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1

Nano-quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling using easily computable and interpretable descriptors for uptake of magnetofluorescent engineered nanoparticles in pancreatic cancer cells.  

PubMed

As experimental evaluation of the safety of nanoparticles (NPs) is expensive and time-consuming, computational approaches have been found to be an efficient alternative for predicting the potential toxicity of new NPs before mass production. In this background, we have developed here a regression-based nano quantitative structure-activity relationship (nano-QSAR) model to establish statistically significant relationships between the measured cellular uptakes of 109 magnetofluorescent NPs in pancreatic cancer cells with their physical, chemical, and structural properties encoded within easily computable, interpretable and reproducible descriptors. The developed model was rigorously validated internally as well as externally with the application of the principles of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The test for domain of applicability was also carried out for checking reliability of the predictions. Important fragments contributing to higher/lower cellular uptake of NPs were identified through critical analysis and interpretation of the developed model. Considering all these identified structural attributes, one can choose or design safe, economical and suitable surface modifiers for NPs. The presented approach provides rich information in the context of virtual screening of relevant NP libraries. PMID:24412539

Kar, Supratik; Gajewicz, Agnieszka; Puzyn, Tomasz; Roy, Kunal

2014-06-01

2

Statistical weld process monitoring with expert interpretation  

SciTech Connect

A statistical weld process monitoring system is described. Using data of voltage, current, wire feed speed, gas flow rate, travel speed, and elapsed arc time collected while welding, the welding statistical process control (SPC) tool provides weld process quality control by implementing techniques of data trending analysis, tolerance analysis, and sequential analysis. For purposes of quality control, the control limits required for acceptance are specified in the weld procedure acceptance specifications. The control charts then provide quality assurance documentation for each weld. The statistical data trending analysis performed by the SPC program is not only valuable as a quality assurance monitoring and documentation system, it is also valuable in providing diagnostic assistance in troubleshooting equipment and material problems. Possible equipment/process problems are identified and matched with features of the SPC control charts. To aid in interpreting the voluminous statistical output generated by the SPC system, a large number of If-Then rules have been devised for providing computer-based expert advice for pinpointing problems based on out-of-limit variations of the control charts. The paper describes the SPC monitoring tool and the rule-based expert interpreter that has been developed for relating control chart trends to equipment/process problems.

Cook, G.E.; Barnett, R.J.; Strauss, A.M. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Thompson, F.M. Jr. [Computer Weld Technology, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

3

Interpreting Educational Research Using Statistical Software.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A live demonstration of how a typical set of educational data can be examined using quantitative statistical software was conducted. The topic of tutorial support was chosen. Setting up a hypothetical research scenario, the researcher created 300 cases from random data generation adjusted to correct obvious error. Each case represented a student…

Evans, Elizabeth A.

4

The Statistical Interpretation of Entropy: An Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The second law of thermodynamics, which states that the entropy of an isolated macroscopic system can increase but will not decrease, is a cornerstone of modern physics. Ludwig Boltzmann argued that the second law arises from the motion of the atoms that compose the system. Boltzmann's statistical mechanics provides deep insight into the…

Timmberlake, Todd

2010-01-01

5

Statistical Interpretation of Femto-Molar Detection  

E-print Network

Over the last decade, many experiments have demonstrated that nanobiosensors based on Nanotubes and Nanowires are significantly more sensitive compared to their planar counterparts. Yet, there has been persistent gap between reports of analyte detection at ~femto-Molar concentration and theory suggesting the impossibility of sub-pM detection at the corresponding incubation time. This divide has persisted despite the sophistication of the theoretical models. In this paper, we calculate the statistics of diffusion-limited arrival-time distribution by a Monte Carlo method to suggest a statistical resolution of the enduring puzzle: The incubation time in the theory is the mean incubation time, while experiments suggest device stability limited the minimum incubation time. The difference in incubation times - both described by characteristic power-laws - provides an intuitive explanation of different detection limits anticipated by theory and experiments. These power laws broaden the scope of problems amenable to ...

Go, Jonghyun

2009-01-01

6

The Statistical Interpretation of Entropy: An Activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The second law of thermodynamics, which states that the entropy of an isolated macroscopic system can increase but will not decrease, is a cornerstone of modern physics. Ludwig Boltzmann argued that the second law arises from the motion of the atoms that compose the system. Boltzmann's statistical mechanics provides deep insight into the functioning of the second law and also provided evidence for the existence of atoms at a time when many scientists (like Ernst Mach and Wilhelm Ostwald) were skeptical.

Timmberlake, Todd

2010-11-01

7

The Statistical Interpretation of Classical Thermodynamic Heating and Expansion Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A statistical model has been developed and applied to interpret thermodynamic processes typically presented from the macroscopic, classical perspective. Through this model, students learn and apply the concepts of statistical mechanics, quantum mechanics, and classical thermodynamics in the analysis of the (i) constant volume heating, (ii)…

Cartier, Stephen F.

2011-01-01

8

Adapting internal statistical models for interpreting visual cues to depth  

PubMed Central

The informativeness of sensory cues depends critically on statistical regularities in the environment. However, statistical regularities vary between different object categories and environments. We asked whether and how the brain changes the prior assumptions about scene statistics used to interpret visual depth cues when stimulus statistics change. Subjects judged the slants of stereoscopically presented figures by adjusting a virtual probe perpendicular to the surface. In addition to stereoscopic disparities, the aspect ratio of the stimulus in the image provided a “figural compression” cue to slant, whose reliability depends on the distribution of aspect ratios in the world. As we manipulated this distribution from regular to random and back again, subjects’ reliance on the compression cue relative to stereoscopic cues changed accordingly. When we randomly interleaved stimuli from shape categories (ellipses and diamonds) with different statistics, subjects gave less weight to the compression cue for figures from the category with more random aspect ratios. Our results demonstrate that relative cue weights vary rapidly as a function of recently experienced stimulus statistics, and that the brain can use different statistical models for different object categories. We show that subjects’ behavior is consistent with that of a broad class of Bayesian learning models. PMID:20465321

Seydell, Anna; Knill, David C.; Trommershäuser, Julia

2010-01-01

9

Adapting internal statistical models for interpreting visual cues to depth.  

PubMed

The informativeness of sensory cues depends critically on statistical regularities in the environment. However, statistical regularities vary between different object categories and environments. We asked whether and how the brain changes the prior assumptions about scene statistics used to interpret visual depth cues when stimulus statistics change. Subjects judged the slants of stereoscopically presented figures by adjusting a virtual probe perpendicular to the surface. In addition to stereoscopic disparities, the aspect ratio of the stimulus in the image provided a "figural compression" cue to slant, whose reliability depends on the distribution of aspect ratios in the world. As we manipulated this distribution from regular to random and back again, subjects' reliance on the compression cue relative to stereoscopic cues changed accordingly. When we randomly interleaved stimuli from shape categories (ellipses and diamonds) with different statistics, subjects gave less weight to the compression cue for figures from the category with more random aspect ratios. Our results demonstrate that relative cue weights vary rapidly as a function of recently experienced stimulus statistics and that the brain can use different statistical models for different object categories. We show that subjects' behavior is consistent with that of a broad class of Bayesian learning models. PMID:20465321

Seydell, Anna; Knill, David C; Trommershäuser, Julia

2010-01-01

10

Workplace statistical literacy for teachers: interpreting box plots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a consequence of the increased use of data in workplace environments, there is a need to understand the demands that are placed on users to make sense of such data. In education, teachers are being increasingly expected to interpret and apply complex data about student and school performance, and, yet it is not clear that they always have the appropriate knowledge and experience to interpret the graphs, tables and other data that they receive. This study examined the statistical literacy demands placed on teachers, with a particular focus on box plot representations. Although box plots summarise the data in a way that makes visual comparisons possible across sets of data, this study showed that teachers do not always have the necessary fluency with the representation to describe correctly how the data are distributed in the representation. In particular, a significant number perceived the size of the regions of the box plot to be depicting frequencies rather than density, and there were misconceptions associated with outlying data that were not displayed on the plot. As well, teachers' perceptions of box plots were found to relate to three themes: attitudes, perceived value and misconceptions.

Pierce, Robyn; Chick, Helen

2013-06-01

11

Algorithms and statistics for advanced DNA analysis For the first time in history, humankind has the ability to easily read and write DNA sequence, a code  

E-print Network

, humankind has the ability to easily read and write DNA sequence, a code which describes the very essence of life itself. Global DNA sequencing operations currently generate 30TB data every day and the rate. This is a research area with excellent growth potential -- continued advance in DNA sequencing has created great

University of Technology, Sydney

12

Statistical Interpretation of Natural and Technological Hazards in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

China is prone to catastrophic natural hazards from floods, droughts, earthquakes, storms, cyclones, landslides, epidemics, extreme temperatures, forest fires, avalanches, and even tsunami. This paper will list statistics related to the six worst natural disasters in China over the past 100 or so years, ranked according to number of fatalities. The corresponding data for the six worst natural disasters in China over the past decade will also be considered. [The data are abstracted from the International Disaster Database, Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED), Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium, http://www.cred.be/ where a disaster is defined as occurring if one of the following criteria is fulfilled: 10 or more people reported killed; 100 or more people reported affected; a call for international assistance; or declaration of a state of emergency.] The statistics include the number of occurrences of each type of natural disaster, the number of deaths, the number of people affected, and the cost in billions of US dollars. Over the past hundred years, the largest disasters may be related to the overabundance or scarcity of water, and to earthquake damage. However, there has been a substantial relative reduction in fatalities due to water related disasters over the past decade, even though the overall numbers of people affected remain huge, as does the economic damage. This change is largely due to the efforts put in by China's water authorities to establish effective early warning systems, the construction of engineering countermeasures for flood protection, the implementation of water pricing and other measures for reducing excessive consumption during times of drought. It should be noted that the dreadful death toll due to the Sichuan Earthquake dominates recent data. Joint research has been undertaken between the Department of Environmental Engineering at Peking University and the Department of Engineering Science at Oxford University on the production of zonation maps of certain natural hazards in China. Data at city and county level have been interpreted using a hierarchical system of indices, which are then ranked according to severity. Zonation maps will be presented for debris flows, landslide and rockfall hazards, flood risk in mainland China, and for soil erosion processes in the Yellow River basin. The worst debris flow hazards are to be found in southwest China as the land begins to become mountainous. Just over 20% of the land area is at high or very high risk of landslide and rockfall hazards, especially Yunnan, Sichuan, Gansu and Shannxi provinces. Flood risk is concentrated towards the eastern part of China, where the major rivers meet the sea. The paper will also consider data on technological disasters in China from 1900 to 2010, using data supplied by CRED. In terms of fatalities, industrial accidents appear to be dominated by explosion events. However, gas leaks have affected the largest number of people. Transport accidents are ranked in terms of fatalities as follows: water - road - rail - air. Fire is a major cause of loss of life, whereas chemical spills and poisoning seem to lead to fewer deaths.

Borthwick, Alistair, ,, Prof.; Ni, Jinren, ,, Prof.

2010-05-01

13

An Interpretive Business Statistics Course Encompassing Diverse Teaching and Learning Styles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interpretive-learner-centered approach attempting to match diverse learning and teaching styles is implemented to improve student learning and reduce high attrition for a business statistics course. The redesigned course focuses on the interpretation and implications of statistical results through real business problems and data while relegating the mechanical steps of computation via formulae to the background. The philosophy that \\

James Pinto; Chris A. Lockwood

14

An easily diagnosable PLA  

E-print Network

of these product lines. They are: 1. Sequence of consecutive 0. 2. Sequence of consecutive 1. 3. Isolated 0. 4 Isolated 1. Observation 6 The diagnosis I' or case 1 is that there exist product lines with a multiple s-a. -0 fault, or there exist multiple lines.... The following objectives [9] serve as diagnosability design goals: 1. Tests must remain valid in the presence of undetectable faults. 2. The size of the test set must be small. 3. Test vectors must be easily derived. 4. The cost of the hardware must be low...

Kao, Chung Min

1989-01-01

15

Making the Most of Statistical Analyses: Improving Interpretation and Presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate that social scientists rarely take full advantage of the information availablein their statistical results. As a consequence, they miss opportunities to present quantitiesthat are of greatest substantive interest for their research and express their degree ofcertainty about these quantities. In this paper, we offer an approach, built on the techniqueof statistical simulation, to extract the currently overlooked information

Gary King; Michael Tomz; Jason Wittenberg

2000-01-01

16

A Critique of Divorce Statistics and Their Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasingly, appeals to the divorce statistic are employed to substantiate claims that the family is in a state of breakdown and marriage is passe. This article contains a consideration of reasons why the divorce statistics are invalid and/or unreliable as indicators of the present state of marriage and family. (Author)

Crosby, John F.

1980-01-01

17

Making the Most of Statistical Analyses: Improving Interpretation and Presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate that social scientists rarely take full advantage of the information availablein their statistical results. As a consequence, they miss opportunities to present quantitiesthat are of greatest substantive interest for their research, and to express their degreeof certainty about these quantities. In this paper,we o#er an approach, built on thetechnique of statistical simulation,to extract the currently overlooked information fromany

Gary King; Michael Tomz

1998-01-01

18

Workplace Statistical Literacy for Teachers: Interpreting Box Plots  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a consequence of the increased use of data in workplace environments, there is a need to understand the demands that are placed on users to make sense of such data. In education, teachers are being increasingly expected to interpret and apply complex data about student and school performance, and, yet it is not clear that they always have the…

Pierce, Robyn; Chick, Helen

2013-01-01

19

Statistical characteristics of MST radar echoes and its interpretation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two concepts of fundamental importance are reviewed: the autocorrelation function and the frequency power spectrum. In addition, some turbulence concepts, the relationship between radar signals and atmospheric medium statistics, partial reflection, and the characteristics of noise and clutter interference are discussed.

Woodman, Ronald F.

1989-01-01

20

Innovative statistical interpretation of Shewanella oneidensis microbial fuel cells data.  

PubMed

The last decade of research has made significant strides toward practical applications of Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs); however, design improvements and operational optimization cannot be realized without equally considering engineering designs and biological interfacial reactions. In this study, the main factors contributing to MFCs' overall performance and their influence on MFC reproducibility are discussed. Two statistical approaches were used to create a map of MFC components and their expanded uncertainties, principal component analysis (PCA) and uncertainty of measurement results (UMR). PCA was used to identify the major factors influencing MFCs and to determine their ascendency over MFC operational characteristics statistically. UMR was applied to evaluate the factors' uncertainties and estimate their level of contribution to the final irreproducibility. In order to simplify the presentation and concentrate on the MFC components, only results from Shewanella spp. were included; however, a similar analysis could be applied for any DMRB or microbial community. The performed PCA/UMR analyses suggest that better reproducibility of MFC performance can be achieved through improved design parameters. This approach is exactly opposite to the MFC optimization and scale up approach, which should start with improving the bacteria-electrode interactions and applying these findings to well-designed systems. PMID:24691574

Babanova, Sofia; Bretschger, Orianna; Roy, Jared; Cheung, Andrea; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Atanassov, Plamen

2014-05-21

21

A statistical model for interpreting computerized dynamic posturography data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) is widely used for assessment of altered balance control. CDP trials are quantified using the equilibrium score (ES), which ranges from zero to 100, as a decreasing function of peak sway angle. The problem of how best to model and analyze ESs from a controlled study is considered. The ES often exhibits a skewed distribution in repeated trials, which can lead to incorrect inference when applying standard regression or analysis of variance models. Furthermore, CDP trials are terminated when a patient loses balance. In these situations, the ES is not observable, but is assigned the lowest possible score--zero. As a result, the response variable has a mixed discrete-continuous distribution, further compromising inference obtained by standard statistical methods. Here, we develop alternative methodology for analyzing ESs under a stochastic model extending the ES to a continuous latent random variable that always exists, but is unobserved in the event of a fall. Loss of balance occurs conditionally, with probability depending on the realized latent ES. After fitting the model by a form of quasi-maximum-likelihood, one may perform statistical inference to assess the effects of explanatory variables. An example is provided, using data from the NIH/NIA Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging.

Feiveson, Alan H.; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Paloski, William H.

2002-01-01

22

Prostate Cancer Screening: Facts, Statistics, and Interpretation in Response to the US Preventive  

E-print Network

in cancer deaths at 10 years from 1% to 0.5%. Also assume that the intervention had precisely the effect hy no statistically significant effect on prostate cancer- specific mortality."1(p767) They also cite two recent metaProstate Cancer Screening: Facts, Statistics, and Interpretation in Response to the US Preventive

El Zarki, Magda

23

Facies control on sandstone composition (and influence of statistical methods on interpretations) in the John Henry Member, Straight Cliffs Formation,  

E-print Network

Facies control on sandstone composition (and influence of statistical methods on interpretations and setting of the John Henry Member. Three statistical methods were utilized: univariate standard deviation facies using estimation of means. Both univariate statistical methods have some inherent problems

Johnson, Cari

24

A STATISTICAL INTERPRETATION OF TERM SPECIFICITY AND ITS APPLICATION IN RETRIEVAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exhaustivity of document descriptions and the specificity of index terms are usually regarded as independent. It is suggested that specificity should be interpreted statistically, as a function of term use rather than of term meaning. The effects on retrieval of variations in term specificity are examined, experiments with three test collections showing, in particular, that frequently-occurring terms are required

KAREN SPARCK JONES

1972-01-01

25

Material Phase Causality or a Dynamics-Statistical Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics  

SciTech Connect

The internal phase dynamics of a quantum system interacting with an electromagnetic field is revealed in details. Theoretical and experimental evidences of a causal relation of the phase of the wave function to the dynamics of the quantum system are presented sistematically for the first time. A dynamics-statistical interpretation of the quantum mechanics is introduced.

Koprinkov, I. G. [Department of Applied Physics, Technical University of Sofia, 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria)

2010-11-25

26

New physicochemical interpretations for the adsorption of food dyes on chitosan films using statistical physics treatment.  

PubMed

In this work, statistical physics treatment was employed to study the adsorption of food dyes onto chitosan films, in order to obtain new physicochemical interpretations at molecular level. Experimental equilibrium curves were obtained for the adsorption of four dyes (FD&C red 2, FD&C yellow 5, FD&C blue 2, Acid Red 51) at different temperatures (298, 313 and 328 K). A statistical physics formula was used to interpret these curves, and the parameters such as, number of adsorbed dye molecules per site (n), anchorage number (n'), receptor sites density (NM), adsorbed quantity at saturation (N asat), steric hindrance (?), concentration at half saturation (c1/2) and molar adsorption energy (?E(a)) were estimated. The relation of the above mentioned parameters with the chemical structure of the dyes and temperature was evaluated and interpreted. PMID:25308634

Dotto, G L; Pinto, L A A; Hachicha, M A; Knani, S

2015-03-15

27

Interpretations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although nobody can question the practical efficiency of quantum mechanics, there remains the serious question of its interpretation. As Valerio Scarani puts it, "We do not feel at ease with the indistinguishability principle (that is, the superposition principle) and some of its consequences." Indeed, this principle which pervades the quantum world is in stark contradiction with our everyday experience. From the very beginning of quantum mechanics, a number of physicists--but not the majority of them!--have asked the question of its "interpretation". One may simply deny that there is a problem: according to proponents of the minimalist interpretation, quantum mechanics is self-sufficient and needs no interpretation. The point of view held by a majority of physicists, that of the Copenhagen interpretation, will be examined in Section 10.1. The crux of the problem lies in the status of the state vector introduced in the preceding chapter to describe a quantum system, which is no more than a symbolic representation for the Copenhagen school of thought. Conversely, one may try to attribute some "external reality" to this state vector, that is, a correspondence between the mathematical description and the physical reality. In this latter case, it is the measurement problem which is brought to the fore. In 1932, von Neumann was first to propose a global approach, in an attempt to build a purely quantum theory of measurement examined in Section 10.2. This theory still underlies modern approaches, among them those grounded on decoherence theory, or on the macroscopic character of the measuring apparatus: see Section 10.3. Finally, there are non-standard interpretations such as Everett's many worlds theory or the hidden variables theory of de Broglie and Bohm (Section 10.4). Note, however, that this variety of interpretations has no bearing whatsoever on the practical use of quantum mechanics. There is no controversy on the way we should use quantum mechanics!

Bellac, Michel Le

2014-11-01

28

Theoretical and Experimental Evidences of Material Phase Causality. Dynamics-Statistical Interpretation of the Wave Function  

E-print Network

The internal phase dynamics of a quantum system is revealed in details. Theoretical and experimental evidences of existence of a causal relation of the phase of the wave function with the dynamics of the quantum system are presented sistematically for the first time. A new, dynamics-statistical interpretation of the quantum mechanics is introduced. A particle-wave duality picture incorporated in the wave function through its phase and amplitude is considered.

I. G. Koprinkov

2010-04-19

29

Interpreting statistical process control (SPC) charts using machine learning and expert system techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical process control (SPC) charts are one of several tools used in quality control. The SPC quality control tool has been under-utilized due to the lack of experienced personnel able to identify and interpret patterns within the control charts. The Special Projects Office of the Center for Supportability and Technology Insertion (CSTI) has developed a hybrid machine-learning and expert-system software

Mark Shewhart; Wright Patterson AFB

1992-01-01

30

Editorial: new analytical and statistical approaches for interpreting the relationships among environmental stressors and biomarkers.  

