John R.

    1981-01-01

    A computer was used to produce a cost effective redistricting plan for Fall River (Massachusetts) that eliminated nine rental and three city-owned school buildings, and reduced transportation costs. (Author/MLF)

  14. More ease in communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matare, J.

    Features of an electronic, microprocessor-controlled telephone system are reviewed. The handset is decribed. Options that can be activated with the program keys on the handset are: automatic callback; automatic redialling; call diversion; and individual abbreviated dialing. Communication problems, e.g., line busy, no answer, two callers are speaking when a third wants to join in, are considered. Besides program keys, other features that make it possible to overcome these problems are: add-on (three-party) conference switch; loudspeaker; and individual charge registration. First results in the use of this system show considerable advantages over conventional telephone technology.

  15. Accuracy, Precision, Ease-Of-Use, and Cost of Methods to Test Ebola-Relevant Chlorine Solutions.

    PubMed

    Wells, Emma; Wolfe, Marlene K; Murray, Anna; Lantagne, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    To prevent transmission in Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreaks, it is recommended to disinfect living things (hands and people) with 0.05% chlorine solution and non-living things (surfaces, personal protective equipment, dead bodies) with 0.5% chlorine solution. In the current West African EVD outbreak, these solutions (manufactured from calcium hypochlorite (HTH), sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC), and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)) have been widely used in both Ebola Treatment Unit and community settings. To ensure solution quality, testing is necessary, however test method appropriateness for these Ebola-relevant concentrations has not previously been evaluated. We identified fourteen commercially-available methods to test Ebola-relevant chlorine solution concentrations, including two titration methods, four DPD dilution methods, and six test strips. We assessed these methods by: 1) determining accuracy and precision by measuring in quintuplicate five different 0.05% and 0.5% chlorine solutions manufactured from NaDCC, HTH, and NaOCl; 2) conducting volunteer testing to assess ease-of-use; and, 3) determining costs. Accuracy was greatest in titration methods (reference-12.4% error compared to reference method), then DPD dilution methods (2.4-19% error), then test strips (5.2-48% error); precision followed this same trend. Two methods had an accuracy of <10% error across all five chlorine solutions with good precision: Hach digital titration for 0.05% and 0.5% solutions (recommended for contexts with trained personnel and financial resources), and Serim test strips for 0.05% solutions (recommended for contexts where rapid, inexpensive, and low-training burden testing is needed). Measurement error from test methods not including pH adjustment varied significantly across the five chlorine solutions, which had pH values 5-11. Volunteers found test strip easiest and titration hardest; costs per 100 tests were $14-37 for test strips and $33-609 for titration. Given the

  16. Accuracy, Precision, Ease-Of-Use, and Cost of Methods to Test Ebola-Relevant Chlorine Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Emma; Wolfe, Marlene K.; Murray, Anna; Lantagne, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    To prevent transmission in Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreaks, it is recommended to disinfect living things (hands and people) with 0.05% chlorine solution and non-living things (surfaces, personal protective equipment, dead bodies) with 0.5% chlorine solution. In the current West African EVD outbreak, these solutions (manufactured from calcium hypochlorite (HTH), sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC), and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)) have been widely used in both Ebola Treatment Unit and community settings. To ensure solution quality, testing is necessary, however test method appropriateness for these Ebola-relevant concentrations has not previously been evaluated. We identified fourteen commercially-available methods to test Ebola-relevant chlorine solution concentrations, including two titration methods, four DPD dilution methods, and six test strips. We assessed these methods by: 1) determining accuracy and precision by measuring in quintuplicate five different 0.05% and 0.5% chlorine solutions manufactured from NaDCC, HTH, and NaOCl; 2) conducting volunteer testing to assess ease-of-use; and, 3) determining costs. Accuracy was greatest in titration methods (reference-12.4% error compared to reference method), then DPD dilution methods (2.4–19% error), then test strips (5.2–48% error); precision followed this same trend. Two methods had an accuracy of <10% error across all five chlorine solutions with good precision: Hach digital titration for 0.05% and 0.5% solutions (recommended for contexts with trained personnel and financial resources), and Serim test strips for 0.05% solutions (recommended for contexts where rapid, inexpensive, and low-training burden testing is needed). Measurement error from test methods not including pH adjustment varied significantly across the five chlorine solutions, which had pH values 5–11. Volunteers found test strip easiest and titration hardest; costs per 100 tests were $14–37 for test strips and $33–609 for titration

  17. Health traditions of Sikkim Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Ashok Kumar; Misra, Sangram

    2010-01-01

    Ancient medical systems are still prevalent in Sikkim, popularly nurtured by Buddhist groups using the traditional Tibetan pharmacopoeia overlapping with Ayurvedic medicine. Traditional medical practices and their associated cultural values are based round Sikkim’s three major communities, Lepcha, Bhutia and Nepalis. In this study, a semi-structured questionnaire was prepared for folk healers covering age and sex, educational qualification, source of knowledge, types of practices, experience and generation of practice, and transformation of knowledge. These were administered to forty-eight folk healers identified in different parts of Sikkim. 490 medicinal plants find their habitats in Sikkim because of its large variations in altitude and climate. For 31 commonly used by these folk healers, we present botanical name, family, local name, distribution, and parts used, together with their therapeutic uses, mostly Rheumatoid arthritis, Gout, Gonorrhea, Fever, Viral flu, asthma, Cough and Cold, indigestion, Jaundice etc. A case treated by a folk healer is also recounted. This study indicates that, in the studied area, Sikkim’s health traditions and folk practices are declining due to shifts in socio-economic patterns, and unwillingness of the younger generation to adopt folk healing as a profession. PMID:21547046

  18. [On the subject of tradition].

    PubMed

    Zuurmont, I

    1996-04-01

    HIV/STD prevention programs can stimulate debate over behavior change at the community level. In 1993, Yayasan Haumeni, a local nongovernmental organization (NGO) in Timor, southeastern Asia, launched an HIV/STD prevention program when voluntary health agents announced an increased level of STDs in the community. The NGO first conducted a study in 12 villages to identify the main modes of HIV transmission. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and group discussions with traditional healers, religious leaders, and youth. A ritual linked to puberty was found to be a practice potentially fostering the transmission of HIV/STDs in the community. Once circumcised by traditional practitioners, pubescent boys in the community are expected to have sexual relations with 2-4 different women. Study participants also discussed the subjects of multiple sex partners, abortion, adolescent pregnancy, family planning, and the exodus of young people. Study results were presented to district decision-makers, who decided to implement an education program on HIV and STDs designed to foment debate upon the circumcision ritual, the sex roles of men and women, and perceptions of male sexual power. Even though it remains too early to assess sexual behavior changes in the community, some young people and their families have begun to question the traditional circumcision practice and its associated rituals. PMID:12322626

  19. Esoteric healing traditions: a conceptual overview.

    PubMed

    Levin, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents, for the first time, a comprehensive scholarly examination of the history and principles of major traditions of esoteric healing. After a brief conceptual overview of esoteric religion and healing, summaries are provided of eight major esoteric traditions, including descriptions of beliefs and practices related to health, healing, and medicine. These include what are termed the kabbalistic tradition, the mystery school tradition, the gnostic tradition, the brotherhoods tradition, the Eastern mystical tradition, the Western mystical tradition, the shamanic tradition, and the new age tradition. Next, commonalities across these traditions are summarized with respect to beliefs and practices related to anatomy and physiology; nosology and etiology; pathophysiology; and therapeutic modalities. Finally, the implications of this survey of esoteric healing are discussed for clinicians, biomedical researchers, and medical educators. PMID:18316053

  20. Hyperhidrosis in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Shahroodi, Aniseh Saffar; Shirbeigi, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Background: Excessive sweating is a medical condition in which a person sweats much more than needed. The medical name of this disorder is hyperhidrosis known as a common dermal problem that affects people of all ages and leads to negative impact on the quality of life. During the last decades, several studies have shown that in many cases of hyperhidrosis there is no evidence of systemic disease. Therefore, most treatments are temporary and symptomatic therapy. According to Iranian traditional medicine (ITM), different approaches are mentioned for hyperhidrosis. Methods: This study has reviewed ITM textbooks, such as “Canon of Medicine and Exir-e-azam” as well as scientific references and databases of modern medicine (ISI, PubMed, etc.) with specific keywords. Contents and related concepts were classified and results prepared. Results: In modern medicine, hyperhidrosis has been defined as an abnormal excessive sweating, which is either primary (idiopathic) or secondary to other systemic diseases such as hyperthyroidism, neurological condition or heart disease. Current modalities for treatment are topical anti-perspiration, iontophoresis, Botox injection (Botulinum toxin type A) and eventually thoracic sympathectomy as the last therapeutic modalities. From the viewpoint of the Iranian traditional medicine as a holistic doctrine, hyperhidrosis etiologies include overfilled and repletion of body due to the accumulation of humors, excessive intake of food, excessive dilated skin pores, vigorous exercise, or physical activity. Therefore, therapeutic plan for hyperhidrosis was based on its cause, which includes reduction in the amount of food, increasing physical activity, purging the body from the excess humors and adjustment in temperament. Conclusion: Hyperhidrosis is not an important or dangerous disorder; however, due to the negative impact on quality of life and failure to achieve perfect answer in modern medicine treatments it seems that the recommendations

  1. Information visualization: Beyond traditional engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, James J.

    1995-01-01

    This presentation addresses a different aspect of the human-computer interface; specifically the human-information interface. This interface will be dominated by an emerging technology called Information Visualization (IV). IV goes beyond the traditional views of computer graphics, CADS, and enables new approaches for engineering. IV specifically must visualize text, documents, sound, images, and video in such a way that the human can rapidly interact with and understand the content structure of information entities. IV is the interactive visual interface between humans and their information resources.

  2. Traditional medicine in health care.

    PubMed

    Sayed, M D

    1980-03-01

    The state of research on plants used in traditional medicine and its development in Egypt is indicated by the number of scientific institutions devoted to this problem: Universities, the National Research Centre, the Desert Institute and the Horticulture Department of the Ministry of Agriculture. Moreover, the use of certain medicinal plants has been "industrialised', e.g., Ammi visnaga, Cymbopogon proximus, Nigella sativa and Aloe vera. Other plants are under investigation: Urginea maritima, Phytolacca americana and Euphorbia sp. (known for its claimed antitumour properties), Glycyrrhiza glabra, Cynara scolymus and Solanum laciniatum. PMID:7464176

  3. Traditional Therapies for Severe Asthma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Eileen; Hoyte, Flavia C L

    2016-08-01

    Severe asthma is a complex and heterogeneous disease. The European Respiratory Society and American Thoracic Society guidelines define severe asthma for patients 6 years or older as "asthma which requires treatment with high-dose inhaled corticosteroids…plus a second controller or systemic corticosteroids to prevent it from becoming 'uncontrolled' or which remains 'uncontrolled' despite this therapy." This article reviews available traditional therapies, data behind their uses in severe asthma, and varying recommendations. As various asthma endotypes and phenotypes are better understood and characterized, targeted therapies should help improve disease outcomes, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness. PMID:27401628

  4. Echo state networks as an alternative to traditional artificial neural networks in rainfall-runoff modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vos, N. J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite theoretical benefits of recurrent artificial neural networks over their feedforward counterparts, it is still unclear whether the former offer practical advantages as rainfall-runoff models. The main drawback of recurrent networks is the increased complexity of the training procedure due to their architecture. This work uses the recently introduced and conceptually simple echo state networks for streamflow forecasts on twelve river basins in the Eastern United States, and compares them to a variety of traditional feedforward and recurrent approaches. Two modifications on the echo state network models are made that increase the hydrologically relevant information content of their internal state. The results show that the echo state networks outperform feedforward networks and are competitive with state-of-the-art recurrent networks, across a range of performance measures. This, along with their simplicity and ease of training, suggests that they can be considered promising alternatives to traditional artificial neural networks in rainfall-runoff modelling.

  5. Sustainable Utilization of Traditional Chinese Medicine Resources: Systematic Evaluation on Different Production Modes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiwen; Chen, Yuning; Yang, Qing; Wang, Yitao

    2015-01-01

    The usage amount of medicinal plant rapidly increased along with the development of traditional Chinese medicine industry. The higher market demand and the shortage of wild herbal resources enforce us to carry out large-scale introduction and cultivation. Herbal cultivation can ease current contradiction between medicinal resources supply and demand while they bring new problems such as pesticide residues and plant disease and pests. Researchers have recently placed high hopes on the application of natural fostering, a new method incorporated herbal production and diversity protecting practically, which can solve the problems brought by artificial cultivation. However no modes can solve all problems existing in current herbal production. This study evaluated different production modes including cultivation, natural fostering, and wild collection to guide the traditional Chinese medicine production for sustainable utilization of herbal resources. PMID:26074987

  6. Elephant resource-use traditions.

    PubMed

    Fishlock, Victoria; Caldwell, Christine; Lee, Phyllis C

    2016-03-01

    African elephants (Loxodonta africana) use unusual and restricted habitats such as swampy clearings, montane outcrops and dry rivers for a variety of social and ecological reasons. Within these habitats, elephants focus on very specific areas for resource exploitation, resulting in deep caves, large forest clearings and sand pits as well as long-established and highly demarcated routes for moving between resources. We review evidence for specific habitat exploitation in elephants and suggest that this represents socially learned cultural behaviour. Although elephants show high fidelity to precise locations over the very long term, these location preferences are explained neither by resource quality nor by accessibility. Acquiring techniques for exploiting specific resource sites requires observing conspecifics and practice and is evidence for social learning. Elephants possess sophisticated cognitive capacities used to track relationships and resources over their long lifespans, and they have an extended period of juvenile dependency as a result of the need to acquire this considerable social and ecological knowledge. Thus, elephant fidelity to particular sites results in traditional behaviour over generations, with the potential to weaken relationships between resource quality and site preferences. Illustrating the evidence for such powerful traditions in a species such as elephants contributes to understanding animal cognition in natural contexts. PMID:26359083

  7. Traditional gamma cameras are preferred.

    PubMed

    DePuey, E Gordon

    2016-08-01

    Although the new solid-state dedicated cardiac cameras provide excellent spatial and energy resolution and allow for markedly reduced SPECT acquisition times and/or injected radiopharmaceutical activity, they have some distinct disadvantages compared to traditional sodium iodide SPECT cameras. They are expensive. Attenuation correction is not available. Cardio-focused collimation, advantageous to increase depth-dependent resolution and myocardial count density, accentuates diaphragmatic attenuation and scatter from subdiaphragmatic structures. Although supplemental prone imaging is therefore routinely advised, many patients cannot tolerate it. Moreover, very large patients cannot be accommodated in the solid-state camera gantries. Since data are acquired simultaneously with an arc of solid-state detectors around the chest, no temporally dependent "rotating" projection images are obtained. Therefore, patient motion can be neither detected nor corrected. In contrast, traditional sodium iodide SPECT cameras provide rotating projection images to allow technologists and physicians to detect and correct patient motion and to accurately detect the position of soft tissue attenuators and to anticipate associated artifacts. Very large patients are easily accommodated. Low-dose x-ray attenuation correction is widely available. Also, relatively inexpensive low-count density software is provided by many vendors, allowing shorter SPECT acquisition times and reduced injected activity approaching that achievable with solid-state cameras. PMID:27072004

  8. Assessment of the safety and ease of use of the naloxone auto-injector for the reversal of opioid overdose.

    PubMed

    Merlin, Mark A; Ariyaprakai, Navin; Arshad, Faizan H

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, opioid-related deaths in the United States have increased at an alarming rate. The use of naloxone by laypersons is a newer concept and its utilization can benefit patients by rapid administration due to it being readily available immediately after an opioid overdose. The US Food and Drug Administration approved a naloxone auto-injector on April 3, 2014 for adults and pediatrics, designed for use by anyone including patients, family members, bystanders, and medical professionals. This device (EZVIO™) is the first device of its kind available on the market. The auto-injector is a battery-operated disposable 0.4 mg/0.4 mL prefilled device for use in the lateral thigh by patients, bystanders, or health care professionals. It utilizes auditory and visual commands for ease of administration and instructs patients to seek further medical care after injection. EVZIO costs about $600 for two auto-injectors and a trainer. Additionally, in August 2013, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration introduced the Opioid Overdose Toolkit, a federal resource promoting safety and prevention information. This extensive document provides information for medical professionals, first responders, patients, caregivers, and overdose survivors. It outlines many strategies for dealing with this health care crisis. Most importantly, it highlights the importance of rapid recognition and treatment of opioid overdoses as well as routine conversations with patients assessing the need for naloxone prescriptions. The auto-injector is a safe, portable device with limited instruction needed and should routinely be made available to anyone who has contact with an opioid user. PMID:27147886

  9. Efficacy of Spirulina platensis in improvement of the reproductive performance and easing teratogenicity in hyperglycemic albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Pankaj, Pranay Punj

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study evaluates the therapeutic efficacy of cell suspension of Spirulina platensis (SP) on estrous cycle, fetal development and embryopathy in alloxan (AXN) induced hyperglycemic mice. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by intra-peritoneal administration of AXN. Mice with blood glucose level above 200 mg/dl were divided into Group I (control), Group II (diabetic control), Group III (diabetic control mice fed with SP), and Group IV (control mice fed with SP). Litter counts, estrous cycles, percent survival of litter, and gestation length were recorded. Results: In hyperglycemic mice, a significant (P < 0.05) increase in duration of diestrus (14.48%), estrus (84.21%), and metestrus (164.15%) with concomitant decrease in proestrus phase by 26.13% was recorded when compared with control. Reduction in litter count and survival of litter was 68.67% and 88.38%, respectively, whereas gestation length increased to 14.51% day in diabetic mice, but recovery in these parameters was observed (P < 0.05) when subjected to SP treatment. SP resulted in increased fertility rate from 77.5% to 82.5% and dropped off resorption of the fetus to 33.73% while the survival rate of offspring of diabetic mice went up to 88.89% from 83.61%. Conclusions: These findings suggest that SP is effective in improving the reproductive performance and easing teratogenic effects in diabetic mice and hence warrants further detailed dose-dependent studies to understand its mechanism of action. PMID:26285837

  10. Validation of Modifications to the ANSR(®) Listeria Method for Improved Ease of Use and Performance.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Oscar; Alles, Susan; Le, Quynh-Nhi; Gray, R Lucas; Hosking, Edan; Pinkava, Lisa; Norton, Paul; Tolan, Jerry; Mozola, Mark; Rice, Jennifer; Chen, Yi; Odumeru, Joseph; Ryser, Elliot

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to validate minor reagent formulation, enrichment, and procedural changes to the ANSR(®) Listeria method, Performance-Tested Method(SM) 101202. In order to improve ease of use and diminish risk of amplicon contamination, the lyophilized reagent components were reformulated for increased solubility, thus eliminating the need to mix by pipetting. In the alternative procedure, an aliquot of the lysate is added to lyophilized ANSR reagents, immediately capped, and briefly mixed by vortexing. When three foods (hot dogs, Mexican-style cheese, and cantaloupe) and sponge samples taken from a stainless steel surface were tested, significant differences in performance between the ANSR and U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual or U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook reference culture procedures were seen with hot dogs and Mexican-style cheese after 16 h enrichment, with the reference methods producing more positive results. After 24 h enrichment, however, there were no significant differences in method performance for any of the four matrixes tested. Robustness testing was also conducted, with variations to lysis buffer volume, lysis time, and sample volume having no demonstrable effect on assay results. Accelerated stability testing was carried out over a 10-week period and showed no diminishment in assay performance. A second phase of the study examined performance of the ANSR assay following enrichment in a new medium, LESS Plus broth, designed for use with all food and environmental sample types. With the alternative LESS Plus broth, there were no significant differences in performance between the ANSR method and the reference culture procedures for any of the matrixes tested after either 16 or 24 h enrichment, although 24 h enrichment is recommended for hot dogs due to higher sensitivity. Results of inclusivity and exclusivity testing using LESS Plus broth

  11. Strongly coupled dark energy cosmologies: preserving ΛCDM success and easing low scale problems - I. Linear theory revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonometto, Silvio A.; Mainini, Roberto; Macciò, Andrea V.

    2015-10-01

    In this first paper we discuss the linear theory and the background evolution of a new class of models we dub SCDEW: Strongly Coupled DE, plus WDM. In these models, WDM dominates today's matter density; like baryons, WDM is uncoupled. Dark energy is a scalar field Φ; its coupling to ancillary cold dark matter (CDM), whose today's density is ≪1 per cent, is an essential model feature. Such coupling, in fact, allows the formation of cosmic structures, in spite of very low WDM particle masses (˜100 eV). SCDEW models yield cosmic microwave background and linear large scale features substantially undistinguishable from ΛCDM, but thanks to the very low WDM masses they strongly alleviate ΛCDM issues on small scales, as confirmed via numerical simulations in the second associated paper. Moreover SCDEW cosmologies significantly ease the coincidence and fine tuning problems of ΛCDM and, by using a field theory approach, we also outline possible links with inflationary models. We also discuss a possible fading of the coupling at low redshifts which prevents non-linearities on the CDM component to cause computational problems. The (possible) low-z coupling suppression, its mechanism, and its consequences are however still open questions - not necessarily problems - for SCDEW models. The coupling intensity and the WDM particle mass, although being extra parameters in respect to ΛCDM, are found to be substantially constrained a priori so that, if SCDEW is the underlying cosmology, we expect most data to fit also ΛCDM predictions.

  12. Biomechanical Analysis of the Proximal Adjacent Segment after Multilevel Instrumentation of the Thoracic Spine: Do Hooks Ease the Transition?

    PubMed

    Metzger, Melodie F; Robinson, Samuel T; Svet, Mark T; Liu, John C; Acosta, Frank L

    2016-06-01

    Study Design Biomechanical cadaveric study. Objective Clinical studies indicate that using less-rigid fixation techniques in place of the standard all-pedicle screw construct when correcting for scoliosis may reduce the incidence of proximal junctional kyphosis and improve patient outcomes. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there is a biomechanical advantage to using supralaminar hooks in place of pedicle screws at the upper-instrumented vertebrae in a multilevel thoracic construct. Methods T7-T12 spines were biomechanically tested: (1) intact; (2) following a two-level pedicles screw fusion from T9 to T11; and after proximal extension of the fusion to T8-T9 with (3) bilateral supra-laminar hooks, (4) a unilateral hook + unilateral screw hybrid, or (5) bilateral pedicle screws. Specimens were nondestructively loaded while three-dimensional kinematics and intradiscal pressure at the supra-adjacent level were recorded. Results Supra-adjacent hypermobility was reduced when bilateral hooks were used in place of pedicle screws at the upper-instrumented level, with statistically significant differences in lateral bending and torsion (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). Disk pressures in the supra-adjacent segment were not statistically different among top-off techniques. Conclusions The use of supralaminar hooks at the top of a multilevel posterior fusion construct reduces the stress at the proximal uninstrumented motion segment. Although further data is needed to provide a definitive link to the clinical occurrence of PJK, this in vitro study demonstrates the potential benefit of "easing" the transition between the stiff instrumented spine and the flexible native spine and is the first to demonstrate these results with laminar hooks. PMID:27190735

  13. Reflection Paper on a Ubiquitous English Vocabulary Learning System: Evidence of Active/Passive Attitude vs. Usefulness/Ease-of-Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    "A ubiquitous English vocabulary learning system: evidence of active/passive attitudes vs. usefulness/ease-of-use" introduces and develops "Ubiquitous English Vocabulary Learning" (UEFL) system. It introduces to the memorization using the video clips. According to their paper the video clip gives a better chance for students to…

  14. Safe relief of rest pain that eases with activity in achillodynia by intrabursal or peritendinous steroid injection: the rupture rate was not increased by these steroid injections.

    PubMed

    Read, M T

    1999-04-01

    A history of morning and rest pain that eases with activity was found to improve after anti-inflammatory injections around the paratenon or within the Achilles bursae. The reduction in pain morbidity was significant, and the peritendinous steroid injections did not increase the rupture rate. PMID:10205700

  15. Reproductive rates, birth weight, calving ease and 24-h calf survival in a four-breed diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Comerford, J W; Bertrand, J K; Benyshek, L L; Johnson, M H

    1987-01-01

    Calving and weaning rates, birth weight, calving ease, and 24-h calf survival were evaluated in a four-breed diallel of Simmental (S), Limousin (L), Polled Hereford (H) and Brahman (B) beef cattle in five calf crops. Limousin dams tended to have the highest calving and weaning rates because they were able to have heavier calves with less calving difficulty and higher survival rates. Brahman-sired calves were the heaviest at birth (P less than .05) and B dams produced the lightest calves (P less than .001). Lower birth weights tended to be the limiting factor on survival of these calves. A linear comparison among means to evaluate purebred, additive, maternal and specific combining ability effects showed most of the reduction in birth weight from B dams was due to maternal effects. Breed of dam accounted for a higher proportion of variation in calving ease than did sire breed. Simmental sires had significantly heavier calves at birth and S and H dams tended to have more calving difficulty and lower survival rates. Heterosis for these traits was generally not significant. Correlations were generally positive and significant for birth weight and calving ease, but were more variable for birth weight and survival. Linear regressions of calving ease on birth weight both within years and within dam-breed-year subclasses were very similar in that the association of these two traits was reduced as dam age increased. PMID:3818492

  16. Online University Students' Satisfaction and Persistence: Examining Perceived Level of Presence, Usefulness and Ease of Use as Predictors in a Structural Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joo, Young Ju; Lim, Kyu Yon; Kim, Eun Kyung

    2011-01-01

    Learners' satisfaction and persistence are considered critical success factors in online universities where all of the teaching and learning activities are carried out online. This study aims to investigate the structural relationships among perceived level of presence, perceived usefulness and ease of use of the online learning tools, learner…

  17. Estimates of genetic parameters for 320-day pelvic measurements of males and females and calving ease of 2-year-old females.

    PubMed

    Kriese, L A; Van Vleck, L D; Gregory, K E; Boldman, K G; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M

    1994-08-01

    Records from 12 breed groups collected from 1983 to 1991, included in the Germ Plasm Utilization project at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, were analyzed separately by breed group and combined to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations for 320-d male and female pelvic width, height, and area, and for 320-d male pelvic and female 2-yr-old calving ease. Calving ease was analyzed as a trait of the dam using 1) actual and 2) binary scale calving ease scores with a covariate of calf birth weight. A bivariate animal model and derivative-free REML incorporating sparse matrix techniques were used. When breed groups were analyzed separately, heritability estimates of male and female 320-d pelvic traits varied by breed group and sex. Average genetic correlations between male and female 320-d pelvic width, pelvic height, and pelvic area were large and positive. When breed groups were combined (n = 26,071), heritability estimates for 320-d pelvic traits were moderate in size. Genetic correlations of .68, .48, and .61, between male and female 320-d pelvic width, height, and area, respectively, suggest male and female pelvic traits are largely under the same genetic control but are correlated traits rather than the same trait. Heritability estimates for actual calving ease in 2-yr-olds ranged from .00 to .49 in separate breed group analyses, and from .00 to .37 for binary measures. When breed groups were combined, heritability was .11 for actual calving ease and was .09 on the binary scale.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7982822

  18. HIV thrives in ancient traditions.

    PubMed

    Shreedhar, J

    1995-01-01

    Participation in ancient traditions is facilitating the current spread of HIV through India. For most of the year, Koovagam is a typical Indian village. Each April on the night of the full moon, however, the Chittirai-Pournami festival is held in Koovagam, a celebration in homage to Aravan during which up to 2000 pilgrims from across the country engage in thousands of acts of unprotected sexual intercourse. Aravan is a man depicted in a Hindu tale who asked to experience sexual bliss before being sacrificed to the gods. To fulfill this last wish, the god Krishna is said to have assumed the form of a beautiful woman and had sexual intercourse with Aravan. Many of the festival participants are hijras, eunuchs and transsexuals who sell sex for a living. Hijras may be accompanied by men who serve as their sex partners and bodyguards. Surveys suggest that one-third of the 10,000 hijras in New Delhi may be infected with HIV. Other participants are known as dangas, men who are either married or single and appear to lead strictly heterosexual lives throughout the year except during the Chittirai-Pournami festival when they dress as women and sell sex to other men attending the festival. The panthis comprise another group of participants and tend to be either single or married men who attend the festival to have sex with the hijras and dangas for fees up to ten rupees, approximately US$0.50, per sexual encounter. Prostitution within the devadasi sect and the sale of young, virgin girls in the state of Andhra Pradesh to the highest male bidders are other examples of how ancient traditions are facilitating the current spread of HIV in India. PMID:12319989

  19. [Cataplasma of traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Jia, Wei; Gao, Wen-yuan; Wang, Tao; Liu, Yun-bin; Xue, Jing; Xiao, Pei-gen

    2003-01-01

    The TCM (traditional Chinese medicine) transdermal plaster (also known as "cataplasma") are flexible adhesive patches used for treatment of pain, resulted from arthritis, sprain and bruise, tendovaginitis, lumbar spine protrude, neuralgia, hyperosteogeny ache, abdominal discomfort and metastatic cancer, etc. Since the 1980's, investigators in China have used this modern patch delivery system for herbal drugs and obtained satisfactory results especially from the treatment of various types of pain associated with bone diseases, abdominal discomfort, and tumors, etc. The production of TCM cataplasma was successfully scaled up in early 90's and the commercial product line for an antirheumatic agent was first established in Shanghai by Leiyunshang Group. Thus far, a number of products in the form of TCM cataplasma became commercially available in the market, and clinical investigations with these products indicated that topically applicable herbal preparations, especially in the form of cataplasma, are preferred formulations with respect to the treatment comfort of the patient. Compared to the traditional preparations which utilize rubber and rosin as adhesives, cataplasma is advantageous in that the lipophilic and hydrophilic ingredients of the herbal extracts are solubilized and then "gellified" with the organic polymers, and that the drug matrix containing up to 40%-70% of water serves as a "drug reservoir" that will sustain the quick and continuous release of herbal ingredients over several days across the skin. While there are conventional remedies for palliation of pain and discomfort associated with bone diseases or cancers, administration of oral medicinal herbs combined with topical agents such as TCM cataplasma may significantly alleviate the symptoms and improve their quality of life. This article provides a review on three aspects, which include the process development, characteristics and developmental status of TCM cataplasma, and future development of

  20. Infusing Qualitative Traditions in Counseling Research Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Danica G.; Wood, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Research traditions serve as a blueprint or guide for a variety of design decisions throughout qualitative inquiry. This article presents 6 qualitative research traditions: grounded theory, phenomenology, consensual qualitative research, ethnography, narratology, and participatory action research. For each tradition, the authors describe its…

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on the survival of pathogens in kwamegi, a traditional Korean semidried seafood.

    PubMed

    Chawla, S P; Kim, D H; Jo, C; Lee, J W; Song, H P; Byun, M W

    2003-11-01

    Kwamegi (semidried raw Pacific saury) is traditional seafood available in Korea. It has water activity in the range of 0.90 to 0.95. Spoilage and the growth of most pathogenic bacteria is retarded because of low water activity, low temperature, and packaging. However, it is contaminated with bacteria of public health significance and poses a hazard to the consumer because it is consumed raw without any cooking. The effectiveness of these hurdles in preventing the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Escherichia coli and the efficacy of irradiation treatment in eliminating these bacteria from kwamegi using inoculated pack studies was examined. Radiation sensitivity of S. aureus, B. cereus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and E. coli in kwamegi was investigated. D10-values of these organisms in kwamegi were 590 +/- 13.6, 640 +/- 14.9, 560 +/- 45.4, and 550 +/- 8.6 Gy, respectively. The growth of all four test organisms inoculated into these foods during 4 weeks of storage at an ambient winter temperature (ranging from -5 degrees C to +5 degrees C) was recorded. All four pathogens (inoculated at 10(6) CFU/g) were eliminated by irradiation at 4 kGy. These studies unequivocally demonstrate that irradiation, with a combination of low water activity and low temperature, results in microbiologically safe kwamegi. PMID:14627288

  2. Side docking of the da Vinci robotic system for radical prostatectomy: advantages over traditional docking.

    PubMed

    Cestari, Andrea; Ferrari, Matteo; Zanoni, Matteo; Sangalli, Mattia; Ghezzi, Massimo; Fabbri, Fabio; Sozzi, Francesco; Rigatti, Patrizio

    2015-09-01

    The standard low lithotomic position, used during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP), with prolonged positioning in stirrups together with steep Trendelenburg may expose the patient to neurapraxia phenomena of the lower limbs and can rarely be used in patients with problems of hip abduction. To overcome these hurdles, we evaluated the clinical benefits of "side docking" (SD) of the da Vinci(®) robotic system in comparison to "traditional docking" (TD). A cohort of 120 patients submitted to RARP were prospectively randomized into two groups by docking approach: SD with the patient supine with lower limbs slightly abducted on the operating table, and TD docking time, intraoperative number of collisions between the robotic arms and postoperative neurological problems in the lower limbs were noted. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze outcomes. Docking time was shorter for the SD group [SD: median 13 min (range 10-18); TD: median 21 min (range 15-34)]. None in the SD group and six of 60 patients (10%) in the TD group suffered from temporary (<30 days) unilateral neurological deficits of the lower limbs. In both groups no collisions between the robotic arms occurred. The SD approach is technically feasible. It does not cause collisions between the robotic arms, and is a reliable method for reducing the setup time of RARP. The supine position of the patient may prevent neurological complications of the lower limbs. Based on these results, SD has become the standard docking technique used by our department. PMID:26531205

  3. Nutraceutical enriched Indian traditional chikki.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Chetana; Pamisetty, Aruna; Reddy, Sunki Reddy Yella

    2015-08-01

    Chikki or peanut brittle, a traditional sweet snack was chosen as vehicle for enrichment with added natural nutraceuticals through herbs. The formulation and process for preparation of chikki with added herbs like ashwagandha (Withania somenifera), tulasi (Ocimumsanctum L.) and ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi S.) were standardized. The polyphenol content of chikki with added herbs ranged 0.29-0.46 g/100 g. Among the herbs, ajwain showed more potent antioxidant activity followed by tulasi, whereas ashwagandha and product prepared with it showed the least activity. Total carotenoid contents of chikki with added herbs ranged between 1.5 and 4.3 mg/100 g. Storage studies showed that chikki prepared with tulasi and ajwain were sensorily acceptable up to 90 days, while rancid notes were observed in control and chikki with added ashwagandha at the end of 30 days. Thus chikki with added herbs in addition to containing natural nutraceuticals like polyphenols and carotenoids had improved storage stability compared to control. PMID:26243935

  4. Kazakh Traditional Dance Gesture Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussipbekov, A. K.; Amirgaliyev, E. N.; Hahn, Minsoo

    2014-04-01

    Full body gesture recognition is an important and interdisciplinary research field which is widely used in many application spheres including dance gesture recognition. The rapid growth of technology in recent years brought a lot of contribution in this domain. However it is still challenging task. In this paper we implement Kazakh traditional dance gesture recognition. We use Microsoft Kinect camera to obtain human skeleton and depth information. Then we apply tree-structured Bayesian network and Expectation Maximization algorithm with K-means clustering to calculate conditional linear Gaussians for classifying poses. And finally we use Hidden Markov Model to detect dance gestures. Our main contribution is that we extend Kinect skeleton by adding headwear as a new skeleton joint which is calculated from depth image. This novelty allows us to significantly improve the accuracy of head gesture recognition of a dancer which in turn plays considerable role in whole body gesture recognition. Experimental results show the efficiency of the proposed method and that its performance is comparable to the state-of-the-art system performances.

  5. The use of virtual reality and physical tools in the development and validation of ease of entry and exit in passenger vehicles.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Glyn; Herriotts, Paul; Malcolm, Louise; Gabrecht, Katharina; Hermawati, Setia

    2015-05-01

    Ease of entry and exit is important for creating a positive first impression of a car and increasing customer satisfaction. Several methods are used within vehicle development to optimise ease of entry and exit, including CAD reviews, benchmarking and buck trials. However, there is an industry trend towards digital methods to reduce the costs and time associated with developing physical prototypes. This paper reports on a study of entry strategy in three properties (buck, car, CAVE) in which inconsistencies were demonstrated by people entering a vehicle representation in the CAVE. In a second study industry practitioners rated the CAVE as worse than physical methods for identifying entry and exit issues, and having lower perceived validity and reliability. However, the resource issues associated with building bucks were recognised. Recommendations are made for developing the CAVE and for combinations of methods for use at different stages of a vehicle's development. PMID:25683551

  6. AB036. Real-life experience of COPD patients on ease and accuracy of inhaler use: the REAL survey

    PubMed Central

    Keininger, Dorothy L.; Price, David; Viswanad, Boomi; Gasser, Matthias; Walda, Susann

    2016-01-01

    Background Many patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) achieve incomplete benefit from their treatment, due to reasons including inadequate device training or incorrect inhaler technique. Dosing frequency has also been shown to impact COPD treatment compliance with inhaler overuse and underuse being the most common form of noncompliance. Between 28–68% of patients do not use their inhalers correctly, and 39–67% of health care professionals (HCPs) do not effectively train patients to correctly use their inhalers. This makes patients prone to committing inhaler use errors and may negatively impact treatment compliance. We conducted a computer-assisted telephonic survey in patients with COPD to evaluate patient-reported insights on real life aspects of inhaler use, training and check for correct use by HCP, device attributes and patient-reported compliance of inhaler or medication use. Methods Patients from 9 countries, diagnosed with mild to very severe COPD and using maintenance inhaled treatment (via Breezhaler®, Ellipta®, Genuair®, Respimat®) were included in this survey. Patient-reported data on correct inhaler use (training and check), inhalation pattern, and device attributes (ease of use and confidence of inhaling full dose), compliance and potential underuse or overuse was collected. Chi-square test was performed for testing significance and z-test was used for comparisons of proportions (significance level: alpha<0.05). Results A total of 764 patients (Breezhaler® =186; Ellipta® =191; Genuair® = 194; Respimat® =201) with mild to very severe COPD with a mean (±SD) age 56±9.8 years, completed the survey. Approximately, 30% of all patients reported not receiving any inhaler use training. Of the 70%, who received training on inhaler use, 83% felt that the demonstration of inhaler use was very helpful, followed by videos (58%), instructions for use (51%) and leaflets (34%), irrespective of the device used. About 29% of all

  7. Comparing ease-of-processing values of the same set of words for native English speakers and Japanese learners of English.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Hiroomi

    2009-12-01

    Ease of processing of 3,969 English words for native speakers and Japanese learners was investigated using lexical decision and naming latencies taken from the English Lexicon Project (Balota et al. The English Lexicon Project: A web-based repository of descriptive and behavioral measures for 40,481 English words and nonwords, 2002) and accuracy of English word translation by Japanese university students (Takashima, H. Eigo goi chishiki no keisei [The structure of English lexical knowledge of Japanese college students], 2002). Correlations among these ease-of-processing values were all significant, suggesting substantial commonalities between native English speakers and Japanese learners. Regression analyses, however, showed that some factors differentially affect ease of processing for natives and Japanese. Comparison of the predicted and the observed values of translation accuracy revealed specific differences of lexical knowledge between native speakers and Japanese learners. Loanword effect on translation accuracy and translation errors similar to dyslexic/aphasic reading errors were observed, suggesting the possibility of insufficient orthographic/phonological activation and the possibility of the use of first language phonological representations. The implications of these results for the study of second/foreign language lexical processing are discussed. PMID:19484388

  8. Comparison of good clinical practice compliance and readability ease of the informed consents between observational and interventional clinical studies in the Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Satish Chandrasekhar; Ibrahim, Halah; Askar, Omar Sherif

    2016-01-01

    Background: Expansion of clinical trials activity into emerging regions has raised concerns regarding participant rights and research ethics. Increasing numbers of observational studies are now conducted in developing economies, including the United Arab Emirates. Materials and Methods: This study compares the content of information provided, Good Clinical Practice (GCP) guideline compliance, and readability of informed consent forms (ICFs) for observational compared to interventional studies. Results: GCP compliance for observational studies averaged at 79.5% + 6.8%, significantly (P < 0.001) lower than 92.2 + 5.0 percent for interventional studies. Readability ease and readability-grade level were assessed with Flesch-Kincaid scales. Results indicated higher readability grade-level 12.4 + 0.4 (P < 0.001) and lower readability Flesch-Kincaid reading ease score 35.7 + 3.6 for observational studies, as compared to 10.3 + 1.6 and 47.8 + 7.4 for interventional studies. Conclusion: Mandatory training for investigators is essential to provide readability ease and GCP compliance for the ICFs for the local population. PMID:27453828

  9. A Comparison of Traditional and Non-Traditional Methods of Testing: Applied Educational Research and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Box, Wilford Winston; Barrett, Anita G.

    A study involving two groups of students enrolled in two concurrent 16-week terms of a course taught at two Southwest Texas Junior College campuses compared the effects of traditional and non-traditional testing. The traditional approach consisted of typical individual testing, while the non-traditional approach involved group testing (i.e., two…

  10. Microbial ecology of food contact surfaces and products of small-scale facilities producing traditional sausages.

    PubMed

    Gounadaki, Antonia S; Skandamis, Panagiotis N; Drosinos, Eleftherios H; Nychas, George-John E

    2008-04-01

    The microbial status in 7 small-scale facilities (SSFs) producing traditional fermented and/or dry sausages was investigated. It was shown that the hygienic status of the processing environment and equipment plays an essential role in the microbial stability and safety of the final products. The current study revealed that the majority of the sampling sites (control points) tested were highly (>4 log CFU/cm(2)) contaminated by spoilage flora (i.e. Pseudomonas, Enterobacteriaceae), with knives, tables and mincing machines being the most heavily contaminated surfaces. Moreover, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in 11.7%, 26.4%, and 11.7% of the food contact surfaces, respectively. The presence of these pathogens seemed to be associated with high numbers of one or more specific groups of the 'house-flora' on the sampling sites of the facilities; however, high numbers of 'house-flora' do not always suggest the presence of pathogens. With regard to product samples, batter samples were heavily contaminated with the 'house-flora' present on surfaces and equipment of the processing facilities while by the end of processing (final products) LAB constituted the predominant microbial flora of all products. The low initial levels of S. aureus and Salmonella found in batter samples as well as the combination of hurdles (mainly a(w)<0.92, average pH ca. <5.0 and competitive effect of natural flora) in the final products were able to inhibit and/or eliminate these pathogens; however, the detection of L. monocytogenes in 3 out of the 7 final products examined is indicative of cross-contamination. Our findings further indicate that inadequate hygiene practices within small-scale-processing facilities may result in loss of microbial control. Therefore, this study addresses the need for strict control measures within SSFs producing traditional fermented sausages. PMID:18206774

  11. The Dosage Form of Aragh in Treatment, from the Iranian Traditional Medicine Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Adl, Mehdi; Emtiazi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Iranian traditional medicine is one of the branches of complementary medicine and it is based on using the dosage forms of plants. One of the most common forms of pharmaceutical plants is Aragh. Due to ease-of-use, distillate is a more acceptable form among the public. In this article, it is attempted to study the usage forms and effects of Aragh according to the valid traditional medicine resources. Methods: This article is a review of Iranian traditional medicine textbooks such as Makhzan-ul-dawiah, Gharabadin Kabir, Cannon of Medicine, and other recent texts on medical plants. Results: According to the traditional medicine, the process of getting Aragh is a kind of distillation, which is performed by using Ghar and Alembic (the equipment that are used in distillation). Distillation is the process of extracting and refining the fluid of a plant. Aragh of the plants is much more effective on the body than the plant itself. Traditional medicine regards Aragh as a new kind of drug (medicine) that is rarely mentioned in older texts (except for golab). However, the modern medicine regards it as a dosage form of essence, which is dissolved in water. The more the essence, the better the distillate gets. Conclusion: According to the traditional medicine sources, since the time of Hakim Aghil Khorasani, Aragh was used more and more every day. About 100 kinds of Araghs are mentioned in ancient texts, which are extracted from simple plants. Considering the distillation process and the way it performs, and by knowing that Aragh is a plant’s softest and the most influential entity, it seems that it has a huge effect on Arvah and Ghova, the main parts like heart and brain and nervous parts. PMID:27516693

  12. Menorrhagia Management in Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    PubMed

    Tansaz, Mojgan; Memarzadehzavareh, Hajar; Qaraaty, Marzieh; Eftekhar, Tahereh; Tabarrai, Malihe; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Menorrhagia is a common problem. Medical management for menorrhagia includes hormonal and nonhormonal treatments. These treatments have different side effects, which reduce quality of life. Complementary and traditional medicines have been used to handle menorrhagia for centuries in many cultures. There is a lot of information and data in Iranian traditional documents or books about medicinal herbs that are used by Iranian traditional medicine scientists for the treatment of menorrhagia. The aim of this study was to review the approaches to menorrhagia in Iranian traditional medicine texts. In this study, some main Iranian traditional medicine manuscripts including Canon of Medicine and Al-Havi of Rhazes were studied to extract important information about menorrhagia management. Iranian traditional medicine physicians have relied on an organized system of etiological theories and treatments for menorrhagia. Their methods for menorrhagia management may be able to convince the desire of many women to preserve their uterus and avoid hormonal therapy. PMID:26072222

  13. Passive solar in China: traditional and new

    SciTech Connect

    Balcomb, J D; Balcomb, S A

    1986-04-01

    The authors' observations of a tradition of passive solar architecture in northern China are described. Tendencies for modern buildings to depart from this tradition are noted. Major passive solar research programs are discussed and experimental buildings are illustrated. It is concluded that the Chinese could realize a major advantage by combining their strong tradition of passive solar architecture with modern insulation methods and improved glazing systems.

  14. Traditional midwives and family planning in Asia.

    PubMed

    Rogers, E M; Solomon, D S

    1975-05-01

    The objectives of this article are (1) review the contribution of traditional midwives to family planning communication in several Asian countries; (2) organize knowledge gathered from various studies into general guidelines for the most effective use of traditional midwives in family planning programs; and (3) present hypotheses for future research. In certain countries where pilot projects have tested the potential performance of traditional midwives in family planning programs, results have been encouraging. In other nations, more research is needed to determine the contribution traditional midwives can make to the family planning program. PMID:1145693

  15. Aboriginal oral traditions of Australian impact craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Goldsmith, John

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we explore Aboriginal oral traditions that relate to Australian meteorite craters. Using the literature, first-hand ethnographic records and field trip data, we identify oral traditions and artworks associated with four impact sites: Gosses Bluff, Henbury, Liverpool and Wolfe Creek. Oral traditions describe impact origins for Gosses Bluff, Henbury and Wolfe Creek Craters, and non-impact origins for Liverpool Crater, with Henbury and Wolfe Creek stories having both impact and non-impact origins. Three impact sites that are believed to have been formed during human habitation of Australia -- Dalgaranga, Veevers, and Boxhole -- do not have associated oral traditions that are reported in the literature.

  16. Proteomics of Soil and Sediment: Protein Identification by De Novo Sequencing of Mass Spectra Complements Traditional Database Searching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S.; Rizzo, A. I.; Waldbauer, J.

    2014-12-01

    Proteomics has the potential to elucidate the metabolic pathways and taxa responsible for in situ biogeochemical transformations. However, low rates of protein identification from high resolution mass spectra have been a barrier to the development of proteomics in complex environmental samples. Much of the difficulty lies in the computational challenge of linking mass spectra to their corresponding proteins. Traditional database search methods for matching peptide sequences to mass spectra are often inadequate due to the complexity of environmental proteomes and the large database search space, as we demonstrate with soil and sediment proteomes generated via a range of extraction methods. One alternative to traditional database searching is de novo sequencing, which identifies peptide sequences without the need for a database. BLAST can then be used to match de novo sequences to similar genetic sequences. Assigning confidence to putative identifications has been one hurdle for the implementation of de novo sequencing. We found that accurate de novo sequences can be screened by quality score and length. Screening criteria are verified by comparing the results of de novo sequencing and traditional database searching for well-characterized proteomes from simple biological systems. The BLAST hits of screened sequences are interrogated for taxonomic and functional information. We applied de novo sequencing to organic topsoil and marine sediment proteomes. Peak-rich proteomes, which can result from various extraction techniques, yield thousands of high-confidence protein identifications, an improvement over previous proteomic studies of soil and sediment. User-friendly software tools for de novo metaproteomics analysis have been developed. This "De Novo Analysis" Pipeline is also a faster method of data analysis than constructing a tailored sequence database for traditional database searching.

  17. Proteomics of Soil and Sediment: Protein Identification by De Novo Sequencing of Mass Spectra Complements Traditional Database Searching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S.; Rizzo, A. I.; Waldbauer, J.

    2015-12-01

    Proteomics has the potential to elucidate the metabolic pathways and taxa responsible for in situ biogeochemical transformations. However, low rates of protein identification from high resolution mass spectra have been a barrier to the development of proteomics in complex environmental samples. Much of the difficulty lies in the computational challenge of linking mass spectra to their corresponding proteins. Traditional database search methods for matching peptide sequences to mass spectra are often inadequate due to the complexity of environmental proteomes and the large database search space, as we demonstrate with soil and sediment proteomes generated via a range of extraction methods. One alternative to traditional database searching is de novo sequencing, which identifies peptide sequences without the need for a database. BLAST can then be used to match de novo sequences to similar genetic sequences. Assigning confidence to putative identifications has been one hurdle for the implementation of de novo sequencing. We found that accurate de novo sequences can be screened by quality score and length. Screening criteria are verified by comparing the results of de novo sequencing and traditional database searching for well-characterized proteomes from simple biological systems. The BLAST hits of screened sequences are interrogated for taxonomic and functional information. We applied de novo sequencing to organic topsoil and marine sediment proteomes. Peak-rich proteomes, which can result from various extraction techniques, yield thousands of high-confidence protein identifications, an improvement over previous proteomic studies of soil and sediment. User-friendly software tools for de novo metaproteomics analysis have been developed. This "De Novo Analysis" Pipeline is also a faster method of data analysis than constructing a tailored sequence database for traditional database searching.

  18. On the Bearing of a Living Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Dorothy C.

    2003-01-01

    In his highly regarded book on moral philosophy, "After Virtue" (1984), Alasdair MacIntyre offered a concept of tradition that explained both the past's claim upon the present and the present's availability for change, though he had not yet recognized and developed the theological implications of his work. A living tradition, in his terms, is a…

  19. Instructional Design Processes and Traditional Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasser, Nichole

    2010-01-01

    Traditional colleges who have implemented distance education programs would benefit from using instructional design processes to develop their courses. Instructional design processes provide the framework for designing and delivering quality online learning programs in a highly-competitive educational market. Traditional college leaders play a…

  20. Traditional Teacher/New Wave Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Dale

    What kind of meaningful learning goes on when an introverted and intuitive traditional professor imparts his knowledge to an extroverted student of the new wave generation? In a project exploring how teaching personalities influence student learning, a traditional professor of literature and a "new wave" (defined as characterized by improvisation…

  1. Vygotsky, Consciousness, and the German Psycholinguistic Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitch, David G.

    2011-01-01

    This article argues that Vygotsky's choice of word meaning as the basic unit of analysis for cultural psychology connects him to a German psycholinguistic tradition--exemplified in the work of G. W. F. Hegel and J. G. Herder--distinct from the Marxist tradition. While later commentators criticize Vygotsky's reliance on word meaning, arguing that…

  2. Year-Round versus Traditional Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyttle, LeighAnne

    2011-01-01

    This document serves as a literature review for the practicality and cost effectiveness of traditional versus year-round school systems. The differences in year-round and traditional schools are many, as the debate lingers on which type is best for students' learning. Generally conclusive, the literature indicates that year-round schools' benefits…

  3. The Women's Tradition in American Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Cheryl Lawson

    The aim of this thesis is to examine the mainstream of American women's poetry in order to establish the existence of a women's tradition. The eight chapters of the dissertation are divided into the following subjects: Anne Bradstreet and the Puritan foundations of the tradition; the women poets before Dickinson and the themes of their poetry;…

  4. Children's Sextyped Views of Traditional Occupational Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhart, Ruth S.

    1983-01-01

    Examined children's views of traditional occupations in a study of 300 elementary school students who viewed photographs of 18 occupations. Results showed for most of the 18 occupational roles, students chose a traditional male or female role. The occupations of homemaker and firefighter received the most stereotyped scores. (JAC)

  5. Job Search Methods: Internet versus Traditional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Peter; Skuterud, Mikal

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, 15 percent of unemployed job seekers used the Internet to seek jobs, as did half of all job seekers with online access from home. Internet search rates exceeded those of traditional methods, but Internet job seekers were more likely to use traditional methods as well. Unemployed blacks and Hispanics used the Internet least in job…

  6. Building Literacy Traditions: A Family Affair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasi, MaryJane

    2005-01-01

    Children growing up in today's fast-paced, disconnected world are in need of family customs and legacies. Although we tend to associate traditions with elaborate holiday celebrations, these can, and should, be an important part of our day-today lives. In its most basic form, a tradition is a regular event that helps define and distinguish your…

  7. Tradition in the Barrio. Level Seven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Elvira

    The stories in this book tell about the life of more traditional Mexican Americans in "barrios" (neighborhoods). Their customs are a mixture of Spanish, Indian, and Catholic influences. Part I, "Tradition in the Barrio", deals primarily with cultural and family relationships. It covers the large Mexican family, the male roles of father, eldest…

  8. Tradition and Revolution in ESL Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raimes, Ann

    1983-01-01

    Explores the development of language teaching in light of Thomas Kuhn's theory of scientific revolution and briefly defines the positivist tradition in language teaching. Argues that the current emphasis on communication does not mark the emergence of a new paradigm, as it still operates in the positivist tradition, but rather a paradigm shift.…

  9. Emotional Problems in Traditional and Cyber Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjursø, Ida Risanger; Fandrem, Hildegunn; Roland, Erling

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies show an association between traditional and cyber victimization. However, there seem to be differences in how these forms of being bullied relates to emotional problems in the victims. Few studies focus on symptoms of general anxiety and depression as separate variables when comparing traditional and cyber victimization.…

  10. Correct usage, ease of use, and preference of two dry powder inhalers in patients with COPD: analysis of five phase III, randomized trials

    PubMed Central

    Riley, John H; Tabberer, Maggie; Richard, Nathalie; Donald, Alison; Church, Alison; Harris, Stephanie S

    2016-01-01

    Background Handheld inhalers are used to deliver treatment for COPD. Incorrect usage leads to suboptimal disease control. Complex treatment regimens and use of multiple inhalers may reduce patient compliance. The Anoro Ellipta™ dry powder inhaler (DPI) simultaneously delivers umeclidinium bromide (UMEC) and vilanterol (VI) without coformulation being required. Aim To assess the correct usage and ease of use of the Ellipta™ DPI administering UMEC/VI and to compare patient preference for Ellipta™ with the HandiHaler® through exploratory analyses of patient and observer questionnaires in five Phase III studies. Methods Two Phase III, 3-month double-blind, placebo-controlled studies assessed the correct usage of the Ellipta™ DPI at Day 1 and after 6 weeks, and ease of use of the Ellipta™ DPI using a nonvalidated patient questionnaire after 6 weeks or early withdrawal. In three 6-month, blinded double-dummy, active comparator studies (two Phase IIIa and one Phase IIIb), patients completed a COPD device preference questionnaire between the Ellipta™ DPI and the Handi-Haler® at Day 168 (Week 24) or early withdrawal. Results In the 3-month placebo-controlled studies, ≥98% of patients used the Ellipta™ DPI correctly and 99% of patients found the inhaler easy/very easy-to-use and the dose counter easy/very easy to read. Across the two Phase IIIa active comparator studies, patients consistently stated a preference for the Ellipta™ DPI over HandiHaler® regarding the number of steps to use (59% vs 17%), time taken to use (62% vs 14%), and ease of use (63% vs 15%) regardless of which inhaler contained active drug. Results were consistent in the Phase IIIb active comparator study. Conclusion Delivery of UMEC/VI via the Ellipta™ DPI was considered easy-to-use, and patients with COPD demonstrated clear preference for this inhaler compared with HandiHaler®. PMID:27578968

  11. WHERE Are the Faculty? Fulfilling the Traditional Faculty Role at a Distance.

    PubMed

    Wood, Felecia G

    2016-01-01

    Innovative approaches are needed to retain seasoned nursing faculty. Technology provides opportunities for faculty to fulfill the traditional roles of teaching, research, and service from a site removed from the traditional campus. The purpose of this article is to encourage faculty and administrators in traditional, land-based colleges and universities to thoughtfully consider the advantages and challenges of the remote worksite for faculty based on the experience of one faculty. Some faculty are better suited to a remote work environment than others. Long-term established faculty may be better able to successfully transition to the tripartite faculty roles with greater ease than novice nurse educators as a result of their familiarity with the institutional resources and comfort in the teaching role. Preparation for the remote experience must be diligent and thoughtful, considering equipment needs, connectivity, and support personnel and strategies for ensuring continued engagement within the nursing education program. Institutional policies must also be considered related to fulfillment of the faculty role via distance technology. A pilot experience for one faculty, as described here, may be useful for evaluating the cost-benefit to the individual and the institution. PMID:27424925

  12. Why Breast Cancer Patients Seek Traditional Healers

    PubMed Central

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Merriam, Sharan; Suhami, Norhasmilia

    2012-01-01

    Traditional healing is a common practice in low and middle income countries such as Malaysia. Eighty percent of Malaysians consult traditional healers or “bomoh” at some time in their life for health-related issues. The purpose of our study was to explore why breast cancer patients visit traditional healers. This is a qualitative study utilizing in-depth interviews with 11 cancer survivors who sought both traditional and Western medicine. The findings revealed the following reasons for which patients seek traditional healers: (1) recommendation from family and friends, (2) sanction from family, (3) perceived benefit and compatibility, (4) healer credibility, and (5) reservation with Western medicine and system delay. These factors work together and are strongly influenced by the Malaysian cultural context. The issue with the Western health system is common in a developing country with limited health facilities. PMID:22295249

  13. Are supernovae recorded in indigenous astronomical traditions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-07-01

    Novae and supernovae are rare astronomical events that would have had an influence on the skywatching peoples who witnessed them. Although several bright novae/supernovae have been visible during recorded human history, there are many proposed but no confirmed accounts of supernovae in indigenous oral traditions or material culture. Criteria are established for confirming novae/supernovae in oral traditions and material culture, and claims from around the world are discussed to determine if they meet these criteria. Aboriginal Australian traditions are explored for possible descriptions of novae/supernovae. Although representations of supernovae may exist in Aboriginal traditions, there are currently no confirmed accounts of supernovae in Indigenous Australian oral or material traditions.