PubMed

The broad topic of biomarker research has an often-overlooked component: the documentation and interpretation of the surrounding chemical environment and other meta-data, especially from visualization, analytical and statistical perspectives. A second concern is how the environment interacts with human systems biology, what the variability is in "normal" subjects, and how such biological observations might be reconstructed to infer external stressors. In this article, we report on recent research presentations from a symposium at the 248th American Chemical Society meeting held in San Francisco, 10-14 August 2014, that focused on providing some insight into these important issues. PMID:25444302

Bean, Heather D; Pleil, Joachim D; Hill, Jane E

2015-02-01

31

Application of machine learning and expert systems to Statistical Process Control (SPC) chart interpretation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Statistical Process Control (SPC) charts are one of several tools used in quality control. Other tools include flow charts, histograms, cause and effect diagrams, check sheets, Pareto diagrams, graphs, and scatter diagrams. A control chart is simply a graph which indicates process variation over time. The purpose of drawing a control chart is to detect any changes in the process signalled by abnormal points or patterns on the graph. The Artificial Intelligence Support Center (AISC) of the Acquisition Logistics Division has developed a hybrid machine learning expert system prototype which automates the process of constructing and interpreting control charts.

Shewhart, Mark

1991-01-01

32

Misuse of statistics in the interpretation of data on low-level radiation  

SciTech Connect

Four misuses of statistics in the interpretation of data of low-level radiation are reviewed: (1) post-hoc analysis and aggregation of data leading to faulty conclusions in the reanalysis of genetic effects of the atomic bomb, and premature conclusions on the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard data; (2) inappropriate adjustment for age and ignoring differences between urban and rural areas leading to potentially spurious increase in incidence of cancer at Rocky Flats; (3) hazard of summary statistics based on ill-conditioned individual rates leading to spurious association between childhood leukemia and fallout in Utah; and (4) the danger of prematurely published preliminary work with inadequate consideration of epidemiological problems - censored data - leading to inappropriate conclusions, needless alarm at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, and diversion of scarce research funds.

Hamilton, L.D.

1982-01-01

33

Parameterization of training images for aquifer 3-D facies modeling integrating geological interpretations and statistical inference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a stochastic approach to construct channelized 3-D geological models constrained to borehole measurements as well as geological interpretation. The methodology is based on simple 2-D geologist-provided sketches of fluvial depositional elements, which are extruded in the 3rd dimension. Multiple-point geostatistics (MPS) is used to impair horizontal variability to the structures by introducing geometrical transformation parameters. The sketches provided by the geologist are used as elementary training images, whose statistical information is expanded through randomized transformations. We demonstrate the applicability of the approach by applying it to modeling a fluvial valley filling sequence in the Maules Creek catchment, Australia. The facies models are constrained to borehole logs, spatial information borrowed from an analogue and local orientations derived from the present-day stream networks. The connectivity in the 3-D facies models is evaluated using statistical measures and transport simulations. Comparison with a statistically equivalent variogram-based model shows that our approach is more suited for building 3-D facies models that contain structures specific to the channelized environment and which have a significant influence on the transport processes.

Jha, Sanjeev Kumar; Comunian, Alessandro; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Kelly, Bryce F. J.

2014-10-01

34

Crossing statistic: Bayesian interpretation, model selection and resolving dark energy parametrization problem  

SciTech Connect

By introducing Crossing functions and hyper-parameters I show that the Bayesian interpretation of the Crossing Statistics [1] can be used trivially for the purpose of model selection among cosmological models. In this approach to falsify a cosmological model there is no need to compare it with other models or assume any particular form of parametrization for the cosmological quantities like luminosity distance, Hubble parameter or equation of state of dark energy. Instead, hyper-parameters of Crossing functions perform as discriminators between correct and wrong models. Using this approach one can falsify any assumed cosmological model without putting priors on the underlying actual model of the universe and its parameters, hence the issue of dark energy parametrization is resolved. It will be also shown that the sensitivity of the method to the intrinsic dispersion of the data is small that is another important characteristic of the method in testing cosmological models dealing with data with high uncertainties.

Shafieloo, Arman, E-mail: arman@ewha.ac.kr [Institute for the Early Universe, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-05-01

35

The statistical interpretation of pilot trials: should significance thresholds be reconsidered?  

PubMed Central

Background In an evaluation of a new health technology, a pilot trial may be undertaken prior to a trial that makes a definitive assessment of benefit. The objective of pilot studies is to provide sufficient evidence that a larger definitive trial can be undertaken and, at times, to provide a preliminary assessment of benefit. Methods We describe significance thresholds, confidence intervals and surrogate markers in the context of pilot studies and how Bayesian methods can be used in pilot trials. We use a worked example to illustrate the issues raised. Results We show how significance levels other than the traditional 5% should be considered to provide preliminary evidence for efficacy and how estimation and confidence intervals should be the focus to provide an estimated range of possible treatment effects. We also illustrate how Bayesian methods could also assist in the early assessment of a health technology. Conclusions We recommend that in pilot trials the focus should be on descriptive statistics and estimation, using confidence intervals, rather than formal hypothesis testing and that confidence intervals other than 95% confidence intervals, such as 85% or 75%, be used for the estimation. The confidence interval should then be interpreted with regards to the minimum clinically important difference. We also recommend that Bayesian methods be used to assist in the interpretation of pilot trials. Surrogate endpoints can also be used in pilot trials but they must reliably predict the overall effect on the clinical outcome. PMID:24650044

2014-01-01

36

Dose impact in radiographic lung injury following lung SBRT: Statistical analysis and geometric interpretation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To demonstrate a new method of evaluating dose response of treatment-induced lung radiographic injury post-SBRT (stereotactic body radiotherapy) treatment and the discovery of bimodal dose behavior within clinically identified injury volumes. Methods: Follow-up CT scans at 3, 6, and 12 months were acquired from 24 patients treated with SBRT for stage-1 primary lung cancers or oligometastic lesions. Injury regions in these scans were propagated to the planning CT coordinates by performing deformable registration of the follow-ups to the planning CTs. A bimodal behavior was repeatedly observed from the probability distribution for dose values within the deformed injury regions. Based on a mixture-Gaussian assumption, an Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm was used to obtain characteristic parameters for such distribution. Geometric analysis was performed to interpret such parameters and infer the critical dose level that is potentially inductive of post-SBRT lung injury. Results: The Gaussian mixture obtained from the EM algorithm closely approximates the empirical dose histogram within the injury volume with good consistency. The average Kullback-Leibler divergence values between the empirical differential dose volume histogram and the EM-obtained Gaussian mixture distribution were calculated to be 0.069, 0.063, and 0.092 for the 3, 6, and 12 month follow-up groups, respectively. The lower Gaussian component was located at approximately 70% prescription dose (35 Gy) for all three follow-up time points. The higher Gaussian component, contributed by the dose received by planning target volume, was located at around 107% of the prescription dose. Geometrical analysis suggests the mean of the lower Gaussian component, located at 35 Gy, as a possible indicator for a critical dose that induces lung injury after SBRT. Conclusions: An innovative and improved method for analyzing the correspondence between lung radiographic injury and SBRT treatment dose has been demonstrated. Bimodal behavior was observed in the dose distribution of lung injury after SBRT. Novel statistical and geometrical analysis has shown that the systematically quantified low-dose peak at approximately 35 Gy, or 70% prescription dose, is a good indication of a critical dose for injury. The determined critical dose of 35 Gy resembles the critical dose volume limit of 30 Gy for ipsilateral bronchus in RTOG 0618 and results from previous studies. The authors seek to further extend this improved analysis method to a larger cohort to better understand the interpatient variation in radiographic lung injury dose response post-SBRT.

Yu, Victoria; Kishan, Amar U.; Cao, Minsong; Low, Daniel; Lee, Percy; Ruan, Dan, E-mail: druan@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States)

2014-03-15

37

Statistics for the time-dependent failure of Kevlar-49/epoxy composites: micromechanical modeling and data interpretation  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents some new data on the strength and stress-rupture of Kevlar-49 fibers, fiber/epoxy strands and pressure vessels, and consolidated data obtained at LLNL over the past 10 years. This data are interpreted by using recent theoretical results from a micromechanical model of the statistical failure process, thereby gaining understanding of the roles of the epoxy matrix and ultraviolet radiation on long term lifetime.

Phoenix, S.L.; Wu, E.M.

1983-03-01

38

"What If" Analyses: Ways to Interpret Statistical Significance Test Results Using EXCEL or "R"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper aims to review two motivations to conduct "what if" analyses using Excel and "R" to understand the statistical significance tests through the sample size context. "What if" analyses can be used to teach students what statistical significance tests really do and in applied research either prospectively to estimate what sample size…

Ozturk, Elif

2012-01-01

39

Boyle temperature as a point of ideal gas in gentile statistics and its economic interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boyle temperature is interpreted as the temperature at which the formation of dimers becomes impossible. To Irving Fisher's correspondence principle we assign two more quantities: the number of degrees of freedom, and credit. We determine the danger level of the mass of money M when the mutual trust between economic agents begins to fall.

Maslov, V. P.; Maslova, T. V.

2014-07-01

40

Feature combination networks for the interpretation of statistical machine learning models: application to Ames mutagenicity  

PubMed Central

Background A new algorithm has been developed to enable the interpretation of black box models. The developed algorithm is agnostic to learning algorithm and open to all structural based descriptors such as fragments, keys and hashed fingerprints. The algorithm has provided meaningful interpretation of Ames mutagenicity predictions from both random forest and support vector machine models built on a variety of structural fingerprints. A fragmentation algorithm is utilised to investigate the model’s behaviour on specific substructures present in the query. An output is formulated summarising causes of activation and deactivation. The algorithm is able to identify multiple causes of activation or deactivation in addition to identifying localised deactivations where the prediction for the query is active overall. No loss in performance is seen as there is no change in the prediction; the interpretation is produced directly on the model’s behaviour for the specific query. Results Models have been built using multiple learning algorithms including support vector machine and random forest. The models were built on public Ames mutagenicity data and a variety of fingerprint descriptors were used. These models produced a good performance in both internal and external validation with accuracies around 82%. The models were used to evaluate the interpretation algorithm. Interpretation was revealed that links closely with understood mechanisms for Ames mutagenicity. Conclusion This methodology allows for a greater utilisation of the predictions made by black box models and can expedite further study based on the output for a (quantitative) structure activity model. Additionally the algorithm could be utilised for chemical dataset investigation and knowledge extraction/human SAR development. PMID:24661325

2014-01-01

41

An Easily Constructed Trigonal Prism Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model of a trigonal prism which is useful for teaching stereochemistry (especially of the neodymium enneahydrate ion), can be made easily by using a sealed, empty envelope. The steps necessary to accomplish this task are presented. (JN)

Yamana, Shukichi

1984-01-01

42

Translating the Statistical Representation of the Effects of Education Interventions into More Readily Interpretable Forms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is directed to researchers who conduct and report education intervention studies. Its purpose is to stimulate and guide them to go a step beyond reporting the statistics that emerge from their analysis of the differences between experimental groups on the respective outcome variables. With what is often very minimal additional effort,…

Lipsey, Mark W.; Puzio, Kelly; Yun, Cathy; Hebert, Michael A.; Steinka-Fry, Kasia; Cole, Mikel W.; Roberts, Megan; Anthony, Karen S.; Busick, Matthew D.

2012-01-01

43

The Bailey criterion: Statistical derivation and applications to interpretations of durability tests and chemical kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bailey durability criterion, well known in mechanics of materials, has also been used in other flelds of study such as the kinetics of chemical reactions. This paper rationalizes the wide applicability of this criterion in terms of Markovian statistical properties of systems. Two particular cases are discussed as examples of the general approach: durability of a wide class of

A. D. Freeds; A. I. Leonov

2002-01-01

44

Interpreting Assessment Data: Statistical Techniques You Can Use (e-book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are you properly evaluating the results of the tests you give to students? Can you explain the difference between classroom assessment and standardized assessment? Are you on solid ground with your grading system? Demystify--and even use--statistics to answ

Edwin P. Christmann

2009-06-13

45

Statistics Translated: A Step-by-Step Guide to Analyzing and Interpreting Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written in a humorous and encouraging style, this text shows how the most common statistical tools can be used to answer interesting real-world questions, presented as mysteries to be solved. Engaging research examples lead the reader through a series of six steps, from identifying a researchable problem to stating a hypothesis, identifying…

Terrell, Steven R.

2012-01-01

46

The null hypothesis significance test in health sciences research (1995-2006): statistical analysis and interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The null hypothesis significance test (NHST) is the most frequently used statistical method, although its inferential validity has been widely criticized since its introduction. In 1988, the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) warned against sole reliance on NHST to substantiate study conclusions and suggested supplementary use of confidence intervals (CI). Our objective was to evaluate the extent

Luis Carlos Silva-Ayçaguer; Patricio Suárez-Gil; Ana Fernández-Somoano

2010-01-01

47

A statistical interpretation of the correlation between intermediate mass fragment multiplicity and transverse energy  

E-print Network

Multifragment emission following Xe+Au collisions at 30, 40, 50 and 60 AMeV has been studied with multidetector systems covering nearly 4-pi in solid angle. The correlations of both the intermediate mass fragment and light charged particle multiplicities with the transverse energy are explored. A comparison is made with results from a similar system, Xe+Bi at 28 AMeV. The experimental trends are compared to statistical model predictions.

L. Phair; L. Beaulieu; L. G. Moretto; G. J. Wozniak; D. R. Bowman; N. Carlin; L. Celano; N. Colonna; J. D. Dinius; A. Ferrero; C. K. Gelbke; T. Glasmacher; F. Gramegna; D. O. Handzy; W. C. Hsi; M. J. Huang; I. Iori; Y. D. Kim; M. A. Lisa; W. G. Lynch; G. V. Margagliotti; P. F. Mastinu; P. M. Milazzo; C. P. Montoya; A. Moroni; G. F. Peaslee; R. Rui; C. Schwarz; M. B. Tsang; K. Tso; G. Vannini; F. Zhu

1999-09-09

48

Statistical analyses to support forensic interpretation for a new ten-locus STR profiling system.  

PubMed

A new ten-locus STR (short tandem repeat) profiling system was recently introduced into casework by the Forensic Science Service (FSS) and statistical analyses are described here based on data collected using this new system for the three major racial groups of the UK: Caucasian. Afro-Caribbean and Asian (of Indo-Pakistani descent). Allele distributions are compared and the FSS position with regard to routine significance testing of DNA frequency databases is discussed. An investigation of match probability calculations is carried out and the consequent analyses are shown to provide support for proposed changes in how the FSS reports DNA results when very small match probabilities are involved. PMID:11296886

Foreman, L A; Evett, I W

2001-01-01

49

Statistical interpretation of transient current power-law decay in colloidal quantum dot arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new statistical model of the charge transport in colloidal quantum dot arrays is proposed. It takes into account Coulomb blockade forbidding multiple occupancy of nanocrystals and the influence of energetic disorder of interdot space. The model explains power-law current transients and the presence of the memory effect. The fractional differential analogue of the Ohm law is found phenomenologically for nanocrystal arrays. The model combines ideas that were considered as conflicting by other authors: the Scher-Montroll idea about the power-law distribution of waiting times in localized states for disordered semiconductors is applied taking into account Coulomb blockade; Novikov's condition about the asymptotic power-law distribution of time intervals between successful current pulses in conduction channels is fulfilled; and the carrier injection blocking predicted by Ginger and Greenham (2000 J. Appl. Phys. 87 1361) takes place.

Sibatov, R. T.

2011-08-01

50

A statistical approach to the interpretation of aliphatic hydrocarbon distributions in marine sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Q-mode factor analysis was used to quantitate the distribution of the major aliphatic hydrocarbon (n-alkanes, pristane, phytane) systems in sediments from a variety of marine environments. The compositions of the pure end members of the systems were obtained from factor scores and the distribution of the systems within each sample was obtained from factor loadings. All the data, from the diverse environments sampled (estuarine (San Francisco Bay), fresh-water (San Francisco Peninsula), polar-marine (Antarctica) and geothermal-marine (Gorda Ridge) sediments), were reduced to three major systems: a terrestrial system (mostly high molecular weight aliphatics with odd-numbered-carbon predominance), a mature system (mostly low molecular weight aliphatics without predominance) and a system containing mostly high molecular weight aliphatics with even-numbered-carbon predominance. With this statistical approach, it is possible to assign the percentage contribution from various sources to the observed distribution of aliphatic hydrocarbons in each sediment sample. ?? 1991.

Rapp, J.B.

1991-01-01

51

Double precision errors in the logistic map: Statistical study and dynamical interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of the round-off errors that occur in the usual double precision computation of the logistic map is studied in detail. Different iterative regimes from the whole panoply of behaviors exhibited in the bifurcation diagram are examined, histograms of errors in trajectories given, and for the case of fully developed chaos an explicit formula is found. It is shown that the statistics of the largest double precision error as a function of the map parameter is characterized by jumps whose location is determined by certain boundary crossings in the bifurcation diagram. Both jumps and locations seem to present geometric convergence characterized by the two first Feigenbaum constants. Eventually, a comparison with Benford’s law for the distribution of the leading digit of compilation of numbers is discussed.

Oteo, J. A.; Ros, J.

2007-09-01

52

Interpreting CMB Anisotropy Observations: Trying to Tell the Truth with Statistics  

E-print Network

A conflict has been reported between the baryon density inferred from deuterium observations and that found from recent CMB observations by BOOMERanG and MAXIMA. Despite the flurry of papers that attempt to resolve this conflict by adding new physics to the early universe, we will show that it can instead be resolved via a more careful usage of statistics. Indeed, the Bayesian analyses that produce this conflict are by their nature poorly suited for drawing this type of conclusion. A properly defined frequentist analysis can address this question directly and appears not to find a conflict. Finally, a conservative accounting of systematic uncertainties in measuring the deuterium abundance could reduce what is nominally a 3 sigma conflict to 1 sigma.

Eric Gawiser

2001-05-01

53

A COMPREHENSIVE STATISTICALLY-BASED METHOD TO INTERPRET REAL-TIME FLOWING MEASUREMENTS  

SciTech Connect

In this project, we are developing new methods for interpreting measurements in complex wells (horizontal, multilateral and multi-branching wells) to determine the profiles of oil, gas, and water entry. These methods are needed to take full advantage of ''smart'' well instrumentation, a technology that is rapidly evolving to provide the ability to continuously and permanently monitor downhole temperature, pressure, volumetric flow rate, and perhaps other fluid flow properties at many locations along a wellbore; and hence, to control and optimize well performance. In this first year, we have made considerable progress in the development of the forward model of temperature and pressure behavior in complex wells. In this period, we have progressed on three major parts of the forward problem of predicting the temperature and pressure behavior in complex wells. These three parts are the temperature and pressure behaviors in the reservoir near the wellbore, in the wellbore or laterals in the producing intervals, and in the build sections connecting the laterals, respectively. Many models exist to predict pressure behavior in reservoirs and wells, but these are almost always isothermal models. To predict temperature behavior we derived general mass, momentum, and energy balance equations for these parts of the complex well system. Analytical solutions for the reservoir and wellbore parts for certain special conditions show the magnitude of thermal effects that could occur. Our preliminary sensitivity analyses show that thermal effects caused by near-wellbore reservoir flow can cause temperature changes that are measurable with smart well technology. This is encouraging for the further development of the inverse model.

Pinan Dawkrajai; Analis A. Romero; Keita Yoshioka; Ding Zhu; A.D. Hill; Larry W. Lake

2004-10-01

54

A Comprehensive Statistically-Based Method to Interpret Real-Time Flowing Measurements  

SciTech Connect

With the recent development of temperature measurement systems, continuous temperature profiles can be obtained with high precision. Small temperature changes can be detected by modern temperature measuring instruments such as fiber optic distributed temperature sensor (DTS) in intelligent completions and will potentially aid the diagnosis of downhole flow conditions. In vertical wells, since elevational geothermal changes make the wellbore temperature sensitive to the amount and the type of fluids produced, temperature logs can be used successfully to diagnose the downhole flow conditions. However, geothermal temperature changes along the wellbore being small for horizontal wells, interpretations of a temperature log become difficult. The primary temperature differences for each phase (oil, water, and gas) are caused by frictional effects. Therefore, in developing a thermal model for horizontal wellbore, subtle temperature changes must be accounted for. In this project, we have rigorously derived governing equations for a producing horizontal wellbore and developed a prediction model of the temperature and pressure by coupling the wellbore and reservoir equations. Also, we applied Ramey's model (1962) to the build section and used an energy balance to infer the temperature profile at the junction. The multilateral wellbore temperature model was applied to a wide range of cases at varying fluid thermal properties, absolute values of temperature and pressure, geothermal gradients, flow rates from each lateral, and the trajectories of each build section. With the prediction models developed, we present inversion studies of synthetic and field examples. These results are essential to identify water or gas entry, to guide flow control devices in intelligent completions, and to decide if reservoir stimulation is needed in particular horizontal sections. This study will complete and validate these inversion studies.

Keita Yoshioka; Pinan Dawkrajai; Analis A. Romero; Ding Zhu; A. D. Hill; Larry W. Lake

2007-01-15

55

A Comprehensive Statistically-Based Method to Interpret Real-Time Flowing Measurements  

SciTech Connect

This project is motivated by the increasing use of distributed temperature sensors for real-time monitoring of complex wells (horizontal, multilateral and multi-branching wells) to infer the profiles of oil, gas, and water entry. Measured information can be used to interpret flow profiles along the wellbore including junction and build section. In this second project year, we have completed a forward model to predict temperature and pressure profiles in complex wells. As a comprehensive temperature model, we have developed an analytical reservoir flow model which takes into account Joule-Thomson effects in the near well vicinity and multiphase non-isothermal producing wellbore model, and couples those models accounting mass and heat transfer between them. For further inferences such as water coning or gas evaporation, we will need a numerical non-isothermal reservoir simulator, and unlike existing (thermal recovery, geothermal) simulators, it should capture subtle temperature change occurring in a normal production. We will show the results from the analytical coupled model (analytical reservoir solution coupled with numerical multi-segment well model) to infer the anomalous temperature or pressure profiles under various conditions, and the preliminary results from the numerical coupled reservoir model which solves full matrix including wellbore grids. We applied Ramey's model to the build section and used an enthalpy balance to infer the temperature profile at the junction. The multilateral wellbore temperature model was applied to a wide range of cases varying fluid thermal properties, absolute values of temperature and pressure, geothermal gradients, flow rates from each lateral, and the trajectories of each build section.