  14. Identifying seasonal stars in Kaurna astronomical traditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2015-03-01

    Early ethnographers and missionaries recorded Aboriginal languages and oral traditions across Australia. Their general lack of astronomical training resulted in misidentifications, transcription errors and omissions in these records. In western Victoria and southeast South Australia many astronomical traditions were recorded but, cur- iously, some of the brightest stars in the sky were omitted. Scholars claimed these stars did not feature in Aboriginal traditions. This continues to be repeated in the literature, but current research shows that these stars may in fact feature in Aboriginal traditions and could be seasonal calendar markers. This paper uses established techniques to identify seasonal stars in the traditions of the Kaurna Aboriginal people of the Adelaide Plains, South Australia.

  15. Traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine: Focusing on research into traditional Tibetan medicine in China.

    PubMed

    Song, Peipei; Xia, Jufeng; Rezeng, Caidan; Tong, Li; Tang, Wei

    2016-07-19

    As a form of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine (TCAM), traditional Tibetan medicine has developed into a mainstay of medical care in Tibet and has spread from there to China and then to the rest of the world. Thus far, research on traditional Tibetan medicine has focused on the study of the plant and animal sources of traditional medicines, study of the histology of those plants and animals, chemical analysis of traditional medicines, pharmacological study of those medicines, and evaluation of the clinical efficacy of those medicines. A number of papers on traditional Tibetan medicines have been published, providing some evidence of the efficacy of traditional Tibetan medicine. However, many traditional Tibetan medicines have unknown active ingredients, hampering the establishment of drug quality standards, the development of new medicines, commercial production of medicines, and market availability of those medicines. Traditional Tibetan medicine must take several steps to modernize and spread to the rest of the world: the pharmacodynamics of traditional Tibetan medicines need to be determined, the clinical efficacy of those medicines needs to be verified, criteria to evaluate the efficacy of those medicines need to be established in order to guide their clinical use, and efficacious medicines need to be acknowledged by the pharmaceutical market. The components of traditional Tibetan medicine should be studied, traditional Tibetan medicines should be screened for their active ingredients, and techniques should be devised to prepare and manufacture those medicines. PMID:27301588

  16. Reduced Worries of Hypoglycaemia, High Satisfaction, and Increased Perceived Ease of Use after Experiencing Four Nights of MD-Logic Artificial Pancreas at Home (DREAM4)

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Claudia; Liberman, Alon; Nimri, Revital; Muller, Ido; Klemenčič, Simona; Bratina, Nataša; Bläsig, Sarah; Remus, Kerstin; Phillip, Moshe; Battelino, Tadej; Kordonouri, Olga; Danne, Thomas; Lange, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Aims. This study assesses the impact of using an AP-system at home on fear of hypoglycaemia. In addition, satisfaction and acceptance of the new technology are evaluated. Methods. In a multicentre, multinational study of 75 patients using the MD-Logic AP during four consecutive nights in home setting 59 of them (aged 10–54 years, 54% male, HbA1c 7.89 ± 0.69% [62.72 ± 7.51 mmol/mol], diabetes duration 11.6 ± 8.4 yrs) answered standardized questionnaires (HFS, adapted TAM, and AP satisfaction) before and after using the AP. Results. After experiencing the AP in home setting worries of hypoglycaemia were significantly reduced (before 1.04 ± 0.53 versus after 0.90 ± 0.63; P = 0.017). Perceived ease of use as a measure of acceptance with the AP significantly increased after personal experience (before 4.64 ± 0.94 versus after 5.06 ± 1.09; P = 0.002). The overall satisfaction mean score after using the AP was 3.02 ± 0.54 (range 0–4), demonstrating a high level of satisfaction with this technology. Conclusions. The four-night home-based experience of using MD Logic AP was associated with reduced worries of hypoglycaemia, high level of satisfaction, and increased perceived ease of use of the new technology in children, adolescents, and adults. PMID:26581230

  17. Evaluation of dry powder inhalers with a focus on ease of use and user preference in inhaler-naïve individuals.

    PubMed

    von Schantz, Sofia; Katajavuori, Nina; Antikainen, Osmo; Juppo, Anne

    2016-07-25

    Inhaler errors are common amongst inhaler users. Therefore, in the development work of new inhalation devices, it is important to characterize the ease of use of the inhalers. In this study four dry powder inhalers, Diskus, Easyhaler, Ellipta and Turbuhaler, were evaluated, focusing on ease of use and patient preference. The study used a triangular methodology. The sample consisted of 31 inhaler naïve individuals. Educational videos for all inhalers were watched, and afterwards, the use of all four inhalers was demonstrated in a random order. The demonstrations were videotaped. Thereafter they were checked against a predefined checklist and all mistakes were recorded. Only 33% of inhaler demonstrations were completed without the participants making any mistakes. The proportions of subjects who used the devices correctly were as follows: Diskus 48%, Easyhaler 19%, Ellipta 55% and Turbuhaler 16%. When comparing correct and incorrect inhaler technique for each inhaler pair the following differences were statistically significant: Diskus vs. Easyhaler (p<0.05), Ellipta vs. Easyhaler (p<0.01), Diskus vs. Turbuhaler (p<0.01), Ellipta vs. Turbuhaler (p<0.01). In the participants' ranking, the inhalers Ellipta, followed by Turbuhaler, were most often ranked as most preferred. Participants' preference of Ellipta over Easyhaler (p<0.01) and over Diskus (p<0.001) were statistically significant. PMID:27208655

  18. Comet and meteorite traditions of Aboriginal Australians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-06-01

    This research contributes to the disciplines of cultural astronomy (the academic study of how past and present cultures understand and utilise celestial objects and phenomena) and geomythology (the study of geological events and the formation of geological features described in oral traditions). Of the hundreds of distinct Aboriginal cultures of Australia, many have oral traditions rich in descriptions and explanations of comets, meteors, meteorites, airbursts, impact events, and impact craters. These views generally attribute these phenomena to spirits, death, and bad omens. There are also many traditions that describe the formation of meteorite craters as well as impact events that are not known to Western science.

  19. A monograph of the National Space Transportation System Office (NSTSO) integration activities conducted at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center for the EASE/ACCESS payload flown on STS 61-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chassay, Charles

    1987-01-01

    The integration process of activities conducted at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) for the Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular activity (EASE)/Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (ACCESS) payload is provided as a subset to the standard payload integration process used by the NASA Space Transportation System (STS) to fly payloads on the Space Shuttle. The EASE/ACCESS payload integration activities are chronologically reviewed beginning with the initiation of the flight manifesting and integration process. The development and documentation of the EASE/ACCESS integration requirements are also discussed along with the implementation of the mission integration activities and the engineering assessments supporting the flight integration process. In addition, the STS management support organizations, the payload safety process leading to the STS 61-B flight certification, and the overall EASE/ACCESS integration schedule are presented.

  20. Biodiversity: The benefits of traditional knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Macía, Manuel J.

    2015-02-01

    A study of two Balkan ethnic groups living in close proximity finds that traditional knowledge about local plant resources helps communities to cope with periods of famine, and can promote the conservation of biodiversity.

  1. Area Studies and the Traditional Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieb, Kenneth J.

    1974-01-01

    The function of area studies in the university and its relationship to the traditional department is examined with consideration to the solution of short-range problems and to the long-range advantages of each type of organization. (Author)

  2. Tradition and Nature: Ceramics as Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFurio, Anthony G.

    1980-01-01

    Suggested is an alternative to the traditional ceramics instruction which uses prewedged and prepackaged clay and highly sophisticated kilns: begin with the digging of clay and end with the construction and firing of a trench kiln. (KC)

  3. Traditional Smallpox Vaccines and Atopic Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the traditional vaccine for people with atopic dermatitis/eczema, or for their close contacts? Yes. In the ... emergency. Why should someone who has atopic dermatitis/eczema and their family members not receive the vaccine? ...

  4. Intrusions of Modernity on a Traditional Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Anne Horsfall

    1991-01-01

    Presents a teacher's impressions of India, gathered during a Fulbright-sponsored study tour. Examines modernizing influences in the midst of traditional culture, religious cultural groups and potential religious conflict, women's status, and problems due to overpopulation. (CH)

  5. [Herbal drugs: from traditional use to regulation].

    PubMed

    Federici, Elena; Multari, Giuseppina; Gallo, Francesca Romana; Palazzino, Giovanna

    2005-01-01

    Herbal preparations have been used for centuries as the main therapeutic means. In Italy there is an ancient tradition of using herbal remedies, which became extremely important from the 16th to the 18th century. Nowadays multinational companies invest great resources on herbal drugs and preparations. This article focuses on herbal medicines, herbal products, and food supplements. Moreover the European legislation on traditional medicinal plants and food supplements is analysed and discussed. PMID:16037650

  6. Nanoparticulated docetaxel exerts enhanced anticancer efficacy and overcomes existing limitations of traditional drugs

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jinhyang; Ko, Eunjung; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Jae Hee; Ju, Eun Jin; Lim, Hyun Kyung; Park, Intae; Kim, Kab-Sig; Lee, Joo-Hwan; Son, Woo-Chan; Lee, Jung Shin; Jung, Joohee; Jeong, Seong-Yun; Song, Si Yeol; Choi, Eun Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticulation of insoluble drugs improves dissolution rate, resulting in increased bioavailability that leads to increased stability, better efficacy, and reduced toxicity of drugs. Docetaxel (DTX), under the trade name Taxotere™, is one of the representative anticancer chemotherapeutic agents of this era. However, this highly lipophilic and insoluble drug has many adverse effects. Our novel and widely applicable nanoparticulation using fat and supercritical fluid (NUFS™) technology enabled successful nanoscale particulation of DTX (Nufs-DTX). Nufs-DTX showed enhanced dissolution rate and increased aqueous stability in water. After confirming the preserved mechanism of action of DTX, which targets microtubules, we showed that Nufs-DTX exhibited similar effects in proliferation and clonogenic assays using A549 cells. Interestingly, we observed that Nufs-DTX had a greater in vivo tumor growth delay effect on an A549 xenograft model than Taxotere™, which was in agreement with the improved drug accumulation in tumors according to the biodistribution result, and was caused by the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Although both Nufs-DTX and Taxotere™ showed negative results for our administration dose in the hematologic toxicity test, Nufs-DTX showed much less toxicity than Taxotere™ in edema, paralysis, and paw-withdrawal latency on a hot plate analysis that are regarded as indicators of fluid retention, peripheral neuropathy, and thermal threshold, respectively, for toxicological tests. In summary, compared with Taxotere™, Nufs-DTX, which was generated by our new platform technology using lipid, supercritical fluid, and carbon dioxide (CO2), maintained its biochemical properties as a cytotoxic agent and had better tumor targeting ability, better in vivo therapeutic effect, and less toxicity, thereby overcoming the current hurdles of traditional drugs. PMID:26457052

  7. Perinatal Practices & Traditions Among Asian Indian Women.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Deepika

    2016-01-01

    As the population in the United States grows more diverse, nurses caring for childbearing women must be aware of the many cultural traditions and customs unique to their patients. This knowledge and insight supports women and their families with the appropriate care, information, and resources. A supportive relationship builds trust, offers guidance, and allows for the new family to integrate information from nurses and other healthcare providers with the practice of certain perinatal cultural traditions. The Asian Indian culture is rich in tradition, specifically during the perinatal period. To support the cultural beliefs and practices of Asian Indian women during this time, nurses need to be aware of and consider multiple factors. Many women are navigating the new role of motherhood while making sense of and incorporating important cultural rituals. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of perinatal cultural practices and traditions specific to the Asian Indian culture that perinatal nurses may observe in the clinical setting. Cultural traditions and practices specific to the pregnancy and postpartum period are described together with symbolism and implications for nursing practice. It is important to note that information regarding perinatal customs is provided in an effort to promote culturally sensitive nursing care and may not pertain to all Asian Indian women living in the United States. PMID:26909722

  8. Age and gestural differences in the ease of rotating a virtual 3D image on a large, multi-touch screen.

    PubMed

    Ku, Chao-Jen; Chen, Li-Chieh

    2013-04-01

    Providing a natural mapping between multi-touch gestures and manipulations of digital content is important for user-friendly interfaces. Although there are some guidelines for 2D digital content available in the literature, a guideline for manipulation of 3D content has yet to be developed. In this research, two sets of gestures were developed for experiments in the ease of manipulating 3D content on a touchscreen. As there typically are large differences between age groups in the ease of learning new interfaces, we compared a group of adults with a group of children. Each person carried out three tasks linked to rotating the digital model of a green turtle to inspect major characteristics of its body. Task completion time, subjective evaluations, and gesture changing frequency were measured. Results showed that using the conventional gestures for 2D object rotation was not appropriate in the 3D environment. Gestures that required multiple touch points hampered the real-time visibility of rotational effects on a large screen. While the cumulative effects of 3D rotations became complicated after intensive operations, simpler gestures facilitated the mapping between 2D control movements and 3D content displays. For rotation in Cartesian coordinates, moving one fingertip horizontally or vertically on a 2D touchscreen corresponded to the rotation angles of two axes for 3D content, while the relative movement between two fingertips was used to control the rotation angleof the third axis. Based on behavior analysis, adults and children differed in the diversity of gesture types and in the touch points with respect to the object's contours. Offering a robust mechanism for gestural inputs is necessary for universal control of such a system. PMID:24032318

  9. Traditional birth attendants in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Sisay, L

    1988-03-01

    Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) play a very significant role in the lives of a multitude of people in the traditional settlements and societies. They are people of eminent dignity and personality because their valuable contribution to society is appreciated by all, and they are known as those who keep the secrets of their society. In this article some of the practices of the TBAs are described, including the use of herbs in pregnancy tests, determining whether a delivery will be difficult, and determining labor signs, as well as the traditional method of care for premature babies. No cash payment is made to TBAs for their services, but gifts of rum and kola nuts are offered. PMID:12157965

  10. Retort process modelling for Indian traditional foods.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, S V; Lele, S S

    2014-11-01

    Indian traditional staple and snack food is typically a heterogeneous recipe that incorporates varieties of vegetables, lentils and other ingredients. Modelling the retorting process of multilayer pouch packed Indian food was achieved using lumped-parameter approach. A unified model is proposed to estimate cold point temperature. Initial process conditions, retort temperature and % solid content were the significantly affecting independent variables. A model was developed using combination of vegetable solids and water, which was then validated using four traditional Indian vegetarian products: Pulav (steamed rice with vegetables), Sambar (south Indian style curry containing mixed vegetables and lentils), Gajar Halawa (carrot based sweet product) and Upama (wheat based snack product). The predicted and experimental values of temperature profile matched with ±10 % error which is a good match considering the food was a multi component system. Thus the model will be useful as a tool to reduce number of trials required to optimize retorting of various Indian traditional vegetarian foods. PMID:26396305

  11. Forging links between the formal and traditional in Zambia. Special report: traditional healers.

    PubMed

    Baggaley, R; Sulwe, J; Burnett, A; Ndovi, M

    1996-02-01

    Many Zambians seek help concurrently from traditional healers and formal health services. For example, a study at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka found that more than 75% of inpatients had also sought advice from traditional healers. A second study of 1000 patients seen at Kara Counseling and Training Trust (KCTT) in Lusaka found that 68% of those attending for HIV counseling and testing had seen a traditional healer. The importance of involving traditional healers in HIV prevention programs has not, however, been recognized in Zambia. Several traditional healers have approached KCTT requesting help in managing patients who they suspect may be HIV-seropositive, especially for HIV testing. Many of the organization's counselors and medical staff recognize the role which traditional healers have in caring for HIV-infected individuals, but some are concerned that traditional medicines are ineffective and that traditional healers are disseminating inappropriate health education messages. 68 of 101 counselors surveyed in Lusaka nonetheless expressed an interest in working more closely with traditional healers. PMID:12290767

  12. Traditional healers in North India: a study.

    PubMed

    Kakar, D N

    1983-03-01

    The study objective was to determine the role of indigenous medicine practitioners in providing medical care to the people and to identify factors influencing continuity of their practice. 64 registered indigenous medicine practitioners were practicing in a Community Development Block in North India with a total population of 18,000. Only 9 or them were fully institutionally qualified, i.e., they possessed an ayurvedic degree like GAMS or BIMS. Of the remainder, only 10 were partially institutionally qualified, i.e., they had either a diploma or a certificate in ayurvedic or Unani medicine and the remaining 45 were all noninstitutionally qualified (RIMPS). The 45 had no formal training in indigenous medicine, but they all had served apprenticeships to established practitioners in different areas. The duration of apprenticeship had generally been 4-5 years. 44 of them were practicing both allopathic and ayurvedic systems of medicine. The value of the stock of drugs maintained by them ranged from Rs. 500-2500. Except for 3, all were engaged in full time practice. As most of the RIMPs had their clinics on the main roads, they were easily accessible to their clients. Nearly 3/4 of them had nonresidential clinics, and the rest practiced in their own homes. Most of them had only 1 room clinics. Furnishings usually included a wooden table and chair and a couple of benches for waiting clients. The following were among the study findings: cosmopolitan medicine was still favored by a majority of the rural people; the traditional healers were approached more for the treatment of chronic nonincapacitating dysfunctions rather than critical incapacitating dysfunctions; some traditional healers made claims of curing barrenness, impotency, veneral disease, and certain chronic diseases; the traditional healers moved from 1 place to another in the course of their training and practice; most of them stayed in touch with doctors practicing in towns to acquire knowledge of new remedies

  13. [Introduction of traditional medicinal plants in Kyrgyzstan].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Qiang; Huang, Lu-Qi; Xie, Dong-Mei

    2014-02-01

    Kyrgyzstan is a mountainous country in the northeastern part of Central Asia which shares borders to the southeast with China. Due to their extreme environment and climate, there are a diverse range of species of plants. Many of the plants used in Kyrgyz folk medicine have not been studied using modern scientific techniques. This paper introduced the basic situation of medicinal herbs in Kyrgyzstan by comparing the differences traditional use between China and Kyrgyzstan, and looked for traditional medicinal plant research to provide basis for the development and cooperation of China and Kyrgyzstan. PMID:24946536

  14. Hurdles Ahead in "Race to Top"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2009-01-01

    As states scramble to spend and report on millions of dollars of education stimulus funds already flowing their way, they face another daunting task if they want a shot at even more money: navigating the complex application process for $4 billion from the Race to the Top Fund. Merely filling out the award application will take each state 642…

  15. Translational Hurdles in Stroke Recovery Studies.

    PubMed

    Jolkkonen, Jukka; Kwakkel, Gert

    2016-08-01

    Emerging understanding of brain plasticity has opened new avenues for the treatment of stroke. The promising preclinical evidence with neuroprotective drugs has not been confirmed in clinical trials, thus nowadays, researchers, pharmaceutical companies, and funding bodies hesitate to initiate these expensive trials with restorative therapies. Since many of the previous failures can be traced to low study quality, a number of guidelines such as STAIR and STEPS were introduced to rectify these shortcomings. However, these guidelines stem from the study design for neuroprotective drugs and one may question whether they are appropriate for restorative approaches, which rely heavily on behavioral testing. Most of the recovery studies conducted in stroke patients have been small-scale, proof-of-concept trials. Consequently, the overall effect sizes of pooled phase II trials have proved unreliable and unstable in most meta-analyses. Although the methodological quality of trials in humans is improving, most studies still suffer from methodological flaws and do not meet even the minimum of evidence-based standards for reporting randomized controlled trials. The power problem of most phase II trials is mostly attributable to a lack of proper stratification with robust prognostic factors at baseline as well as the incorrect assumption that all patients will exhibit the same proportional amount of spontaneous neurological recovery poststroke. In addition, most trials suffer from insufficient treatment contrasts between the experimental and control arm and the outcomes have not been sufficiently responsive to detect small but clinically relevant changes in neurological impairments and activities. This narrative review describes the main factors that bias recovery studies, both in experimental animals and stroke patients. PMID:27000881

  16. Hurdling over sex? Sport, science, and equity.

    PubMed

    Ha, Nathan Q; Dworkin, Shari L; Martínez-Patiño, María José; Rogol, Alan D; Rosario, Vernon; Sánchez, Francisco J; Wrynn, Alison; Vilain, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Between 1968 and 1999, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) required all female athletes to undergo genetic testing as part of its sex verification policy, under the assumption that it needed to prevent men from impersonating women and competing in female-only events. After critics convinced officials that genetic testing was scientifically and ethically flawed for this purpose, the IOC replaced the policy in 1999 with a system allowing for medical evaluations of an athlete's sex only in cases of "reasonable suspicion," but this system also created injustice for athletes and stoked international controversies. In 2011, the IOC adopted a new policy on female hyperandrogenism, which established an upper hormonal limit for athletes eligible to compete in women's sporting events. This new policy, however, still leaves important medical and ethical issues unaddressed. We review the history of sex verification policies and make specific recommendations on ways to improve justice for athletes within the bounds of the current hyperandrogenism policy, including suggestions to clarify the purpose of the policy, to ensure privacy and confidentiality, to gain informed consent, to promote psychological health, and to deploy equitable administration and eligibility standards for male and female athletes. PMID:25085349

  17. Hurdling toward Campuswide E-Portfolios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2010-01-01

    Despite resistance from faculty, staff, and students, and the sheer magnitude of the effort from a technological and management point of view, some campuses are shifting electronic portfolios away from department-specific initiatives to become institution-wide programs. The move seems to be driven by institutions wanting to focus more deeply and…

  18. Hurdles of publication: to authors to overcome

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadhassanzadeh, Hafez; Ilghami, Roghayeh

    2014-01-01

    The experience of work in BioImpacts and direct involvement in whole the process of publication inspired us to tackle here the dimensions which we recognize as problematic areas in publication, namely, scientific setbacks, language and technical issues. Authors besides readers as competent future authors are urged not to neglect the significance of well-writing either through considering the language-associated issues or attending the technical matters besides enriching the scientific content. The article offers a scope for the authors to manifest themselves, hence we suggest how to best appear in this play. PMID:25671172

  19. Xenotransplantation: Immunological hurdles and progress toward tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Griesemer, Adam; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Sykes, Megan

    2014-01-01

    The discrepancy between organ need and organ availability represents one of the major limitations in the field of transplantation. One possible solution to this problem is xenotransplantation. Research in this field has identified several obstacles that have so far prevented the successful development of clinical xenotransplantation protocols. The main immunologic barriers include strong T cell and B cell responses to solid organ and cellular xenografts. Additionally, components of the innate immune system can mediate xenograft rejection. Here, we review these immunologic and physiologic barriers and describe some of the strategies that we and others have developed to overcome them. We also describe the development of two strategies to induce tolerance across the xenogeneic barrier, namely thymus transplantation and mixed chimerism, from their inception in rodent models through their current progress in pre-clinical large animal models. We believe that the addition of further beneficial transgenes to Gal knockout swine, combined with new therapies such as Treg administration, will allow for successful clinical application of xenotransplantation. PMID:24517437

  20. Modelling marine protected areas: insights and hurdles.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Elizabeth A; Bax, Nicholas J; Bustamante, Rodrigo H; Dambacher, Jeffrey M; Dichmont, Catherine; Dunstan, Piers K; Hayes, Keith R; Hobday, Alistair J; Pitcher, Roland; Plagányi, Éva E; Punt, André E; Savina-Rolland, Marie; Smith, Anthony D M; Smith, David C

    2015-11-01

    Models provide useful insights into conservation and resource management issues and solutions. Their use to date has highlighted conditions under which no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) may help us to achieve the goals of ecosystem-based management by reducing pressures, and where they might fail to achieve desired goals. For example, static reserve designs are unlikely to achieve desired objectives when applied to mobile species or when compromised by climate-related ecosystem restructuring and range shifts. Modelling tools allow planners to explore a range of options, such as basing MPAs on the presence of dynamic oceanic features, and to evaluate the potential future impacts of alternative interventions compared with 'no-action' counterfactuals, under a range of environmental and development scenarios. The modelling environment allows the analyst to test if indicators and management strategies are robust to uncertainties in how the ecosystem (and the broader human-ecosystem combination) operates, including the direct and indirect ecological effects of protection. Moreover, modelling results can be presented at multiple spatial and temporal scales, and relative to ecological, economic and social objectives. This helps to reveal potential 'surprises', such as regime shifts, trophic cascades and bottlenecks in human responses. Using illustrative examples, this paper briefly covers the history of the use of simulation models for evaluating MPA options, and discusses their utility and limitations for informing protected area management in the marine realm. PMID:26460131

  1. State Electoral Victors Face K-12 Hurdles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2008-01-01

    The new class of governors, state legislators, and chief state school officers elected last week will face formidable challenges in dealing with the squeeze the nation's sagging economy--and ballooning state budget deficits--is putting on K-12 education. In the November 4 elections, Democrats added one more governor's office--in Missouri--to their…

  2. Clearing Hurdles. Leaders Sharing--Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Donna M.

    2005-01-01

    Technology is the key to improving student achievement, but without high-quality professional development, technology will never be successful in fulfilling that role. To create successful professional development, it is necessary to carefully plan programs and activities that model constructivism and take into consideration characteristics of…

  3. Education and Training: Springboard or Hurdle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, M.

    1987-01-01

    A survey of 19 British companies documented their use of education and training programs. Questions covered such areas as (1) expenditure rates, (2) strategy and policies, (3) appraisal and budgeting, and (4) accounting practice. Problems and potential changes were solicited. (CH)

  4. Examining Teachers' Hurdles to "Science for All"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southerland, Sherry; Gallard, Alejandro; Callihan, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research is to identify science teachers' beliefs and conceptions that play an important role in shaping their understandings of and attempts to enact inclusive science teaching practices. We examined the work products, both informal (online discussions, email exchanges) and formal (papers, unit plans, peer reviews), of 14…

  5. Terahertz wave imaging: horizons and hurdles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.-C.

    2002-11-01

    Terahertz (THz) science will profoundly impact biotechnology. It has tremendous potential for applications in imaging, medical diagnosis, health monitoring, environmental control and chemical and biological identification. THz research will become one of the most promising research areas in the 21st century for transformational advances in imaging, as well as in other interdisciplinary fields. However, terahertz wave (T-ray) imaging is still in its infancy. This paper discusses the uniqueness and limitations of T-ray imaging, identifies the major challenges impeding T-ray imaging and proposes solutions and opportunities in this field. It also concentrates on the generation, propagation and detection of T-rays by the use of femtosecond optics.