Pinan Dawkrajai; Keita Yoshioka; Analis A. Romero; Ding Zhu; A.D. Hill; Larry W. Lake

2005-10-01

56

Statistical information of ASAR observations over wetland areas: An interaction model interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results obtained after studying the relation between the statistical parameters that describe the backscattering distribution of junco marshes and their biophysical variables. The results are based on the texture analysis of a time series of Envisat ASAR C-band data (APP mode, V V +HH polarizations) acquired between October 2003 and January 2005 over the Lower Paraná River Delta, Argentina. The image power distributions were analyzed, and we show that the K distribution provides a good fitting of SAR data extracted from wetland observations for both polarizations. We also show that the estimated values of the order parameter of the K distribution can be explained using fieldwork and reasonable assumptions. In order to explore these results, we introduce a radiative transfer based interaction model to simulate the junco marsh ?0 distribution. After analyzing model simulations, we found evidence that the order parameter is related to the junco plant density distribution inside the junco marsh patch. It is concluded that the order parameter of the K distribution could be a useful parameter to estimate the junco plant density. This result is important for basin hydrodynamic modeling, since marsh plant density is the most important parameter to estimate marsh water conductance.

Grings, F.; Salvia, M.; Karszenbaum, H.; Ferrazzoli, P.; Perna, P.; Barber, M.; Jacobo Berlles, J.

57

An Efficient, Easily Constructed Cell Homogenizing Press  

PubMed Central

An easily constructed, highly efficient cell homogenizing press is described which should be available to laboratories at moderate cost. The press allows the preparation of homogenates from up to 20 g of packed cell paste in a single batch without danger of damage to the press. Cell breakage and recovery of cell homogenates is accomplished at temperatures which maintain the material in the frozen state. The press may be assembled, disassembled, and cleaned with minimal effort. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:14496011

Sagers, Richard D.

1962-01-01

58

QC Metrics from CPTAC Raw LC-MS/MS Data Interpreted through Multivariate Statistics  

PubMed Central

Shotgun proteomics experiments integrate a complex sequence of processes, any of which can introduce variability. Quality metrics computed from LC-MS/MS data have relied upon identifying MS/MS scans, but a new mode for the QuaMeter software produces metrics that are independent of identifications. Rather than evaluating each metric independently, we have created a robust multivariate statistical toolkit that accommodates the correlation structure of these metrics and allows for hierarchical relationships among data sets. The framework enables visualization and structural assessment of variability. Study 1 for the Clinical Proteomics Technology Assessment for Cancer (CPTAC), which analyzed three replicates of two common samples at each of two time points among 23 mass spectrometers in nine laboratories, provided the data to demonstrate this framework, and CPTAC Study 5 provided data from complex lysates under Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) to complement these findings. Identification-independent quality metrics enabled the differentiation of sites and run-times through robust principal components analysis and subsequent factor analysis. Dissimilarity metrics revealed outliers in performance, and a nested ANOVA model revealed the extent to which all metrics or individual metrics were impacted by mass spectrometer and run time. Study 5 data revealed that even when SOPs have been applied, instrument-dependent variability remains prominent, although it may be reduced, while within-site variability is reduced significantly. Finally, identification-independent quality metrics were shown to be predictive of identification sensitivity in these data sets. QuaMeter and the associated multivariate framework are available from http://fenchurch.mc.vanderbilt.edu and http://homepages.uc.edu/~wang2x7/, respectively. PMID:24494671

2015-01-01

59

ACECARD. Acquire CoOmmodities Easily Card  

SciTech Connect

Acquire Commodities Easily Card (AceCard) provides an automated end-user method to distribute company credit card charges to internal charge numbers. AceCard will allow cardholders to record card purchases in an on-line order log, enter multiple account distributions per order that can be posted to the General Ledger, track orders, and receipt information, and provide a variety of cardholder and administrative reports. Please note: Customers must contact Ed Soler (423)-576-6151, Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, for help with the installation of the package. The fee for this installation help will be coordinated by the customer and Lockheed Martin and is in addition to cost of the package from ESTSC. Customers should contact Sandy Presley (423)-576-4708 for user help.

Soler, E.E. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1996-09-01

60

Easily Retrievable Objects among the NEO Population  

E-print Network

Asteroids and comets are of strategic importance for science in an effort to understand the formation, evolution and composition of the Solar System. Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are of particular interest because of their accessibility from Earth, but also because of their speculated wealth of material resources. The exploitation of these resources has long been discussed as a means to lower the cost of future space endeavours. In this paper, we consider the currently known NEO population and define a family of so-called Easily Retrievable Objects (EROs), objects that can be transported from accessible heliocentric orbits into the Earth's neighbourhood at affordable costs. The asteroid retrieval transfers are sought from the continuum of low energy transfers enabled by the dynamics of invariant manifolds; specifically, the retrieval transfers target planar, vertical Lyapunov and halo orbit families associated with the collinear equilibrium points of the Sun-Earth Circular Restricted Three Body problem. The judi...

Yárnoz, D García; McInnes, C R

2013-01-01

61

Easily retrievable objects among the NEO population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asteroids and comets are of strategic importance for science in an effort to understand the formation, evolution and composition of the Solar System. Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are of particular interest because of their accessibility from Earth, but also because of their speculated wealth of material resources. The exploitation of these resources has long been discussed as a means to lower the cost of future space endeavours. In this paper, we consider the currently known NEO population and define a family of so-called Easily Retrievable Objects (EROs), objects that can be transported from accessible heliocentric orbits into the Earth's neighbourhood at affordable costs. The asteroid retrieval transfers are sought from the continuum of low energy transfers enabled by the dynamics of invariant manifolds; specifically, the retrieval transfers target planar, vertical Lyapunov and halo orbit families associated with the collinear equilibrium points of the Sun-Earth Circular Restricted Three Body problem. The judicious use of these dynamical features provides the best opportunity to find extremely low energy Earth transfers for asteroid material. A catalogue of asteroid retrieval candidates is then presented. Despite the highly incomplete census of very small asteroids, the ERO catalogue can already be populated with 12 different objects retrievable with less than 500 m/s of ? v. Moreover, the approach proposed represents a robust search and ranking methodology for future retrieval candidates that can be automatically applied to the growing survey of NEOs.

García Yárnoz, D.; Sanchez, J. P.; McInnes, C. R.

2013-08-01

62

Easily available enzymes as natural retting agents.  

PubMed

Easily available commercial enzymes currently have great potential in bast fibre processing and can be modified for different end uses. There are several new technologies using enzymes that are able to modify fibre parameters, achieve requested properties, improve processing results and are more beneficial to the ecology in the area of bast fibre processing and fabrics finishing. Enzymatic methods for retting of flax, "cottonisation" of bast fibres, hemp separation, and processing of flax rovings before wet spinning, etc., fall into this group of new technologies. Such enzymatic biotechnologies can provide benefits in textile, composite, reinforced plastic and other technical applications. Laboratory, pilot and industrial scale results and experiences have demonstrated the ability of selected enzymes to decompose interfibre-bonding layers based on pectin, lignin and hemicelluloses. Texazym SER spray is able to increase flax long fibre yields by more than 40%. Other enzymes in combination with mild mechanical treatment can replace aggressive and energy-intensive processing like Laroche "cottonisation". Texazym SCW and DLG pretreatments of flax rovings are presented. PMID:17309044

Antonov, Viktor; Marek, Jan; Bjelkova, Marie; Smirous, Prokop; Fischer, Holger

2007-03-01

63

Quantum of area {Delta}A=8{pi}l{sub P}{sup 2} and a statistical interpretation of black hole entropy  

SciTech Connect

In contrast to alternative values, the quantum of area {Delta}A=8{pi}l{sub P}{sup 2} does not follow from the usual statistical interpretation of black hole entropy; on the contrary, a statistical interpretation follows from it. This interpretation is based on the two concepts: nonadditivity of black hole entropy and Landau quantization. Using nonadditivity a microcanonical distribution for a black hole is found and it is shown that the statistical weight of a black hole should be proportional to its area. By analogy with conventional Landau quantization, it is shown that quantization of a black hole is nothing but the Landau quantization. The Landau levels of a black hole and their degeneracy are found. The degree of degeneracy is equal to the number of ways to distribute a patch of area 8{pi}l{sub P}{sup 2} over the horizon. Taking into account these results, it is argued that the black hole entropy should be of the form S{sub bh}=2{pi}{center_dot}{Delta}{Gamma}, where the number of microstates is {Delta}{Gamma}=A/8{pi}l{sub P}{sup 2}. The nature of the degrees of freedom responsible for black hole entropy is elucidated. The applications of the new interpretation are presented. The effect of noncommuting coordinates is discussed.

Ropotenko, Kostiantyn [State Administration of Communications, Ministry of Transport and Communications of Ukraine, 22, Khreschatyk, 01001, Kyiv (Ukraine)

2010-08-15

64

A Note on the Calculation and Interpretation of the Delta-p Statistic for Categorical Independent Variables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This methodological note illustrates how a commonly used calculation of the Delta-p statistic is inappropriate for categorical independent variables, and this note provides users of logistic regression with a revised calculation of the Delta-p statistic that is more meaningful when studying the differences in the predicted probability of an…

Cruce, Ty M.

2009-01-01

65

Inversion for the statistical structure of subsurface water content from ground-penetrating radar reflection data: Initial results and interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of subsurface water content can be an excellent indicator of soil texture, which strongly influences the unsaturated hydraulic properties controlling vadose zone contaminant transport. Characterizing the heterogeneity in subsurface water content for use in numerical transport models, however, is an extremely difficult task as conventional hydrological measurement techniques do not offer the combined high spatial resolution and coverage required for accurate simulations. A number of recent studies have shown that ground-penetrating radar (GPR) reflection images may contain useful information regarding the statistical structure of subsurface water content. Comparisons of the horizontal correlation structures of radar images and those obtained from water content measurements have shown that, in some cases, the statistical characteristics are remarkably similar. However, a key issue in these studies is that a reflection GPR image is primarily related to changes in subsurface water content, and not the water content distribution directly. As a result, statistics gathered on the reflection image have a very complex relationship with the statistics of the underlying water content distribution, this relationship depending on a number of factors including the frequency of the GPR antennas used. In this work, we attempt to address the above issue by posing the estimation of the statistical structure of water content from reflection GPR data as an inverse problem. Using a simple convolution model for a radar image, we first derive a forward model relating the statistical structure of a radar image to that of the underlying water content distribution. We then use this forward model to invert for the spatial statistics of the water content distribution, given the spatial statistics of the GPR reflection image as data. We do this within a framework of uncertainty, such that realistic statistical bounds can be placed on the information that is inferred. In other words, we attempt to address the question "what can we infer about the water-content statistical structure, given the GPR data?", rather than "what is the water content statistical structure?". Results of applying our estimation technique to simple synthetic models are positive, and give us hope that reflection GPR data can be used in practice to better constrain knowledge of the nature of subsurface water content heterogeneity. If successful, this type of approach could also be used with seismic reflection data to infer the statistical nature of velocity heterogeneities.

Irving, J.; Knight, R.; Holliger, K.

2007-12-01

66

Statistical factor analysis technique for characterizing basalt through interpreting nuclear and electrical well logging data (case study from Southern Syria).  

PubMed

Factor analysis technique is proposed in this research for interpreting the combination of nuclear well logging, including natural gamma ray, density and neutron-porosity, and the electrical well logging of long and short normal, in order to characterize the large extended basaltic areas in southern Syria. Kodana well logging data are used for testing and applying the proposed technique. The four resulting score logs enable to establish the lithological score cross-section of the studied well. The established cross-section clearly shows the distribution and the identification of four kinds of basalt which are hard massive basalt, hard basalt, pyroclastic basalt and the alteration basalt products, clay. The factor analysis technique is successfully applied on the Kodana well logging data in southern Syria, and can be used efficiently when several wells and huge well logging data with high number of variables are required to be interpreted. PMID:24296157

Asfahani, Jamal

2014-02-01

67

A flexible computational framework for detecting, characterizing, and interpreting statistical patterns of epistasis in genetic studies of human disease susceptibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detecting, characterizing, and interpreting gene–gene interactions or epistasis in studies of human disease susceptibility is both a mathematical and a computational challenge. To address this problem, we have previously developed a multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method for collapsing high-dimensional genetic data into a single dimension (i.e. constructive induction) thus permitting interactions to be detected in relatively small sample sizes. In

Jason H. Moore; Joshua C. Gilbert; Chia-Ti Tsai; Fu-Tien Chiang; Todd Holden; Nate Barney; Bill C. White

2006-01-01

68

Multivariate Statistical Process Control Charts and the Problem of Interpretation: A Short Overview and Some Applications in Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Woodall and Montgomery [35] in a discussion paper, state that multivariate process control is one of the most rapidly developing sections of statistical process control. Nowadays, in industry, there are many situations in which the simultaneous monitoring or control, of two or more related quality - process characteristics is necessary. Process monitoring problems in which several related variables are of

S. Bersimis; J. Panaretos; S. Psarakis

2009-01-01

69

Chemometric approach to visualize and easily interpret data from sequential extraction procedures applied to sediment samples.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess metal mobility/availability in coastal surface (oxic) sediment samples from the Bahía Blanca estuary. Particularly, two sequential extraction procedures able to discriminate metals associated to amorphous Fe and Mn oxides and those associated with crystalline oxides of Fe were applied. Sequential procedures differ in the number of steps, type of reagents used, and in the order in which metals associated to organic matter are extracted. The studied metals were Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn because of their hazardous potential and relative abundance in the estuary. Tucker4 model with three factors describes appropriately the data sets (explained variance of 64.05%). This model made it possible to visualize and explain the information underlying in the data set. From the multivariate analysis, it was possible to evaluate the metal behaviour and their availability. In this way, Cd and Zn are associated to the more available fractions whereas Ni, Cr, Cu and Pb are mainly associated to the unavailable fractions. On the other hand, Zn and Cu are associated to organic matter fraction. Despite the fact that the two-fractionation schemes are quite different, the results obtained with both schemes are comparable. PMID:24813665

Alvarez, Mónica B; Quintas, Pamela Y; Domini, Claudia E; Garrido, Mariano; Fernández Band, Beatriz S

2014-06-15

70

Brief Contributions________________________________________________________________________________ Easily Testable Multiple-Valued Logic Circuits  

E-print Network

________________________________________________________________________________ Easily Testable Multiple-Valued Logic Circuits Derived from Reed-Muller Circuits E.V. Dubrova, Member, IEEE, and J.C. Muzio, Member, IEEE AbstractÐIn 1972, Reddy showed that the binary circuits realizing Reed-Muller canonical form are easily testable. In this paper, we extend Reddy's result to multiple

Dubrova, Elena

71

Chemical data and statistical interpretations for rocks and ores from the Ranger uranium mine, Northern Territory, Australia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analytical results for 61 elements in 370 samples from the Ranger Mine area are reported. Most of the rocks come from drill core in the Ranger No. 1 and Ranger No. 3 deposits, but 20 samples are from unmineralized drill core more than 1 km from ore. Statistical tests show that the elements Mg, Fe, F, Be, Co, Li, Ni, Pb, Sc, Th, Ti, V, CI, As, Br, Au, Ce, Dy, La Sc, Eu, Tb, Yb, and Tb have positive association with uranium, and Si, Ca, Na, K, Sr, Ba, Ce, and Cs have negative association. For most lithologic subsets Mg, Fe, Li, Cr, Ni, Pb, V, Y, Sm, Sc, Eu, and Yb are significantly enriched in ore-bearing rocks, whereas Ca, Na, K, Sr, Ba, Mn, Ce, and Cs are significantly depleted. These results are consistent with petrographic observations on altered rocks. Lithogeochemistry can aid exploration, but for these rocks requires methods that are expensive and not amenable to routine use.

Nash, J. Thomas; Frishman, David

1983-01-01

72

Illustration of constrained composition statistical methods in the interpretation of radionuclide concentrations in the moss Pleurozium schreberi.  

PubMed

In this work we have used moss Pleurozium schreberi as a bioindicator of radioactive materials in environment. The following radionuclides were determined in moss samples: (137)Cs, (40)K, (210)Pb, (212)Pb, (214)Pb, (214)Bi, (231)Th, (235)U and (228)Ac, but not all of them in each sample. The highest activity concentrations were found for naturally occurring (210)Pb, (40)K and the artificial isotope (137)Cs. Activities of radioisotopes were recalculated into mass concentrations and the statistical methods intended for constrained data processing were used. Analysis of our results showed at most a weak relationship between radioisotope mass concentrations in moss. It was supposed that concentrations of some elements depended on the same, currently unknown, factors. PMID:22673224

Ziembik, Zbigniew; Do?ha?czuk-?ródka, Agnieszka; Majcherczyk, Tadeusz; Wac?awek, Maria

2013-03-01

73

The statistical equilibrium of hydrogen and helium in a radiation field, with an application to interpreting Wolf-Rayet spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 70-level model helium atom which includes singly and doubly excited states of He I and a 17-level model hydrogen atom are used to solve the equations of statistical equilibrium for helium and hydrogen in a radiation field. The plasma has a velocity gradient, and densities and temperatures typical for the mantles of Wolf-Rayet stars. The emission lines of the Wolf-Rayet stars HD 50896, HD 191765, HD 192103, and HD 192163 are analyzed, as well as those of ? Pup (O4ef) and ? Cam (O9.5 Ia). It is argued that the apparent decrement of intensity along the Pickering series of He II is an ambiguous indicator of the composition of the atmospheres of Wolf-Rayet stars. The electron temperatures in the atmospheres of Wolf-Rayet stars probably exceed 105K.

Bhatia, A. K.; Underhill, A. B.

1986-01-01

74

Searching for Reliable Relationships With Statistics Packages: An Empirical Example of the Potential Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many social scientists appear to possess an overconfidence in the reliability of research results from a single, small-sample, inferential study. In this article, the authors speculate that “user-friendly” statistics packages have the potential to exacerbate statistical misinterpretation by providing researchers with a tool to explore data easily and identify what is interpreted as “reliable” relationships. This article contains an empirical

Todd C. Riniolo; Louis A. Schmidt

2000-01-01

75

Teens Can Easily Buy E-Cigarettes Online  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Teens Can Easily Buy E-Cigarettes Online Study finds minors successfully purchased smoking devices ... News) -- It's easy for teens to buy electronic cigarettes online, a small study finds. Researchers supervised 11 ...

76

[Easily implemented cognitive behaviour techniques in Primary Care (part 1)].  

PubMed

Cognitive behavioural therapy has shown to be very effective for treating the vast majority of mental health disorders. We comment on those techniques that can be easily used in the Primary Care setting. PMID:22935834

Ibáñez-Tarín, C; Manzanera-Escartí, R

2012-09-01

77

Child Sex Trafficking Victims Easily Missed by Doctors, Social Workers  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Child Sex Trafficking Victims Easily Missed by Doctors, Social Workers: ... and training to identify potential victims of child sex trafficking, a new study suggests. "We need to ...

78

Biological drugs for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis by the subcutaneous route: interpreting efficacy data to assess statistical equivalence  

PubMed Central

Background: No equivalence analysis has yet been conducted on the effectiveness of biologics in rheumatoid arthritis. Equivalence testing has a specific scientific interest, but can also be useful for deciding whether acquisition tenders are feasible for the pharmacological agents being compared. Methods: Our search covered the literature up to August 2014. Our methodology was a combination of standard pairwise meta-analysis, Bayesian network meta-analysis and equivalence testing. The agents examined for their potential equivalence were etanercept, adalimumab, golimumab, certolizumab, and tocilizumab, each in combination with methotrexate (MTX). The reference treatment was MTX monotherapy. The endpoint was ACR50 achievement at 12 months. Odds ratio was the outcome measure. The equivalence margins were established by analyzing the statistical power data of the trials. Results: Our search identified seven randomized controlled trials (2846 patients). No study was retrieved for tocilizumab, and so only four biologics were evaluable. The equivalence range was set at odds ratio from 0.56 to 1.78. There were 10 head-to-head comparisons (4 direct, 6 indirect). Bayesian network meta-analysis estimated the odds ratio (with 90% credible intervals) for each of these comparisons. Between-trial heterogeneity was marked. According to our results, all credible intervals of the 10 comparisons were wide and none of them satisfied the equivalence criterion. A superiority finding was confirmed for the treatment with MTX plus adalimumab or certolizumab in comparison with MTX monotherapy, but not for the other two biologics. Conclusion: Our results indicate that these four biologics improved the rates of ACR50 achievement, but there was an evident between-study heterogeneity. The head-to-head indirect comparisons between individual biologics showed no significant difference, but failed to demonstrate the proof of no difference (i.e. equivalence). This body of evidence presently precludes any option of undertaking competitive tenderings for the procurement of these agents. PMID:25435923

Fadda, Valeria; Maratea, Dario; Trippoli, Sabrina; Gatto, Roberta; De Rosa, Mauro; Marinai, Claudio

2014-01-01

79

Description of the Experimental Avionics Systems Integration Laboratory (EASILY)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Experimental Avionics Systems Integration Laboratory (EASILY) is a comprehensive facility used for development, integration, and preflight validation of hardware and software systems for the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Program's Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) experimental transport aircraft. This report describes the history, capabilities, and subsystems of EASILY. A functional description of the many subsystems is provided to give potential users the necessary knowledge of the capabilities of this facility.