  6. Major Hurdles for the Evolution of Sociality.

    PubMed

    Korb, Judith; Heinze, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Why do most animals live solitarily, while complex social life is restricted to a few cooperatively breeding vertebrates and social insects? Here, we synthesize concepts and theories in social evolution and discuss its underlying ecological causes. Social evolution can be partitioned into (a) formation of stable social groups, (b) evolution of helping, and (c) transition to a new evolutionary level. Stable social groups rarely evolve due to competition over food and/or reproduction. Food competition is overcome in social insects with central-place foraging or bonanza-type food resources, whereas competition over reproduction commonly occurs because staying individuals are rarely sterile. Hence, the evolution of helping is shaped by direct and indirect fitness options and helping is only altruism if it reduces the helper's direct fitness. The helper's capability to gain direct fitness also creates within-colony conflict. This prevents transition to a new evolutionary level. PMID:26667274

  7. Exercise Helps Ease Psychosis Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... has shown that exercise can benefit people with schizophrenia. The study was published recently in the journal ... Health Topics Exercise and Physical Fitness Psychotic Disorders Schizophrenia About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ...

  8. Mindfulness Training May Ease PTSD

    MedlinePlus

    ... More Health News on: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Veterans and Military Health Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Veterans and Military Health About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ...

  9. Can Magnetic Coil Ease Tinnitus?

    MedlinePlus

    ... life-shattering disability. Targeting brain cells may alter perception of noise Regardless of the intensity, tinnitus appears ... This, says Folmer, may help reduce the abnormal perception of sounds. The Food and Drug Administration approved ...

  10. Iran eases limits on sterilization.

    PubMed

    Roudi, N

    1991-03-01

    The government of Iran announced in November 1990, in an abrupt reversal of previous policies, the legislation of sterilization and its provision free-of-charge upon request, as well as the distribution of other contraceptive gratis. At the time of the Islamic Revolution in 1979 the government adopted a pronatalist policy, family planning programs were interrupted, legal ages of marriage were lowered, and barriers against polygamy were loosened. Iran had a 3.5% growth rate in 1990 and a total fertility rate of 6.3 lifetime births/woman. After the end of the war between Iran and Iraq in 1988, the population explosion became an obstacle to reconstruction. In 1950, the population numbered 14.2 million; by 1970 it had doubled to 28.4 million. In 1990, the country had 54.6 million people. According to a 1990 UN assessment the population will soar to 100 million by 2020. Over 8 million live in Tehran where overcrowding, traffic congestion, air pollution, and high living costs are the norm. the 1989 National Birth Control Policy Summary adopted targets to reduce the average number of lifetime births per woman to 4 children and natural growth rate to 2.3% by 2011, and to provide family planning to 24% of reproductive-age women whereby 1 million conceptions would be prevented. Indirect measures to curb fertility include raising literacy promoting the education of girls, improving the status and health conditions of women, and reducing maternal and child mortality. A media campaign has started to encourage a small family model. The low legal, social, educational, and employment status of women poses obstacles to this plan, however, the revision of laws that conflict with these goals has been urged. In other Islamic countries such as Turkey, Tunisia, Indonesia, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, female sterilization is legal. Abortion in Iran remains banned except for saving the life of the mother. PMID:12343087

  11. Can Acupuncture Ease Severe Constipation?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Constipation? 'Electroacupuncture' led to symptom relief even 12 weeks after treatment, study finds To use the sharing ... type of acupuncture, new research suggests. After eight weeks of treatment with electroacupuncture -- acupuncture involving electrical stimulation -- ...

  12. Traditional Knowledge and Nutritive Value of Indigenous Foods in the Oraon Tribal Community of Jharkhand: An Exploratory Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Singh, Archna; Kamboj, Preeti; Goldberg, Gail; Magsumbol, Melina S.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional knowledge and nutritional value of indigenous foods of the Oraon tribal community in Jharkhand, India was explored. Focus group discussions were conducted with adult members to identify commonly consumed indigenous foods. Taxonomic classification and quantitative estimation of nutritive value were conducted in laboratories or utilized data from Indian food composition database. More than 130 varieties of indigenous foods were identified, many of which were rich sources of micronutrients like calcium, iron, vitamin A, and folic acid. Some were reported having medicinal properties. Utilization and ease of assimilation of indigenous foods into routine diets can be leveraged to address malnutrition in tribal communities. PMID:25902000

  13. Integrating Sociological Practice into Traditional Sociology Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basirico, Laurence A.

    1990-01-01

    Outlines a model of instruction that uses Marvin Olsen's reconceptualization of sociology as "sociological practice" to integrate sociological practice into traditional courses. States that this approach helps students gain a critical perspective and overcome personal and cultural ideological constraints in dealing with real issues related to…

  14. Rites of Passage or Unwanted Traditions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisberg, Leo

    2000-01-01

    Reports on efforts at several colleges (Ithaca College, New York; Princeton University, New Jersey; Luther College, Iowa; and Vassar College, New York) to end such school traditions as nude streaking or naked soccer, usually accompanied by heavy drinking. School officials see such activities as significant threats to students' health and safety.…

  15. An Alternative to the Traditional Grading System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvez, Ferdinand V.

    The purpose of this practicum was to change the grading policy in the San Juan Unified School District (California) through a two-state process. The first stage was to change the traditional ABCDF grading system to a three-scale grading system in one high school, one intermediate school, and six elementary schools serving the same attendance area.…

  16. 50 CFR 253.26 - Traditional loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Traditional loans. 253.26 Section 253.26 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program §...

  17. 50 CFR 253.26 - Traditional loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Traditional loans. 253.26 Section 253.26 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program §...

  18. Mineral composition of some traditional Mexican teas.

    PubMed

    Laferriere, J E; Weber, C W; Kohlhepp, E A

    1991-07-01

    Teas of plant origin traditionally consumed by the Mountain Pima of Chihuahua, Mexico, were analyzed for mineral nutritional content. Fe, Cu, Zn, Ca, and Mg composition was determined for native teas made from shoots of Tagetes lucida, T. filifolia, Elytraria imbricata, and Holodiscus dumosus, and from root xylem of Ceanothus depressus and Phaseolus ritensis. Native uses of these teas are also described. PMID:1924192

  19. Spotlight on Ramayana: An Enduring Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadley, Susan, Ed.; Ramamurthy, Priti, Ed.

    This collection of lessons was developed by teachers in an institute focusing on teaching about India and the Ramayana. Essays providing background information are "The Oral Tradition and the Many 'Ramayanas'" (Philip Lutgendorf) and "Bringing Ramayana into the Classroom" (Hazel Sara Greenberg). After an introduction by Susan Wadley, a Ramayana…

  20. Challenging the Traditional/Communicative Dichotomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaumont, Mike; Chang, Kyung-Suk

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of this paper is to explore a common dichotomy that characterizes debate about what has come to be termed "appropriate methodology". It is that between "traditional" and "communicative" approaches to language teaching, a distinction that persists despite arguments by some that the term "communicative" should be superseded or even…

  1. Marbles, Anyone? Traditional Games in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casbergue, Renee M.; Kieff, Judith

    1998-01-01

    Children now play more solitary games, perhaps missing benefits of traditional games such as jacks, marbles, and dominoes. Such games offer children of all backgrounds the opportunity to consolidate knowledge and skills, develop a more orderly way of thinking, and establish themselves with peers. By making these games available in classrooms,…

  2. An Interdisciplinary Twist on Traditional Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rattigan, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This article describes some activities that include descriptions of four classic games, and also incorporates interdisciplinary concepts into the playing of traditional games. These activities can be played indoors or outside, in a gym or a classroom. A description of an interdisciplinary version of the game is included after the description of…

  3. Non-Traditional Learning Study: Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraine Valley Community College., Palos Hills, IL. Office of Institutional Research.

    A study was conducted at Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) to determine the characteristics of individuals who had taken courses through the college's Non-Traditional Learning (NTL) sub-division. The records of students who had taken specified NTL courses during spring 1981, fall 1981 or spring 1982 were retrieved and analyzed. Study…

  4. Lessons from traditional medical and health practices.

    PubMed

    Oyeka, I C

    1981-01-01

    Unlike hospital-oriented western medical practice, traditional medical science and technology include aspects of botany, anatomy, psychology, psychiatry, and sociology. Indigenous medical treatment has been successful in extensive comminuted fractures, psychosomatic disorders, and frantic manic psychosis. Traditional practitioners also work to prevent disease. They often advise against marriages that might perpetuate diseases. Traditional birth attendants and doctors in Africa, Asia, and Latin America routinely perform external cephalic versions on women with breach birth presentations thereby avoiding the need for often risky and undesirable cesarean sections. In many cultures, traditional birth attendants and female advisors from within and outside immediate families are among the regular local services available to mothers during gestation and early child care periods. Breastfeeding, which has been discouraged in industrialized countries, is nutritious and partially serves as a form of contraceptive to aid in child spacing, especially if lactation is prolonged. In most hospitals in developing countries, in contrast to western hospitals, the mother is encouraged to stay with her sick child to provide psychological support and assist with feeding and some aspects of care and treatment. Family organizations and extended families help in child bearing, care and nurturing and continues into socialization and adolescence. PMID:12310946

  5. What Is Non-Traditional Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritsma, George A.

    In an effort to insure that medical technologists prepared for their careers through nontraditional educational offerings are at least as competent as those graduated from traditional programs, the American Society for Medical Technology has defined the term "nontraditional education" for its own use, categorized the educational mechanisms that…

  6. Academic Medicine Meets Traditional African Healing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindow, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Cyril Naidoo, who directs the department of family medicine at the University of KwaZulu-Natal's Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, conducts workshops to traditional healers on how to help patients with AIDS and HIV. In Dr. Naidoo's workshop, the group discusses how to counsel patients about HIV and AIDS, how to refer them for testing, and then…

  7. Statistical genetics in traditionally cultivated crops.

    PubMed

    Artoisenet, Pierre; Minsart, Laure-Anne

    2014-11-01

    Traditional farming systems have attracted a lot of attention over the past decades as they have been recognized to supply an important component in the maintenance of the genetic diversity worldwide. A broad spectrum of traditionally managed crops has been studied to investigate how reproductive properties in combination with husbandry characteristics shape the genetic structure of the crops over time. However, traditional farms typically involve populations of small size whose genetic evolution is overwhelmed with statistic fluctuations inherent to the stochastic nature of the crossings. Hence there is generally no one-to-one mapping between crop properties and measured genotype data, and claims regarding crop properties on the basis of the observed genetic structure must be stated within a confidence level to be estimated by means of a dedicated statistical analysis. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive framework to carry out such statistical analyses. We illustrate the capabilities of our approach by applying it to crops of C. lanatus var. lanatus oleaginous type cultivated in Côte d׳Ivoire. While some properties such as the effective field size considerably evade the constraints from experimental data, others such as the mating system turn out to be characterized with a higher statistical significance. We discuss the importance of our approach for studies on traditionally cultivated crops in general. PMID:24992232

  8. TRADITIONAL PRACTICES IN A PRAGMATIC INSTITUTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RICHARDSON, RICHARD C.

    WHILE THE COMMUNITY COLLEGE IS ESSENTIALLY PRAGMATIC IN ITS BASIC OUTLOOK, IT IS CLOSELY RELATED TO TRADITIONAL ASPECTS OF HIGHER EDUCATION. THESE EXTREME POSITIONS MUST BE AVOIDED AS THE COMMUNITY COLLEGE DEVELOPS A CONSISTENT FRAME OF REFERENCE FOR GUIDING POLICY DECISIONS. THE BASIC CONCEPT OF THE COLLEGE SUFFERS WHEN THE INSTITUTION BECOMES…

  9. The Microfloras of Traditional Greek Cheeses.

    PubMed

    Litopoulou-Tzanetaki, Evanthia; Tzanetakis, Nikolaos

    2014-02-01

    Many traditional cheeses are made in Greece. Some of them are, in fact, types of the same cheese variety, whether or not they have different cheesemaking technologies, but are known by different local names. Twenty of them have been granted protected designation of origin status. In the 8th century BCE, Homer described a cheese thought to be the ancestor of feta, the main cheese manufactured in Greece from the ancient times until today. Meanwhile, various cheese types evolved through the centuries, and almost every area in Greece has its own cheesemaking tradition. Some cheese varieties are local, handcrafted products whose production has been handed down from generation to generation, and without interest in their continued production, these varieties will disappear. Other local varieties are made at small factories from pasteurized milk and commercial rennet and starter and are very different from the traditional versions. However, some milk producers still make their cheeses at home or at small dairies from raw milk, without any starter, or sometimes from thermized milk, with traditional yogurt as the starter. Their cheeses are the basis for the information presented in this review. PMID:26082126

  10. Piagetian Tasks, Traditional Intelligence and Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingma, J.; Koops, W.

    1983-01-01

    Reports study which compared the value of Piagetian tasks--seriation, conservation and multiple classification--to that of traditional intelligence tests--Cattell and PMA 5 to 7 subtests--as predictors of number language, simple computation, and verbal arithmetic achievement in 312 children from kindergarten to grade 4. Fifty references are…

  11. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    Interest in alternative transportation fuels (ATF`s) has increased in recent years due to the drives for cleaner air and less dependence upon foreign oil. This report, Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1996, provides information on ATFs, as well as the vehicles that consume them.

  12. Traditional Planetarium Programming versus Participatory Planetarium Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Jack K.

    1980-01-01

    The results of this study indicate that, for the astronomical concepts used, no significant difference in the cognitive domain will occur between the achievement of students who experience a participatory planetarium program and students who experience a traditional lecture-demonstration program. (Author/MK)

  13. Insights: The Myth of the Traditional Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    According to the U.S. Census Bureau, more than half of marriages have ended in divorce since the mid-1970s. Nonetheless, schools and community organizations continue to be inclined to act as if nontraditional/neo-traditional families are an anomaly. Despite the reality of new family structures, popular television, movies, and books continue to…

  14. Focus: English Literature Outside Traditional Rubrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Donald, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    This issue of "Kansas English" contains three articles on the topic "English Literature Outside Traditional Rubrics." The first article, by Nancy S. Prichard, discusses the importance of the new literatures in the education of children and young adults. New literatures are defined as the writings of minority group members in the United States and…

  15. Making Sense of the Seven Communication Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Katheryn C.

    2006-01-01

    Students just starting out in communication, or those who have been studying it for a while, often have difficulty understanding the various ways to view "communication." One way to help students make sense of the field is to look at it from the various traditions in the discipline. Craig (1999) identified the similarities and differences among…

  16. Aboriginal Knowledge Traditions in Digital Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Michael

    2005-01-01

    According to Manovich (2001), the database and the narrative are natural enemies, each competing for the same territory of human culture. Aboriginal knowledge traditions depend upon narrative through storytelling and other shared performances. The database objectifies and commodifies distillations of such performances and absorbs them into data…

  17. Loss and mourning in the Jewish tradition.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Simon Shimshon

    Robert Kastenbaum was a man who helped reintroduce issues related to death, dying, and bereavement to academic, clinical, and general discourse. This article, devoted to an encounter with the observance of mourning custom and ritual in the Jewish tradition, continues the dialogue in this journal that Bob founded. The article utilizes the Two-Track Model of Bereavement to address the Jewish tradition's structuring of the loss experience. After a brief introduction, I present a schematic presentation of some of the issues operant in grief and mourning for the believer. This is followed by two responses to loss that portray the pain of loss in the tradition. The article goes on to consider the Jewish time cycle of response to loss-from preburial Aninut, to Shiva, the first week, to Shloshim, the first month, to Shanah, the first year, to the expectations for encounters across the life cycle. The Yizkor and Kaddish are also considered. In the Jewish tradition, alongside attention to what level of functioning to require of the bereaved, there are lifelong opportunities to re-work and maintain connection to the memories, associations, narratives, and experiences that comprise the psychological organization of the continuing bond and relationship to the deceased. PMID:25351592

  18. Mediation: One Alternative to Traditional Judicial Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Merrily S.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a model of conflict resolution as an alternative, or in addition, to traditional disciplinary systems. Method relies on mediation and employs a "win/win" philosophy which allows and encourages students to peacefully resolve their own disputes. Believes that the program bolsters self-esteem and helps students resolve differences. (RJM)

  19. Traditional Field Crops. Appropriate Technologies for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, David

    This manual, primarily designed to help Peace Corps volunteers develop and strengthen their agricultural skills, deals with traditional field crops. The focus of the manual is on surveying and interpreting local agricultural environment and individual farm units, developing agricultural extension techniques and practices, and providing basic…

  20. Utilizing Traditional Knowledge in a Scientific Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyne, Grace M.

    2003-01-01

    A nuclear physicist feels that his Navajo upbringing, with its emphasis on the structure of nature and abstract reasoning, prepared him well for the world of physics. Traditional Navajo sandpaintings helped him understand physics concepts. Native American students show strengths in learning visual, perceptual, or spatial information, and they…

  1. Traditional African Religion: A Resource Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, William E.

    This resource unit is based on research conducted by Lynn Mitchell and Ernest Valenzuela, experienced classroom teachers of African history and culture. The unit consists of an introduction by Mr. Garland and two major parts. Part I is an annotated bibliography of selected sources on various aspects of traditional African Religion useful in…

  2. Traditional breeding and cultivar development (potato)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional breeding allows for the genetic ‘reshuffling’ of genes and their recombination into new genotypes that may carry the desired assemblage of resistance and agronomic traits necessary for release as a new cultivar. While molecular biology techniques can be useful for improving upon a weakne...

  3. Is the Traditional Curriculum Past Its Prime?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, John

    2007-01-01

    I take up recent remarks by Teruhisa Horio about school student disaffection in Japan and see echoes of this in Britain. In that country the traditional school curriculum of discrete largely academic subjects is often taken to be one cause of the problem. I review justifications for it but no sound ones appear to be available. We need to…

  4. An American in Cahors: Finding the Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessenco, Susan D.

    1976-01-01

    This article describes French life in the French town of Cahors, and stresses the fact that while French life is definitely changing, it is important to search out the traditional aspects of French thinking and customs in order to understand the limits and meaning of the current modernization. (CLK)

  5. Pedagogic Discourse and Transformation: A Selective Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yongbing

    2011-01-01

    This is the second of four essays discussing Wu's "Interpretation, autonomy, and transformation: Chinese pedagogic discourse in a cross-cultural perspective" (JCS, 43(5), 569-590). The essay is interesting against the background of recent debates, both inside and outside China, about the relationship between the Chinese and Western traditions of…

  6. Cheese cultures: transforming American tastes and traditions.

    PubMed

    Paxson, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Although the history of cheesemaking in the United States tells largely a tale of industrialization, there is a submerged yet continuous history of small-batch, hands-on, artisan cheese manufacture. This tradition, carried on in artisan cheese factories across the country, although concentrated in Wisconsin, is often overlooked by a new generation of artisan cheesemakers. Continuities in fabrication methods shared by preindustrial and post-industrial artisan creameries have been obscured by changes in the organization and significance of artisan production over the last one hundred years. Making cheese by hand has morphed from chore to occupation to vocation; from economic trade to expressive endeavor; from a craft to an art. American artisan cheesemaking tradition was invented and reinvented as a tradition of innovation. Indeed, ideological commitment to innovation as modern, progressive, American—and thus a marketable value—further obscures continuities between past and present, artisan factories, and new farmstead production. The social disconnect between the current artisan movement and American's enduring cheesemaking tradition reproduces class hierarchies even as it reflects growing equity in gendered occupational opportunities. PMID:21568042

  7. MacIntyre, Rival Traditions and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolz, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper critically discusses MacIntyre's thesis that education is essentially a contested concept. In order to contextualise my discussion, I discuss both whether rival educational traditions of education found in MacIntyre's work--which I refer to as instrumental and non-instrumental justifications of education--can be rationally resolved…

  8. Corporate Web Sites in Traditional Print Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardun, Carol J.; Lamb, Larry

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Web presence in print advertisements to determine how marketers are creating bridges between traditional advertising and the Internet. Content analysis showed Web addresses in print ads; categories of advertisers most likely to link print ads with Web sites; and whether the Web site attempts to develop a database of potential…

  9. Traditions of Moral Education in Iraq

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khaizaran, Huda

    2007-01-01

    This article suggests three ideas. First, under the pressures of the Ottoman and Iraqi state modernity projects, two types of cultural traditions in Iraq, namely Islam and Arab tribal values, were negotiated and re-negotiated. Second, the concepts of merit based on these values changed over time and were institutionalised in education. Third,…

  10. Incorporating the Internet into Traditional Library Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca, Tony; King, Monica

    2000-01-01

    Presents a template for teaching traditional library research and one for incorporating the Web. Highlights include the differences between directories and search engines; devising search strategies; creating search terms; how to choose search engines; evaluating online resources; helpful Web sites; and how to read URLs to evaluate a Web site's…

  11. The Watergate Seminar: Non-Traditional College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Joseph

    1977-01-01

    Empire State College, a non-traditional unit of the State University of New York, conducted a series of seminars related to the Watergate Affair, at which 23 students took part in this intensive exploration of a Watergate. It provided tremendous opportunity for insight into the concept of seminars within a college. (Author)

  12. African Cultural Traditions and Modernization: A Reaffirmation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boateng, Felix A.

    1978-01-01

    The viability of African cultural traditions and their role in modernization and nation-building in Africa are examined. Social and political organization and formal education are discussed in relation to the process of modernization. Although Africa may utilize Western models of development, Westernization and modernization are not synonymous.…

  13. The Danish Free School Tradition under Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    2015-01-01

    The Danish free school tradition has entailed a large degree of associational freedom for non-governmental schools, religious as well as non-religious. Until the late 1990s, the non-governmental schools were under no strict ideological or pedagogical limitations; they could recruit teachers and students according to their own value base, and were…

  14. Akan Traditional Arbitration: Its Structure and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agyekum, Kofi

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the basic components of the process of settlement, types of offences and language of Akan traditional arbitration. The paper also considers arbitration and Akan sociocultural norms and values. The paper finally discusses the status of Akan arbitration within the context of contemporary forms of adjudication, democracy,…

  15. SOME NOTES ON CUBAN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Refal Milanes

    1996-01-01

    The traditional medical system of cuba is an amalgam so the medical knowledge of the Africans, Hispanics and the Amerindians of cuba. An attempt is made is this article to provide a short introduction to this fascinating body of knowledge, which awaits further investigations by scholars of ethnic medicine. PMID:22556768

  16. When Traditions Become Innovations and Innovations Become Traditions in Everyday Food Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benny, Helen

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the way learning to cook remains important for the maintenance of "ethnic" food traditions and how sharing food knowledge plays a role in intercultural exchanges. Ethnographic data from an ongoing study in Melbourne is presented to highlight how, in everyday practices, both tradition and innovation are involved in learning…

  17. Traditional Arts Knowledge, Traditional Ecological Lore: The Intersection of Art Education and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bequette, James W.

    2007-01-01

    Teaching about Native artworks as part of school arts curriculum can serve to pass on traditional ecological knowledge while also contextualizing colonialism's influence on traditional and contemporary Native arts practices. This article explores how schools can actively engage in community arts partnerships with American Indians who have…

  18. Testing Algorithmic Skills in Traditional and Non-Traditional Programming Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csernoch, Mária; Biró, Piroska; Máth, János; Abari, Kálmán

    2015-01-01

    The Testing Algorithmic and Application Skills (TAaAS) project was launched in the 2011/2012 academic year to test first year students of Informatics, focusing on their algorithmic skills in traditional and non-traditional programming environments, and on the transference of their knowledge of Informatics from secondary to tertiary education. The…

  19. Traditional and non-traditional collective bargaining: strategies to improve the patient care environment.

    PubMed

    Budd, Karen W; Warino, Linda S; Patton, Mary Ellen

    2004-01-01

    Acquiring organizational autonomy and control over nursing practice, through a combination of traditional and non-traditional collective bargaining (CB) strategies, is emerging as an important solution to the nursing shortage crisis. For the past 60 years, nurses have improved their economic and general welfare by organizing through traditional CB, particularly during periods of nursing shortages. During the past decade, however, the downsizing of nursing staffs, systems redesign, and oppressive management practices have created such poor nursing practice environments that improvement in wages no longer is viewed as the primary purpose of CB. Much more essential to nurses is assuring they have a safe practice environment free of mandatory overtime and other work issues, and a voice in the resource allocation decisions that affect their ability to achieve quality health outcomes for patients. The thesis presented in this article is that traditional and non-traditional CB strategies empower nurses to find such a voice and gain control over nursing practice. This article describes the current shortage; discusses how CB can be used to help nurses find a voice to effect change; reviews the American Nurses Association's (ANA's) history of collective action activities; explains differences between traditional and non-traditional CB strategies; and presents a case study in which both strategies were used to improve the present patient care environment. PMID:14998358

  20. Religious Traditions and Prenatal Genetic Counseling

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Rebecca Rae

    2009-01-01

    Members of organized religious groups may look to their faith traditions for guidance regarding the moral implications of prenatal diagnosis and intervention. Many denominations have doctrinal statements relevant to these deliberations. In this paper, common spiritual issues arising in the genetic counseling encounter are described. Representative doctrinal positions, derived from the responses of 31 U.S. religious denominations to a survey relating to prenatal genetic counseling, are given. Because the long-term adjustment of patients may be dependent in part on their ability to reconcile their actions with their faith traditions, genetic counselors best serve their patients when they invite discussion of matters of faith. Unless invited, patients may assume these topics are ‘off limits’ or that care providers are indifferent to their beliefs. Although genetics professionals ought not assume the role of spiritual advisor, a working knowledge of doctrinal approaches should help counselors frame the issues, and avoid missteps. PMID:19170093

  1. Traditionally-used antimalarials from the Meliaceae.

    PubMed

    Omar, S; Zhang, J; MacKinnon, S; Leaman, D; Durst, T; Philogene, B J R; Arnason, J T; Sanchez-Vindas, P E; Poveda, L; Tamez, P A; Pezzuto, J M

    2003-01-01

    A quantitative ethnobotanical approach to antimalarial drug discovery led to the identification of Lansium domesticum Corr. Ser. (Meliaceae) as an important antimalarial used by Kenyah Dyak healers in Indonesian Borneo. Triterpenoid lansiolides with antimalarial activity were isolated from the bark and shown to have activity in both in vitro bioassays with Plasmodium falciparum, and in mice infected with P. berghei. A survey of African and tropical American Meliaceae led to further development of the limonoid gedunin from the traditionally used medicinal plants, tropical cedar, Cedrela odorata L., and neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Gedunin has significant in vitro activity but initially showed poor in vivo activity. In vivo activity was improved by (1) incorporation into an easy to absorb suspension, (2) preparation of a more stable compound, 7-methoxygedunin; and (3) synergism with dillapiol, a cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitor. The results show the potential for both antimalarial drug and phytomedicine development from traditionally used plants. PMID:12570769

  2. Safety of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Bashar; Azaizeh, Hassan; Abu-Hijleh, Ghassan; Said, Omar

    2006-01-01

    Herbal remedies are widely used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and often contain highly active pharmacological compounds. Many medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical drugs are therapeutic at one dose and toxic at another. Toxicity related to traditional medicines is becoming more widely recognized as these remedies become popular in the Mediterranean region as well as worldwide. Most reports concerning the toxic effects of herbal medicines are associated with hepatotoxicity although reports of other toxic effects including kidney, nervous system, blood, cardiovascular and dermatologic effects, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity have also been published in the medical literature. This article presents a systematic review on safety of traditional Arab medicine and the contribution of Arab scholars to toxicology. Use of modern cell biological, biochemical, in vitro and in vivo techniques for the evaluation of medicinal plants safety is also discussed. PMID:17173106

  3. Psoriasis and Topical Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Atyabi, Akramosadat; Shirbeigi, Laila; Eghbalian, Fateme

    2016-01-01

    Background: Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin, nails, and joints disease related to the immune system by periods of exacerbations and remissions. It is characterized by thick end, erythematous, and scaling lesions, which affects about 2 to 4 percent of the general population. The disease occurs equally in both sexes and the most common form of the disease is psoriasis vulgaris. The etiology is unknown but genetic and environmental factors, immune system disorders, and gastrointestinal dysfunction appear to be responsible. The aim of this study is to compare psoriasis and Ghooba clinical manifestations and introduce medical treatment of this disease based on authentic books of traditional medicine. Methods: This study is a qualitative literature review based on reliable sources of traditional medicine, such as Canon of Medicine, Makhzan-ul-Adwiah, Qrabadyne kabir, Zakhireh-ye Khwarazm shahi, Tib-e-Akbari and Exir-e-Azam. Results: Probably, in traditional medicine, the most similar disease to psoriasis is Ghooba. That is scaly lesion concomitant with itching and articular pain in most cases. The causes of disease are poor performance of the liver and spleen and stomach, as well as excessive consumption of foods such as beef and veal, eggplant and fish. Several local treatments such as wheat germ oil, flaxseed oil, black seed oil, and violet oil were recommended. Conclusion: Psoriasis is a chronic, debilitating physical, mental, and sexual disease for which genetic, environmental and immunological factors are recommended for its etiology. This problem could be treated by the oral and topical medications symptomatically; however, major side effects are associated with recent treatments. Change in lifestyle, prevention issues, as well as herbal therapy are recommended for the treatment of psoriasis in traditional medicine. PMID:27516685

  4. [Approach to easing occupational stress for high-stress workers: applying the brief job stress questionnaire to workplace mental health promotion].

    PubMed

    Hase, Yoko; Hori, Hiroko; Nakayasu, Ikuyo; Matsushita, Yuko; Inagaki, Michiko; Unno, Aiko; Nishigaya, Eri; Nishijima, Chiharu; Enta, Kazuhiko; Sashihara, Shunsuke

    2008-07-01

    We investigated job stress among 442 employees from 19 divisions in a Japanese company using the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. Job stress of the employees was estimated by the score for total health risk. Among the 19 divisions, two divisions showed over 120 points of mean total health risk score. Intervention with a stress-reduction program was carried out in these 2 divisions. First, to assess the job stress, health care staff interviewed all workers in the 2 divisions. Second, the results of the interviews were reported to the divisions' managers. Third, the managers applied the best remedy for job stress in their workplaces. In addition, occupational health staff conducted mental health education as well as individual interviews for the workers from the 2 divisions. At reevaluation one year later, both divisions showed a decreased general health risk (under 120 points). No sick leaves for depression occurred within the 2 divisions during the intervention. The results of the present study suggest that the intervention was effective in easing occupational stress for high-stress workers. The stress reduction program also seemed to have helped managers to change their recognition of occupational mental health and enabled close cooperation with occupational health staff, which may improve mental health in the workplace. PMID:18566525

  5. Seaweed cultivation: Traditional way and its reformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Xiu-Geng; Bao, Ying; Lu, Shan

    1999-09-01

    Seaweed cultivation or phycoculture has been developed rather fast in recent years. The total production of cultivated seaweed at present is about 6250×103 tons fresh weight. The total cultivation area is estimated as 200×103 hectare. The annual total value of cultivated seaweeds has been estimated to be more than 3 billion US dollars. Phycoculture provides many job opportunities for the coastal region people, has the potential to improve marine environments and thus even induce global change. All traditional cultivation methods and techniques are based on or start from the individual plant or the cultivated seaweed population. Modern biological science and biotechnology achievements have benefited agriculture a lot, but traditional seaweed cultivation has not changed much since its founding. This is because seaweed cultivation has been quite conservative for quite a long period and has accumulated many problems requiring solution. Four main problems might be the most universal ones holding back further development of the industry. New ways of seaweed cultivation must be developed, new techniques must be perfected, and new problems solved. This paper mainly discusses the main problems of traditional seaweed cultivation at present and its possible further development and reformation in the future.

  6. Disaster-friendly sundanese traditional building construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maknun, J.; Busono, T.; Nuryanto

    2016-04-01

    Indonesia is one country that is highly prone to earthquakes because it is located at the juncture of four tectonic plates, namely the Asian continental shelf, the continental shelf of Australia, the Indian Ocean plate and the Pacific plate. In the southern and eastern parts of Indonesia there is a volcanic belt that extends from the island of Sumatra, Java and Nusa south eastern Sulawesi, the sides in the form of old volcanic mountains and the lowlands are mostly dominated by swamps. The condition of potential and proneness to disasters such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, and landslides. Indonesian society have a local knowledge for facing disasters. Local communities in particular areas have local knowledge for facing disasters. Such knowledge is commonly kept by members of the communities and applied to their environments, including houses. This research aims to describe disaster-friendly Sundanese traditional building construction. It employs the evaluation method, by comparing Sundanese traditional house construction to the standards of disaster-friendly construction. The results indicate that the Sundanese traditional building constructions have been qualified as disaster-friendly buildings.

  7. Mycotoxins in South African traditionally brewed beers.

    PubMed

    Odhav, B; Naicker, V

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally brewed alcoholic beverages are regularly consumed by most ethnic black South Africans. Maize and barley, both of which are used for producing locally brewed alcoholic beer, are frequently contaminated by mycotoxin-producing moulds. The study was undertaken to investigate whether these toxins are present in raw grains and the traditional beers imbibed by the local black African population. It was established that the raw ingredients (sorghum, sorghum malt grains, maize grits), commercially produced traditional beers (Utshwala and Utshwala special) and home-brewed beers (Umqombotha, Isiqatha, Imfulamfula) were contaminated by bacteria and fungi (both yeasts and moulds). The contaminating moulds were isolated and identified. The contaminated samples were analysed for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, zearalenone, citrinin, deoxynivalenol, and ochratoxin A using a multi-mycotoxin thin-layer chromatography screening method and the toxins were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Grain samples were infected by. Aspergillus flavus, A. alliaceus, A. clavatus, Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp. and Mucor spp. Sorghum malt grain samples contained the toxin zear alenone. No mycotoxin-producing fungi were present in the fermented beers but two of six commercial beer samples contained aflatoxins (200 and 400 microg l(-1) and 45% (13 of 29) of the home-brewed beers had zear alenone (range 2.6-426 microg l(-1) and/or ochratoxin A (3-2340 microg l(-1). PMID:11811766

  8. Shivlilik burns: injuries resulting from traditional celebrations

    PubMed Central

    Gündüz, Metin; Çiftçi, İlhan; Sekmenli, Tamer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In Konya, Turkey, the community celebrates the traditional ceremony of Shivlilik, which occurs on the first day of the seventh month in the lunar-based Hijri calendar. In the evening, people light bonfires of tires in the streets, and children and young people attempt to jump over the flames. Flame burns regularly occur due to falling. Attention should be given to preventing injuries such as these that are caused by social and regional customs. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out using data from the Konya Education and Research Hospital Burn Unit. Patients admitted to our hospital between June, 2009, and May, 2012, was evaluated. Results: Eleven patients were admitted to hospital with flame burns caused by jumping over fires on the days when the traditional Shivlilik ceremony was celebrated. The clinical data evaluated included the patient’s age and sex, the depth of the burn injury, the total burned surface area (TBSA), and the distribution of the burn areas. Conclusions: Serious flame burns occur because of the traditional Shivlilik ceremony. We must promote some changes in this ceremony in order to prevent these burns. PMID:26550532

  9. Traditional Therapies for Skin Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Rúben F.; Bártolo, Paulo J.

    2016-01-01

    Significance: The regeneration of healthy and functional skin remains a huge challenge due to its multilayer structure and the presence of different cell types within the extracellular matrix in an organized way. Despite recent advances in wound care products, traditional therapies based on natural origin compounds, such as plant extracts, honey, and larvae, are interesting alternatives. These therapies offer new possibilities for the treatment of skin diseases, enhancing the access to the healthcare, and allowing overcoming some limitations associated to the modern products and therapies, such as the high costs, the long manufacturing times, and the increase in the bacterial resistance. This article gives a general overview about the recent advances in traditional therapies for skin wound healing, focusing on the therapeutic activity, action mechanisms, and clinical trials of the most commonly used natural compounds. New insights in the combination of traditional products with modern treatments and future challenges in the field are also highlighted. Recent Advances: Natural compounds have been used in skin wound care for many years due to their therapeutic activities, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and cell-stimulating properties. The clinical efficacy of these compounds has been investigated through in vitro and in vivo trials using both animal models and humans. Besides the important progress regarding the development of novel extraction methods, purification procedures, quality control assessment, and treatment protocols, the exact mechanisms of action, side effects, and safety of these compounds need further research. Critical Issues: The repair of skin lesions is one of the most complex biological processes in humans, occurring throughout an orchestrated cascade of overlapping biochemical and cellular events. To stimulate the regeneration process and prevent the wound to fail the healing, traditional therapies and natural products have been used

  10. Nasal Drug Delivery in Traditional Persian Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi; Zargaran, Arman; Müller, Johannes; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2013-01-01

    Background Over one hundred different pharmaceutical dosage forms have been recorded in literatures of Traditional Persian Medicine among which nasal forms are considerable. Objectives This study designed to derive the most often applied nasal dosage forms together with those brief clinical administrations. Materials and Methods In the current study remaining pharmaceutical manuscripts of Persia during 9th to 18th century AD have been studied and different dosage forms related to nasal application of herbal medicines and their therapeutic effects were derived. Results By searching through pharmaceutical manuscripts of medieval Persia, different nasal dosage forms involving eleven types related to three main groups are found. These types could be derived from powder, solution or liquid and gaseous forms. Gaseous form were classified into fumigation (Bakhoor), vapor bath (Enkebab), inhalation (Lakhlakheh), aroma agents (Ghalieh) and olfaction or smell (Shomoom). Nasal solutions were as drops (Ghatoor), nasal snuffing drops (Saoot) and liquid snuff formulations (Noshoogh). Powders were as nasal insufflation or snorting agents (Nofookh) and errhine or sternutator medicine (Otoos). Nasal forms were not applied only for local purposes. Rather systemic disorders and specially CNS complications were said to be a target for these dosage forms. Discussion While this novel type of drug delivery is known as a suitable substitute for oral and parenteral administration, it was well accepted and extensively mentioned in Persian medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts and other traditional systems of medicine as well. Accordingly, medieval pharmaceutical standpoints on nasal dosage forms could still be an interesting subject of study. Therefore, the current work can briefly show the pharmaceutical knowledge on nasal formulations in medieval Persia and clarify a part of history of traditional Persian pharmacy. PMID:24624204

  11. Nanoparticle emissions from traditional pottery manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Voliotis, Aristeidis; Bezantakos, Spyros; Giamarelou, Maria; Valenti, Marco; Kumar, Prashant; Biskos, George

    2014-05-01

    Traditional pottery manufacturing involves firing of the ceramics in kilns, a process that leads to high concentrations of airborne particles that are harmful to human health. In order to assess the associated exposure levels and the involved risks, here, for the first time, we investigate the size, the concentration and the elemental composition of the particles emitted during the different stages of the ceramic firing process. Number size distributions of the emitted particles, having diameters in the range from 10 nm to 20 μm, were measured in a traditional small-sized pottery studio using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and an Optical Particle Counter (OPC). The measurements showed dominance of the nanoparticle mode (i.e., particles smaller than 100 nm) when the kiln reached temperatures above 600 °C. The mean size of the particles ranged from 30 to 70 nm and their peak number concentration was 6.5 × 10(5) cm(-3) during the first stage of the firing process where the ceramics were unpainted and unglazed. During the second stage of the firing process, where the ceramics were painted and glazed, the mean particle size ranged from 15 to 40 nm and their number concentration peaked at 1.2 × 10(6) cm(-3). Elemental analysis of individual particles collected during the two firing stages and studied by Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy showed that the emitted nanoparticles contain significant amounts of lead. These findings provide new information for understanding the health impacts of traditional pottery manufacturing, and underline the need for adopting adequate measures to control nanoparticle emissions at the source. PMID:24752632

  12. Institutional traditions in teachers' manners of teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundqvist, Eva; Almqvist, Jonas; Östman, Leif

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this article is to make a close case study of one teacher's teaching in relation to established traditions within science education in Sweden. The teacher's manner of teaching is analysed with the help of an epistemological move analysis. The moves made by the teacher are then compared in a context of educational philosophy and selective tradition. In the analyses the focus is to study the process of teaching and learning in action in institutionalised and socially shared practices. The empirical material consists of video recordings of four lessons with the same group of students and the same teacher. The students are all in Year 7 in a Swedish 9-year compulsory school. During these lessons the students work with a subject area called "Properties of materials". The results show that the teacher makes a number of different moves with regard to how to proceed and come to a conclusion about what the substances are. Many of these moves are special in that they indicate that the students need to be able to handle the procedural level of school science. These moves do not deal directly with the knowledge production process, but with methodological aspects. The function of the moves turns the students' attention from one source of knowledge to another. The moves are aimed at helping the students to help themselves, since it is through their own activity and their own thinking that learning takes place. This is characteristic in the teacher's manner of teaching. When compared in a context of educational philosophy, this manner of teaching has similarities with progressentialism; a mixture of essentialism and progressivism. This educational philosophy is a central aspect of what is called the academic tradition—a selective tradition common in science education in Sweden between 1960 and 1990.

  13. Traditional Chinese Medicine in treatments to depression.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ti-Fei

    2009-03-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has a long history of more than 5,000 years and it has the earliest medicine book in the world: Yellow Emperor's Canon: Internal Medicine (Huang Ti Nei Jing), by the Yellow Emperor of China (2695-2589 BC) (Lin , 1988; Shampo and Kyle, 1989; Wang, 1999). However the combinational and systemic recipes that bring TCM high efficiency also block the promotion of TCM treatment to various diseases, including depression. In this short comment we firstly give some theoretical basis for TCM treatment to depression, then some clinical reports on efficiency; we also present some possible explanations on TCM treatments to depression. PMID:19300379

  14. Artemisinin, a miracle of traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ling Yi; Tan, Ren Xiang

    2015-12-19

    The 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, shared by Professor Youyou Tu, focused worldwide attention on artemisinin, a natural product antimalarial drug inspired by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This is the first Nobel Prize in natural sciences presented to a Chinese scientist for her impactful research work in China in collaboration with other Chinese scientists. We are delighted to provide the background and implications of the discovery of artemisinin, along with our personal viewpoints toward the affordability of modern medicines from natural products. PMID:26561737

  15. Georgia, country of ancient medical traditions.

    PubMed

    Shengelia, R

    2000-06-01

    Georgian medicine as well as the whole culture of Georgia, is one of the oldest in the world. In more than the 500 medical manuscripts preserved and since described, there are traces of Sumerian medicine. Examples of Chinese, Indian and especially Arabic medicine are also clearly seen. At the same time close relationships with Graeco-Roman medical traditions are beyond doubt. Nursing homes established by Georgian healers, many of whom were canonized by the Orthodox Church are to be found in many churches and monasteries all over the world. They gave fruitful scientific research and practical help. PMID:11624591

  16. Traditional Chinese medicine--sea urchin.

    PubMed

    Shang, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Jian-Peng; Gao, Yun; Jiao, Bing-Hua; Zheng, Heng; Lu, Xiao-Ling

    2014-01-01

    The sea urchin is an ancient, common, seafloor-dwelling marine invertebrate that belongs to the phylum Echinodermata. There are multiple species of sea urchin with resources that are widely distributed in China, where they were used in ancient times as Traditional Chinese Medicine for treating a variety of diseases. At present, it is known that the shell, spine and gonad of the sea urchin have many medicinal values determined through modern research. In this paper, we summarized the major chemical constituents and medicinal value of the sea urchin. PMID:24873818

  17. Tradition meets technology: building caring community online.

    PubMed

    Libster, Martha M; Mulaudzi, Fhumulani Mavis; et Phil, D Litt; Collins, Sharon K; Liang, Ou; Southworth, John; Long, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Community has historically provided an essential psycho-spiritual framework for nursing. Changes in communication technology pose challenges for nurses internationally who create communities across borders. This article discusses The Bamboo Bridge online community, a project responding to the global call for nursing education about the complementarity of nursing and healing traditions. The project explores how technologies such as Centra and Ning promote community building and encourage belonging in members from 5 continents and 10 countries. This article includes detailed accounts of the project design, examples of cultural diplomacy as the emerging theoretical framework, and an African member's perspective of online community. PMID:21068557

  18. The effect of parturition induction treatment on interval to calving, calving ease, postpartum uterine health, and resumption of ovarian cyclicity in beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Šavc, Miha; Kenny, David A; Beltman, Marijke E

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two parturition induction protocols with a nontreated control group, on interval to calving, calving ease, postpartum uterine health, and ovarian cyclicity in beef heifers. At Day 285 of gestation, 81 crossbred recipient beef heifers carrying purebred Simmental fetuses, were blocked by live-weight, body condition score, expected calving date and fetal sex, and assigned to one of three groups: (1) control (CON; no induction treatment, n = 29); (2) induction with corticosteroids (CORT; n = 27); or (3) induction with corticosteroids plus prostaglandin (CORT + PG; n = 25). Interval from induction to calving in hours and calving ease on a scale of 1 to 5 were recorded. Vaginal mucus samples were collected on Day 21 and Day 42 after calving (Day 0) by means of a Metricheck and scored on a scale of 0 to 3. Reproductive tract examinations were conducted on Day 21 and Day 42 after calving, and uterine cytology samples were obtained on Day 21. A positive cytologic sample was defined as greater than 18% neutrophils in the sample obtained via a cytobrush technique. Cows were considered to have resumed ovarian cyclicity if the presence of the CL was confirmed. Data were analyzed using the Mixed (normally distributed data) and Genmod (nonparametric data) procedures of SAS (v. 9.3). The interval from treatment to calving was longer (P < 0.0001) for CON (161.9 ± 15.12 hours) animals compared with CORT (39.7 ± 11.64 hours) or CORT + PG (32.6 ± 12.10 hours), which did not differ. Treatment did not affect calving difficulty score. There was also no difference in incidence of retained placenta between the three groups. At Day 21 postpartum, cytology score tended to be higher for both induced groups (48%) compared with the control animals (24%), but this was not the case for vaginal mucus score (CON 52%, CORT 70%, and CORT + PG 52%). A higher proportion of CON had an involuted uterus by Day 21 postpartum (69

  19. Ease synthesis of mesoporous WO3-TiO2 nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic performance for photodegradation of herbicide imazapyr under visible light and UV illumination.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Adel A; Abdelfattah, Ibrahim; Helal, Ahmed; Al-Sayari, S A; Robben, L; Bahnemann, D W

    2016-04-15

    Herein, we report the ease synthesis of mesoporous WO3-TiO2 nanocomposites at different WO3 contents (0-5wt%) together with their photocatalytic performance for the degradation of the imazapyr herbicide under visible light and UV illumination. XRD and Raman spectra indicated that the highly crystalline anatase TiO2 phase and monoclinic and triclinic of WO3 were formed. The mesoporous TiO2 exhibits large pore volumes of 0.267cm(3)g-1 and high surface areas of 180m(2)g(-1) but they become reduced to 0.221cm(3)g(-1) and 113m(2)g(-1), respectively upon WO3 incorporation, with tunable mesopore diameter in the range of 5-6.5nm. TEM images show WO3-TiO2 nanocomposites are quite uniform with 10-15nm of TiO2 and 5-10nm of WO3 sizes. Under UV illumination, the overall photocatalytic efficiency of the 3% WO3-TiO2 nanocomposite is 3.5 and 6.6 times higher than that of mesoporous TiO2 and commercial UV-100 photocatalyst, respectively. The 3% WO3-TiO2 nanocomposite is considered to be the optimum photocatalyst which is able to degrade completely (100% conversion) of imazapyr herbicide along 120min with high photonic efficiency ∼8%. While under visible light illumination, the 0.5% WO3-TiO2 nanocomposite is the optimum photocatalyst which achieves 46% photocatalytic efficiency. PMID:26775101

  20. From expert-derived user needs to user-perceived ease of use and usefulness: A two-phase mixed-methods evaluation framework

    PubMed Central

    Boland, Mary Regina; Rusanov, Alexander; So, Yat; Lopez-Jimenez, Carlos; Busacca, Linda; Steinman, Richard C.; Bakken, Suzanne; Bigger, J. Thomas; Weng, Chunhua

    2014-01-01

    Underspecified user needs and frequent lack of a gold standard reference are typical barriers to technology evaluation. To address this problem, this paper presents a two-phase evaluation framework involving usability experts (phase 1) and end-users (phase 2). In phase 1, a cross-system functionality alignment between expert-derived user needs and system functions was performed to inform the choice of “the best available” comparison system to enable a cognitive walkthrough in phase 1 and a comparative effectiveness evaluation in phase 2. During phase 2, five quantitative and qualitative evaluation methods are mixed to assess usability: time-motion analysis, software log, questionnaires – System Usability Scale and the Unified Theory of Acceptance of Use of Technology, think-aloud protocols, and unstructured interviews. Each method contributes data for a unique measure (e.g., time motion analysis contributes task-completion-time; software log contributes action transition frequency). The measures are triangulated to yield complementary insights regarding user-perceived ease-of-use, functionality integration, anxiety during use, and workflow impact. To illustrate its use, we applied this framework in a formative evaluation of a software called Integrated Model for Patient Care and Clinical Trials (IMPACT). We conclude that this mixed-methods evaluation framework enables an integrated assessment of user needs satisfaction and user-perceived usefulness and usability of a novel design. This evaluation framework effectively bridges the gap between co-evolving user needs and technology designs during iterative prototyping and is particularly useful when it is difficult for users to articulate their needs for technology support due to the lack of a baseline. PMID:24333875

  1. Psychometric Assessment of the Injection Pen Assessment Questionnaire (IPAQ): measuring ease of use and preference with injection pens for human growth hormone

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the psychometric properties of the Injection Pen Assessment Questionnaire (IPAQ) including the following: 1) item and scale characteristics (e.g., frequencies, item distributions, and factor structure), 2) reliability, and 3) validity. Methods Focus groups and one-on-one dyad interviews guided the development of the IPAQ. The IPAQ was subsequently tested in 136 parent–child dyads in a Phase 3, 2-month, open-label, multicenter trial for a new Genotropin® disposable pen. Factor analysis was performed to inform the development of a scoring algorithm, and reliability and validity of the IPAQ were evaluated using the data from this two months study. Psychometric analyses were conducted separately for each injection pen. Results Confirmatory factor analysis provides evidence supporting a second order factor solution for four subscales and a total IPAQ score. These factor analysis results support the conceptual framework developed from previous qualitative research in patient dyads using the reusable pen. However, the IPAQ subscales did not consistently meet acceptable internal consistency reliability for some group level comparisons. Cronbach’s alphas for the total IPAQ score for both pens were 0.85, exceeding acceptable levels of reliability for group comparisons. Conclusions The total IPAQ score is a useful measure for evaluating ease of use and preference for injection pens in clinical trials among patient dyads receiving hGH. The psychometric properties of the individual subscales, mainly the lower internal consistency reliability of some of the subscales and the predictive validity findings, do not support the use of subscale scores alone as a primary endpoint. PMID:23046797

  2. The pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, and ease of use of a novel portable metered-dose cannabis inhaler in patients with chronic neuropathic pain: a phase 1a study.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Elon; Ogintz, Miri; Almog, Shlomo

    2014-09-01

    Chronic neuropathic pain is often refractory to standard pharmacological treatments. Although growing evidence supports the use of inhaled cannabis for neuropathic pain, the lack of standard inhaled dosing plays a major obstacle in cannabis becoming a "main stream" pharmacological treatment for neuropathic pain. The objective of this study was to explore the pharmacokinetics, safety, tolerability, efficacy, and ease of use of a novel portable thermal-metered-dose inhaler (tMDI) for cannabis in a cohort of eight patients suffering from chronic neuropathic pain and on a stable analgesic regimen including medicinal cannabis. In a single-dose, open-label study, patients inhaled a single 15.1 ± 0.1 mg dose of cannabis using the Syqe Inhaler device. Blood samples for Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 11-hydroxy-Δ(9)-THC were taken at baseline and up to 120 minutes. Pain intensity (0-10 VAS), adverse events, and satisfaction score were monitored following the inhalation. A uniform pharmacokinetic profile was exhibited across all participants (Δ(9)-THC plasma Cmax ± SD was 38 ± 10 ng/mL, Tmax ± SD was 3 ± 1 minutes, AUC₀→infinity ± SD was 607 ± 200 ng·min/mL). Higher plasma Cmax increase per mg Δ(9)-THC administered (12.3 ng/mL/mg THC) and lower interindividual variability of Cmax (25.3%), compared with reported alternative modes of THC delivery, were measured. A significant 45% reduction in pain intensity was noted 20 minutes post inhalation (P = .001), turning back to baseline within 90 minutes. Tolerable, lightheadedness, lasting 15-30 minutes and requiring no intervention, was the only reported adverse event. This trial suggests the potential use of the Syqe Inhaler device as a smokeless delivery system of medicinal cannabis, producing a Δ(9)-THC pharmacokinetic profile with low interindividual variation of Cmax, achieving pharmaceutical standards for inhaled drugs. PMID:25118789

  3. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, gasoline and diesel fuel have accounted for about 80 percent of total transportation fuel and nearly all of the fuel used in on-road vehicles. Growing concerns about the environmental effects of fossil fuel use and the Nation`s high level of dependence on foreign oil are providing impetus for the development of replacements or alternatives for these traditional transportation fuels. (The Energy Policy Act of 1992 definitions of {open_quotes}replacement{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}alternative{close_quotes} fuels are presented in the following box.) The Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) are significant legislative forces behind the growth of replacement fuel use. Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1993 provides the number of on-road alternative fueled vehicles in use in the United States, alternative and replacement fuel consumption, and information on greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the production, delivery, and use of replacement fuels for 1992, 1993, and 1995.

  4. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine and cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuh-Fung

    2012-01-01

    Stroke is an important cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide but effective therapeutic strategy for the prevention of brain injury in patients with cerebral ischemia is lacking. Although tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) has been used to treat stroke patients, this therapeutic strategy is confronted with ill side effects and is limited to patients within 3 hours of a stroke. Stroke-mediated cell death is a complex interplay of aberrant events involving excitotoxicity, acidosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, peri-infarct depolarization, and apoptosis. Due to the complexity of the events and the disappointing results from single agent trials, the combination of thrombolytic therapy and effective neural protection therapy may be an alternative strategy for patients with cerebral ischemia. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine has been described in ancient medicine systems as a treatment for various ailments associated with stroke. Recently, there have been reports of its benefits in treating stroke. This review will focus on various traditional Chinese herbal medicines and their neuroprotective effects on cerebral ischemia. PMID:22201915

  5. Introduction to photon traditional Chinese medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Songhao; Liu, Timon C.; Li, Yan; Meng, Yao-Yong

    2000-10-01

    Photon traditional Chinese medicine (PTCM), and inter- discipline of photonics and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), studies TCM, such as the diagnostics, therapeutics, indistinct disease theory, rehabilitation, health care and so forth, by using photonics. IN this paper, we will give an introduction of PTCM and review its progress in the collective interaction of low intensity laser irradiation with biological systems, the propagation of low intensity laser irradiation through tissue, the biophotonics representation of acupoint, low intensity laser therapy, TCM laser hemotherapy, laser acupuncture. In this paper, the concept of biological unit was put forward for acupoint and cell membrane receptors to be considered as an identical particle model. The interaction of identical particles was studied by quantum chemistry, as well as the response of the system interacting with physical factors by the time quantum theory on radiation-matter interaction. It was shown that the identical particles from coherent states, the response rate of the super-change state is a linear function of N2 and N3 (N is the particle number), and the one of the sub-change state is zero. Its application led to the explanation of the contribution of biological unit number of acupoint to acupoint specificity and the contribution of cell membrane receptors to low in tensity laser irradiation. The comparative research of acupoint effect and cell function with biophoton emission showed that acupoint states and the membrane receptor state are related to body diseases.