Outlaw, Bruce K. E.

1994-01-01

80

Easily disassembled electrical connector for high voltage, high frequency connections  

DOEpatents

An easily accessible electrical connector capable of rapid assembly and disassembly wherein a wide metal conductor sheet may be evenly contacted over the entire width of the conductor sheet by opposing surfaces on the connector which provide an even clamping pressure against opposite surfaces of the metal conductor sheet using a single threaded actuating screw.

Milner, Joseph R. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

81

Epoxy-coated containers easily opened by wire band  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Epoxy coating reduces punctures, abrasions, and contamination of synthetic cellular containers used for shipping and storing fragile goods and equipment. A wire band is wound around the closure joint, followed by the epoxy coating. The container can then be easily opened by pulling the wire through the epoxy around the joint.

Mc Coy, J. W.

1966-01-01

82

Self-sealing, easily purged quick-disconnect hose coupling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coupling for pressurized hoses handles gas or liquid, is easily purged, and automatically seals the hose when disconnected. Volatile or toxic materials can be isolated before the connection is broken. This device may interest food processors and manufacturers of fluid delivery systems.

Leyerle, R. B.

1970-01-01

83

Easily disassembled electrical connector for high voltage, high frequency connections  

DOEpatents

An easily accessible electrical connector capable of rapid assembly and disassembly is described wherein a wide metal conductor sheet may be evenly contacted over the entire width of the conductor sheet by opposing surfaces on the connector which provide an even clamping pressure against opposite surfaces of the metal conductor sheet using a single threaded actuating screw. 13 figures.

Milner, J.R.

1994-05-10

84

Novel Cyclic Sugar Imines: Carbohydrate Mimics and Easily  

E-print Network

Novel Cyclic Sugar Imines: Carbohydrate Mimics and Easily Elaborated Scaffolds for Aza (e.g., DNJ) imines not only are potential carbohydrate- processing enzyme inhibitors that may for a nitrogen atom.1 The often potent inhibitory activity of many of these compounds toward carbohydrate

Davis, Ben G.

85

Rescue of easily shocked Mutant Seizure Sensitivity in Drosophila Adults  

PubMed Central

Genetic factors that influence seizure susceptibility can act transiently during the development of neural circuits or might be necessary for the proper functioning of existing circuits. We provide evidence that the Drosophila seizure-sensitive mutant easily shocked (eas) represents a neurological disorder in which abnormal functioning of existing neural circuits leads to seizure sensitivity. The eas+ gene encodes for the protein Ethanolamine Kinase, involved in phospholipid biosynthesis. We show that induction of eas+ in adult mutant flies rescues them from seizure sensitivity despite previously known developmental defects in brain morphology. Additionally, through cell-type-specific rescue, our results suggest a specific role for eas+ in excitatory rather than inhibitory neural transmission. Overall, our findings emphasize an important role for proper phospholipid metabolism in normal brain function and suggest that certain classes of epilepsy syndromes could have the potential to be treated with gene therapy techniques. PMID:23682034

Kroll, Jason R.; Tanouye, Mark A.

2014-01-01

86

Rescue of easily shocked mutant seizure sensitivity in Drosophila adults.  

PubMed

Genetic factors that influence seizure susceptibility can act transiently during the development of neural circuits or might be necessary for the proper functioning of existing circuits. We provide evidence that the Drosophila seizure-sensitive mutant easily shocked (eas) represents a neurological disorder in which abnormal functioning of existing neural circuits leads to seizure sensitivity. The eas(+) gene encodes for the protein Ethanolamine Kinase, involved in phospholipid biosynthesis. We show that induction of eas(+) in adult mutant flies rescues them from seizure sensitivity despite previously known developmental defects in brain morphology. Additionally, through cell-type-specific rescue, our results suggest a specific role for eas(+) in excitatory rather than inhibitory neural transmission. Overall, our findings emphasize an important role for proper phospholipid metabolism in normal brain function and suggest that certain classes of epilepsy syndromes could have the potential to be treated with gene therapy techniques. PMID:23682034

Kroll, Jason R; Tanouye, Mark A

2013-10-15

87

Easily melting glass for assembly of optical fiber into connectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The easily melting fluorine containing borophosphate glasses for construction knots have been obtained and investigated. The unique optical properties i.e. low refractive index - nD equals 1.41-1.45, wide spectral transparency region from 200 to 2000 nm as well as extended temperature application range from - 70 to +300 degree(s)C, thermostability and mechanical properties determine possibility to use fluorine containing borophosphate glass as optical glue. The process of structure formation within temperature range 20-1000 degree(s)C has been investigated in details. It has been determined by IR and X-ray methods that the development of glass network begins with decomposition of components at 500 degree(s)C with further formation of glass elements within temperature range 625-675 degree(s)C. The stable glassforming area is determined by P-O-B groups. The role of fluorine in structure development depends on its depolymerizator behavior, on the other hand it has some glassforming ability. Latter is based on ability of fluorine to move from boron to phosphorus coordination sphere. For the compositions under research the formation of monofluorophosphate groups at higher temperatures have been determined. The ratio P:B equals 1, 2:2 defines obtaining of stable glass without devitrification within the temperature range from 300 to 700 degree(s)C. The interfacial processes between fluorine containing melts and quartz fiber have been investigated.

Setina, Janina; Auzans, Juris J.; Zolotarjova, J. J.

1994-09-01

88

Metview and VAPOR: Exploring ECMWF forecasts easily in four dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) is an international organisation providing its member states and co-operating states with forecasts in the medium time range of up to 15 days as well as other forcasts and analysis. As part of its mission, ECMWF generates an increasing number of forecast data products for its users. To support the work of forecasters and researchers and to let them make best use of ECMWF forecasts, the Centre also provides tools and interfaces to visualise their products. This allows users to make use of and explore forecasts without having to transfer large amounts of raw data. This is especially true for products based on ECMWF's 50 member ensemble forecast. Users can choose to explore ECMWF's forecasts from the web or through visualisation tools installed locally or at ECMWF. ECMWF also develops in co-operation with INPE, Brazil, the Metview meteorological workstation and batch system. Metview enables users to easily analyse and visualise forecasts, and is routinely used by scientists and forecasters at ECMWF and other institutions. While Metview offers high quality visualisation in two-dimensional plots and animations, it uses external tools to visualise data in four dimensions. VAPOR is the Visualization and Analysis Platform for Ocean, Atmosphere, and Solar Researchers. VAPOR provides an interactive 3D visualisation environment that runs on most UNIX and Windows systems equipped with modern 3D graphics cards. VAPOR development is led by the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Scientific Computing Division in collaboration with U.C. Davis and Ohio State University. In this paper we will give an overview of how users, with Metview and access to ECMWF's archive, can visualise forecast data in four dimensions within VAPOR. The process of preparing the data in Metview is the key step and described in detail. The benefits to researchers are highlighted with a case study analysing a given weather scenario.

Siemen, Stephan; Kertesz, Sandor; Carver, Glenn

2014-05-01

89

Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... Statistics Request Permissions Print to PDF Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 04/ ... nodes or distant parts of the body. Survival statistics should be interpreted with caution. These estimates are ...

90

Interpreting the Evidence for Effective Interventions to Increase the Academic Performance of Students with ADHD: Relevance of the Statistical Significance Controversy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the literature on interventions targeting the academic performance of students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and does so within the context of the statistical significance testing controversy. Both the arguments for and against null hypothesis statistical significance tests are reviewed. Recent standards…

Harrison, Judith; Thompson, Bruce; Vannest, Kimberly J.

2009-01-01

91

“Spin” in wound care research: the reporting and interpretation of randomized controlled trials with statistically non-significant primary outcome results or unspecified primary outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background Spin in the reporting of randomized controlled trials, where authors report research in a way that potentially misrepresents results and mislead readers, has been demonstrated in the broader medical literature. We investigated spin in wound care trials with (a) no statistically significant result for the primary outcome and (b) no clearly specified primary outcome. Methods We searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register of Trials for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Eligible studies were: Parallel-group RCTs of interventions for foot, leg or pressure ulcers published in 2004 to 2009 (inclusive) with either a clearly identified primary outcome for which there was a statistically non-significant result (Cohort A) or studies that had no clear primary outcome (Cohort B). We extracted general study details. For both Cohorts A and B we then assessed for the presence of spin. For Cohort A we used a pre-defined process to assess reports for spin. For Cohort B we aimed to assess spin by recording the number of positive treatment effect claims made. We also compared the number of statistically significant and non-significant results reported in the main text and the abstract looking specifically for spin in the form of selective outcome reporting. Results Of the 71 eligible studies, 28 were eligible for Cohort A; of these, 71% (20/28) contained spin. Cohort B contained 43 studies; of these, 86% (37/43) had abstracts that claimed a favorable treatment claim. Whilst 74% (32/43) of main text results in Cohort B included at least one statistically non-significant result, this was not reflected in the abstract where only 28% contained (12/43) at least one statistically non-significant result. Conclusions Spin is a frequent phenomenon in reports of RCTs of wound treatments. Studies without statistically significant results for the primary outcome used spin in 71% of cases. Furthermore, 33% (43/132) of reports of wound RCTs did not specify a primary outcome and there was evidence of spin and selective outcome reporting in the abstracts of these. Readers should be wary of only reading the abstracts of reports of RCTs of wound treatments since they are frequently misleading regarding treatment effects. PMID:24195770

2013-01-01

92

NFI Interpretation Interpreting NFI Timber  

E-print Network

on the standing forest and, in so doing, has mitigated the problems involved in predicting these ratesNFI Interpretation Interpreting NFI Timber Volume Forecasts Issued by: National Forest Inventory advances have been made in methodology, with improved field survey techniques, greater understanding

93

Interpretive Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)

DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

1977-01-01

94

Engineering interpretation  

E-print Network

and Robotics Handout 2: Image Structure Roberto Cipolla and Andrew Gee October 1999 Image Structure 1 Image to interpret images using a small amount of edge and corner data. The Archer, Henry Moore. 8­bit greyscale

Dyer, Charles R.

95

Statistics Clinic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Do you have elevated p-values? Is the data analysis process getting you down? Do you experience anxiety when you need to respond to criticism of statistical methods in your manuscript? You may be suffering from Insufficient Statistical Support Syndrome (ISSS). For symptomatic relief of ISSS, come for a free consultation with JSC biostatisticians at our help desk during the poster sessions at the HRP Investigators Workshop. Get answers to common questions about sample size, missing data, multiple testing, when to trust the results of your analyses and more. Side effects may include sudden loss of statistics anxiety, improved interpretation of your data, and increased confidence in your results.

Feiveson, Alan H.; Foy, Millennia; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fiedler, James

2014-01-01

96

SLAR image interpretation keys for geographic analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A means for side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) imagery to become a more widely used data source in geoscience and agriculture is suggested by providing interpretation keys as an easily implemented interpretation model. Interpretation problems faced by the researcher wishing to employ SLAR are specifically described, and the use of various types of image interpretation keys to overcome these problems is suggested. With examples drawn from agriculture and vegetation mapping, direct and associate dichotomous image interpretation keys are discussed and methods of constructing keys are outlined. Initial testing of the keys, key-based automated decision rules, and the role of the keys in an information system for agriculture are developed.

Coiner, J. C.

1972-01-01

97

An Easily Accessible Web-Based Minimization Random Allocation System for Clinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Background Minimization as an adaptive allocation technique has been recommended in the literature for use in randomized clinical trials. However, it remains uncommonly used due in part to a lack of easily accessible implementation tools. Objective To provide clinical trialists with a robust, flexible, and readily accessible tool for implementing covariate-adaptive biased-coin randomization. Methods We developed a Web-based random allocation system, MinimRan, that applies Pocock–Simon (for trials with 2 or more arms) and 2-way (currently limited to 2-arm trials) minimization methods for trials using only categorical prognostic factors or the symmetric Kullback–Leibler divergence minimization method for trials (currently limited to 2-arm trials) using continuous prognostic factors with or without categorical factors, in covariate-adaptive biased-coin randomization. Results In this paper, we describe the system’s essential statistical and computer programming features and provide as an example the randomization results generated by it in a recently completed trial. The system can be used in single- and double-blind trials as well as single-center and multicenter trials. Conclusions We expect the system to facilitate the translation of the 3 validated random allocation methods into broad, efficient clinical research practice. PMID:23872035

Xiao, Lan; Huang, Qiwen; Yank, Veronica

2013-01-01

98

Predictive model for delayed graft function based on easily available pre-renal transplant variables.  

PubMed

Identification of pre-transplant factors influencing delayed graft function (DGF) could have an important clinical impact. This could allow clinicians to early identify dialyzed chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients eligible for special transplant programs, preventive therapeutic strategies and specific post-transplant immunosuppressive treatments. To achieve these objectives, we retrospectively analyzed main demographic and clinical features, follow-up events and outcomes registered in a large dedicated dataset including 2,755 patients compiled collaboratively by four Italian renal/transplant units. The years of transplant ranged from 1984 to 2012. Statistical analysis clearly demonstrated that some recipients' characteristics at the time of transplantation (age and body weight) and dialysis-related variables (modality and duration) were significantly associated with DGF development (p ? 0.001). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the final model based on the four identified variables predicting DGF was 0.63 (95 % CI 0.61, 0.65). Additionally, deciles of the score were significantly associated with the incidence of DGF (p value for trend <0.001). Therefore, in conclusion, in our study we identified a pre-operative predictive model for DGF, based on inexpensive and easily available variables, potentially useful in routine clinical practice in most of the Italian and European dialysis units. PMID:25164408

Zaza, Gianluigi; Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Tessari, Gianpaolo; Sandrini, Silvio; Scolari, Maria Piera; Capelli, Irene; Minetti, Enrico; Gesualdo, Loreto; Girolomoni, Giampiero; Gambaro, Giovanni; Lupo, Antonio; Boschiero, Luigino

2015-03-01

99

Statistical Analysis and Interpretation of Building Characterization, Indoor Environmental Quality Monitoring and Energy Usage Data from Office Buildings and Classrooms in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Three independent tasks had been performed (Stetzenbach 2008, Stetzenbach 2008b, Stetzenbach 2009) to measure a variety of parameters in normative buildings across the United States. For each of these tasks 10 buildings were selected as normative indoor environments. Task 1 focused on office buildings, Task 13 focused on public schools, and Task 0606 focused on high performance buildings. To perform this task it was necessary to restructure the database for the Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) data and the Sound measurement as several issues were identified and resolved prior to and during the transfer of these data sets into SPSS. During overview discussions with the statistician utilized in this task it was determined that because the selection of indoor zones (1-6) was independently selected within each task; zones were not related by location across tasks. Therefore, no comparison would be valid across zones for the 30 buildings so the by location (zone) data were limited to three analysis sets of the buildings within each task. In addition, differences in collection procedures for lighting were used in Task 0606 as compared to Tasks 01 & 13 to improve sample collection. Therefore, these data sets could not be merged and compared so effects by-day data were run separately for Task 0606 and only Task 01 & 13 data were merged. Results of the statistical analysis of the IEQ parameters show statistically significant differences were found among days and zones for all tasks, although no differences were found by-day for Draft Rate data from Task 0606 (p>0.05). Thursday measurements of IEQ parameters were significantly different from Tuesday, and most Wednesday measures for all variables of Tasks 1 & 13. Data for all three days appeared to vary for Operative Temperature, whereas only Tuesday and Thursday differed for Draft Rate 1m. Although no Draft Rate measures within Task 0606 were found to significantly differ by-day, Temperature measurements for Tuesday and Thursday showed variation. Moreover, Wednesday measurements of Relative Humidity within Task 0606 varied significantly from either Tuesday or Thursday. The majority of differences in IEQ measurements by-zone were highly significant (p<0.001), with the exception of Relative Humidity in some buildings. When all task data were combined (30 buildings) neither the airborne culturable fungi nor the airborne non-culturable spore data differed in the concentrations found at any indoor location in terms of day of collection. However, the concentrations of surface-associated fungi varied among the day of collection. Specifically, there was a lower concentration of mold on Tuesday than on Wednesday, for all tasks combined. As expected, variation was found in the concentrations of both airborne culturable fungi and airborne non-culturable fungal spores between indoor zones (1-6) and the outdoor zone (zone 0). No variation was found among the indoor zones of office buildings for Task 1 in the concentrations of airborne culturable fungi. However, airborne non-culturable spores did vary among zones in one building in Task 1 and variation was noted between zones in surface-associated fungi. Due to the lack of multiple lighting measurements for Tasks 13 and 0606, by-day comparisons were only performed for Task 1. No statistical differences were observed in lighting with respect to the day of collection. There was a wide range of variability by-zone among seven of the office buildings. Although few differences were found for the brightest illumination of the worksurface (IllumWkSfcBrtst) and the darkest illumination of the worksurface (IllumWkSfcDrkst) in Task 1, there was considerable variation for these variables in Task 13 and Task 0606 (p < 0.001). Other variables that differed by-zone in Task 13 include CombCCT and AmbCCT1 for S03, S07, and S08. Additionally, AmbChromX1, CombChromY, and CombChromX varied by-zone for school buildings S02, S04, and S05, respectively. Although all tasks demonstrated significant differences in sound measurements by zone, some of the buil

Linda Stetzenbach; Lauren Nemnich; Davor Novosel

2009-08-31

100

Landslides triggered by the 12 January 2010 Port-au-Prince, Haiti, Mw = 7.0 earthquake: visual interpretation, inventory compiling, and spatial distribution statistical analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 12 January 2010 Port-au-Prince, Haiti, earthquake (Mw= 7.0) triggered tens of thousands of landslides. The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlations of the occurrence of landslides and the thicknesses of their erosion with topographic, geologic, and seismic parameters. A total of 30 828 landslides triggered by the earthquake covered a total area of 15.736 km2, distributed in an area more than 3000 km2, and the volume of landslide accumulation materials is estimated to be about 29 700 000 m3. These landslides are of various types, mostly belonging to shallow disrupted landslides and rock falls, but also include coherent deep-seated landslides and rock slides. These landslides were delineated using pre- and post-earthquake high-resolution satellite images. Spatial distribution maps and contour maps of landslide number density, landslide area percentage, and landslide erosion thickness were constructed in order to analyze the spatial distribution patterns of co-seismic landslides. Statistics of size distribution and morphometric parameters of co-seismic landslides were carried out and were compared with other earthquake events in the world. Four proxies of co-seismic landslide abundance, including landslides centroid number density (LCND), landslide top number density (LTND), landslide area percentage (LAP), and landslide erosion thickness (LET) were used to correlate co-seismic landslides with various environmental parameters. These parameters include elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, slope curvature, topographic position, distance from drainages, lithology, distance from the epicenter, distance from the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault, distance along the fault, and peak ground acceleration (PGA). A comparison of these impact parameters on co-seismic landslides shows that slope angle is the strongest impact parameter on co-seismic landslide occurrence. Our co-seismic landslide inventory is much more detailed than other inventories in several previous publications. Therefore, we carried out comparisons of inventories of landslides triggered by the Haiti earthquake with other published results and proposed possible reasons for any differences. We suggest that the empirical functions between earthquake magnitude and co-seismic landslides need to be updated on the basis of the abundant and more complete co-seismic landslide inventories recently available.

Xu, C.; Shyu, J. B. H.; Xu, X.

2014-07-01

101

Landslides triggered by the 12 January 2010 Mw 7.0 Port-au-Prince, Haiti, earthquake: visual interpretation, inventory compiling and spatial distribution statistical analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 12 January 2010 Port-au-Prince, Haiti, earthquake (Mw 7.0) triggered tens of thousands of landslides. The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlations of the occurrence of landslides and their erosion thicknesses with topographic factors, seismic parameters, and their distance from roads. A total of 30 828 landslides triggered by the earthquake covered a total area of 15.736 km2, distributed in an area more than 3000 km2, and the volume of landslide accumulation materials is estimated to be about 29 700 000 m3. These landslides are of various types, mostly belonging to shallow disrupted landslides and rock falls, but also include coherent deep-seated landslides and rock slides. These landslides were delineated using pre- and post-earthquake high-resolutions satellite images. Spatial distribution maps and contour maps of landslide number density, landslide area percentage, and landslide erosion thickness were constructed in order to analyze the spatial distribution patterns of co-seismic landslides. Statistics of size distribution and morphometric parameters of co-seismic landslides were carried out and were compared with other earthquake events in the world. Four proxies of co-seismic landslide abundance, including landslides centroid number density (LCND), landslide top number density (LTND), landslide area percentage (LAP), and landslide erosion thickness (LET) were used to correlate co-seismic landslides with various landslide controlling parameters. These controlling parameters include elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, slope curvature, topographic position, distance from drainages, lithology, distance from the epicenter, distance from the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault, distance along the fault, and peak ground acceleration (PGA). A comparison of these impact parameters on co-seismic landslides shows that slope angle is the strongest impact parameter on co-seismic landslide occurrence. Our co-seismic landslide inventory is much more detailed than other inventories in several previous publications. Therefore, we carried out comparisons of inventories of landslides triggered by the Haiti earthquake with other published results and proposed possible reasons of any differences. We suggest that the empirical functions between earthquake magnitude and co-seismic landslides need to update on the basis of the abundant and more complete co-seismic landslide inventories recently available.

Xu, C.; Shyu, J. B. H.; Xu, X.-W.