  6. Virtual labs: a substitute for traditional labs?

    PubMed

    Scheckler, Rebecca K

    2003-01-01

    Current technologies give us the ability to enhance and replace developmental biology classes with computer-based resources, often called virtual labs. In the process of using these resources, teachers may be tempted to neglect the simpler technologies and lab bench activities, which can be labor intensive. In this paper, I take a critical look at the role of computer-based materials for the teaching of developmental biology in order to aid teachers in assessing their value. I conclude that while digital tools have value, they should not replace all of the traditional laboratory activities. Clearly, both computer-enhanced activities and traditional labs must be included in laboratory exercises. Reliance on only one or the other is inappropriate. In order to determine when it is appropriate to use a particular educational tool, the goals of the course and the needs of biology students for an education that gives them a realistic and engaged view of biology must be understood. In this paper, I dispel some of the myths of computer tools and give specific guidelines for assessing their usage, taking into account the special needs of a developmental biology class and the difficulties of observing all the developmental stages of subject organisms in the timescale of class meetings. PMID:12705675

  7. Functional Food in Traditional Persian Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Roghayeh; Hosseinkhani, Ayda

    2016-01-01

    Background: During the last decades, there have been great advancements in the field of preventive medicine. Research has demonstrated that nutrition plays a crucial role in the prevention of chronic diseases. The concept of functional food was first introduced in Japan during the 1980s. It proposes to consider food not only vital to survive, but also a mean for mental and physical well-being, contributing to the prevention and reduction of risk factors for diseases. However, there is evidence that the concept was believed by ancient physicians as well. One of the traditional systems of medicines is traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Rhazes said; “as long as a disease could be treated with food, medicine should be avoided” Methods: We carried out a review of Avicenna’s Canon of medicine and Rhazes books for the definition of food and drug and similar concepts of functional food. We listed the identified concepts along with their examples. Results: The classification of food and their therapeutic use were explained in Canon of medicine. Rhazes has a book called ‘Manafe al-Aghziyeh’, in which he writes about the medicinal benefits of different nutrition. Five concepts (food, drug, medicinal food, nutritional medicine and antidote or poison) were noted in these books. Conclusion: There are many recommendations on food for the prevention and treatment of diseases in TPM books, which can be the basis for novel research studies. PMID:27516666

  8. Anbarnesa: The Past Tradition, the Future Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Shafiee, Hassan Ali; Moravej-Salehi, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Context: In the Iranian traditional medicine, anbarnesa smoke derived from burning female donkey’s dung has long been used for treatment of inflammatory ulcers and infections of the middle and external ear with no significant side effects. The aim of this study was to introduce anbarnesa and discuss its therapeutic effects. Evidence Acquisition: We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, Medline, Google, and Google Scholar databases to find studies on anbarnesa. The keywords searched were as follows: “anbarnesa,” “traditional medicine,” “medicinal smoke,” “donkey,” “dung,” “antimicrobial,” “inflammation,” “infection,” and “cytotoxicity. Results: Literature review reveals that ANNAS (anbarnesa smoke) enhances wound healing, decreases scar formation, inhibits growth of cancer cells (Hela and KB) and has antimicrobial properties. Also, ANNAS combined with propylene glycol is nontoxic in 1/64, 1/128, and 1/256 dilutions. Conclusions: The constituents of anbarnesa smoke mainly possess antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and growth inhibition effects on cancer cells. PMID:26756020

  9. The traditional treatment of AIDS in Uganda: benefits and problems. Key issues and debates: traditional healers.

    PubMed

    Baguma, P

    1996-07-01

    Many Ugandans turn to the traditional healing system for help in dealing with the psychosocial stress associated with HIV infection as well as for herbal treatments. Use of traditional healers for this purpose is encouraged by social and cultural beliefs that posit AIDS is a result of witchcraft or a curse from God. It is believed that if a sick person does not obtain treatment and dies, his spirit will cause further disease. Of concern is a tendency for people with AIDS to travel from one part of the country to another, seeking a cure from spiritualists, pure herbalists, and visionaries. Moreover, the intensified emergence of cults in response to the AIDS crisis creates potential for serious exploitation and further spread of the AIDS virus. Not only do these groups drain a family's financial resources, some practice unsafe practices such as intergroup sex or contact with unscreened blood. The estimated 6000-120,000 traditional healers in Uganda have the potential to provide a structure through which AIDS-related psychosocial problems are managed ("psychohealing"). Steps should be taken to understand the conditions that facilitate the emergence of healers purporting to be able to cure AIDS, the type of clients attracted to these services, and the costs and benefits of traditional medicine, with the ultimate goal of involving traditional healers in ongoing AIDS information, education, and counseling programs. PMID:12179373

  10. [Scientific Positioning of Traditional Chinese Medicine].

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-ming

    2016-03-01

    Whether traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) could be categorized as a kind of science or not has been a controversial issue over last century. Part of the confusion is caused by the indistinguishable usage of Chinese words "science" and "scientific" during discussion. According to western academic standards, TCM cannot be considered as pure or conventional science. However, in author's view, the foundation of a majority part of TCM practice is probably scientific, while many TCM theories remain unproved. In this article, medical theories and practices are classified based on scientific content into eight levels: medical science, scientific medicine, medical system, medical theory, medical opinion, medical belief, medical cultism, and medical fraud. Both Western medicine and TCM are positioned in this system accordingly. Currently, the scientific level of TCM is much lower than that of Western medicine, and more research is needed for its improvement. PMID:27236880

  11. Traditional Chinese medicines and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tzong-Yuan; Chen, Chih-Ping; Chen, Chip-Ping; Jinn, Tzyy-Rong

    2011-06-01

    Traditional Chinese medicines have been widely investigated for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) because none of the current therapies-either the cholinesterase inhibitors or antagonist of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors-has profound effects on halting the progression of AD. In recent years, scientists have isolated many active compounds from herbs, which can alleviate dementia and neurodegenerative syndrome with fewer side effects than conventional drugs and, thus, are regarded as promising drug candidates for AD therapy. In this review, we summarize the latest research progress on six herbs for AD therapy-Huperzia serrata, Amaryllidaceae family, Ginkgo biloba, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Polygala tenuifolia, and Salvia officinalis-and focus on the analysis of their active components and possible mechanisms of pharmacological actions on AD. PMID:21791295

  12. Muslim traditions and attitudes to female education.

    PubMed

    Siann, G; Khalid, R

    1984-06-01

    It has been suggested that girls and women coming from a Muslim background in the Asian sub-continent are disadvantaged in the educational sphere. In this study two particular aspects of this suggested disadvantage are investigated. First, the importance of educating males rather than females and secondly, the issue of parental and husband's control over the rights of women to education and work. Twenty-six Muslim females living in a large Scottish town but of a Pakistani Punjabi background were interviewed in depth. The findings, that these women considered that it is as important to educate girls as it is to educate boys, and that they acquiesced in parental and husband's control over the rights of females to be educated and work, are discussed within a cross-cultural perspective. It is concluded that such issues cannot be isolated from traditional values about the importance of upholding family honour. PMID:6747041

  13. Native Americans: traditional healing.

    PubMed

    Broome, Barbara; Broome, Rochelle

    2007-04-01

    There are an estimated 4.1 million people who are classified as American Indian and Alaska Native alone or in combination with one or more other races. This racial group composes 1.5% of the total U.S. population. The leading causes of illness and death among American Indians are heart disease, cancer, unintentional injuries (accidents), diabetes, and stroke. American Indians also have a high prevalence of obesity, chronic renal failure, alcoholism, and are at increased risk for mental health issues and suicide. In an effort to build a trusted relationship with these patients and become an active participant in their care, the health care provider must demonstrate respect for the traditions of the American Indian. PMID:17494460

  14. [Traditional Chinese medicine for cancer pain].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ju-yong; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Rui-xin; Lao, Lixing

    2011-02-01

    Pain is one of the common symptoms of cancer which seriously affects the quality of life of the patients. Cancer pain is mainly treated with the three-step method, biological therapy or nerve block therapy based on antitumor therapy. However, up to 50 percent of patients with cancer-related pain do not receive adequate pain relief, affecting their physical and psychological well-being, and leading to a lower quality of life for the patient after conventional treatment. Clinical observation suggests that traditional Chinese medicine may alleviate cancer-related pain either by oral administration, topical administration, acupuncture or other means with continuing non-addictive and non-drug-resistant qualities. However, scientific evaluation of the efficacy of herbs in the treatment of pain is insufficient; the underlying mechanisms are unclear and, safety and toxicity remain a concern. PMID:21288445

  15. Non-Traditional Displays for Mission Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Schutte, Paul C.

    1999-01-01

    Advances in automation capability and reliability have changed the role of humans from operating and controlling processes to simply monitoring them for anomalies. However, humans are traditionally bad monitors of highly reliable systems over time. Thus, the human is assigned a task for which he is ill equipped. We believe that this has led to the dominance of human error in process control activities such as operating transportation systems (aircraft and trains), monitoring patient health in the medical industry, and controlling plant operations. Research has shown, though, that an automated monitor can assist humans in recognizing and dealing with failures. One possible solution to this predicament is to use a polar-star display that will show deviations from normal states based on parameters that are most indicative of mission health.

  16. Traditional Indian spices and their health significance.

    PubMed

    Krishnaswamy, Kamala

    2008-01-01

    India has been recognized all over the world for spices and medicinal plants. Both exhibit a wide range of physiological and pharmacological properties. Current biomedical efforts are focused on their scientific merits, to provide science-based evidence for the traditional uses and to develop either functional foods or nutraceuticals. The Indian traditional medical systems use turmeric for wound healing, rheumatic disorders, gastrointestinal symptoms, deworming, rhinitis and as a cosmetic. Studies in India have explored its anti-inflammatory, cholekinetic and anti-oxidant potentials with the recent investigations focusing on its preventive effect on precarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti atherosclerotic effects in biological systems both under in vitro and in vivo conditions in animals and humans. Both turmeric and curcumin were found to increase detoxifying enzymes, prevent DNA damage, improve DNA repair, decrease mutations and tumour formation and exhibit antioxidative potential in animals. Limited clinical studies suggest that turmeric can significantly impact excretion of mutagens in urine in smokers and regress precancerous palatal lesions. It reduces DNA adducts and micronuclei in oral epithelial cells. It prevents formation of nitroso compounds both in vivo and in vitro. It delays induced cataract in diabetes and reduces hyperlipidemia in obese rats. Recently several molecular targets have been identified for therapeutic / preventive effects of turmeric. Fenugreek seeds, a rich source of soluble fiber used in Indian cuisine reduces blood glucose and lipids and can be used as a food adjuvant in diabetes. Similarly garlic, onions, and ginger have been found to modulate favourably the process of carcinogenesis. PMID:18296352

  17. Traditional Knowledge Strengthens NOAA's Environmental Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stovall, W. K.; McBride, M. A.; Lewinski, S.; Bennett, S.

    2010-12-01

    Environmental education efforts are increasingly recognizing the value of traditional knowledge, or indigenous science, as a basis to teach the importance of stewardship. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Pacific Services Center incorporates Polynesian indigenous science into formal and informal education components of its environmental literacy program. By presenting indigenous science side by side with NOAA science, it becomes clear that the scientific results are the same, although the methods may differ. The platforms for these tools span a vast spectrum, utilizing media from 3-D visualizations to storytelling and lecture. Navigating the Pacific Islands is a Second Life project in which users navigate a virtual Polynesian voyaging canoe between two islands, one featuring native Hawaiian practices and the other where users learn about NOAA research and ships. In partnership with the University of Hawai‘i Waikiki Aquarium, the Nana I Ke Kai (Look to the Sea) series focuses on connecting culture and science during cross-discipline, publicly held discussions between cultural practitioners and research scientists. The Indigenous Science Video Series is a multi-use, animated collection of short films that showcase the efforts of NOAA fisheries management and ship navigation in combination with the accompanying Polynesian perspectives. Formal education resources and lesson plans for grades 3-5 focusing on marine science have also been developed and incorporate indigenous science practices as examples of conservation success. By merging traditional knowledge and stewardship practices with NOAA science in educational tools and resources, NOAA's Pacific Services Center is helping to build and increase environmental literacy through the development of educational tools and resources that are applicable to place-based understanding and approaches.

  18. [Traditional force-feeding of infants].

    PubMed

    Buffin, A

    1994-06-01

    Between July 1992 and June 1993, 896 cases of bronchopneumonia were seen at the hospital in rural Tokombere, Cameroon. 100 (11%) were hospitalized. The practice of gorging was responsible for bronchopneumonia in 28 of the hospitalized cases, all under 1 year old. Ten infants died. Interviews with 1000 young and old village women were conducted to examine the traditional practice of gorging infants. Mothers gorged their infants 3-8 times/day and 2-5 times/night, while being careful not to flood the airways. They gorged them with hot water mixed with butter, soda, or red millet water or hot water mixed at the bottom of a pot serving grilled millet. The mothers claimed to gorge their infants because tradition, ancestors, and God require it and their parents, mothers-in-law, or peers told them about it. They believed that hot water gorging promotes a long life, survival, adequate child growth, strength and intelligence, and fast walking; fights against illness and death; prevents drowning; and heals the umbilical stump. Other supposed powers of hot water gorging were facilitates sucking and digestion, complements lactation, prevents hunger, warms the entire body of the infant, kills pathogens, aids respiration, cures the cold, cleans the bronchia, calms the infant, and causes restful sleep. Some mothers even filled the infant's nostrils with hot water or held the infant's nose. Mothers know the risks of hot water gorging and have often experienced the death of one of their infants. Some continue to gorge their infants hospitalized for grave respiratory illness, even when they conceded explanations, advice, and treatments. Many women have abandoned this practice, however. One is now advising mothers to give small amounts of tepid water with a spoon or a goblet without touching the nose or forcing it on the infant. Health workers should try to avoid condemning hot water gorging because condemnation is not the best pedagogical approach. PMID:12288247

  19. Traditional beliefs part of people's lives.

    PubMed

    Keller, S

    1996-01-01

    Many couples worldwide practice rituals, herbal approaches, and similar traditional approaches to regulate fertility, but many of them are ineffective at preventing pregnancy and some may even be harmful. Health providers who are familiar with cultural beliefs about fertility may use nonharmful practices (e.g., rituals or storytelling) to teach couples about the fertile period or modern contraception. In fact, providers gain credibility when they teach family planning in ways that include traditional beliefs. In Nigeria, fertility regulation methods were used before modern contraception was introduced. In both Nigeria and Niger, some customs prohibit premarital sexual intercourse. Others promote sexual abstinence for up to three years to promote proper birth spacing. Even though many beliefs do not prevent pregnancy and cause no harm, they can be used to assure women that they are in control of their own fertility. Such beliefs include avoiding the sun or moon at certain times or wearing charms (e.g., dead spiders, children's teeth, or leopard skin bracelets). Providers should discourage dangerous or counterproductive beliefs, however. For example, the Nigerian belief that intercourse during menstruation turns people into albinos (although it is not harmful) may encourage sex during the fertile period. Some harmful beliefs or practices include douching with hot water, salt, vinegar, lemon, or potassium after sex; eating arsenic or castor oil seeds; and drinking water used to wash dead bodies. A 28-bead necklace is being used to help women keep track of their menstrual cycle and know when the risk of pregnancy is greatest. 11 white beads designate the fertile period, with fluorescent beads indicating the peak days of ovulation. In Brazil, the third most popular family planning method is natural family planning (NFP), indicating a clear demand for NFP; yet many couples use NFP incorrectly. In the Philippines, lime juice is used to prevent bean pods from opening and

  20. Qualitative assessment of attributes and ease of use of the ELLIPTA™ dry powder inhaler for delivery of maintenance therapy for asthma and COPD

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medications for respiratory disorders including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are typically delivered to the lung by means of a handheld inhaler. Patient preference for and ability to use the inhaler may influence their adherence to maintenance therapy, and adherence may affect treatment outcomes. In this study, patient experience of using a dry powder inhaler (DPI), the ELLIPTA™ DPI, in clinical trials of a new maintenance therapy for asthma and COPD was investigated. The ELLIPTA DPI has been designed to contain two separate blister strips from which inhalation powder can be delivered, and to be simple to use with a large, easy-to-read dose counter. Methods Semi-structured, in-depth, qualitative interviews were carried out 2–4 weeks after patients had completed one of six phase IIIa clinical trials using the ELLIPTA DPI. Interview participants were asked about their satisfaction with various attributes of the inhaler and their preference for the ELLIPTA DPI relative to currently-prescribed inhalers, and responses were explored using an inductive content analysis approach. Participants also rated the performance of the inhaler on several criteria, using a subjective 1–10 scale. Results Participants with asthma (n = 33) and COPD (n = 42) reported high levels of satisfaction with the ELLIPTA DPI. It was frequently described as straightforward to operate and easy to use by interview participants. Ergonomic design, mouthpiece fit, and dose counter visibility and ease of interpretation emerged as frequently cited drivers of preference for the ELLIPTA DPI compared with their current prescribed inhaler. Of participants with asthma, 71% preferred the ELLIPTA DPI to DISKUS™ and 60% to metered dose inhalers. Of participants with COPD, 86% preferred the ELLIPTA DPI to DISKUS, 95% to HandiHaler™, and 85% to metered dose inhalers. Overall average performance scores were >9 (out of 10) in participants with asthma and COPD

  1. Ethnic Label Use in Adolescents from Traditional and Non-Traditional Immigrant Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Perreira, Krista M.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding adolescents' use of ethnic labels is a key developmental issue, particularly given the practical significance of identity and self-definition in adolescents' lives. Ethnic labeling was examined among adolescents in the traditional immigrant receiving area of Los Angeles (Asian n = 258, Latino n = 279) and the non-traditional…

  2. An Island of Learning: Academeocracy in Taiwan. An Inquiry into Non-Traditional and Traditional Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Douglas C.

    Traditional and nontraditional education in Taiwan are considered, based on interviews with educators and scholars in Taiwan, observations, and research materials. To provide a picture of the evolution of academe in the Chinese-Taiwan setting, attention is directed to philosophy, history, academic ethics and excellence, methodology, and policy…

  3. The Classical Tradition(s) of Rhetoric: A Demur to the Country Club Set.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enos, Richard Leo

    1987-01-01

    Argues that C. H. Knoblauch and Lil Brannon's "Rhetorical Traditions and the Teaching of Writing" misrepresents and misunderstands the benefits of classical rhetoric to composition and that writing instructors who oppose the use of principles of ancient rhetoric must re-assess the value of classical rhetoric today. (SKC)

  4. Traditional versus Non-Traditional University Students: Does Age Determine Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Maria E.

    This study investigated how students over the age of 30--nontraditional students--performed in the university setting compared to traditional students (under age 30). Overall classroom performance was evaluated by teacher-made assessments for the two groups of students, who were enrolled in an undergraduate technical writing course during the…

  5. "Is it still safe to eat traditional food?" Addressing traditional food safety concerns in aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    Bordeleau, Serge; Asselin, Hugo; Mazerolle, Marc J; Imbeau, Louis

    2016-09-15

    Food insecurity is a growing concern for indigenous communities worldwide. While the risk of heavy metal contamination associated to wild food consumption has been extensively studied in the Arctic, data are scarce for the Boreal zone. This study addressed the concerns over possible heavy metal exposure through consumption of traditional food in four Anishnaabeg communities living in the Eastern North American boreal forest. Liver and meat samples were obtained from 196 snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) trapped during winter 2012 across the traditional lands of the participating communities and within 56-156km of a copper smelter. Interviews were conducted with 78 household heads to assess traditional food habits, focusing on snowshoe hare consumption. Concentrations in most meat and liver samples were below the detection limit for As, Co, Cr, Ni and Pb. Very few meat samples had detectable Cd and Hg concentrations, but liver samples had mean dry weight concentrations of 3.79mg/kg and 0.15mg/kg respectively. Distance and orientation from the smelter did not explain the variability between samples, but percent deciduous and mixed forest cover had a marginal negative effect on liver Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations. The estimated exposition risk from snowshoe hare consumption was low, although heavy consumers could slightly exceed recommended Hg doses. In accordance with the holistic perspective commonly adopted by indigenous people, the nutritional and sociocultural importance of traditional food must be considered in risk assessment. Traditional food plays a significant role in reducing and preventing serious health issues disproportionately affecting First Nations, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27196990

  6. NON-TRADITIONAL 'GREENER' ALTERNATIVES OR ORGANIC TRANSFORMATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory


    Non-traditional 'Greener' Alternatives to Organic Transformations

    Synthetic organic transformations performed under non-traditional conditions are becoming popular primarily to circumvent the growing environmental concerns. A solvent-free approach that involves microw...

  7. Tradition and the American Conservative: Toward a Wider Political Dialogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heineman, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Reviews Russel Kirk's THE PORTABLE CONSERVATIVE READER and George Will's STATECRAFT AS SOULCRAFT. Maintains that Americans tend to misunderstand the philosophy of traditional conservatives, confusing their stance on issues such as authority, tradition, and laissez faire government. (JDH)

  8. Traditional Potato Production Beyond the Arctic Circle in Alaska, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of traditional agricultural production is receiving renewed attention, especially in circumpolar environments facing challenges and opportunities associated to climate change. Issues such as food security, biodiversity, natural resources preservation, and traditional farming are receiving t...

  9. NON-TRADITIONAL 'GREENER' ALTERNATIVES TO SYNTHETIC ORGANIC TRANSFORMATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-traditional 'Greener' Alternatives to Synthetic Organic Transformations

    Rajender S. Varma
    Synthetic organic transformations performed under non-traditional conditions are becoming popular primarily to circumvent the growing environmental concerns. A rapid and envir...

  10. Traditional structures clash with new imperatives.

    PubMed

    Kayembe, T B

    1983-08-01

    Many factors need to be considered when planning and instituting a program designed to reduce or maintain birthrates. A question that arises in the case of a country such as Zaire is what would be the effects of a doubling of population size by the year 2000. The population of Zaire has more than doubled since independence in 1960, increasing from about 13 million to about 30 million, of which 44% are under the age of 15. If, as projected, total population gain doubles in the next 25 years, a minority of the population will have to produce the food and goods necessary to sustain the young, unproductive majority. Even at this time frequent food shortages and the lack of basic amenities such as sanitation and adequate housing are facts of daily life. Further population increases will only add to the burden. The government of Zaire, while it must respect traditional cultural values, has a responsibility to alleviate the problems and has taken several steps toward encouraging family planning and increasing the status of women in social and professional spheres. The National Family Planning Bureau provides birth control services and information free of charge to hospitals, clinics, and public health dispensaries throughout the country. Emphasis is on choice rather than limitation. The government has also created a Bureau of Women's Rights with the objective of promoting women's rights throughout Zaire. Additionally, the creation of coeducational schools has encouraged changes in attitudes toward family planning. Boys and girls can now compete on equal terms. There has been some involvement of women in government and business and an increase in job opportunities, particularly in areas once dominated by men. Yet, there is widespread resistance to family planning from many parts of the population. Program implementation has been difficult because of the family structure. Many couples have no freedom with regard to family planning. The clan, which has ultimate

  11. Contemporary Inuit Traditional Beliefs Concerning Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardon, A. A.; Mardon, E. G.; Williams, J. S.

    1992-07-01

    Inuit religious mythology and the importance of meteorites as "messages" from the Creator of all things is only now being recognized. Field investigations near Resolute, Cornwallis Island in the high Canadian Arctic in 1988 are the bases for this paper. Through interpreters, several elders of the local Inuit described in detail the Inuit belief, recognition, and wonder at the falling meteors & meteorites during the long Polar Night and Polar Day. Such events are passed on in the oral tradition from generation to generation by the elders and especially those elders who fulfill the shamanistic roles. The Inuit have come across rocks that they immediately recognize as not being "natural" and in the cases of a fall that was observed and the rock recovered the meteorite is kept either on the person or in some hidden niche known only to that person. In one story recounted a meteorite fell and was recovered at the birth of one very old elder and the belief was that if the rock was somehow damaged or taken from his possession he would die. Some indirect indication also was conveyed that the discovery and possession of meteorites allow shaman to have "supernatural" power. This belief in the supernatural power of meteorites can be seen historically in many societies, including Islam and the "black rock" (Kaaba) of Mecca. It should also be noted, however, that metallic meteorites were clearly once the major source of iron for Eskimo society as is indicated from the recovery of meteoritical iron arrow heads and harpoon heads from excavated pre-Viking contact sites. The one evident thing that became clear to the author is that the Inuit distinctly believe that these meteorites are religious objects of the highest order and it brings into question the current academic practice of sending meteorites south to research institutes. Any seeming conflict with the traditional use of meteoric iron is more apparent than real--the animals, the hunt, and the act of survival--all being

  12. To Be Like Primrose: Understanding Tradition in a Viola Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kedem, Yore

    2011-01-01

    Dealing with traditions is a central issue in music education. I investigate different perspectives on tradition by engaging in a local hermeneutic study surrounding an interpretive event from a viola studio. To understand the function of tradition in this event, I construct a theoretical perspective with roots in hermeneutics and educational…

  13. Traditional Bullying as a Potential Warning Sign of Cyberbullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Robin M.; Morgan, Chad A.; Limber, Susan P.

    2012-01-01

    Although traditional bullying and cyberbullying share features in common, they differ in important ways. For example, cyberbullying is often characterized by perceived anonymity and can occur any time of the day or night. Conversely, perpetrators of traditional bullying are known to the victim, and most traditional bullying occurs at school. Yet,…

  14. Indigenous Models of Therapy in Traditional Asian Societies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, Ajit K.

    1987-01-01

    Presents an overview of some indigenous ways of understanding and dealing with psychological disorders in the traditional societies of Asia. Indigenous approaches to healing and psychotherapy existing in India, China, and Japan are included. Models of healing in these three societies are classified as folk traditions, mystical traditions, and…

  15. Transforming Traditions: Taking Popular Culture Seriously in Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Mary

    2004-01-01

    Making traditions "accessible" and making the connections between traditions and transformation ?manifest? (this is Boys's definition of religious education), is a challenging endeavor in mass mediated popular culture contexts. Although definitions of "tradition" may differ from community to community, there is generally a sustained pattern …

  16. Does American Social Work Have a Progressive Tradition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdach, Allison D.

    2010-01-01

    Social work authors in the 1950s claimed progressivism as a unique social work "tradition" and set of values, and this historical interpretation has influenced many versions of social work history since that time. Today, other voices in the profession claim various divergent traditions for social work and note that the progressive tradition has…

  17. Humanistic Traditions, East and West: Convergence and Divergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Morimichi

    2016-01-01

    The term "humanism" is Western in origin. It denotes the tradition that places special emphasis on cultivation of letters for education. In the West, this tradition was originated with sophists and Isocrates, established by Cicero, and was developed by Renaissance humanists. East Asia, however, also has its own humanistic traditions with…

  18. Polanyi and the Role of Tradition in Scientific Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    A characteristic of the modern mind is a disdain for tradition. Polanyi argues that neglecting the role of tradition leads to philosophical incoherence as well as moral and political chaos. Polanyi's postcritical philosophy represents an attempt to show how tradition plays a vital role in the process of discovery. Ultimately, a coherent account of…

  19. 36 CFR 13.1204 - Traditional red fish fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Traditional red fish fishery... Provisions § 13.1204 Traditional red fish fishery. Local residents who are descendants of Katmai residents... regulations or conditions established by the Superintendent, to continue their traditional fishery for...

  20. Traditions of Reform in U.S. Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeichner, Kenneth M.; Liston, Daniel P.

    1990-01-01

    Describes four traditions of reform in twentieth-century U.S. teacher education: academic, social efficiency, developmentalist, and social reconstructionist. Each tradition is illustrated with examples from contemporary and earlier programs. It is argued that this framework of reform traditions can help clarify differences among ideas and…

  1. Traditions of Reform in U.S. Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeichner, Kenneth M.; Liston, Daniel P.