2014-02-01

102

Quantum Interpretations  

E-print Network

Difficulties and discomfort with the interpretation of quantum mechanics are due to differences in language between it and classical physics. Analogies to The Special Theory of Relativity, which also required changes in the basic worldview and language of non-relativistic classical mechanics, may help in absorbing the changes called for by quantum physics. There is no need to invoke extravagances such as the many worlds interpretation or specify a central role for consciousness or neural microstructures. The simple, but basic, acceptance that what is meant by the state of a physical system is different in quantum physics from what it is in classical physics goes a long way in explaining its seeming peculiarities.

A. R. P. Rau

2006-06-03

103

Interpretive Medicine  

PubMed Central

Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the recognition of quality in interpretation and knowledge generation within the qualitative research field, I propose a framework by which to evaluate the quality of knowledge generated within generalist, interpretive clinical practice. I describe three priorities for research in developing this model further, which will strengthen and preserve core elements of the discipline of general practice, and thus promote and support the health needs of the public. PMID:21805819

Reeve, Joanne

2010-01-01

104

Image Interpretation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Foothill College and the Using a Web-Based GIS to Teach Problem-Based Science in High School and College project, this document introduces aerial photography and satellite imagery. Methods for identifying objects are highlighted such as the fact that man-made constructions tend to be straight while natural features are not. The same information as a presentation can be found here: www.foothill.edu/fac/klenkeit/nsf/curriculum/ImageInterpretation.pptxThis is a helpful resource for the introductory GIS classroom.

105

Court Interpreter Training in the Language Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of demographic studies and statistics from state and federal courts indicate a growing need for Spanish-English court interpreters with special training in consecutive and simultaneous court interpretation. The five strongest skills which need to be taught in a court interpreter training program are identified and suggestions are given on…

Stromberg, Wayne H.; Head, Gerald L.

1984-01-01

106

STATISTICAL METHODS STATISTICAL METHODS  

E-print Network

STATISTICAL METHODS 1 STATISTICAL METHODS Arnaud Delorme, Swartz Center for Computational@salk.edu. Keywords: statistical methods, inference, models, clinical, software, bootstrap, resampling, PCA, ICA Abstract: Statistics represents that body of methods by which characteristics of a population are inferred

Delorme, Arnaud

107

Employer Learning And Statistical Discrimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that if firms statistically discriminate among young workers on the basis of easily observable characteristics such as education, then as firms learn about productivity, the coefficients on the easily observed variables should fall, and the coefficients on hard-to-observe correlates of productivity should rise. We find support for this proposition using NLSY79 data on education, the AFQT test, father's

Joseph G. Altonji; Charles R. Pierret

2001-01-01

108

Automatic interpretation of digital maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past, the availability and/or the acquisition of spatial data were often the main problems of the realization of spatial applications. Meanwhile this situation has changed: on one hand, comprehensive spatial datasets already exist and on the other hand, new sensor technologies have the ability to capture fast and with high quality large amounts of spatial data. More and more responsible for the increasing accessibility of spatial data are also collaborative mapping techniques which enable users to create maps by themselves and to make them available in the internet. However, the potential of this diversity of spatial data can only hardly be utilized. Especially maps in the internet are represented very often only with graphical elements and no explicit information about the map's scale, extension and content is available. Nevertheless, humans are able to extract this information and to interpret maps. For example, it is possible for a human to distinguish between rural and industrial areas only by looking at the objects' geometries. Furthermore, a human can easily identify and group map objects that belong together. Also the type, scale and extension of a map can be identified under certain conditions only by looking at the objects' geometries. All these examples can be subsumed under the term "map interpretation". In this paper it is discussed how map interpretation can be automated and how automatic map interpretation can be used in order to support other processes. The different kinds of automatic map interpretation are discussed and two approaches are shown in detail.

Walter, Volker; Luo, Fen

109

residential environment. Electrical connections that are easily pulled apart and single, exposed conductors that are readily  

E-print Network

that additions to the code specifically addressed this technology. Making Solar Electricity Safer In the mid-1970 of Energy, which sponsored code-writing activities, believed that rooftop, building-integrated, utility-attached cables with Multi-Contact connectors at their ends. This easily connected wiring method makes for a time

Johnson, Eric E.

110

Electrochromic Polymers for Easily Processed Devices John R. Reynolds,* Avni A. Argun, Irina Schwendeman,  

E-print Network

Electrochromic Polymers for Easily Processed Devices John R. Reynolds,* Avni A. Argun, Irina for electrochromic applications. These polymers exhibit ease of processability and useful mechanical properties (e.g. flexibility). However, the major strength of these organic-based materials is that their electrochromic

Tanner, David B.

111

Determining the concentration of easily assimilable organic carbon in drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method for determining the potential of a water for supporting microbial regrowth in a drinking water distribution system. The method is based on the growth of fluorescent pseudomonads as a function of the concentration of easily assimilable organic carbon (AOC) in water. Using this method, the authors analyzed water samples from various stages of water treatment

Dirk van der Kooij; A. Visser; W. A. M. Hijnen

1982-01-01

112

A synthesis and optimization procedure for fully and easily testable sequential machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors outline a synthesis procedure which beginning from a state transition graph (STG) description of a sequential machine produces an optimized fully and easily testable logic implementation. This logic-level implementation is guaranteed to be testable for all single stuck-at faults in the combinational logic and the test sequences for these faults can be obtained using combinational test generation techniques

Srinivas Devadas; Hi-keung Tony Ma; A. Richard Newton; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-vincentelli

1989-01-01

113

Transforming basic robotic platforms into easily deployable and Web remotely controllable robots  

E-print Network

Transforming basic robotic platforms into easily deployable and Web remotely controllable robots basic robotic platforms into Web remotely controllable robots. Our goal is to achieve robot deploymentG), the robot can be deployed and Web- controlled. The distant user can send commands to the robot

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

114

As sustainability becomes integrated into public policy decision making,comprehensive and easily accessible sustainability  

E-print Network

As sustainability becomes integrated into public policy decision making,comprehensive and easily accessible sustainability information will be needed to assist policy analysis.As visual analytics emerges as a major tool of policy analysis,sustainability information,particularly sustainability indicators

Hall, Sharon J.

115

Ten emotion heuristics: guidelines for assessing the user's affective dimension easily and cost-effectively  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional appeal is a key dimension in user experie nce that often goes unmeasured in most user-centered design projects. This paper presents preliminary work for developing a set of guidelines for efficiently, easily and cost-effecti vely assessing the users' affective state by evaluating their expr essive reactions during an interface evaluation process. The evaluat ion of this dimension complements the

Eva de Lera; Muriel Garreta Domingo

2007-01-01

116

Statistical multifragmentation of nuclei  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review is devoted to the Statistical Multifragmentation Model (SMFM) developed in Copenhagen more than 10 years ago and widely used now for interpreting experimental data on multiple fragment production in different nuclear reactions. The model is based on the assumption of simultaneous break-up of a thermalized nuclear system. Basic principles and different realizations of the statistical approach to the

J. P. Bondorf; A. S. Botvina; A. S. Iljinov; I. N. Mishustin; K. Sneppen

1995-01-01

117

Statistical versus clinical lie detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argues that studies conducted to date have tended to ignore the single most important variable of polygraph validity: the human judge. The present study focused on clinicians' interpretations of polygraph protocols and showed that clinicians performed less accurately than statistical analyses. Ss included 30 undergraduates administered a polygraph test by 4 examiner-trainees and 30 experienced polygraph interpreters. Statistics outperformed human

Julian J. Szucko; Benjamin Kleinmuntz

1981-01-01

118

Subjectivistic Interpretations of Probability  

E-print Network

Subjectivistic Interpretations of Probability The most recent and one of the most- abilities concern actual degrees of belief. Although this interpretation of probability was presented de Finetti, the subjectivistic interpretation o/ probability had no great effects on English

Fitelson, Branden

119

Statistical Applets: Statistical Significance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by authors Duckworth, McCabe, Moore and Sclove for W.H. Freeman of Co., this applet is designed to help students visualize the rejection region of a statistical test by allowing them to set null and alternate hypotheses, population parameters, sample statistics, and significance level. It accompanies "Â?Â?Practice of Business Statistics," but can be used without this text. Even though brief, this is a nice interactive resource for an introductory statistics course.

Duckworth, William

120

Statistics and Statistical Mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter is somewhat more technical than the earlier ones. Its aim is to discuss some more recent results in dynamical\\u000a systems which refine our knowledge of statistical properties. These results follow from a combination of methods from statistics\\u000a and statistical mechanics.

Pierre Collet; Jean-Pierre Eckmann

121

Synthesis, Characterization, to application of water soluble and easily removable cationic pressure sensitive adhesives  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, the world has expressed an increasing interest in the recycling of waste paper to supplement the use of virgin fiber as a way to protect the environment. Statistics show that major countries are increasing their use of recycled paper. For example, in 1991 to 1996, the U.S. increased its recovered paper utilization rate from 31% to 39%, Germany went from 50% to 60%, the UK went from 60% to 70%, France increased from 46% to 49%, and China went from 32% to 35% [1]. As recycled fiber levels and water system closures both increase, recycled product quality will need to improve in order for recycled products to compete with products made from virgin fiber [2]. The use of recycled fiber has introduced an increasing level of metal, plastic, and adhesive contamination into the papermaking process which has added to the complexity of the already overwhelming task of providing a uniform and clean recycle furnish. The most harmful of these contaminates is a mixture of adhesives and polymeric substances that are commonly known as stickies. Stickies, which enter the mill with the pulp furnish, are not easily removed from the repulper and become more difficult the further down the system they get. This can be detrimental to the final product quality. Stickies are hydrophobic, tacky, polymeric materials that are introduced into the papermaking system from a mixture of recycled fiber sources. Properties of stickies are very similar to the fibers used in papermaking, viz. size, density, hydrophobicity, and electrokinetic charge. This reduces the probability of their removal by conventional separation processes, such as screening and cleaning, which are based on such properties. Also, their physical and chemical structure allows for them to extrude through screens, attach to fibers, process equipment, wires and felts. Stickies can break down and then reagglomerate and appear at seemingly any place in the mill. When subjected to a number of factors including changes in pH, temperature, concentration, charge, and shear forces, stickies can deposit [3]. These deposits can lead to decreased runnability, productivity and expensive downtime. If the stickie remains in the stock, then machine breaks can be common. Finally, if the stickie is not removed or deposited, it will either leave in the final product causing converting and printing problems or recirculate within the mill. It has been estimated that stickies cost the paper industry between $600 and $700 million a year due to the cost of control methods and lost production attributed to stickies [3]. Also, of the seven recycling mills opened in the United States between 1994 and 1997, four have closed citing stickies as the main reason responsible for the closure [4]. Adhesives are widely used throughout the paper and paperboard industry and are subsequently found in the recycled pulp furnish. Hodgson stated that even the best stock preparation process can only remove 99% of the contaminants, of which the remaining 1% is usually adhesives of various types which are usually 10-150 microns in effective diameter [5]. The large particles are removed by mechanical means such as cleaners and screens, and the smaller, colloidal particles can be removed with washing. The stickies that pass through the cleaning and screening processes cause 95% of the problems associated with recycling [6]. The cleaners will remove most of the stickies that have a density varying from the pulp slurry ({approx}1.0 g/cm3) and will accept stickies with densities ranging from 0.95-1.05 g/cm3 [2]. The hydrophobicity of the material is also an important characteristic of the stickie [7]. The hydrophobicity causes the stickies to agglomerate with other hydrophobic materials such as other stickies, lignin, and even pitch. The tacky and viscous nature of stickies contributes to many product and process problems, negatively affecting the practicality of recycled fiber use. The source of stickies that evade conventional removal techniques are usually synthetic polymers, including acrylates, styrene butadiene rub

Institute of Paper Science Technology

2004-01-30

122

Statistical Reform in School Psychology Research: A Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistical reform in school psychology research is discussed in terms of research designs, measurement issues, statistical modeling and analysis procedures, interpretation and reporting of statistical results, and finally statistics education.

Swaminathan, Hariharan; Rogers, H. Jane

2007-01-01

123

Statistical laws in linguistics  

E-print Network

Zipf's law is just one out of many universal laws proposed to describe statistical regularities in language. Here we review and critically discuss how these laws can be statistically interpreted, fitted, and tested (falsified). The modern availability of large databases of written text allows for tests with an unprecedent statistical accuracy and also a characterization of the fluctuations around the typical behavior. We find that fluctuations are usually much larger than expected based on simplifying statistical assumptions (e.g., independence and lack of correlations between observations).These simplifications appear also in usual statistical tests so that the large fluctuations can be erroneously interpreted as a falsification of the law. Instead, here we argue that linguistic laws are only meaningful (falsifiable) if accompanied by a model for which the fluctuations can be computed (e.g., a generative model of the text). The large fluctuations we report show that the constraints imposed by linguistic laws...

Altmann, Eduardo G

2015-01-01

124

The effect of easily degradable substrate feeding on the community structure of laboratory-scale wastewater sludge digesters.  

PubMed

The effect of several easily degradable substrates, such as protein, starch and sunflower oil was investigated on the bacterial community of a laboratory-scale biogas model system. Besides measuring gas yield, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), Phospholipids Fatty Acid Analysis (PLFA) for Bacteria and T-RFLP analysis of the mcrA gene for Archaea were used. The community of the examined biogas reactors adapted to the new substrates through a robust physiological reaction followed by moderate community abundance shifts. Gas yield data clearly demonstrated the physiological adaptation to substrate shifts. Statistical analysis of DNA and chemotaxonomic biomarkers revealed community abundance changes. Sequences gained from DGGE bands showed the dominance of the phyla Bacteroidetes and the presence of Firmicutes (Clostridia) and Thermotogae. This was supported by the detection of large amounts of branched 15-carbon non-hydroxy fatty acids in PLFA profiles, as common PLFA markers of the Bacteroidetes group. Minor abundance ratios changes were observed in the case of Archaea in accordance with changes of the fed substrates. PMID:24060553

Tauber, Tamás; Wirth, Balázs; Nikolausz, Marcell; Palatinszky, Márton; Schumann, Peter; Márialigeti, Károly; Tóth, Erika M

2013-09-01

125

Interpreting psychoanalytic interpretation: a fourfold perspective.  

PubMed

Following an overview of psychoanalytic interpretation in theory, practice, and historical context, as well as the question of whether interpretations have scientific validity, the author holds that hermeneutics, the philosophical and psychological study of interpretation, provides a rich understanding of recent developments in self psychology, inter-subjective and relational perspectives, attachment theory, and psycho-spiritual views on psychoanalytic process. He then offers four distinct hermeneutical vantage points regarding interpretation in the psychoanalytic context, including (1) Freud's adaptation of the Aristotelian view of interpretation as the uncovering of a set of predetermined meanings and structures; (2) the phenomenological view of interpretation as the laying bare of "the things themselves," that is, removing the coverings of objectification and concretization imposed by social norms and the conscious ego; (3) the dialogical existential view of interpretation as an ongoing relational process; and (4) the transformational understanding in which interpretation evokes a "presence" that transforms both patient and analyst. He concludes by contending that these perspectives are not mutually exclusive ways of conducting an analysis, but rather that all occur within the analyst's suspended attention, the caregiving and holding essential to good therapeutic outcomes, and the mutuality of the psychoanalytic dialogue. PMID:22221043

Schermer, Victor L

2011-12-01

126

Interpreting 12th-Graders' NAEP-Scaled Mathematics Performance Using High School Predictors and Postsecondary Outcomes from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88). Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2007-328  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The search for an understandable reporting format has led the National Assessment Governing Board to explore the possibility of measuring and interpreting student performance on the 12th-grade National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), the Nation's Report Card, in terms of readiness for college, the workplace, and the military. This…

Scott, Leslie A.; Ingels, Steven J.

2007-01-01

127

OFFSTATS: Official Statistics on the Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by International Commerce & Statistics Librarian Rainer Wolcke at the University of Aukland Library, OFFSTATS: Official Statistics on the Web offers "free and easily accessible social, economic and general data from official sources." The site lists international statistical centers by country or topic with detailed navigation and downloading instructions.

128

Easily constructed and inexpensive three-layer cassette for tritium-sensitive film autoradiography  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the design, construction, and use of a three-layer photographic cassette that is suitable for tritium-sensitive film autoradiography. The cassette can be produced easily and at a fraction of the cost of commercially available cassettes. The three-tiered design allows for the simultaneous exposure of 108 standard-sized glass microscope slides to three 20 X 34 cm pieces of /sup 3/H-Ultrofilm (LKB). The small between- or within-film variation of gray values recorded for either background, tritium-containing standards, or neighboring brain sections labeled with /sup 3/H-spiroperidol demonstrates the reliability of the cassette for autoradiographic quantification of tritium label.

Altar, C.A.

1984-10-01

129

An easily constructed and inexpensive three-layer cassette for tritium-sensitive film autoradiography.  

PubMed

This report describes the design, construction, and use of a three-layer photographic cassette that is suitable for tritium-sensitive film autoradiography. The cassette can be produced easily and at a fraction of the cost of commercially available cassettes. The three-tiered design allows for the simultaneous exposure of 108 standard-sized glass microscope slides to three 20 X 34 cm pieces of 3H-Ultrofilm (LKB). The small between- or within-film variation of gray values recorded for either background, tritium-containing standards, or neighboring brain sections labeled with 3H-spiroperidol demonstrates the reliability of the cassette for autoradiographic quantification of tritium label. PMID:6536827

Altar, C A

1984-10-01

130

Development of a numerical atlas of the easily flooded zones by marine immersions of the sandy littoral of Languedoc Roussillon (France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Regional Direction of the Infrastructure (France) entrusted to the Technical Studies Center of the Infrastructure (CETE Mediterranee) the study of a numerical atlas of the easily flooded area by marine immersions of the sandy littoral of Languedoc Roussillon. The objective of this paper is to present the methodological results. To do the map making of the easily flooded area by marine immersions (storm), we used several numerical data base. We can list, for example, the "BD Topo Pays" and the aerial photography of the National Geographical Institute (IGN), the geological mapping of the Geological and Mining Researsh Department (BRGM). To complete this data, we have realised a geomorphological interpretation of the littoral with the aerial photography. This naturalist approach can give the geomorphological object (beach, sand dune, ...) of the sandy littoral. Our objective was to determinate the limit about coastal plain (flooded by storm) and the alluvial plain (flooded by overfloowing) and not liable to flooding form. In the first phase of the study, a progressive methodology was used to develop a version of the numerical atlas based on the available geographical data of geomorphological, historical and topographic nature. During the second phase, we have developed this approach on the four french's department (Pyrénées-Orientales, Aude, Hérault and Gard). The result is the map making of the easily flooded area by marine immersions for 230 km of the sandy littoral. This mapping define the geomorphological factor of the littoral. Like this, we can found a qualitative hazard about marine immersions. Keywords : Storm, Marine immersions, Atlas of the easily flooded zones, Languedoc-Roussillon, France

Christophe, Esposito

2010-05-01

131

The emergent Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a new and conceptually simple interpretation of quantum mechanics based on reduced density matrices of sub-systems from which the standard Copenhagen interpretation emerges as an effective description of macroscopically large systems. This interpretation describes a world in which definite measurement results are obtained with probabilities that reproduce the Born rule. Wave function collapse is seen to be a useful but fundamentally unnecessary piece of prudent book keeping which is only valid for macro-systems. The new interpretation lies in a class of modal interpretations in that it applies to quantum systems that interact with a much larger environment. However, we show that it does not suffer from the problems that have plagued similar modal interpretations like macroscopic superpositions and rapid flipping between macroscopically distinct states. We describe how the interpretation fits neatly together with fully quantum formulations of statistical mechanics and that a measurement process can be viewed as a process of ergodicity breaking analogous to a phase transition. The key feature of the new interpretation is that joint probabilities for the ergodic subsets of states of disjoint macro-systems only arise as emergent quantities. Finally we give an account of the EPR-Bohm thought experiment and show that the interpretation implies the violation of the Bell inequality characteristic of quantum mechanics but in a way that is rather novel. The final conclusion is that the Copenhagen interpretation gives a completely satisfactory phenomenology of macro-systems interacting with micro-systems.

Hollowood, Timothy J.

2014-05-01

132

U-interpreter  

SciTech Connect

The author argues that by giving a unique name to every activity generated during a computation, the u-interpreter can provide greater concurrency in the interpretation of data flow graphs. 19 references.

Arvind; Gostelow, K.P.

1982-02-01

133

Dynamical interpretation of conditional patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While great progress is being made in characterizing the 3-D structure of organized turbulent motions using conditional averaging analysis, there is a lack of theoretical guidance regarding the interpretation and utilization of such information. Questions concerning the significance of the structures, their contributions to various transport properties, and their dynamics cannot be answered without recourse to appropriate dynamical governing equations. One approach which addresses some of these questions uses the conditional fields as initial conditions and calculates their evolution from the Navier-Stokes equations, yielding valuable information about stability, growth, and longevity of the mean structure. To interpret statistical aspects of the structures, a different type of theory which deals with the structures in the context of their contributions to the statistics of the flow is needed. As a first step toward this end, an effort was made to integrate the structural information from the study of organized structures with a suitable statistical theory. This is done by stochastically estimating the two-point conditional averages that appear in the equation for the one-point probability density function, and relating the structures to the conditional stresses. Salient features of the estimates are identified, and the structure of the one-point estimates in channel flow is defined.

Adrian, R. J.; Moser, R. D.; Moin, P.

1988-01-01

134

Interpreting. PEPNet Tipsheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interpreter's role is to facilitate communication and convey all auditory and signed information so that both hearing and deaf individuals may fully interact. The common types of services provided by interpreters are: (1) American Sign Language (ASL) Interpretation--a visual-gestural language with its own linguistic features; (2) Sign Language…

Darroch, Kathleen

2010-01-01

135

Translation and Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines recent trends in the fields of translation and interpretation, focusing on translation and interpretation theory and practice, language-specific challenges, computer-assisted translation, machine translation, subtitling, and translator and interpreter training. An annotated bibliography discusses seven important works in the field. (112…

Nicholson, Nancy Schweda

1995-01-01

136

Revisiting the statistical analysis of pyroclast density and porosity data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosive volcanic eruptions are commonly characterized based on a thorough analysis of the generated deposits. Amongst other characteristics in physical volcanology, density and porosity of juvenile clasts are some of the most frequently used characteristics to constrain eruptive dynamics. In this study, we evaluate the sensitivity of density and porosity data and introduce a weighting parameter to correct issues raised by the use of frequency analysis. Results of textural investigation can be biased by clast selection. Using statistical tools as presented here, the meaningfulness of a conclusion can be checked for any dataset easily. This is necessary to define whether or not a sample has met the requirements for statistical relevance, i.e. whether a dataset is large enough to allow for reproducible results. Graphical statistics are used to describe density and porosity distributions, similar to those used for grain-size analysis. This approach helps with the interpretation of volcanic deposits. To illustrate this methodology we chose two large datasets: (1) directed blast deposits of the 3640-3510 BC eruption of Chachimbiro volcano (Ecuador) and (2) block-and-ash-flow deposits of the 1990-1995 eruption of Unzen volcano (Japan). We propose add the use of this analysis for future investigations to check the objectivity of results achieved by different working groups and guarantee the meaningfulness of the interpretation.

Bernard, B.; Kueppers, U.; Ortiz, H.

2015-03-01

137

Automatic interpretation of biological tests.  

PubMed

In this article, an approach for an Automatic Interpretation of Biological Tests (AIBT) is described. The developed system is much needed in Preventive Medicine Centers (PMCs). It is designed as a self-sufficient system that could be easily used by trained nurses during the routine visit. The results that the system provides are not only useful to provide the PMC physicians with a preliminary diagnosis, but also allows them more time to focus on the serious cases, making the clinical visit more qualitative. On the other hand, because the use of such a system has been planned for many years, its possibilities for future extensions must be seriously considered. The methodology adopted can be interpreted as a combination of the advantages of two main approaches adopted in current diagnostic systems: the production system approach and the object-oriented system approach. From the rules, the ability of these approaches to capture the deductive processes of the expert in domains where causal mechanisms are often understood are retained. The object-oriented approach guides the elicitation and the engineering of knowledge in such a way that abstractions, categorizations and classifications are encouraged whilst individual instances of objects of any type are recognized as separate, independent entities. PMID:9684093

Boufriche-Boufaïda, Z

1998-03-01

138

Ectopic spleen: An easily identifiable but commonly undiagnosed entity until manifestation of complications  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Ectopic spleen is an uncommon clinical entity as splenectomy for treatment of ectopic spleens accounts for less than 0.25% of splenectomies. The most common age of presentation is childhood especially under 1 year of age followed by the third decade of life. PRESENTATION OF CASE The present report refers to a patient with torsion of a pelvic spleen treated with splenectomy. The patient exhibited a period of vague intermittent lower abdominal pain lasted 65 days followed by a period of constant left lower quadrant pain of increasing severity lasted 6 days. On the first 65 days, vague pain was attributed to progressive torsion of the spleen which resulted in venous congestion. On the last 6 days, exacerbation of pain was attributed to irreducible torsion, infraction of the arterial supply, acute ischemia, strangulation and rupture of the gangrenous spleen. Diagnosis was made by CT which revealed absence of the spleen in its normal position, a homogeneous pelvic mass with no contrast enhancement, free blood in the peritoneal cavity, and confirmed by laparotomy. DISCUSSION Clinical manifestations of ectopic spleen vary from asymptomatic to abdominal emergency. Symptoms are most commonly attributed to complications related to torsion. Operative management, including splenopexy or splenectomy, is the treatment of choice in uncomplicated and complicated cases because conservative treatment of an asymptomatic ectopic spleen is associated with a complication rate of 65%. CONCLUSION Although an ectopic spleen can be easily identified on clinical examination, it is commonly misdiagnosed until the manifestation of complications in adulthood. PMID:24973525

Blouhos, Konstantinos; Boulas, Konstantinos A.; Salpigktidis, Ilias; Barettas, Nikolaos; Hatzigeorgiadis, Anestis

2014-01-01

139

Easily regenerable solid adsorbents based on polyamines for carbon dioxide capture from the air.  

PubMed

Adsorbents prepared easily by impregnation of fumed silica with polyethylenimine (PEI) are promising candidates for the capture of CO2 directly from the air. These inexpensive adsorbents have high CO2 adsorption capacity at ambient temperature and can be regenerated in repeated cycles under mild conditions. Despite the very low CO2 concentration, they are able to scrub efficiently all CO2 out of the air in the initial hours of the experiments. The influence of parameters such as PEI loading, adsorption and desorption temperature, particle size, and PEI molecular weight on the adsorption behavior were investigated. The mild regeneration temperatures required could allow the use of waste heat available in many industrial processes as well as solar heat. CO2 adsorption from the air has a number of applications. Removal of CO2 from a closed environment, such as a submarine or space vehicles, is essential for life support. The supply of CO2-free air is also critical for alkaline fuel cells and batteries. Direct air capture of CO2 could also help mitigate the rising concerns about atmospheric CO2 concentration and associated climatic changes, while, at the same time, provide the first step for an anthropogenic carbon cycle. PMID:24644023

Goeppert, Alain; Zhang, Hang; Czaun, Miklos; May, Robert B; Prakash, G K Surya; Olah, George A; Narayanan, S R

2014-05-01

140

Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.

Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore

2001-01-01

141

Adoption Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... Role Our Leadership Newsroom Publications Statistics Contact Us Statistics All statistics correspond with the U.S. Government fiscal year, which ... and ends on September 30. For example, adoption statistics for FY2013 show the period from October 1, ...

142

An easily made, low-cost phantom for ultrasound airway exam training and assessment  

PubMed Central

Background: Recent manuscripts have described the use of ultrasound imaging to evaluate airway structures. Ultrasound training tools are necessary for practitioners to become proficient at obtaining and interpreting images. Few training tools exist and those that do can often times be expensive and rendered useless with repeated needle passes. Methods: We utilised inexpensive and easy to obtain materials to create a gel phantom model for ultrasound-guided airway examination training. Results: Following creation of the gel phantom model, images were successfully obtained of the thyroid and cricoid cartilages, cricothyroid membrane and tracheal rings in both the sagittal transverse planes. Conclusion: The gel phantom model mimics human airway anatomy and may be used for ultrasound-guided airway assessment and intervention training. This may have important safety implications as ultrasound imaging is increasingly used for airway assessment. PMID:23716763

Schroeder, Kristopher M; Ramamoorthy, Jagan; Galgon, Richard E

2013-01-01

143

Interpretation biases in paranoia.  

PubMed

Information in the environment is frequently ambiguous in meaning. Emotional ambiguity, such as the stare of a stranger, or the scream of a child, encompasses possible good or bad emotional consequences. Those with elevated vulnerability to affective disorders tend to interpret such material more negatively than those without, a phenomenon known as "negative interpretation bias." In this study we examined the relationship between vulnerability to psychosis, measured by trait paranoia, and interpretation bias. One set of material permitted broadly positive/negative (valenced) interpretations, while another allowed more or less paranoid interpretations, allowing us to also investigate the content specificity of interpretation biases associated with paranoia. Regression analyses (n=70) revealed that trait paranoia, trait anxiety, and cognitive inflexibility predicted paranoid interpretation bias, whereas trait anxiety and cognitive inflexibility predicted negative interpretation bias. In a group comparison those with high levels of trait paranoia were negatively biased in their interpretations of ambiguous information relative to those with low trait paranoia, and this effect was most pronounced for material directly related to paranoid concerns. Together these data suggest that a negative interpretation bias occurs in those with elevated vulnerability to paranoia, and that this bias may be strongest for material matching paranoid beliefs. We conclude that content-specific biases may be important in the cause and maintenance of paranoid symptoms. PMID:25526839

Savulich, George; Freeman, Daniel; Shergill, Sukhi; Yiend, Jenny

2015-01-01

144

Generation of easily accessible human kidney tubules on two-dimensional surfaces in vitro  

PubMed Central

Abstract The generation of tissue-like structures in vitro is of major interest for various fields of research including in vitro toxicology, regenerative therapies and tissue engineering. Usually 3D matrices are used to engineer tissue-like structures in vitro, and for the generation of kidney tubules, 3D gels are employed. Kidney tubules embedded within 3D gels are difficult to access for manipulations and imaging. Here we show how large and functional human kidney tubules can be generated in vitro on 2D surfaces, without the use of 3D matrices. The mechanism used by human primary renal proximal tubule cells for tubulogenesis on 2D surfaces appears to be distinct from the mechanism employed in 3D gels, and tubulogenesis on 2D surfaces involves interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The process is induced by transforming growth factor-?1, and enhanced by a 3D substrate architecture. However, after triggering the process, the formation of renal tubules occurs with remarkable independence from the substrate architecture. Human proximal tubules generated on 2D surfaces typically have a length of several millimetres, and are easily accessible for manipulations and imaging, which makes them attractive for basic research and in vitro nephrotoxicology. The experimental system described also allows for in vitro studies on how primary human kidney cells regenerate renal structures after organ disruption. The finding that human kidney cells organize tissue-like structures independently from the substrate architecture has important consequences for kidney tissue engineering, and it will be important, for instance, to inhibit the process of tubulogenesis on 2D surfaces in bioartificial kidneys. PMID:20586829

Zhang, Huishi; Lau, Samantha Fong-Ting; Heng, Ber Fong; Teo, Pei Yun; Alahakoon, P K D Thilini; Ni, Ming; Tasnim, Farah; Ying, Jackie Y; Zink, Daniele

2011-01-01

145

Superomniphobic and easily repairable coatings on copper substrates based on simple immersion or spray processes.  

PubMed

Textures that resemble typical fern or bracken plant species (dendrite structures) were fabricated for liquid repellency by dipping copper substrates in a single-step process in solutions containing AgNO3 or by a simple spray liquid application. Superhydrophobic surfaces were produced using a solution containing AgNO3 and trimethoxypropylsilane (TMPSi), and superomniphobic surfaces were produced by a two-step procedure, immersing the copper substrate in a AgNO3 solution and, after that, in a solution containing 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane (PFDTES). The simple functionalization processes can also be used when the superomniphobic surfaces were destroyed by mechanical stress. By immersion of the wrecked surfaces in the above solutions or by the spray method and soft heating, the copper substrates could be easily repaired, regenerating the surfaces' superrepellency to liquids. The micro- and nanoroughness structures generated on copper surfaces by the deposition of silver dendrites functionalized with TMPSi presented apparent contact angles greater than 150° with a contact angle hysteresis lower than 10° when water was used as the test liquid. To avoid total wettability with very low surface tension liquids, such as rapeseed oil and hexadecane, a thin perfluorinated coating of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE), produced by physical vapor deposition, was used. A more efficient perfluorinated coating was obtained when PFDTES was used. The superomniphobic surfaces produced apparent contact angles above 150° with all of the tested liquids, including hexadecane, although the contact angle hysteresis with this liquid was above 10°. The coupling of dendritic structures with TMPSi/PTFE or directly by PFDTES coatings was responsible for the superrepellency of the as-prepared surfaces. These simple, fast, and reliable procedures allow the large area, and cost-effective scale fabrication of superrepellent surfaces on copper substrates for various industrial applications with the advantage of easy recovery of the surface repellency after damage. PMID:25714008

Rangel, Thomaz C; Michels, Alexandre F; Horowitz, Flávio; Weibel, Daniel E

2015-03-24

146

Easily Removable Ureteral Catheters for Internal Drainage in Children: A Preliminary Report  

PubMed Central

Purpose We review our experience using a new and easily removable ureteral catheter in patients who underwent complicated ureteral reimplantation. Our goal was to shorten hospital stay and lower anxiety during catheter removal without fear of postoperative ureteral obstruction. Materials and Methods Between April 2009 and September 2010, nine patients who underwent our new method of catheter removal after ureteral reimplantation were enrolled. Patients who underwent simple ureteral reimplantation were excluded from the study. Following ureteral reimplantation, a combined drainage system consisting of a suprapubic cystostomy catheter and a ureteral catheter was installed. Proximal external tubing was clamped with a Hem-o-lok clamp and the rest of the external tubing was eliminated. Data concerning the age and sex of each patient, reason for operation, method of ureteral reimplantation, and postoperative parameters such as length of hospital stay and complications were recorded. Results Of the nine patients, four had refluxing megaureter, four had a solitary or non-functional contralateral kidney and one had ureteral stricture due to a previous anti-reflux operation. The catheter was removed at postoperative week one. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 2.4 days (range 1-4 days), and the mean follow-up was 9.8 months. None of the patients had postoperative ureteral obstructions, and there were no cases of migration or dislodgement of the catheter. Conclusion Our new method for removing the ureteral catheter would shorten hospital stays and lower levels of anxiety when removing ureteral catheters in patients with a high risk of postoperative ureteral obstruction. PMID:23364982

Park, Kyung Kgi; Kim, Myung Up; Chung, Mun Su; Lee, Dong Hoon

2013-01-01

147

Prepraring to Interpret: AA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn about Alcoholics Anonymous and prepare to interpret for a deaf member at a traditional AA meeting. Interpreting for Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) requires that the interpreter have an understanding of the purpose of the meetings, prepares adequately for frozen text and informal register that will be used, and has respect for the organization and its members. It can be a difficult, but rewarding assignment. Preparing to ...

2007-10-03

148

Photo observation & interpretation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each week in Structural Geology, I assign students the task of sketching, describing, and interpreting an image. The images are chosen to match the relevant course material for that week. There is a specific form for this assignment, which is designed in part to physically separate their observations from interpretations on the page. In class, we spend 10-20 minutes discussing their different observations/interpretations.

Sarah Titus

149

Interpreting Face Images Using Active Appearance Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate a fast, robust methodof interpreting face images using an Active Appearance Model (AAM). An AAM contains a statistical model of shape and grey-level appear- ance which can generalise to almost any face. Matching to an image involves findingmodel parameters which min- imise the difference between the image and a synthesised face. We observe that displacing each model parameter

Gareth J. Edwards; Christopher J. Taylor; Timothy F. Cootes

1998-01-01

150

Preparation and Use of an Easily Constructed, Inexpensive Chamber for Viewing Courtship Behaviors of Fruit Flies, Drosophila sp.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details the construction of a viewing chamber for fruit flies that connects to a dissecting microscope and features a design that enables students to easily move fruit flies in and out of the chamber. (DDR)

Christensen, Timothy J.; Labov, Jay B.

1997-01-01

151

RHEOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF RAYLEIGH DAMPING J.F.Semblat  

E-print Network

convenient as it can be easily computed. Furthermore, for modal approaches, the Rayleigh (or Caughey) damping. In case of non proportional damping, the complex modes have to be computed (in order to uncouple the modalRHEOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF RAYLEIGH DAMPING J.F.Semblat Laboratoire Central des Ponts et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

152

SOCR: Statistics Online Computational Resource  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need for hands-on computer laboratory experience in undergraduate and graduate statistics education has been firmly established in the past decade. As a result a number of attempts have been undertaken to develop novel approaches for problem-driven statistical thinking, data analysis and result interpretation. In this paper we describe an…

Dinov, Ivo D.

2006-01-01

153

Usage Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Cool Tools ESPAÑOL MedlinePlus Statistics To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Quarterly User Statistics Graph | Quarterly User Statistics Table | Number of Health ...

154

Department of Statistics STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM  

E-print Network

Department of Statistics STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM ERIC KOLACZYK Department of Statistics Boston University Statistical Analysis of Network Data: (Re)visiting the Foundations MONDAY, October 13, 2014, at 4, statistical methods and modeling have been central to these efforts. But how well do we truly understand

155

Statistical Applets: The Reasoning of a Statistical Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by authors Duckworth, McCabe, Moore and Sclove for W.H. Freeman and Co., this statistical demo is designed to help students master "The Reasoning of a Statistical Test" covered in the "Practice of Business Statistics." This site was intended to accompany this textbook, but the text is not necessary for its use. The applet itself presents a basketball player shooting free throws. The player takes twenty-five shots and then this data is analyzed versus its null hypothesis. This is an excellent example of hypothesis testing in a format that students can easily comprehend.

Duckworth, William

156

Geological interpretation of a Gemini photo  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Study of the Gemini V photograph of the Salt Range and Potwar Plateau, West Pakistan, indicates that small-scale orbital photographs permit recognition of the regional continuity of some geologic features, particularly faults and folds that could he easily overlooked on conventional air photographs of larger scale. Some stratigraphic relationships can also be recognized on the orbital photograph, but with only minimal previous geologic knowledge of the area, these interpretations are less conclusive or reliable than the interpretation of structure. It is suggested that improved atmospheric penetration could be achieved through the use of color infrared film. Photographic expression of topography could also be improved by deliberately photographing some areas during periods of low sun angle.

Hemphill, William R.; Danilchik, Walter

1968-01-01

157

Functional Heads and Interpretation   

E-print Network

This thesis examines the effect that functional heads have on the interpretation of arguments.It focuses on the functional head Agr, which is implicated in predicate-argument agreement relations; the import that other functional heads have...

Adger, David

158

Programs for Training Interpreters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This listing provides directory information on U.S. programs for training interpreters for individuals with deafness. Schools are listed by state and include director and degree information. (Author/CR)

American Annals of the Deaf, 2003

2003-01-01

159

Interpretation of Biosphere Reserves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) to monitor the 193 biogeographical provinces of the Earth and the creation of biosphere reserves. Highlights the need for interpreters to become familiar or involved with MAB program activities. (LZ)

Merriman, Tim

1994-01-01

160

BIOMONITORING: INTERPRETATION AND USES  

EPA Science Inventory

With advanced technologies, it is now possible to measure very low levels of many chemicals in biological fluids. However, the appropriate use and interpretation of biomarkers will depend upon many factors associated with the exposure, adsorption, deposition, metabolism, and eli...

161

Interpreting Infrared Imagery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interpreting Infrared (IR) Imagery explains how radiometers are used in satellite meteorology including such topics as the types of radiometers, and how they capture and present images. An interactive exercise provides an introduction to interpreting satellite weather images typically seen on evening news programs. Users can "adjust" the air temperature (and cloud altitude) and surface temperature on this applet while observing how the image (in this case, a GOES-8 radiometer image) changes.

Tom Whittaker

162

Interpretations in projection.  

PubMed

The author uses the term 'interpretations in projection' to denote a form of interpretation which the analyst can use in extreme situations when he feels that he can no longer get through to his patient. This technique is particularly indicated with patients who resort to massive projective identification. The aim of interpretation in projection is to allow the patient to rediscover the bond of identity with the part of himself projected into the analyst. It falls into two stages, in the first of which the analyst becomes the spokesman for the 'healthy' part which the patient has projected into the analyst so as to protect it from the invading introjected object with which it is for the time being merged. In a second stage, the analyst may, where appropriate, give a complementary interpretation in which he addresses the analysand by his own name in order to interpret the relationship expressed in the transference through projection and introjection. The author gives some clinical examples of interpretations in projection. PMID:7989147

Quinodoz, D

1994-08-01

163

Important Information about Your Online DirectoryImportant Information about Your Online Directory This online directory was developed to help members easily find participating physicians,This online directory was developed to help members easily find par  

E-print Network

Important Information about Your Online DirectoryImportant Information about Your Online Directory This online directory was developed to help members easily find participating physicians,This online directory contained in this directory may change as participatingWhile we try to provide you with accurate data

164

The role of the observer in the Everett interpretation  

E-print Network

The role attributed to the observer in various interpretations of quantum mechanics as well as in classical statistical mechanics is discussed, with particular attention being paid to the Everett interpretation. In this context, the important difference between "quasi-classical" (robust against decoherence) and "macroscopic" or "physically given" (redundantly documented in the environment) is pointed out.

H. Dieter Zeh

2013-02-12

165

Statistics Explained  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains 100 modules designed to introduce concepts in statistics. The modules are divided into categories such as descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, related measures, enumeration statistics and ANOVA. Click the green button on the side to start the modules, then click "Main Menu" at the top to see a list of topics. Topics include: describing numbers, normal curve, sampling distributions, hypothesis testing, regression and Chi-Square. The site also includes a glossary, statistical tables and simulations, and a personalized progress report.

Hoffman, Howard

166

Considerations When Working with Interpreters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the current training and certification procedures in place for linguistic interpreters, the continuum of interpreter roles, and how interpreters' perspectives may influence the interpretive interaction. The specific skills needed for interpreting in either health care or educational settings are identified. A table compares…

Hwa-Froelich, Deborah A.; Westby, Carol E.

2003-01-01

167

THE EASILY VISIBLE rings of Saturn, made of ice and dust that reflect the sun's light in vivid  

E-print Network

THE EASILY VISIBLE rings of Saturn, made of ice and dust that reflect the sun's light in vivid hues of Saturn's gravitational field. The ring has a diameter of about 22.5 million miles--almost 300 times the size of Saturn, which itself is almost 95 times the size of Earth. It is also very thick: About 20

Danforth, Chris

168

A novel, easily synthesized, anhydrous derivative of phosphoric acid for use with electrolyte in phosphoric acid-based fuel cells.  