    Four traditions of reform in 20th century U.S. teacher education are described: academic, social efficiency, developmentalist, and social reconstructionist. Each tradition is illustrated with examples from both early and contemporary teacher education programs. Following the presentation of the reform traditions, the heuristic value of the…

  2. Access and benefits sharing of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge in northern Canada: understanding the legal environment and creating effective research agreements

    PubMed Central

    Geary, Janis; Jardine, Cynthia G.; Guebert, Jenilee; Bubela, Tania

    2013-01-01

    Background Research in northern Canada focused on Aboriginal peoples has historically benefited academia with little consideration for the people being researched or their traditional knowledge (TK). Although this attitude is changing, the complexity of TK makes it difficult to develop mechanisms to preserve and protect it. Protecting TK becomes even more important when outside groups become interested in using TK or materials with associated TK. In the latter category are genetic resources, which may have commercial value and are the focus of this article. Objective This article addresses access to and use of genetic resources and associated TK in the context of the historical power-imbalances in research relationships in Canadian north. Design Review. Results Research involving genetic resources and TK is becoming increasingly relevant in northern Canada. The legal framework related to genetic resources and the cultural shift of universities towards commercial goals in research influence the environment for negotiating research agreements. Current guidelines for research agreements do not offer appropriate guidelines to achieve mutual benefit, reflect unequal bargaining power or take the relationship between parties into account. Conclusions Relational contract theory may be a useful framework to address the social, cultural and legal hurdles inherent in creating research agreements. PMID:23986896

  3. Traditional Chinese Medicine for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui; Moriya, Junji; Yamakawa, Jun-ichi; Takahashi, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    More and more patients have been diagnosed as having chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in recent years. Western drug use for this syndrome is often associated with many side-effects and little clinical benefit. As an alternative medicine, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has provided some evidences based upon ancient texts and recent studies, not only to offer clinical benefit but also offer insights into their mechanisms of action. It has perceived advantages such as being natural, effective and safe to ameliorate symptoms of CFS such as fatigue, disordered sleep, cognitive handicaps and other complex complaints, although there are some limitations regarding the diagnostic standards and methodology in related clinical or experimental studies. Modern mechanisms of TCM on CFS mainly focus on adjusting immune dysfunction, regulating abnormal activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and serving as an antioxidant. It is vitally important for the further development to establish standards for ‘zheng’ of CFS, i.e. the different types of CFS pathogenesis in TCM, to perform randomized and controlled trials of TCM on CFS and to make full use of the latest biological, biochemical, molecular and immunological approaches in the experimental design. PMID:18955323

  4. Robust AGC : Traditional Structure Versus Restructured Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevrani, Hassan; Mitani, Yasunori; Tsuji, Kiichiro

    In this paper, a decentralized robust approach is proposed for the Automatic Generation Control (AGC) system based on a modified traditional AGC structure. This work addresses the new strategy to adapt well-tested classical AGC scheme to the changing environment of power system operation under deregulation. The effect of bilateral contracts is considered as a set of new input signals in each control area dynamical model. In practice, AGC systems use simple proportional-integral (PI) controllers. However, since the PI controller parameters are usually tuned based on classical or trial-and-error approaches, they are incapable of obtaining good dynamical performance for a wide range of operating conditions and various scenarios in deregulated environment. In this paper with regard to this problem, the AGC synthesis is formulated as an H∞ static output control problem and is solved using a developed iterative linear matrix inequalities (ILMI) algorithm to design of robust PI controllers in the restructured power system control areas. A three area power system example with possible contract scenarios and wide range of load changes is given to illustrate the proposed approach. The resulting controllers are shown to minimize the effect of disturbances and maintain the robust performance.

  5. Ichthyofauna Used in Traditional Medicine in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    El-Deir, Ana Carla Asfora; Collier, Carolina Alves; de Almeida Neto, Miguel Santana; Silva, Karina Maria de Souza; Policarpo, Iamara da Silva; Araújo, Thiago Antonio S.; Alves, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; de Moura, Geraldo Jorge Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    Fish represent the group of vertebrates with the largest number of species and the largest geographic distribution; they are also used in different ways by modern civilizations. The goal of this study was to compile the current knowledge on the use of ichthyofauna in zootherapeutic practices in Brazil, including ecological and conservational commentary on the species recorded. We recorded a total of 85 species (44 fresh-water species and 41 salt-water species) used for medicinal purposes in Brazil. The three most commonly cited species were Hoplias malabaricus, Hippocampus reidi, and Electrophorus electricus. In terms of conservation status, 65% of species are in the “not evaluated” category, and 14% are in the “insufficient data” category. Three species are in the “vulnerable” category: Atlantoraja cyclophora, Balistes vetula, and Hippocampus erectus. Currently, we cannot avoid considering human pressure on the population dynamics of these species, which is an essential variable for the conservation of the species and the ecosystems in which they live and for the perpetuation of traditional medical practices. PMID:22454668

  6. HIV infection in traditional rural communities.

    PubMed

    Carwein, V L; Sabo, C E; Berry, D E

    1993-03-01

    The challenge to rural nurses to deliver knowledgeable and skilled nursing and health care to individuals with HIV infection and AIDS is indeed tremendous. Isolation of rural communities and health care facilities coupled with limited resources, financial concerns, conservative values of many traditional rural communities, and the tendency to exclude those who do not conform to community norms make it difficult to integrate the individual with HIV disease into the rural health care delivery system fully. Issues of particular concern to the rural nurse include maintenance of client confidentiality, obtaining and maintaining current knowledge and skills necessary to the provision of quality HIV nursing care, management of complex client health care problems, and provision of appropriate support services. Rural nurses must be innovative and creative in developing mechanisms to deal with these concerns. In addition, because rural nurses are well respected by the community and viewed as possessing a great deal of expertise in the delivery of health care, they are well positioned to provide leadership to the community in developing educational and care strategies to more effectively provide HIV care. Indeed, the delivery of high-quality HIV care in rural areas across the United States will likely depend on the expertise and leadership provided by rural nurses. PMID:8451211

  7. Traditional zootherapeutic studies in India: a review

    PubMed Central

    Mahawar, Madan Mohan; Jaroli, DP

    2008-01-01

    The present study aims to review the zootherapeutic practices of the different ethnic communities of India. This work is also an attempt to present a list of animals' use for medicinal purposes by different communities of India. Data were gathered from 15 published research papers of various authors on zootherapeutic studies in India from 2000 to 2007. Approximately 109 animals and their 270 uses are reported in traditional medicine in different parts of India. Of these, the highest numbers of animal species (42, 38.5%) with 50 (18.5%) uses have been reported for the treatment of Respiratory system related problems. Rheumatic and other pains are treated with 32 species (29.4%) in 34 (12.9%) uses. Gastric problems are reported to be treated with 22 (20.2%) species in 26 (9.9%) uses. The mammals constitute the highest number of animals used for medicinal purposes. 44 (40%) mammals, 24 (22%) invertebrates, 18 (17%) birds, 12 (11%) reptiles, nine (8%) fishes and two (2%) amphibians have been reported for medicinal purposes. Of the total 109 animal species reported, 76(70%) are included in IUCN red data list and 36 (33%) animal species are listed in CITES appendix I, II, and III. This work will be helpful in biodiversity conservation in India and also give a clue to investigate bio-active compound in these animal raw materials. PMID:18634551

  8. Palm fruit in traditional African food culture.

    PubMed

    Atinmo, Tola; Bakre, Aishat Taiwo

    2003-01-01

    The centre of origin of the oil palm is the tropical rain forest region of West Africa. It is considered to be the 200-300 kilometre wide coastal belt between Liberia and Mayumbe. The oil palm tree has remained the 'tree of life' of Yoruba land as well as of other parts of southern West Africa to which it is indigenous. The Yoruba are adept at spinning philosophical and poetical proverbs around such ordinary things as hills, rivers, birds, animals and domestic tools. Hundreds of the traditional proverbs are still with us, and through them one can see the picture of the environment that contributed to the moulding of the thoughts of the people. Yoruba riddles or puzzles were also couched in terms of the environment and the solutions to them were also environmental items. They have a popular saying: A je eran je eran a kan egungun, a je egungun je egungun a tun kan eran: 'A piece of meat has an outer layer of flesh, an intermediate layer of bone and an inner layer of flesh'. What is it? A palm fruit: it has an outer edible layer, the mesocarp; then a layer of shell, inedible, and the kernel inside, edible. The solution to this puzzle summarises the botanical and cultural characteristics of the palm fruit. PMID:14506000

  9. Antifertility effect of Jamu (traditional herbal medicine).

    PubMed

    Azimahtol Hawariah Lope Pihie; Embun Naim

    1983-12-01

    Rahwana and Kursani, 2 brands of jamu, a traditional Malay herbal medicine, were investigated for antifertility properties in rats and mice. The findings suggest that jamu has an antifertility effect in both these rodents. This effect appears to be dose dependent and in addition the stage at which it was fed also appears to be crucial for the effect to manifest. Rahwana is effective when fed on day 4 of gestation. However jamu Kursani does not appear to be dose dependent and is effective when fed on days 1 and 4 of gestation. Jamu Rahwana does not alter the LH or estrogen levels in rats. Therefore, the induction of the antifertility effect is suggested to be by means other than hormonal. It is felt that jamu either inhibits the implantation of the zygote or causes resorption of the fetus. Whether any antifertility effect exists in women using jamu remain to be clarified. The mechanism of action, its reliability and effectiveness as a contraceptive, the side effects, if any, pharmacology of the active ingredient and other relevant investigations need to be carried out before it can be recommended for human use. The study does indicate that jamu has potential as an antifertility agent and could be effectively used in fertility regulation. PMID:12313336

  10. Morality and moral development: Traditional Hindu concepts

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Chhitij; Dhingra, Vishal; Bhardwaj, Anupam; Srivastava, Alka

    2013-01-01

    Morality (from the Latin word moralitas that means “manner, character, proper behavior”) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions, and actions between those that are good (or right) and those that are bad (or wrong). It is determined by how one's genetic makeup interacts with the environment. The development of morality has been a subject of investigation for a number of decades, and our understanding of neuro-biological and psychological mechanisms has increased manifolds in the last few decades. Development of morality has been of particular significance to psychiatric literature because of its significant contribution to the development of one's personality and it's aberration in various disorders. Cultures that have been just, equal and moral have been widely accepted and appreciated. In this review, we shall summarize the modern theories of moral development and then look into a part of our past and cultural heritage and review the traditional Hindu concepts of morality and their contribution to development of one's personality and their relevance in the current times. PMID:23858269

  11. Beyond traditional pharmacology: new tools and approaches

    PubMed Central

    Gurevich, E V; Gurevich, V V

    2015-01-01

    Traditional pharmacology is defined as the science that deals with drugs and their actions. While small molecule drugs have clear advantages, there are many cases where they have proved to be ineffective, prone to unacceptable side effects, or where due to a particular disease aetiology they cannot possibly be effective. A dominant feature of the small molecule drugs is their single mindedness: they provide either continuous inhibition or continuous activation of the target. Because of that, these drugs tend to engage compensatory mechanisms leading to drug tolerance, drug resistance or, in some cases, sensitization and consequent loss of therapeutic efficacy over time and/or unwanted side effects. Here we discuss new and emerging therapeutic tools and approaches that have potential for treating the majority of disorders for which small molecules are either failing or cannot be developed. These new tools include biologics, such as recombinant hormones and antibodies, as well as approaches involving gene transfer (gene therapy and genome editing) and the introduction of specially designed self-replicating cells. It is clear that no single method is going to be a ‘silver bullet’, but collectively, these novel approaches hold promise for curing practically every disorder. PMID:25572005

  12. Phylogenomic Analyses Support Traditional Relationships within Cnidaria

    PubMed Central

    Zapata, Felipe; Goetz, Freya E.; Smith, Stephen A.; Howison, Mark; Siebert, Stefan; Church, Samuel H.; Sanders, Steven M.; Ames, Cheryl Lewis; McFadden, Catherine S.; France, Scott C.; Daly, Marymegan; Collins, Allen G.; Haddock, Steven H. D.; Dunn, Casey W.; Cartwright, Paulyn

    2015-01-01

    Cnidaria, the sister group to Bilateria, is a highly diverse group of animals in terms of morphology, lifecycles, ecology, and development. How this diversity originated and evolved is not well understood because phylogenetic relationships among major cnidarian lineages are unclear, and recent studies present contrasting phylogenetic hypotheses. Here, we use transcriptome data from 15 newly-sequenced species in combination with 26 publicly available genomes and transcriptomes to assess phylogenetic relationships among major cnidarian lineages. Phylogenetic analyses using different partition schemes and models of molecular evolution, as well as topology tests for alternative phylogenetic relationships, support the monophyly of Medusozoa, Anthozoa, Octocorallia, Hydrozoa, and a clade consisting of Staurozoa, Cubozoa, and Scyphozoa. Support for the monophyly of Hexacorallia is weak due to the equivocal position of Ceriantharia. Taken together, these results further resolve deep cnidarian relationships, largely support traditional phylogenetic views on relationships, and provide a historical framework for studying the evolutionary processes involved in one of the most ancient animal radiations. PMID:26465609

  13. Sparkling wines: features and trends from tradition.

    PubMed

    Buxaderas, Susana; López-Tamames, Elvira

    2012-01-01

    Sparkling wines contain at least three CO₂ pressure bars at 20°C. Carbonic gas is required to have an endogenous origin, obtained via a second fermentation, in the following European categories: sparkling wines and quality sparkling wines. In these types of sparkling wines, high gas pressure, together with other wine components, enables them to produce effervescence and foam when poured into the glass. The most commonly used grape varieties are Chardonnay and Pinot. Elaboration consists of two phases. In the first phase, the base wine is obtained after applying white vinification. The second phase consists of refermenting the wine, either in the bottle (champenoise or traditional method) or in isobaric tanks (Charmat method). The second fermentation requires the addition of "liqueur de tirage" to the base wine. The sparkling wines have a special biological aging or aging sur lies. As sparkling wines remain in contact with the lees, they develop sensory notes such as toasty, lactic, sweet, and yeasty, which can be attributed to proteolytic processes, components that would serve as the substrate for chemical and enzymatic reactions and to causes related with release-absorption between cell walls and the wine. PMID:22909977

  14. Immobilization: A Revolution in Traditional Brewing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virkajärvi, Ilkka; Linko, Matti

    In nature many micro-organisms tend to bind to solid surfaces. This tendency has long been utilized in a number of processes, for example in producing vinegar and acetic acid in bioreactors filled with wood shavings. Acetobacteria are attached to the surface of these shavings. In modern technical language: they are immobilized. Also yeast cells can be immobilized. In the brewing industry this has been the basis for maintaining efficient, continuous fermentation in bioreactors with very high yeast concentrations. The most dramatic change in brewing over recent years has been the replacement of traditional lagering of several weeks by a continuous process in which the residence time is only about 2h. Continuous primary fermentation is used on a commercial scale in New Zealand. In this process, instead of a carrier, yeast is retained in reactors by returning it partly after separation. In many pilot scale experiments the primary fermentation is shortened from about 1week to 1-2days using immobilized yeast reactors. When using certain genetically modified yeast strains no secondary fermentation is needed, and the total fermentation time in immobilized yeast reactors can therefore be shortened to only 2days.

  15. Cellular traditional Chinese medicine on photobiomodulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Cheng, Lei; Liu, Jiang; Wang, Shuang-Xi; Xu, Xiao-Yang; Deng, Xiao-Yuan; Liu, Song-Hao

    2006-09-01

    Although yin-yang is one of the basic models of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for TCM objects such as whole body, five zangs or six fus, they are widely used to discuss cellular processes in papers of famous journals such as Cell, Nature, or Science. In this paper, the concept of the degree of difficulty (DD) of a process was introduced to redefine yin and yang and extend the TCM yin-yang model to the DD yin-yang model so that we have the DD yin-yang inter-transformation, the DD yin-yang antagonism, the DD yin-yang interdependence and the DD yin ping yang mi, which and photobiomodulation (PBM) on cells are supported by each other. It was shown that healthy cells are in the DD yin ping yang mi so that there is no PBM, and there is PBM on non-healthy cells until the cells become healthy so that PBM can be called a cellular rehabilitation. The DD yin-yang inter-transformation holds for our biological information model of PBM. The DD yin-yang antagonism and the DD yin-yang interdependence also hold for a series of experimental studies such as the stimulation of DNA synthesis in HeLa cells after simultaneous irradiation with narrow-band red light and a wide-band cold light, or consecutive irradiation with blue and red light.

  16. Morality and moral development: Traditional Hindu concepts.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Chhitij; Dhingra, Vishal; Bhardwaj, Anupam; Srivastava, Alka

    2013-01-01

    Morality (from the Latin word moralitas that means "manner, character, proper behavior") is the differentiation of intentions, decisions, and actions between those that are good (or right) and those that are bad (or wrong). It is determined by how one's genetic makeup interacts with the environment. The development of morality has been a subject of investigation for a number of decades, and our understanding of neuro-biological and psychological mechanisms has increased manifolds in the last few decades. Development of morality has been of particular significance to psychiatric literature because of its significant contribution to the development of one's personality and it's aberration in various disorders. Cultures that have been just, equal and moral have been widely accepted and appreciated. In this review, we shall summarize the modern theories of moral development and then look into a part of our past and cultural heritage and review the traditional Hindu concepts of morality and their contribution to development of one's personality and their relevance in the current times. PMID:23858269

  17. Traditional and Non-Traditional Students in the Same Classroom? Additional Challenges of the Distance Education Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skopek, Tracy A.; Schuhmann, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    The new reality of higher education contains a fundamental shift in student demographics. More non-traditional students are seeking educational opportunities and traditional students are seeking out and expecting alternative modes of curriculum delivery. Students, especially older, non-traditional ones seek course delivery through distance…

  18. Manual versus Automated Rodent Behavioral Assessment: Comparing Efficacy and Ease of Bederson and Garcia Neurological Deficit Scores to an Open Field Video-Tracking System

    PubMed Central

    Desland, Fiona A.; Afzal, Aqeela; Warraich, Zuha; Mocco, J

    2014-01-01

    Animal models of stroke have been crucial in advancing our understanding of the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia. Currently, the standards for determining neurological deficit in rodents are the Bederson and Garcia scales, manual assessments scoring animals based on parameters ranked on a narrow scale of severity. Automated open field analysis of a live-video tracking system that analyzes animal behavior may provide a more sensitive test. Results obtained from the manual Bederson and Garcia scales did not show significant differences between pre- and post-stroke animals in a small cohort. When using the same cohort, however, post-stroke data obtained from automated open field analysis showed significant differences in several parameters. Furthermore, large cohort analysis also demonstrated increased sensitivity with automated open field analysis versus the Bederson and Garcia scales. These early data indicate use of automated open field analysis software may provide a more sensitive assessment when compared to traditional Bederson and Garcia scales. PMID:24526841

  19. Guinea-pig productivity under traditional management.

    PubMed

    Manjeli, Y; Tchoumboue, J; Njwe, R M; Teguia, A

    1998-04-01

    Results of a 12 month study of traditional guinea-pig production in the western highlands of Cameroon are reported. The mean age of guinea-pigs (Cavia porcellus L.) at first parturition, kidding interval and litter size at birth were 126.30 +/- 10.40 d, 64.8 +/- 1.70 d and 1.63 +/- 0.26 kids respectively. The annual reproductive rate was 9.18 kids/breeding doe while the doe post-partum weight was 530 g. Mean body weights at birth, presumed weaning (21 d) and 15 weeks of age were 78.36 +/- 3.20, 147.51 +/- 8.10 and 418.88 +/- 32 g respectively. Type of birth and sex had a significant effect on body weight at all ages. Birth weight dropped significantly from 83.88 +/- 2.87 g for singles to 81.57 +/- 3.40 g for twins, 74.25 +/- 2.39 g for triplets and 73.75 +/- 4.12 g for quadruplets. These differences were maintained to maturity (15 weeks). Males were generally heavier than females. Mortality rates were relatively high among kids: 24% at birth, 39% at 3 weeks and 40% at 15 weeks. Productivity indices were 0.827 kg of young weaned per doe per year, 1560 g of young weaned per kg of doe per year and 2.52 kg of young weaned per kg metabolic weight (kg 0.75) of female per year. PMID:9719838

  20. Growth of HMOs challenges traditional health care.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, S

    1987-04-01

    Health maintenance organizations (HMOs)--a method of prepaid health care delivery guaranteeing all medical care for a fixed monthly payment--are growing rapidly and presenting traditional medical institutions with increased competition. Hospital must respond with their own HMOs or insurance plans or risk a loss of profits. The basic types of HMOs are structured in three ways: the staff model, in which the HMO owns or leases its facilities and directly employs health care professionals; the independent practice association in which the HMO retains private physicians who maintain their private practices and care for subscribers at their own offices; and the prepaid group health organization, in which the HMO contracts with the physicians to provide services to its subscribers. Although it may be difficult for a hospital to form an HMO because of the capital and expertise required, national hospital alliances can provide developmental assistance in terms of marketing sales, and management experience. For consumers, the major advantage of HMOs is a more reasonable cost, but some have expressed dissatisfaction with access to care and are reluctant to give up their own physician. Physicians benefit from HMOs because they are relieved of some administrative tasks and have better access to ancillary personnel and services. On the other hand, physicians' income may be limited, and HMO participation may adversely affect their relationships with patients and their practice patterns. Financers of HMOs benefit from lower administrative and health insurance costs and the opening of new markets, but this may pose new problems such as a need for expertise in a new area and loss of the insured person's confidence if the venture does not work. PMID:10282278

  1. Traditional Chinese and Thai medicine in a comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    He, Ke

    2015-12-01

    The work presented in this paper compares traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Thai medicine, expounding on origins, academic thinking, theoretical system, diagnostic method and modern development. Based on a secondary analysis of available literature, the paper concentrates on two crucial historical developments: (1) the response to, and consequences of, the impact of the Western medicine; and (2) the revival of traditional medicine in these two countries and its prospects. From a comparative perspective, the analysis has led to the conclusion that the rise and fall of traditional medicine is an issue closely related with social and political issues; and the development of traditional medicines requires national policy and financial support from governments, human resource development, the improvement of service quality, and the dissemination of traditional medicine knowledge to the public. In addition, this paper also suggests deepening exchanges and cooperation between China and Thailand, strengthening cooperation between traditional medicine and medical tourism. PMID:26645523

  2. Social Capital of Non-Traditional Students at a German University. Do Traditional and Non-Traditional Students Access Different Social Resources?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brändle, Tobias; Häuberer, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Social capital is of particular value for the acquisition of education. Not only does it prevent scholars from dropping out but it improves the educational achievement. The paper focuses on access to social resources by traditional and non-traditional students at a German university and asks if there are group differences considering this…

  3. Traditional Chinese Medicine Induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf

    2014-06-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol Zhee, Cang Er Zi, Chai Hu, Chaso, Chi R Yun, Chuan Lian Zi, Ci Wu Jia, Da Chai Hu Tang, Da Huang, Du Huo, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Hu Bohe You, Hu Zhang, Huang Qin, Huang Yao Zi, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Ji, Ji Xue Cao, Jiguja, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Kamishoyosan, Kudzu, Lei Gong Teng, Long Dan Xie Gan Tang, Lu Cha, Ma Huang, Mao Guo Tian Jie Cai, Onshido, Polygonum multiflorum, Qian Li Guang, Ren Shen, Sairei To, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Shi Can, Shi Liu Pi, Shou Wu Pian, Tian Hua Fen, White flood, Wu Bei Zi, Xi Shu, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, Zhen Chu Cao, and various unclassified Chinese herbal mixtures. Causality was firmly established for a number of herbal TCM products by a positive reexposure test result, the liver specific scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences), or both. Otherwise, the quality of case data was mixed, especially regarding analysis of the herb ingredients because of adulteration with synthetic drugs, contamination with heavy metals, and misidentification. In addition, non-herbal TCM elements derived from Agaricus blazei, Agkistrodon, Antelope, Bombyx, Carp, Fish gallbladder, Phellinus, Scolopendra, Scorpio, and Zaocys are also known or potential hepatotoxins. For some patients, the clinical course was severe, with risks for acute liver failure, liver transplantation requirement, and lethality. In conclusion, the use of few herbal TCM products may rarely be associated with hepatotoxicity in some

  4. Traditional Chinese Medicine Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol Zhee, Cang Er Zi, Chai Hu, Chaso, Chi R Yun, Chuan Lian Zi, Ci Wu Jia, Da Chai Hu Tang, Da Huang, Du Huo, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Hu Bohe You, Hu Zhang, Huang Qin, Huang Yao Zi, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Ji, Ji Xue Cao, Jiguja, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Kamishoyosan, Kudzu, Lei Gong Teng, Long Dan Xie Gan Tang, Lu Cha, Ma Huang, Mao Guo Tian Jie Cai, Onshido, Polygonum multiflorum, Qian Li Guang, Ren Shen, Sairei To, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Shi Can, Shi Liu Pi, Shou Wu Pian, Tian Hua Fen, White flood, Wu Bei Zi, Xi Shu, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, Zhen Chu Cao, and various unclassified Chinese herbal mixtures. Causality was firmly established for a number of herbal TCM products by a positive reexposure test result, the liver specific scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences), or both. Otherwise, the quality of case data was mixed, especially regarding analysis of the herb ingredients because of adulteration with synthetic drugs, contamination with heavy metals, and misidentification. In addition, non-herbal TCM elements derived from Agaricus blazei, Agkistrodon, Antelope, Bombyx, Carp, Fish gallbladder, Phellinus, Scolopendra, Scorpio, and Zaocys are also known or potential hepatotoxins. For some patients, the clinical course was severe, with risks for acute liver failure, liver transplantation requirement, and lethality. In conclusion, the use of few herbal TCM products may rarely be associated with hepatotoxicity in some

  5. Protecting traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine: concepts and proposals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changhua; Gu, Man

    2011-06-01

    With the development of the knowledge economy, knowledge has become one of the most important resources for social progress and economic development. Some countries have proposed measures for the protection of their own traditional knowledge. Traditional Chinese medicine belongs to the category of intangible cultural heritage because it is an important part of Chinese cultural heritage. Today the value of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine has been widely recognized by the domestic and international public. This paper discusses the definition of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine and its protection, and evaluates research on its classification. We review the present status of the protection of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine and tentatively put forward some possible ideas and methods for the protection of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine. Our goal is to find a way to strengthen the vitality of traditional Chinese medicine and consolidate its foundation. We believe that if we could establish a suitable sui generis(sui generis is a Latin term meaning "of its own kind" and is often used in discussions about protecting the rights of indigenous peoples. Here we use it to emphasize the fact that protection of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine cannot be achieved through existing legal means of protection alone due to its unique characteristics) system for traditional knowledge, a more favorable environment for the preservation and development of traditional Chinese medicine will ultimately be created. PMID:21695628

  6. Superiority of traditional cooking process for bugak (Korean traditional fried dish) for plasma lipid reduction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mijeong; Hong, Sun Hee; Chung, Lana; Yang, Jeong-Eun; Choe, Eunok; Song, Yeong Ok

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the efficacy and mode of action of the Korean traditional fried dish bugak for reducing plasma lipids are investigated. Three different studies were performed as follows: lipid-lowering effects of bugak compared with (1) different preparation methods, (2) different batters, and (3) different frying oils. Traditionally, bugak is prepared with fermented glutinous rice batter (FGR) and pan-fried in unroasted sesame oil (USSO; this preparation of bugak is referred to as FGRUSSO). FGR is prepared by placing the glutinous rice and water in a crock for 7 days at room temperature. For the study, wheat flour batter (WF) and soybean oil (SBO) were alternatively used. Low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLr⁻/⁻) mice (n=24) were fed atherogenic diets with bugak (20 g/100 g of feed) for 10 weeks. Plasma triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration and hepatic lipid accumulations decreased significantly in mice fed FGRUSSO, compared with bugak made with WF and fried in SBO (WFSBO). Protein expression of fatty acid synthesis (FAS) and 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) in the FGRUSSO group was decreased, although sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP-1 and -2) were not different. When batter differences were compared, TG concentration of mice fed bugak prepared with FGR and fried in SBO (FGRSBO) was lower than the WFSBO group due to suppression of hepatic FAS expression. In the oil comparison study, TC and LDL-C concentrations in the FGRUSSO group were lower due to attenuated HMGCR activity. In conclusion, bugak prepared by traditional cooking methods was most effective for lowering plasma TG, TC, and LDL-C via suppressing hepatic FAS and HMGCR activity, although transcription factors for regulating lipogenic enzyme expression were not significantly different. PMID:24456355

  7. Developing a useful, user-friendly website for cancer patient follow-up: users' perspectives on ease of access and usefulness.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Y K; Selby, D L; Newsham, A; Keding, A; Forman, D; Brown, J; Velikova, G; Wright, P

    2012-11-01

    UK cancer survival has improved, leading to an increase in review patients and pressure on clinics. Use of the Internet for information exchange between patients and healthcare staff may provide a useful adjunct or alternative to traditional follow-up. This study aimed to develop and evaluate a website for use in follow-up cancer care in terms of usability, feasibility and acceptability. A website was developed and underwent iterative amendment following patient usability testing in focus groups. Patients on follow-up completed a Computer and Internet Usage Questionnaire. Internet users consented to a randomised crossover study to complete paper and online questionnaires, browse the website and participate in a website evaluation interview. Patient website use was tracked. Usability: Website changes were made following patient testing (n= 21). Patients would have liked a 'personalized' website with links to their clinical team, out with the scope of this study. Feasibility: The majority of participants (65%) had Internet access. Age remained a differentiating factor. Acceptability: Final evaluation (n= 103) was positive although many would like to maintain face-to-face hospital contact. User involvement in website design can ensure patient needs are met. A website model for follow-up will suit some patients but others will prefer clinical contact. PMID:22533456