E-print Network

of the liquid at 280ºC. Such species are not known in the solid state, however, and are likely1 A novel, easily synthesized, anhydrous derivative of phosphoric acid for use with electrolyte and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ85287-1604 Abstract We build on the success of phosphoric acid

Angell, C. Austen

169

Double copper sheath multiconductor instrumentation cable is durable and easily installed in high thermal or nuclear radiation area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multiconductor instrumentation cable in which the conducting wires are routed through two concentric copper tube sheaths, employing a compressed insulator between the conductors and between the inner and outer sheaths, is durable and easily installed in high thermal or nuclear radiation area. The double sheath is a barrier against moisture, abrasion, and vibration.

Mc Crae, A. W., Jr.

1967-01-01

170

STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM MONDAY, MARCH 24, 2014  

E-print Network

STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM MONDAY, MARCH 24, 2014 TALK: 4:15 PM -- SCIENCE CENTER RM. 705 RECEPTION: 3 Department of Statistics University of California, Berkeley ABSTRACT In a 2009 PNAS article, based on work at appropriate speeds. We discuss these results and argue that while they are hard to interpret statistically

Schrag, Daniel

171

Statistical Thinking in Psychology and Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of statistics is important in the curricula of students in psychology and education. Reasons are twofold. First, in other courses they deal with theories and research studies which rely on statistical analysis. Second, they have to undertake research in which they have to handle, analyse and interpret data Statistics is for these students a tool, a means of communicating

Gilberte Schuyten

1991-01-01

172

The ADAMS interactive interpreter  

SciTech Connect

The ADAMS (Advanced DAta Management System) project is exploring next generation database technology. Database management does not follow the usual programming paradigm. Instead, the database dictionary provides an additional name space environment that should be interactively created and tested before writing application code. This document describes the implementation and operation of the ADAMS Interpreter, an interactive interface to the ADAMS data dictionary and runtime system. The Interpreter executes individual statements of the ADAMS Interface Language, providing a fast, interactive mechanism to define and access persistent databases. 5 refs.

Rietscha, E.R.

1990-12-17

173

Statistics as a dynamical attractor  

E-print Network

It is demonstrated that any statistics can be represented by an attractor of the solution to a corresponding systen of ODE coupled with its Liouville equation. Such a non-Newtonian representation allows one to reduce foundations of statistics to better established foundations of ODE. In addition to that, evolution to the attractor reveals possible micro-mechanisms driving random events to the final distribution of the corresponding statistical law. Special attention is concentrated upon the power law and its dynamical interpretation: it is demonstrated that the underlying dynamics supports a " violent reputation" of the power law statistics.

Michail Zak

2012-08-30

174

Modification of codes NUALGAM and BREMRAD. Volume 3: Statistical considerations of the Monte Carlo method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The statistics are considered of the Monte Carlo method relative to the interpretation of the NUGAM2 and NUGAM3 computer code results. A numerical experiment using the NUGAM2 code is presented and the results are statistically interpreted.

Firstenberg, H.

1971-01-01

175

Interpreting Carnivore Scent-Station Surveys  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) has placed online a 1998 scientific publication from the Journal of Wildlife Management (Vol 62(4):1235-1245) entitled "Interpreting Carnivore Scent-Station Surveys." In it, the authors analyze a subset of data from the Minnesota carnivore scent-station survey collected during 1986-93, "to determine statistical properties and to examine analyses of scent-station data." This resource, of interest to wildlife managers, may be downloaded as a .zip files.

176

Quantifying the power of multiple event interpretations  

E-print Network

A number of methods have been proposed recently which exploit multiple highly-correlated interpretations of events, or of jets within an event. For example, Qjets reclusters a jet multiple times and telescoping jets uses multiple cone sizes. Previous work has employed these methods in pseudo-experimental analyses and found that, with a simplified statistical treatment, they give sizable improvements over traditional methods. In this paper, the improvement gain from multiple event interpretations is explored with methods much closer to those used in real experiments. To this end, we derive a generalized extended maximum likelihood procedure. We study the significance improvement in Higgs to bb with both this method and the simplified method from previous analysis. With either method, we find that using multiple jet radii can provide substantial benefit over a single radius. Another concern we address is that multiple event interpretations might be exploiting similar information to that already present in the s...

Chien, Yang-Ting; Krohn, David; Marantan, Andrew; Mateos, David Lopez; Schwartz, Matthew

2014-01-01

177

Gille-SIO 221C 1 Objective Mapping: Anisotropic Statistics  

E-print Network

Gille-SIO 221C 1 Objective Mapping: Anisotropic Statistics Objective mapping discussions often assume that covariance statistics are isotropic and homogeneous. However, in the ocean and atmosphere. The equations used to carry out objective mapping are easily modified to allow for anisotropic statistics

Gille, Sarah T.

178

Abstract Interpreters for Free  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In small-step abstract interpretations, the concrete and abstract semantics bear an uncanny resemblance. In this work, we present an analysis-design methodology that both explains and exploits that resemblance. Specifically, we present a two-step method to convert a small-step concrete semantics into a family of sound, computable abstract interpretations. The first step re-factors the concrete state-space to eliminate recursive structure; this refactoring of the state-space simultaneously determines a store-passing-style transformation on the underlying concrete semantics. The second step uses inference rules to generate an abstract state-space and a Galois connection simultaneously. The Galois connection allows the calculation of the "optimal" abstract interpretation. The two-step process is unambiguous, but nondeterministic: at each step, analysis designers face choices. Some of these choices ultimately influence properties such as flow-, field- and context-sensitivity. Thus, under the method, we can give the emergence of these properties a graph-theoretic characterization. To illustrate the method, we systematically abstract the continuation-passing style lambda calculus to arrive at two distinct families of analyses. The first is the well-known k-CFA family of analyses. The second consists of novel "environment-centric" abstract interpretations, none of which appear in the literature on static analysis of higher-order programs.

Might, Matthew

179

Interpretation as Abduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach to abductive inference developed in the TACITUS project has resulted in a dramatic simplification of how the problem of interpreting texts is conceptualized. Its use in solving the local pragmatics problems of reference, compound nominals, syntactic ambiguity, and metonymy is described and illustrated. It also suggests an elegant and thorough integration of syntax, semantics, and pragmatics.

Jerry R. Hobbs; Mark E. Stickel; Paul A. Martin; Douglas Edwards

1988-01-01

180

Interpretations of Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Literacy Strategy (NLS) was introduced into schools in England in 1998 with the aim of raising the literacy attainments of primary-aged children. The Framework for Teaching the Literacy Hour, a key component of the NLS, proposes an interpretation of literacy that emphasises reading, writing and spelling skills. An investigation of the…

Layton, Lyn; Miller, Carol

2004-01-01

181

Interpretation as Abduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hobbs, J.R., M.E. Stickel, D.E. Appelt and P. Martin, Interpretation as abduction, Artificial Intelligence 63 (1993) 69-142. Abduction is inference to the best explanation. In the TACITUS project at SRI we have developed an approach to abductive inference, called \\

Jerry R. Hobbs; Mark E. Stickel; Douglas E. Appelt; Paul A. Martin

1993-01-01

182

Radar image interpretability analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utility of radar images with respect to trained image interpreter ability to identify, classify and detect specific terrain features (linear, natural area, complex area features, and individual man-made features) was qualitatively determined. Further, radar images were evaluated with respect to their utility for determining vehicle movement potential and the level of activity within the test areas. Because there are

V. S. Frost; J. A. Stiles; J. C. Holtzman

1981-01-01

183

Tokens: Facts and Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes some of the major pieces of evidence concerning the archeological clay tokens, specifically the technique for their manufacture, their geographic distribution, chronology, and the context in which they are found. Discusses the interpretation of tokens as the first example of visible language, particularly as an antecedent of Sumerian…

Schmandt-Besserat, Denise

1986-01-01

184

Interpreting the Constitution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

Brennan, William J., Jr.

1987-01-01

185

Statistical Software.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This buyer's guide to seven major types of statistics software packages for microcomputers reviews Edu-Ware Statistics 3.0; Financial Planning; Speed Stat; Statistics with DAISY; Human Systems Dynamics package of Stats Plus, ANOVA II, and REGRESS II; Maxistat; and Moore-Barnes' MBC Test Construction and MBC Correlation. (MBR)

Callamaras, Peter

1983-01-01

186

Resolving Interpretive Ambiguity in Text: Children's Generation of Multiple Interpretations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied text interpretation in four experiments with second and fourth graders, manipulating several story variables. Found that both groups were skilled at providing two text interpretations, although second graders were more likely than fourth graders to use extra-story information in their second interpretations. Subjects' first interpretations…

Casteel, Mark A.

1997-01-01

187

Easily Constructed Geometric Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how to make the following paper molecular models: trigonal prism; tetragonal pyramid; tetrahedral; and trigonal pyramid. Methodology is given for general paper model manipulation to make various shapes including a chain of tetrahedra and an icosahedron. (MVL)

Yamana, Shukichi; And Others

1988-01-01

188

Highly concentrated synthesis of copper-zinc-tin-sulfide nanocrystals with easily decomposable capping molecules for printed photovoltaic applications.  

PubMed

Among various candidate materials, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a promising earth-abundant semiconductor for low-cost thin film solar cells. We report a facile, less toxic, highly concentrated synthetic method utilizing the heretofore unrecognized, easily decomposable capping ligand of triphenylphosphate, where phase-pure, single-crystalline, and well-dispersed colloidal CZTS nanocrystals were obtained. The favorable influence of the easily decomposable capping ligand on the microstructural evolution of device-quality CZTS absorber layers was clarified based on a comparative study with commonly used oleylamine-capped CZTS nanoparticles. The resulting CZTS nanoparticles enabled us to produce a dense and crack-free absorbing layer through annealing under a N2 + H2S (4%) atmosphere, demonstrating a solar cell with an efficiency of 3.6% under AM 1.5 illumination. PMID:24057000

Kim, Youngwoo; Woo, Kyoohee; Kim, Inhyuk; Cho, Yong Soo; Jeong, Sunho; Moon, Jooho

2013-11-01

189

On statistical aspects of Qjets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process by which jet algorithms construct jets and subjets is inherently ambiguous and equally well motivated algorithms often return very different answers. The Qjets procedure was introduced by the authors to account for this ambiguity by considering many reconstructions of a jet at once, allowing one to assign a weight to each interpretation of the jet. Employing these weighted interpretations leads to an improvement in the statistical stability of many measurements. Here we explore in detail the statistical properties of these sets of weighted measurements and demonstrate how they can be used to improve the reach of jet-based studies.

Ellis, Stephen D.; Hornig, Andrew; Krohn, David; Roy, Tuhin S.

2015-01-01

190

Ta3N5-Pt nonwoven cloth with hierarchical nanopores as efficient and easily recyclable macroscale photocatalysts  

PubMed Central

Traditional nanosized photocatalysts usually have high photocatalytic activity but can not be efficiently recycled. Film-shaped photocatalysts on the substrates can be easily recycled, but they have low surface area and/or high production cost. To solve these problems, we report on the design and preparation of efficient and easily recyclable macroscale photocatalysts with nanostructure by using Ta3N5 as a model semiconductor. Ta3N5-Pt nonwoven cloth has been prepared by an electrospinning-calcination-nitridation-wet impregnation method, and it is composed of Ta3N5 fibers with diameter of 150–200?nm and hierarchical pores. Furthermore, these fibers are constructed from Ta3N5 nanoparticles with diameter of ~25?nm which are decorated with Pt nanoparticles with diameter of ~2.5?nm. Importantly, Ta3N5-Pt cloth can be used as an efficient and easily recyclable macroscale photocatalyst with wide visible-light response, for the degradation of methylene blue and parachlorophenol, probably resulting in a very promising application as “photocatalyst dam” for the polluted river. PMID:24496147

Li, Shijie; Zhang, Lisha; Wang, Huanli; Chen, Zhigang; Hu, Junqing; Xu, Kaibing; Liu, Jianshe

2014-01-01

191

Tips for Mental Health Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers tips for working with interpreters in mental health settings. These tips include: (1) Using trained interpreters, not bilingual staff or community members; (2) Explaining "interpreting procedures" to the providers and clients; (3) Addressing the stigma associated with mental health that may influence interpreters; (4) Defining…

Whitsett, Margaret

2008-01-01

192

Interpreting the Urinalysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial is designed to aid first and second year medical students learn interpretation of the urinalysis. It includes material on how the test is done, its general application and pitfalls in interpretation. General introductory material is followed by a series of short clinical vignettes illustrating diagnostic application of the test with various medical conditions. QuickTime movie player and Java script runtime plug-in scripts are required for some pages. The tutorial concludes with a short self-help quiz covering the major points developed. The plug-ins noted above are available free at the following sites: http://www.apple.com/quicktime/download/win.html and http://www.sun.com/. Questions should be directed to Dr. Mark Braun (braunm@indiana.edu).

Braun, Mark

193

The Statistical Literacy Needed to Interpret School Assessment Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State-wide and national testing in areas such as literacy and numeracy produces reports containing graphs and tables illustrating school and individual performance. These are intended to inform teachers, principals, and education organisations about student and school outcomes, to guide change and improvement. Given the complexity of the…

Chick, Helen; Pierce, Robyn

2013-01-01

194

Interpreting Geologic Sections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Athro, Limited is a for-profit corporation that publishes high school and college level biology, earth science, and geology course supplements and independent learning materials on the Web. This site provides instruction in interpreting the order of events in three hypothetical and one real geological section. For each section there is a list of events and an animation of the history of the section once the student has decided on the order of events.

Paul Morris

195

National Association for Interpretation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NAI promotes the advancement of the profession of interpretation, a communication process used in on-site informal education programs at parks, zoos, nature centers, historic sites, museums, and aquaria. This site announces national and regional NAI conferences, workshops on diverse topics, skill certification programs, networking opportunities and job listing service. Includes membership information and application; can order newsletters, professional journals and books. Membership, program and publication fees apply.

196

Interpreting uncertainty terms.  

PubMed

Uncertainty terms (e.g., some, possible, good, etc.) are words that do not have a fixed referent and hence are relatively ambiguous. A model is proposed that specifies how, from the hearer's perspective, recognition of facework as a potential motive for the use of an uncertainty term results in a calibration of the intended meaning of that term. Four experiments are reported that examine the impact of face threat, and the variables that affect it (e.g., power), on the manner in which a variety of uncertainty terms (probability terms, quantifiers, frequency terms, etc.) are interpreted. Overall, the results demonstrate that increased face threat in a situation will result in a more negative interpretation of an utterance containing an uncertainty term. That the interpretation of so many different types of uncertainty terms is affected in the same way suggests the operation of a fundamental principle of language use, one with important implications for the communication of risk, subjective experience, and so on. PMID:25090127

Holtgraves, Thomas

2014-08-01

197

Structural interpretation of seismic data and inherent uncertainties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geoscience is perhaps unique in its reliance on incomplete datasets and building knowledge from their interpretation. This interpretation basis for the science is fundamental at all levels; from creation of a geological map to interpretation of remotely sensed data. To teach and understand better the uncertainties in dealing with incomplete data we need to understand the strategies individual practitioners deploy that make them effective interpreters. The nature of interpretation is such that the interpreter needs to use their cognitive ability in the analysis of the data to propose a sensible solution in their final output that is both consistent not only with the original data but also with other knowledge and understanding. In a series of experiments Bond et al. (2007, 2008, 2011, 2012) investigated the strategies and pitfalls of expert and non-expert interpretation of seismic images. These studies focused on large numbers of participants to provide a statistically sound basis for analysis of the results. The outcome of these experiments showed that a wide variety of conceptual models were applied to single seismic datasets. Highlighting not only spatial variations in fault placements, but whether interpreters thought they existed at all, or had the same sense of movement. Further, statistical analysis suggests that the strategies an interpreter employs are more important than expert knowledge per se in developing successful interpretations. Experts are successful because of their application of these techniques. In a new set of experiments a small number of experts are focused on to determine how they use their cognitive and reasoning skills, in the interpretation of 2D seismic profiles. Live video and practitioner commentary were used to track the evolving interpretation and to gain insight on their decision processes. The outputs of the study allow us to create an educational resource of expert interpretation through online video footage and commentary with associated further interpretation and analysis of the techniques and strategies employed. This resource will be of use to undergraduate, post-graduate, industry and academic professionals seeking to improve their seismic interpretation skills, develop reasoning strategies for dealing with incomplete datasets, and for assessing the uncertainty in these interpretations. Bond, C.E. et al. (2012). 'What makes an expert effective at interpreting seismic images?' Geology, 40, 75-78. Bond, C. E. et al. (2011). 'When there isn't a right answer: interpretation and reasoning, key skills for 21st century geoscience'. International Journal of Science Education, 33, 629-652. Bond, C. E. et al. (2008). 'Structural models: Optimizing risk analysis by understanding conceptual uncertainty'. First Break, 26, 65-71. Bond, C. E. et al., (2007). 'What do you think this is?: "Conceptual uncertainty" In geoscience interpretation'. GSA Today, 17, 4-10.

Bond, Clare

2013-04-01

198

Data Interpretation: Using Probability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experimental data are analysed statistically to allow researchers to draw conclusions from a limited set of measurements. The hard fact is that researchers can never be certain that measurements from a sample will exactly reflect the properties of the entire group of possible candidates available to be studied (although using a sample is often the…

Drummond, Gordon B.; Vowler, Sarah L.

2011-01-01

199

Statistics Tools  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of calculators, created by Thomas Kirkman of the College of Saint Bendict/Saint Joseph, allows users to perform a number of statistical applications. Each provides background on the procedure and an example. Users can compute descriptive statistics and perform t-tests, Chi-square tests, Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, Fisher's Exact Test, contingency tables, ANOVA, and regression. This is a nice collection of useful applications for a statistics classroom.

Kirkman, Thomas

200

Morbidity statistics  

PubMed Central

This paper is based on an analysis of questionnaires sent to the health ministries of Member States of WHO asking for information about the extent, nature, and scope of morbidity statistical information. It is clear that most countries collect some statistics of morbidity and many countries collect extensive data. However, few countries relate their collection to the needs of health administrators for information, and many countries collect statistics principally for publication in annual volumes which may appear anything up to 3 years after the year to which they refer. The desiderata of morbidity statistics may be summarized as reliability, representativeness, and relevance to current health problems. PMID:5306722

Smith, Alwyn

1969-01-01

201

Sorting chromatic sextupoles for easily and effectively correcting second order chromaticity in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider  

SciTech Connect

Based on the contributions of the chromatic sextupole families to the half-integer resonance driving terms, we discuss how to sort the chromatic sextupoles in the arcs of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to easily and effectively correct the second order chromaticities. We propose a method with 4 knobs corresponding to 4 pairs of chromatic sextupole families to online correct the second order chromaticities. Numerical simulation justifies this method, showing that this method reduces the unbalance in the correction strengths of sextupole families and avoids the reversal of sextupole polarities. Therefore, this method yields larger dynamic apertures for the proposed RHIC 2009 100GeV polarized proton run lattices.

Luo,Y.; Tepikian, S.; Fischer, W.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Trbojevic, D.

2009-01-02

202

Synthesis, characterization and application of water-soluble and easily removable cationic pressure-sensitive adhesives. Quarterly technical report  

SciTech Connect

The Institute studied the adsorption of cationic pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) on wood fiber, and the buildup of PSA in a closed water system during paper recycling; the results are presented. Georgia Tech worked to develop an environmentally friendly polymerization process to synthesize a novel re-dispersible PSA by co-polymerizing an oil-soluble monomer (butyl acrylate) and a cationic monomer MAEPTAC; results are presented. At the University of Georgia at Athens the project focused on the synthesis of water-soluble and easily removable cationic polymer PSAs.

NONE

1999-09-30

203

Interpretation and application of borehole televiewer surveys  

SciTech Connect

A borehole televiewer log is comparable to a picture of a continuous core and may yield even more information since it is a picture of the cores host environment; i.e., the inside of the borehole as it exists in the subsurface. Important relationships are preserved which can be lost when cores are brought to the surface. Fractures, bedding planes, vugs, and lithology changes are identifiable on borehole televiewer logs. The travel time of the signal from the sonde to the borehole wall and back to the sonde recently has been used to form a second log: the transit time log. Interpretation problems due to noncircular borehole and eccentered logging sondes are easily overcome using the combination of amplitude and transit time logs. Examples are given to demonstrate potential use.

Taylor, T.J.

1983-01-01

204

Interpretation of Conventional Mass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conventional mass is not a precise physical quantity but useful virtual one in mass metrology. Because the precise level of conventional mass is related to the OIML class, it is necessary to check if the assignment of weight class is under control. The documents of OIML (International Organization of Legal Metrology) D 28 and R 111 describe the limitation of the quantity in real application. In this presentation, we are trying to interpret and review the concept of conventional mass, for example, by estimating buoyancy deviation and maximum permissible error, in weight calibrations in Korea. Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract only.

Lee, Sungjun; Kim, Kwang Pyo

205

Interpretation of extragalactic jets  

SciTech Connect

The nature of extragalatic radio jets is modeled. The basic hypothesis of these models is that extragalatic jets are outflows of matter which can be described within the framework of fluid dynamics and that the outflows are essentially continuous. The discussion is limited to the interpretation of large-scale (i.e., kiloparsec-scale) jets. The central problem is to infer the physical parameters of the jets from observed distributions of total and polarized intensity and angle of polarization as a function of frequency. 60 refs., 6 figs.

Norman, M.L.

1985-01-01

206

LACIE analyst interpretation keys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two interpretation aids, 'The Image Analysis Guide for Wheat/Small Grains Inventories' and 'The United States and Canadian Great Plains Regional Keys', were developed during LACIE phase 2 and implemented during phase 3 in order to provide analysts with a better understanding of the expected ranges in color variation of signatures for individual biostages and of the temporal sequences of LANDSAT signatures. The keys were tested using operational LACIE data, and the results demonstrate that their use provides improved labeling accuracy in all analyst experience groupings, in all geographic areas within the U.S. Great Plains, and during all periods of crop development.