  8. From traditional to modern fee systems.

    PubMed

    Bilitewski, Bernd

    2008-12-01

    This paper deals with the environmentally important issue regarding how best to motivate citizens to reduce their individual waste production. The paper discusses the pros and cons of the various financial incentives incorporated into the waste charging mechanism, pay-as-you-throw (PAYT). Pay-as-you-throw breaks with the tradition of paying for waste services through general blanket taxes or levies in the form of flat rates in that households are required to pay individually adjusted fees in the same way as water and electricity bills are calculated on an individual consumption basis. This difference is achieved through the interplay of three principal components which mark the technical implementation of PAYT: identification as a vehicle to attain accountability, measurement of the generated waste and/or corresponding services, and unit pricing as the basis for individual charges proportional to the extent of the obtained services. However, any motivating factor for inducing citizens to dispose of their recyclable discards and residual waste must be supported by a well developed collection infrastructure, good media information and an appropriate, transparent charging policy. Of particular importance is the use of a multi-tiered charge model, i.e., the charging of a fixed minimum fee plus certain variable components payable in respect of the service structure. The introduction of a basic charge, albeit reducing the intensity of the incentives created by the PAYT system, ensures that certain fixed costs for the provision of waste services will be covered independently from the actual waste developments and, at the same time, minimises the temptation to attempt to bypass the system. Such an arrangement for the waste charges neither contradicts the principle of pay-as-you-throw nor does it impair the waste diversion for which it is implemented. Waste statistics and figures representing the waste charging situation in Germany indicate that there is a relatively good

  9. Thai traditional massage: Issues causing possible adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2015-01-01

    Thai traditional massage is a widely used massage technique in Thailand and is presently accepted by local Thai Ministry of Public Health. The technique is promoted but not well accepted internationally. There is a concern about the effectiveness as well as safety of this local wisdom. After a recent episode of concurrent acute heart attack and Thai traditional massage in a patient, the issue of possible adverse effects of Thai traditional massage is being widely discussed. PMID:26865746

  10. Practice Location Characteristics of Non-Traditional Dental Practices.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Eric S; Jones, Daniel L

    2016-04-01

    Current and future dental school graduates are increasingly likely to choose a non-traditional dental practice-a group practice managed by a dental service organization or a corporate practice with employed dentists-for their initial practice experience. In addition, the growth of non-traditional practices, which are located primarily in major urban areas, could accelerate the movement of dentists to those areas and contribute to geographic disparities in the distribution of dental services. To help the profession understand the implications of these developments, the aim of this study was to compare the location characteristics of non-traditional practices and traditional dental practices. After identifying non-traditional practices across the United States, the authors located those practices and traditional dental practices geographically by zip code. Non-traditional dental practices were found to represent about 3.1% of all dental practices, but they had a greater impact on the marketplace with almost twice the average number of staff and annual revenue. Virtually all non-traditional dental practices were located in zip codes that also had a traditional dental practice. Zip codes with non-traditional practices had significant differences from zip codes with only a traditional dental practice: the populations in areas with non-traditional practices had higher income levels and higher education and were slightly younger and proportionally more Hispanic; those practices also had a much higher likelihood of being located in a major metropolitan area. Dental educators and leaders need to understand the impact of these trends in the practice environment in order to both prepare graduates for practice and make decisions about planning for the workforce of the future. PMID:27037447

  11. Thai traditional massage: Issues causing possible adverse effects

    PubMed Central

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2015-01-01

    Thai traditional massage is a widely used massage technique in Thailand and is presently accepted by local Thai Ministry of Public Health. The technique is promoted but not well accepted internationally. There is a concern about the effectiveness as well as safety of this local wisdom. After a recent episode of concurrent acute heart attack and Thai traditional massage in a patient, the issue of possible adverse effects of Thai traditional massage is being widely discussed. PMID:26865746

  12. Recruitment and retention of traditional vs. non-traditional mathematics and science teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullett, Diane Valerie

    This study investigated the relationship among major field of study, prior work experience, main teaching assignment, and recruitment and retention of teachers. The purpose was to determine recruitment and retention factors for non-traditional mathematics and science teachers in the K--12 setting. The study analyzed data gathered by the United States Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics in their Schools and Staffing Survey of 1993--94 and the Teacher Follow-up Survey of 1994--95. Selected variables from the surveys included: major field of study from the bachelor's degree, work experience prior to teaching, main teaching assignment in current teaching position, plans to remain in teaching, effective steps for keeping teachers, and plans to return to teaching. Motivational theory was the theoretical framework for the study. Cross tabulations and chi square analyses were used to show relationships among field of study, work experience, teaching assignment and recruitment and retention. Significant relationships were shown between retention (length expected to remain in teaching) and main activity prior to teaching, as well as factors of retention (steps to effectively keep teachers) and main teaching assignment. Recommendations were made for recognizing the changing population of individuals who are entering the teaching field, learning more about the population of non-traditionally trained mathematics and science teachers, and developing strategies and incentives to maintain the motivation of those teachers.

  13. Ethnic label use in adolescents from traditional and non-traditional immigrant communities.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Lisa; Perreira, Krista M; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2011-06-01

    Understanding adolescents' use of ethnic labels is a key developmental issue, particularly given the practical significance of identity and self-definition in adolescents' lives. Ethnic labeling was examined among adolescents in the traditional immigrant receiving area of Los Angeles (Asian n = 258, Latino n = 279) and the non-traditional immigrant receiving area of North Carolina (Asian n = 165, Latino n = 239). Logistic regressions showed that adolescents from different geographic settings use different ethnic labels, with youth from NC preferring heritage and panethnic labels and youth from LA preferring hyphenated American labels. Second generation youth were more likely than first generation youth to use hyphenated American labels, and less likely to use heritage or panethnic labels. Greater ethnic centrality increased the odds of heritage label use, and greater English proficiency increased the odds of heritage-American label use. These associations significantly mediated the initial effects of setting. Further results examine ethnic differences as well as links between labels and self-esteem. The discussion highlights implications of ethnic labeling and context. PMID:21049283

  14. [Construction of traditional Chinese medicine resources information spatial database].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu-yang; Sun, Cheng-zhong; Yang, Ze-dong

    2015-03-01

    The informatization of traditional Chinese medicine resources is the basis of modern medicine. With a spatial attribute traditional Chinese medicine resources could be carried out for in-depth spatial analysis, data mining and traditional Chinese medicine resources regional industrial layout. In this paper, we took the data of Glycyrrhiza uralensis in the third national Chinese medicine resources survey as the experimental data, described the principles and structure of traditional Chinese medicine resources spatial information database. We also described the establishment of analysis model with the help of this spatial database. PMID:26226774

  15. Traditionalism in the prevention of substance misuse among Puerto Ricans.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado, M; Lieberman, L

    1998-12-01

    Data are presented from a multicluster stratified sample of 1,084 Puerto Rican households in the New York City area. Researchers examined the impact of loss of traditional Hispanic family-oriented gender role values and degree of acculturation upon drug use. Sociodemographic variables are presented. Indices of "traditionalism" and "acculturation" were created, validated, and correlated with drug use. Traditionalism was found to covary negatively with drug use, but more so for women. The positive relationship between acculturation and drug use was found to be influenced by different levels of traditionalism. Implications for treatment and prevention are discussed. PMID:9869441

  16. Conceptions of traditional cosmological ideas among literate and nonliterate Nigerians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunniyi, M. B.

    This paper examines the nature of selected traditional cosmological concepts among literate and nonliterate Nigerians. An analysis of the data reveals that the subjects, irrespective of their level of education, class, sex, age, religion, tribe, or locality, hold in varying degrees certain traditional as well as scientific concepts about the natural phenomena. An exposure of some of the subjects to an history/philosophy of science course appears to enhance their preference for a scientific worldview vis a vis a traditional point-of-view. The implications of these findings for traditional societies deserve a closer consideration.

  17. "I understand why people need to ease their emotions": Exploring mindfulness and emotions in a conceptual physics classroom of an elementary teacher education program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powietrzyńska, Małgorzata; Gangji, Al-Karim H.

    2016-08-01

    In this manuscript we bring to focus student perceptions of salience (or lack of thereof) of emotions in the undergraduate conceptual physics course (in the teacher education program) and their relevance to teaching and learning. Our analysis of student responses to the Mindfulness in Education Heuristic constitutes a feedback loop affording the teacher reflection over his instructional practices. Hence, we ponder pedagogical tools employed by the class instructor (second author) that students identify as evoking emotional responses (both positive and negative). Furthermore, we highlight this teacher's dispositions and his value system (axiology) that appear to bring to balance his passion for science (understood in a traditional Western way as a canon-based epistemology) and his approach to teaching that is driven by compassion towards his students many of whom perceive physics as challenging. We argue that adopting mindful disposition affords engaging in practices that assist in regulating emotions and attention that mediate learning of canonical science content. Likewise, we maintain that the instructor and his mindfulness-driven practices become a model to be replicated in his students' future careers. In such context, mindfulness may be perceived as part of what is referred to as a hidden curriculum. It is our position, however, that the science classroom is a site where wellness-promoting practices (such as mindfulness) should receive an overt attention by becoming science content to be learned and practiced by all citizens throughout everyday life thus contributing to its improved quality. In recognizing that such position may be challenging to adopt by science educators, we present the way the second author has been grappling with reframing his thinking around teaching science. We encourage educators to utilize heuristic methodology towards reflecting on and informing their practice and as one way of exposing their students to social constructs such as

  18. Training Medical Novices in Spinal Microsurgery: Does the Modality Matter? A Pilot Study Comparing Traditional Microscopic Surgery and a Novel Robotic Optoelectronic Visualization Tool

    PubMed Central

    Tubbs, R. Shane; Page, Jeni; Chapman, Alexandra; Burgess, Brittni; Laws, Tyler; Warren, Haylie; Oskouian, Rod J

    2016-01-01

    The operative microscope has been a staple instrument in the neurosurgical operating room over the last 50 years. With advances in optoelectronics, options such as robotically controlled high magnification have become available. Such robotically controlled optoelectronic systems may offer new opportunities in surgical technique and teaching. However, traditionally trained surgeons may find it hard to accept newer technologies due to an inherent bias emerging from their previous background. We, therefore, studied how a medically naïve population in a pilot study would meet set microsurgical goals in a cadaver experiment using either a conventional operative microscope or BrightMatter™ Servo system, ​a robotically controlled optoelectronic system (Synaptive Medical, Toronto, Ontario, Canada). We found that the relative ease in teaching medical novices with a robotically controlled optoelectronic system was more valuable when compared to using a modern-day surgical microscope. PMID:26973804

  19. Traditional Ecological Knowledge in the Tribal College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Lopik, William

    2012-01-01

    The college classroom at a tribal college offers a dynamic perspective on the discussion of traditional ecological knowledge. It provides a unique view because it is one of the very few settings in higher education where the majority of students in the class are American Indian. It is here where traditional ecological knowledge should become…

  20. Sensitizing Students to the Selective Tradition in Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taxel, Joel

    In this paper, a professor discusses how he uses his college-level courses in children's literature as a vehicle through which the significance of selective tradition can be made apparent. Selected tradition is defined as an intentionally selected version of the past or present that is powerfully operative in the process of social and cultural…

  1. A Move against the Traditions: Vocationalising Secondary Education in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ming, Cheng Kai

    Traditionally, the majority of high school graduates in China go to academic high schools; however, only about seven percent of them are able to go on to higher education, and some become unemployed. Beginning in 1980, reforms in the education system have created vocational high schools, which, unlike traditional vocational high schools, prepare…

  2. Use of Traditional Botanical Medicines During Pregnancy in Rural Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Beste, Jason; Asanti, Daniel; Nsabimana, Damien; Anastos, Kathryn; Mutimura, Eugene; Merkatz, Irwin; Sirotin, Nicole; Nathan, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the perceptions of healthcare and traditional medicine providers regarding the type, indications, side effects, and prevalence of traditional medicine use amongst pregnant women in a rural Rwandan population. Methods Six focus groups with physicians, nurses, and community health workers and four individual in-depth interviews with traditional medicine providers were held. Qualitative data was gathered using a structured questionnaire querying perceptions of the type, indications, side effects, and prevalence of use of traditional medicines in pregnancy. Results The healthcare provider groups perceived a high prevalence of traditional botanical medicine use by pregnant women (50-80%). All three groups reported similar indications for use of the medicines and the socioeconomic status of the pregnant women who use them. The traditional medicine providers and the healthcare providers both perceived that the most commonly used medicine is a mixture of many plants, called Inkuri. The most serious side effect reported was abnormally bright green meconium with a poor neonatal respiratory drive. Thirty-five traditional medicines were identified that are used during pregnancy. Conclusion Perceptions of high prevalence of use of traditional medicines during pregnancy with possible negative perinatal outcomes exist in areas of rural Rwanda. PMID:26550548

  3. Significance of the Rhetorical and Humanistic Tradition for Education Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Morimichi

    2014-01-01

    This article intends to illuminate the educational significance of the rhetorical and humanistic tradition. This tradition exerted a great influence upon Western education in the past, but its significance has been largely overlooked by the current philosophy of education. This is probably owing to the centuries-old prejudice against rhetoric and…

  4. Preserving Traditional Arts: A Toolkit for Native American Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyal, Susan

    The surest way to preserve a traditional art form is to continue its practice. However, it is also possible for Indian and other Native American people to use modern documentation tools to safeguard the survival of their cultural traditions for the future. This book presents a selection of professional documentation techniques that are especially…

  5. "Ayeli": Centering Technique Based on Cherokee Spiritual Traditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Michael Tlanusta; Garrett, J. T.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a centering technique called "Ayeli," based on Cherokee spiritual traditions as a way of incorporating spirituality into counseling by helping clients identify where they are in their journey, where they want to be, and how they can get there. Relevant Native cultural traditions and meanings are explored. (Contains 25 references.) (GCP)

  6. Wise Men and Elegant Speakers: Reflecting on Traditional Assiniboine Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanley, Jim; Ryan, Ken

    1993-01-01

    Provides a conversation between Jim Shanley, president of Fort Peck Community College (FPCC) in Montana, and Ken Ryan, chair of FPCC's Native Studies Department. Discusses traditional concepts of leadership in prereservation Assiniboine life, the impact of religion on tribal leadership, men's and women's traditional leadership roles, nepotism, and…

  7. Three Traditions of Democracy in Relation to American Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The type of college or university one values most depends, at least in part, upon which of three distinct traditions of democracy in relation to American higher education one espouses. In this article, the author identifies three distinct traditions of democracy in relation to American higher education and suggests that the type of college or…

  8. Tradition and Transition in Second Language Teaching Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Teresa

    1997-01-01

    A discussion of the practice of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teaching calls for an instructional strategy integrating traditional methods and the communicative approach. Components of traditional teaching methods (grammar instruction, correction, dictation, dialogue, and native language use) are linked with communicative questioning…

  9. Non-Traditional Student Persistence and First Year Experience Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavote, Steve; Kopera-Frye, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Using the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study Risk Factor Index, students were placed into four traditional/non-traditional (NT) status categories. For each category, persistence was compared between students who completed a First-Year Experience (FYE) course and a control group of students that did not. It was hypothesized that having a FYE…

  10. 36 CFR 13.1204 - Traditional red fish fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traditional red fish fishery... Provisions § 13.1204 Traditional red fish fishery. Local residents who are descendants of Katmai residents... fish (spawned-out sockeye salmon that have no significant commercial value)....

  11. 36 CFR 13.1204 - Traditional red fish fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Traditional red fish fishery... Provisions § 13.1204 Traditional red fish fishery. Local residents who are descendants of Katmai residents... fish (spawned-out sockeye salmon that have no significant commercial value)....

  12. Problem Behaviours, Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying among Adolescents: Longitudinal Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Leanne; Cross, Donna; Shaw, Therese

    2012-01-01

    Problem Behaviour Theory suggests that young people's problem behaviours tend to cluster. This study examined the relationship between traditional bullying, cyberbullying and engagement in problem behaviours using longitudinal data from approximately 1500 students. Levels of traditional victimisation and perpetration at the beginning of secondary…

  13. Laggards or Leaders: Conservers of Traditional Agricultural Knowledge in Bolivia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilles, Jere L.; Thomas, Justin L.; Valdivia, Corinne; Yucra, Edwin S.

    2013-01-01

    Many sustainable agricultural practices are based on local and traditional farming knowledge. This article examines the conservation and loss of three traditional practices in the Bolivian Altiplano that agronomic research has shown increase the resiliency of small farmers in the face of climate-related risks. These practices are the use of…

  14. Oral Tradition and African History: An Example from Southeastern Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekechi, Felix K.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the revolution in African historical study that took place in the 1950s and 1960s. Points out that oral traditions have become a vital part of the new African historiography. Gives an example of utilizing the oral tradition by looking at the history of Nigeria. Identifies some problems in using this method. (KO)

  15. Career Maturity of Students in Accelerated versus Traditional Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borges, Nicole J.; Richard, George V.; Duffy, Ryan D.

    2007-01-01

    The authors assessed the career maturity of students in accelerated versus traditional academic programs. Students in traditional programs were hypothesized to be more advanced regarding their career decision making and development when compared with students in accelerated programs. The Medical Career Development Inventory (see M. L. Savickas,…

  16. US and Russian Traditions in Rhetoric, Education and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zappen, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional rhetoric attempts to find the available means of persuasion in public assemblies, law courts and ceremonials and is grounded in cultural values and beliefs. Traditional rhetoric supports the development of social communities and posits education as a primary means of maintaining these communities. In contrast, contemporary alternatives…

  17. Traditional Knowledge: An Implementation Workplan for Aurora College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aurora Coll., Fort Smith (Northwest Territories).

    Prepared as part of an effort to make Aurora College, in the Northwest Territories, Canada, more responsive to the Native American communities that form its primary student base, this plan outline strategies for infusing traditional knowledge into the college's day-to-day operations. Following introductory sections describing traditional knowledge…

  18. Transitioning from Alternative to Traditional School Settings: A Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Laura; Konkol, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a student's perspective on the differences between alternative and traditional educational settings. Specific objectives were to (1) identify obstacles students perceived in transitioning from alternative settings to traditional school settings and (2) hear the authentic voices of students to determine what…

  19. Four Traditions: Women of New York During the American Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Pauw, Linda Grant

    The role of New York women in the American Revolution is discussed in a survey of four cultural traditions in 17th and 18th century New York--Iroquois, African, Dutch, and English. The purpose is to provide a historical record on the subject of women's history. Women from the four cultural traditions were bound by different conventions which…

  20. Finding Harmony: Balancing Traditional Values with Western Science in Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tafoya, Terry

    1995-01-01

    Dr. Terry Tafoya relates his experiences as a student and a therapist and integrates traditional Native American stories to illustrate the importance of balancing Western knowledge with traditional culture and values. Stresses the importance of approaching the acquisition of knowledge from different perspectives when developing graduate programs…

  1. Learning How to Learn: Implications for Non Traditional Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovar, Lynn A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, learning how to learn for non traditional adult students is discussed with a focus on police officers and firefighters. Learning how to learn is particularly relevant for all returning non-traditional adults; however in the era of terrorism it is critical for the public safety officers returning to college after years of absence…

  2. Coyote as Reading Teacher: Oral Tradition in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heredia, Armando; Francis, Norbert

    Although traditional indigenous stories are widely recognized for their artistic merits and their role in the linguistic and cultural continuity of indigenous peoples, they are seldom used in schools. This paper discusses the instructional uses of traditional coyote stories, with particular reference to bilingual revitalization programs involving…

  3. Three Traditions of Computing: What Educators Should Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedre, Matti; Sutinen, Erkki

    2008-01-01

    Educators in the computing fields are often familiar with the characterization of computing as a combination of theoretical, scientific, and engineering traditions. That distinction is often used to guide the work and disciplinary self-identity of computing professionals. But the distinction is, by no means, an easy one. The three traditions of…

  4. 36 CFR 13.1204 - Traditional red fish fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Traditional red fish fishery... Provisions § 13.1204 Traditional red fish fishery. Local residents who are descendants of Katmai residents... fish (spawned-out sockeye salmon that have no significant commercial value)....

  5. 36 CFR 13.1204 - Traditional red fish fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Traditional red fish fishery... Provisions § 13.1204 Traditional red fish fishery. Local residents who are descendants of Katmai residents... fish (spawned-out sockeye salmon that have no significant commercial value)....

  6. Traditions Told and Broken: Stories of Family and Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keys, Kathleen; Fales, Melanie

    2007-01-01

    C. Maxx Stevens, Katy Stone, and Hildur Bjarnadottir create monumental sculptural paintings, installations, and textiles to impart ideas regarding domesticity and nature as well as stories of evolving family or community traditions. Questioning and breaking traditional rules of art in unique ways, their innovative and graceful use of alternative…

  7. Folk and Traditional Music in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ray; Groce, Nancy, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This special journal issue is designed to draw attention to the varied musical traditions of cultural groups living in New York State. Recent research by folklorists and musicologists also is examined. Articles include: (1) "Introduction: Folk and Traditional Music in New York State" (Ray Allen; Nancy Groce); (2) "African-American Sacred Quartet…

  8. A Comparison of Collaborative and Traditional Instruction in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubera, Chip; Aruguete, Mara S.

    2013-01-01

    Although collaborative instructional techniques have become popular in college courses, it is unclear whether collaborative techniques can replace more traditional instructional methods. We examined the efficacy of collaborative courses (in-class, collaborative activities with no lectures) compared to traditional lecture courses (in-class,…

  9. The Choice of Traditional vs. Simplified Characters in US Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Shi-zhong

    2009-01-01

    Which form of Chinese characters should be taught in Chinese language classes: traditional or simplified? The results of a questionnaire distributed to sections at the University of Florida show the reasons for students' preferences for one or the other form. In view of the students' awareness that traditional characters are more beneficial to…

  10. Alternatives to Traditional Testing in ESL Reading Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groff, Charlotte

    Alternatives to traditional testing techniques are proposed for use in the adult English as a second language classroom. It is argued that traditional testing does not place responsibility for achievement on the learner as is appropriate with adult students. The suggested alternative methods are: the language experience approach, sustained silent…

  11. Blending Online and Traditional Instruction in the Mathematics Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Gene; Haefner, Jeremy

    2002-01-01

    Describes the MathOnline system at the University of Colorado (Colorado Springs), a learning delivery method that, in addition to blending synchronous and asynchronous learning, combines traditional mathematics instruction with distance learning. Student surveys indicate the system greatly enhances traditional learners' educational experiences…

  12. The Traditional Medicine and Modern Medicine from Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Haidan; Ma, Qianqian; Ye, Li; Piao, Guangchun

    2016-01-01

    Natural products and traditional medicines are of great importance. Such forms of medicine as traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurveda, Kampo, traditional Korean medicine, and Unani have been practiced in some areas of the world and have blossomed into orderly-regulated systems of medicine. This study aims to review the literature on the relationship among natural products, traditional medicines, and modern medicine, and to explore the possible concepts and methodologies from natural products and traditional medicines to further develop drug discovery. The unique characteristics of theory, application, current role or status, and modern research of eight kinds of traditional medicine systems are summarized in this study. Although only a tiny fraction of the existing plant species have been scientifically researched for bioactivities since 1805, when the first pharmacologically-active compound morphine was isolated from opium, natural products and traditional medicines have already made fruitful contributions for modern medicine. When used to develop new drugs, natural products and traditional medicines have their incomparable advantages, such as abundant clinical experiences, and their unique diversity of chemical structures and biological activities. PMID:27136524

  13. Bringing Curriculum Studies and "Padagogik" Together: Reconciling Two Competing Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Zongyi

    2011-01-01

    Academic debates over the theoretical base of China's curriculum reform reflect a paradigmatic war between two traditions, curriculum studies and "Padagogik". This article attempts to reconcile the two traditions by advancing a way of looking at the relationship between curriculum studies and "Padagogik" as well as the two concepts "curriculum"…

  14. An Ethnopoetic Analysis of a Traditional Kashaya Gambling Narrative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Mary

    1995-01-01

    This paper places the text of a Kashaya traditional narrative in cultural context and analyzes linguistic, poetic, and rhetorical features that contribute to its artistry. In part, this necessitates a reconstruction of the culture that gave rise to the narrative itself, in the tradition of much Native American anthropology, as both the language of…

  15. Recovering Native Traditions and Tales for Younger Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stott, Jon C.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews 14 children's books concerned with traditional Native American tales and experiences, written mostly by Native authors and published 1989-93. Includes books on Hiawatha, buffalo, the battle of the Little Bighorn, the Fetterman Fight, and traditional beliefs and values; Cree, Navajo, Chickasaw, and Seneca tales and stories; fictional…

  16. Learning Traditions and Teachers Role: The Indian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogra, Seema; Gulati, Anjali

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors discuss about the Indian learning traditions and the role played by teachers in imparting education. They discuss the efforts played by government in enhancing education, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) contribution in spreading literacy, various learning traditions from past to present such as "Gurukula,…

  17. Veal marketing could return more than traditional weaning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    How profitable is a system of marketing early-weaned calves for veal production versus a traditional system based on more traditional weaning and marketing feeder calves? In an attempt to answer this question, decision support software (Decision Evaluator for the Cattle Industry, DECI) developed at...

  18. [Briefly analysis on academic origins of traditional Chinese medicine dispensing].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xue-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Zhai, Hua-Qiang; Jin, Shi-Yuan

    2014-04-01

    Through collecting and collating the development process of traditional Chinese medicine dispensing, the development of modern Chinese medicine dispensing on the basis of experience could be promoted. "Heyaofenji", "Hehe", " Heji" in ancient Chinese medicine, herbal medicine literature and law were collected, and then things were sorted out according to traditional Chinese medicine dispensing theory, skills and legal norms. Firstly, "Tang Ye Jing Fa" is the earliest book which marks the rudiment of traditional Chinese medicine dispensing. Secondly, traditional Chinese medicine dispensing theory formed in "Shen Nong's herbal classic". Thirdly, Zhang Zhongjing's "Treatise on Febrile Diseases" marked the formation of Chinese medicine dispensing skills. Lastly, Provisions in Tang Dynasty law marks the development of traditional Chinese medicine dispensing. PMID:25039195

  19. Wound care with traditional, complementary and alternative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Dorai, Ananda A.

    2012-01-01

    Wound care is constantly evolving with the advances in medicine. Search for the ideal dressing material still continues as wound care professionals are faced with several challenges. Due to the emergence of multi-resistant organisms and a decrease in newer antibiotics, wound care professionals have revisited the ancient healing methods by using traditional and alternative medicine in wound management. People's perception towards traditional medicine has also changed and is very encouraging. The concept of moist wound healing has been well accepted and traditional medicine has also incorporated this method to fasten the healing process. Several studies using herbal and traditional medicine from different continents have been documented in wound care management. Honey has been used extensively in wound care practice with excellent results. Recent scientific evidences and clinical trials conducted using traditional and alternative medicine in wound therapy holds good promise in the future. PMID:23162243

  20. Use of Traditional Korean Medicine by Patients with Musculoskeletal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo-Ram; Choi, In Young; Kim, Kwang-Jum; Kwon, Young Dae

    2013-01-01

    Background South Korea has maintained a dual healthcare delivery system that incorporates both traditional Korean and Western medicine. In this research, we identified the determinants of the frequency of using traditional Korean medicine among musculoskeletal patients, who are known to be the most frequent users of complementary and alternative medicine. Methods In this research, we reviewed 2 consecutive years of nationally representative survey data from the 2008 and 2009 Korea Health Panel Survey. We analyzed the utilization of outpatient services by musculoskeletal patients within 12 months of the 2009 survey date. A two-part model was used because some patients did not use traditional Korean medicine and skewness was present in the data on traditional Korean medicine use. In the first part, logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the use of traditional Korean medicine. In the second part, multiple regression analysis was performed to analyze the frequency of traditional Korean medicine usage among the subjects who visited traditional Korean medical institutions. Results The frequency of traditional Korean medicine usage was positively associated with ages of 40–49 years and over 60, restrictions on daily life, a greater number of chronic diseases, not being hospitalized, and more frequent visits (more than five times) to conventional hospitals or clinics for musculoskeletal disorders. Conclusions The important determinants of the frequency of traditional Korean medicine usage were age, activity restrictions, the number of chronic diseases, hospitalization history, and the number of visits to conventional hospitals for musculoskeletal disorders. The results contribute to our understanding of the characteristics of traditional Korean medicine users and may be used as a basic resource for related policymaking by government officials and medical professionals. PMID:23658811