Baron, J. G.; Payne, R. W.; Palmer, W. F. (principal investigators)

1979-01-01

207

Graphs: Interpret Line Plots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website application provides practice interpreting line plots. The format of the website makes it available to use with individual students on one computer or with an entire class on an interactive white board. Each practice problem is submitted to determine if it is correct, when an incorrect answer is submitted the correct answer and an option for an explanation appears. Each problem set is also timed and the user is provided with a percent correct. This website does have a membership option for a fee which would enable the teacher to track the progress of multiple students over time.

2012-01-01

208

The JADE interpreter: a RISC interpreter for syntax directed editing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes key features of an interpreter for a language-based editor. The interpreter unites in a RISC framework features which have been used in other domains. The paper examines each feature's integration into the RISC framework.

C. F. Clark

1987-01-01

209

Statistical Diversions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors focus on hypothesis testing--that peculiarly statistical way of deciding things. Statistical methods for testing hypotheses were developed in the 1920s and 1930s by some of the most famous statisticians, in particular Ronald Fisher, Jerzy Neyman and Egon Pearson, who laid the foundations of almost all modern methods of…

Petocz, Peter; Sowey, Eric

2008-01-01

210

Monitoring and interpreting bioremediation effectiveness  

SciTech Connect

Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, extensive research was conducted by the US Environments Protection Agency and Exxon to develop and implement bioremediation techniques for oil spill cleanup. A key challenge of this program was to develop effective methods for monitoring and interpreting bioremediation effectiveness on extremely heterogenous intertidal shorelines. Fertilizers were applied to shorelines at concentrations known to be safe, and effectiveness achieved in acceleration biodegradation of oil residues was measure using several techniques. This paper describes the most definitive method identified, which monitors biodegradation loss by measuring changes in ratios of hydrocarbons to hopane, a cycloalkane present in the oil that showed no measurable degradation. Rates of loss measured by the hopane ratio method have high levels of statistical confidence, and show that the fertilizer addition stimulated biodegradation rates as much a fivefold. Multiple regression analyses of data show that fertilizer addition of nitrogen in interstitial pore water per unit of oil load was the most important parameter affecting biodegradation rate, and results suggest that monitoring nitrogen concentrations in the subsurface pore water is preferred technique for determining fertilizer dosage and reapplication frequency.

Bragg, J.R. [Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (United States); Prince, R.C. [Exxon Research and Engineering Co., Annadale, NJ (United States); Harner, J. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Atlas, R.M. [Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States)

1993-12-31

211

Hemoglobin levels and circulating blasts are two easily evaluable diagnostic parameters highly predictive of leukemic transformation in primary myelofibrosis.  

PubMed

To predict leukemic transformation (LT), we evaluated easily detectable diagnostic parameters in 338 patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF) followed in the Latium region (Italy) between 1981 and 2010. Forty patients (11.8%) progressed to leukemia, with a resulting 10-year leukemia-free survival (LFS) rates of 72%. Hb (<10g/dL), and circulating blasts (?1%) were the only two independent prognostic for LT at the multivariate analysis. Two hundred-fifty patients with both the two parameters available were grouped as follows: low risk (none or one factor)=216 patients; high risk (both factors)=31 patients. The median LFS times were 269 and 45 months for the low and high-risk groups, respectively (P<.0001). The LT predictive power of these two parameters was confirmed in an external series of 270 PMF patients from Tuscany, in whom the median LFS was not reached and 61 months for the low and high risk groups, respectively (P<.0001). These results establish anemia and circulating blasts, two easily and universally available parameters, as strong predictors of LT in PMF and may help to improve prognostic stratification of these patients particularly in countries with low resources where more sophisticated molecular testing is unavailable. PMID:25636356

Rago, Angela; Latagliata, Roberto; Montanaro, Marco; Montefusco, Enrico; Andriani, Alessandro; Crescenzi, Sabrina Leonetti; Mecarocci, Sergio; Spirito, Francesca; Spadea, Antonio; Recine, Umberto; Cicconi, Laura; Avvisati, Giuseppe; Cedrone, Michele; Breccia, Massimo; Porrini, Raffaele; Villivà, Nicoletta; De Gregoris, Cinzia; Alimena, Giuliana; D'Arcangelo, Enzo; Guglielmelli, Paola; Lo-Coco, Francesco; Vannucchi, Alessandro; Cimino, Giuseppe

2015-03-01

212

Hydrophobic-polymer-grafted graphene oxide nanosheets as an easily separable adsorbent for the removal of tetrabromobisphenol A.  

PubMed

Hydrophobic polymer brushes have been grafted from graphene oxide nanosheets (GO) via the facile surface-initiated redox radical polymerization of tert-butyl acrylate (tBA) from the GO with cerium ammonium nitrate (CAN) as an oxidant. After the hydrophobic surface modification, the poly(tert-butyl acrylate) (PtBA)-grafted graphene oxide nanosheets (GO-PtBA) could still be dispersed in water because of the remaining oxygen-containing groups but deposited within 40 min. The feature makes it an easily separable adsorbent for environmental pollutants. For example, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) could be removed from aqueous solution via hydrogen bonds (between hydroxyl groups of TBBPA and hydroxyl and carboxyl groups of GO) and ?-? interactions (between the benzene ring of TBBPA and GO), with an adsorption capacity of 22.2 mg g(-1) at pH 7.0. The TBBPA-adsorbed GO-PtBA could be deposited completely within 30 min, and the adsorbed TBBPA could be easily desorbed with ethanol, demonstrating its good recyclability. PMID:25335692

Zhao, Xubo; Liu, Peng

2014-11-18

213

Fit Indices Versus Test Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Model evaluation is one of the most important aspects of structural equation modeling (SEM). Many model fit indices have been developed. It is not an exaggeration to say that nearly every publication using the SEM methodology has reported at least one fit index. Most fit indices are defined through test statistics. Studies and interpretation of…

Yuan, Ke-Hai

2005-01-01

214

Statistical mechanics of the vacuum  

E-print Network

The vacuum is full of virtual particles which exist for short moments of time. In this paper we construct a chaotic model of vacuum fluctuations associated with a fundamental entropic field that generates an arrow of time. The dynamics can be physically interpreted in terms of fluctuating virtual momenta. This model leads to a generalized statistical mechanics that distinguishes fundamental constants of nature.

Christian Beck

2012-03-01

215

Scatter Plot (Engineering Statistics Handbook)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, created by authors James Filliben and Alan Heckert, provides an explanation of scatter plots, their use, purpose and interpretation. It uses examples of the various relationships described by scatter plots as well as case studies and related techniques. Overall, this is a solid representation of this graphing process and could be used by almost any statistics classroom.

Filliben, James

216

Performance Evaluations: PPA Interpretations Page 1 Interpretations on  

E-print Network

performance against position summary & amend for the next year ­ Invite employee to write a self evaluationPerformance Evaluations: PPA Interpretations Page 1 Interpretations on Performance Evaluation Process D. MacFarlane June 4th, 2009 #12;Performance Evaluations: PPA Interpretations Page 2 Reasons

Wechsler, Risa H.

217

Heritage and hermeneutics: towards a broader interpretation of interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article re-examines the theoretical basis for environmental and heritage interpretation in tourist settings in the light of hermeneutic philosophy. It notes that the pioneering vision of heritage interpretation formulated by Freeman Tilden envisaged a broadly educational, ethically informed and transformative art. By contrast, current cognitive psychological attempts to reduce interpretation to the monological transmission of information, targeting universal but

Phillip Gordon Ablett; Pamela Kay Dyer

2009-01-01

218

Reading and Interpreting Tables and Graphs Involving Rates and Percentages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This survey, created by Milo Schield of Augsburg College, assesses statistical literacy. The survey focuses on the general use of informal statistics in everyday situations: reading and interpreting tables and graphs involving rates and percentages. The survey itself takes between thirty and forty minutes. The author does apologize for the length, but insists that it is due to how comprehensive the survey is. Sixty-nine questions in length, almost every topic concerning statistics is covered. The survey was funded by the W.M. Keck Statistical Literacy Project.

Schield, Milo

219

Generic interpreters and microprocessor verification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following topics are covered in viewgraph form: (1) generic interpreters; (2) Viper microprocessors; (3) microprocessor verification; (4) determining correctness; (5) hierarchical decomposition; (6) interpreter theory; (7) AVM-1; (8) phase-level specification; and future work.

Windley, Phillip J.

1990-01-01

220

Rainbow statistics  

E-print Network

Non-commutative quantum field theories and their global quantum group symmetries provide an intriguing attempt to go beyond the realm of standard local quantum field theory. A common feature of these models is that the quantum group symmetry of their Hilbert spaces induces additional structure in the multiparticle states which reflects a non-trivial momentum-dependent statistics. We investigate the properties of this "rainbow statistics" in the particular context of $\\kappa$-quantum fields and discuss the analogies/differences with models with twisted statistics.

Michele Arzano; Dario Benedetti

2008-09-04

221

Quantifying the power of multiple event interpretations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of methods have been proposed recently which exploit multiple highly-correlated interpretations of events, or of jets within an event. For example, Qjets reclusters a jet multiple times and telescoping jets uses multiple cone sizes. Previous work has employed these methods in pseudo-experimental analyses and found that, with a simplified statistical treatment, they give sizable improvements over traditional methods. In this paper, the improvement gain from multiple event interpretations is explored with methods much closer to those used in real experiments. To this end, we derive and study a generalized extended maximum likelihood procedure, and find that using multiple jet radii can provide substantial benefit over a single radius in fitting procedures. Another major concern we address is that multiple event interpretations might be exploiting similar information to that already present in the standard kinematic variables. We perform multivariate analyses (boosted decision trees) on a set of standard kinematic variables, a single observable computed with several different cone sizes, and both sets combined. We find that using multiple radii is still helpful even on top of standard kinematic variables (providing a 12% improvement at low p T and 20% at high p T ). These results suggest that including multiple event interpretations in a realistic search for Higgs to would give additional sensitivity over traditional approaches.

Chien, Yang-Ting; Farhi, David; Krohn, David; Marantan, Andrew; Mateos, David Lopez; Schwartz, Matthew

2014-12-01

222

Ohio Guidelines for Educational Interpreters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents Ohio's state guidelines to assist school districts in providing appropriate educational interpreting services for students who have hearing impairments. A section on the primary role of the educational interpreter considers: necessary knowledge and skills, modes of communication, interpreting environments, testing…

Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Special Education.

223

Lexical Knowledge and Interpreter Attitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the performance of six student interpreters attending a training course at the University of Oslo. Data are drawn from video recordings in which the students interpret dialogs in two test situations. Students use consecutive interpreting with short speaker intervals and perform in Norwegian/Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian. Compares students'…

Skaaden, Hanne

1999-01-01

224

Interpretation of Helioseismic Traveltimes  

E-print Network

Time-distance helioseismology uses cross-covariances of wave motions on the solar surface to determine the travel times of wave packets moving from one surface location to another. We review the methodology to interpret travel-time measurements in terms of small, localized perturbations to a horizontally homogeneous reference solar model. Using the first Born approximation, we derive and compute 3D travel-time sensitivity (Fr\\'echet) kernels for perturbations in sound-speed, density, pressure, and vector flows. While kernels for sound speed and flows had been computed previously, here we extend the calculation to kernels for density and pressure, hence providing a complete description of the effects of solar dynamics and structure on travel times. We treat three thermodynamic quantities as independent and do not assume hydrostatic equilibrium. We present a convenient approach to computing damped Green's functions using a normal-mode summation. The Green's function must be computed on a wavenumber grid that ha...

Burston, Raymond; Birch, Aaron C

2015-01-01

225

On easily tunable wide-bandpass X-ray monochromators based on refraction in arrays of prisms.  

PubMed

Refractive lenses focus X-rays chromatically owing to a significant variation of the refractive index of the lens material with photon energy. Then, in combination with an exit slit in the focal plane, such lenses can be used as monochromators. The spectral resolution obtainable with refractive lenses based on prism arrays was recently systematically investigated experimentally. This contribution will show that a wide-bandpass performance can be predicted with a rather simple analytical approach. Based on the good agreement with the experimental data, one can then more rapidly and systematically optimize the lens structure for a given application. This contribution will then discuss more flexible solutions for the monochromator operation. It will be shown that a new monochromator scheme could easily provide tuning in a fixed-exit slit. PMID:22713879

Jark, Werner

2012-07-01

226

Teaching speech pathology students the interpretation of videofluoroscopic swallowing studies.  

PubMed

This article examines a teaching package that was designed to cover the progression of skills agreed to by clinicians and educators as being pertinent to interpreting Videofluoroscopy Swallowing Studies (VFSSs). Sessions taught included knowledge of anatomy and physiology of swallowing, examination and identification of structures and landmarks from radiographs, and the use of an assessment scale such as the Bethlehem Assessment Scale (BAS) to interpret VFSSs. The ability to interpret eight VFSSs using the BAS was used as the final assessment. ANOVA for repeated measures and post hoc tests using Tukey's HSD statistic revealed that there was a statistically significant correlation between students' knowledge of anatomy and physiology and their knowledge of radiographic anatomy. There was a statistically significant correlation between their knowledge of radiographic anatomy and their ability to interpret videofluoroscopic examinations, as assessed using the BAS. There was also a statistically significant correlation between their knowledge of anatomy and physiology and their ability to interpret videofluoroscopic examinations using the BAS. PMID:11213244

Wooi, M; Scott, A; Perry, A

2001-01-01

227

Statistics Indonesia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 1997, the Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS-Statistics Indonesia) is a non-departmental Indonesian government institution directly responsible to the Indonesian president. As the law that created this valuable institution stipulates, the BPS is intended to provide data to the government and the public, along cooperating with other international statistical institutions. Visitors looking for statistics on any number of topics will not be disappointed, as the areas covered include agriculture, consumer price indices, employment, energy, foreign trade, mining, population, public finance, tourism, and social welfare. Additionally, there are monthly macro-economic statistical reports for the years from 1998 to 2001 that can be downloaded and viewed as well. The site is rounded out by a collection of some 21 papers from the past four years that analyze various economic data from the country, such as earning data and manufacturing production.

228

Mathematical Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Richard Dudley of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, this lesson, Mathematical Statistics, is a graduate-level course featuring book chapters and sections presented as lecture notes, problem sets, exams, and a description for an optional term-paper. The course covers: decision theory, estimation, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, asymptotic efficiency of estimates, exponential families, sequential analysis, and large sample theory. This is a comprehensive overview of this upper level statistics course.

Dudley, Richard

229

Statistical Mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review and further develop a mathematical framework for non-equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics recently proposed in (JP4, JP5, JP6, Ru3, Ru4, Ru5, Ru6). In the alge- braic formalism of quantum statistical mechanics we introduce notions of non-equilibrium steady states, entropy production and heat fluxes, and study their properties. Our basic paradigm is a model of a small (finite) quantum system

V. Jaksi ´; C.-A. Pillet

1937-01-01

230

Screencast Tutorials Enhance Student Learning of Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the use of computer-assisted instruction has rapidly increased, there is little empirical research evaluating these technologies, specifically within the context of teaching statistics. The authors assessed the effect of screencast tutorials on learning outcomes, including statistical knowledge, application, and interpretation. Students…

Lloyd, Steven A.; Robertson, Chuck L.

2012-01-01

231

INCREASING SCIENTIFIC POWER WITH STATISTICAL POWER  

EPA Science Inventory

A brief survey of basic ideas in statistical power analysis demonstrates the advantages and ease of using power analysis throughout the design, analysis, and interpretation of research. he power of a statistical test is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis of the test...

232

Statistical versus clinical lie detection reconsidered  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responds to criticism by G. Ben-Shakhar and I. Lieblich regarding the present authors' study on statistical and objective analysis of polygraph charts. It is agreed that although the test is not likely to be valid for most of the situations in which it is used, the statistical formula may beat the clinician in interpreting some physiological protocol data in some

Julian J. Szucko; Benjamin Kleinmuntz

1984-01-01

233

Graphs and Statistics: A Resource Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graphical representation of statistical data is the focus of this resource handbook. Only graphs which present numerical information are discussed. Activities involving the making, interpreting, and use of various types of graphs and tables are included. Sections are also included which discuss statistical terms, normal distribution and…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of General Education Curriculum Development.

234

Appropriate use of medical interpreters.  

PubMed

More than 25 million Americans speak English "less than very well," according to the U.S. Census Bureau. This population is less able to access health care and is at higher risk of adverse outcomes such as drug complications and decreased patient satisfaction. Title VI of the Civil Rights Act mandates that interpreter services be provided for patients with limited English proficiency who need this service, despite the lack of reimbursement in most states. Professional interpreters are superior to the usual practice of using ad hoc interpreters (i.e., family, friends, or untrained staff). Untrained interpreters are more likely to make errors, violate confidentiality, and increase the risk of poor outcomes. Children should never be used as interpreters except in emergencies. When using an interpreter, the clinician should address the patient directly and seat the interpreter next to or slightly behind the patient. Statements should be short, and the discussion should be limited to three major points. In addition to acting as a conduit for the discussion, the interpreter may serve as a cultural liaison between the physician and patient. When a bilingual clinician or a professional interpreter is not available, phone interpretation services or trained bilingual staff members are reasonable alternatives. The use of professional interpreters (in person or via telephone) increases patient satisfaction, improves adherence and outcomes, and reduces adverse events, thus limiting malpractice risk. PMID:25369625

Juckett, Gregory; Unger, Kendra

2014-10-01

235

Impact of Statistical Learning Methods on the Predictive Power of Multivariate Normal Tissue Complication Probability Models  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To study the impact of different statistical learning methods on the prediction performance of multivariate normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models. Methods and Materials: In this study, three learning methods, stepwise selection, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), and Bayesian model averaging (BMA), were used to build NTCP models of xerostomia following radiotherapy treatment for head and neck cancer. Performance of each learning method was evaluated by a repeated cross-validation scheme in order to obtain a fair comparison among methods. Results: It was found that the LASSO and BMA methods produced models with significantly better predictive power than that of the stepwise selection method. Furthermore, the LASSO method yields an easily interpretable model as the stepwise method does, in contrast to the less intuitive BMA method. Conclusions: The commonly used stepwise selection method, which is simple to execute, may be insufficient for NTCP modeling. The LASSO method is recommended.

Xu Chengjian, E-mail: c.j.xu@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Schaaf, Arjen van der; Schilstra, Cornelis; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Veld, Aart A. van't [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

2012-03-15

236

Spinless Quantum Field Theory and Interpretation  

E-print Network

Quantum field theory is mostly known as the most advanced and well-developed theory in physics, which combines quantum mechanics and special relativity consistently. In this work, we study the spinless quantum field theory, namely the Klein-Gordon equation, and we find that there exists a Dirac form of this equation which predicts the existence of spinless fermion. For its understanding, we start from the interpretation of quantum field based on the concept of quantum scope, we also extract new meanings of wave-particle duality and quantum statistics. The existence of spinless fermion is consistent with spin-statistics theorem and also supersymmetry, and it leads to several new kinds of interactions among elementary particles. Our work contributes to the study of spinless quantum field theory and could have implications for the case of higher spin.

Dong-Sheng Wang

2013-03-07

237

Audiometry screening and interpretation.  

PubMed

The prevalence of hearing loss varies with age, affecting at least 25 percent of patients older than 50 years and more than 50 percent of those older than 80 years. Adolescents and young adults represent groups in which the prevalence of hearing loss is increasing and may therefore benefit from screening. If offered, screening can be performed periodically by asking the patient or family if there are perceived hearing problems, or by using clinical office tests such as whispered voice, finger rub, or audiometry. Audiometry in the family medicine clinic setting is a relatively simple procedure that can be interpreted by a trained health care professional. Pure-tone testing presents tones across the speech spectrum (500 to 4,000 Hz) to determine if the patient's hearing levels fall within normal limits. A quiet testing environment, calibrated audiometric equipment, and appropriately trained personnel are required for in-office testing. Pure-tone audiometry may help physicians appropriately refer patients to an audiologist or otolaryngologist. Unilateral or asymmetrical hearing loss can be symptomatic of a central nervous system lesion and requires additional evaluation. PMID:23317024

Walker, Jennifer Junnila; Cleveland, Leanne M; Davis, Jenny L; Seales, Jennifer S

2013-01-01

238

Linking numbers, spin, and statistics of solitons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spin and statistics of solitons in the (2 + 1)- and (3 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear sigma models is considered. For the (2 + 1)-dimensional case, there is the possibility of fractional spin and exotic statistics; for 3 + 1 dimensions, the usual spin-statistics relation is demonstrated. The linking-number interpretation of the Hopf invariant and the use of suspension considerably simplify the analysis.

Wilczek, F.; Zee, A.

1983-01-01

239

Trained interpretive bias and anxiety.  

PubMed

The relationship between anxiety and interpretive bias has been studied extensively, but the causal direction of this relationship remains largely unexplored. Do negative interpretations cause anxiety or is anxiety the cause of negative interpretations? Or are the two mutually reinforcing? The present study addressed this issue by experimentally inducing either a negative or a positive interpretive bias using Mathews and Mackintosh' [(2002). Induced emotional interpretation bias and anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 604-615] training paradigm and then examining its impact on state anxiety and anxiety vulnerability. In addition, it was investigated as to whether the interpretive bias was trained implicitly. Results indicated that style of interpreting could be manipulated. That is, when confronted with ambiguous information after the training, participants (n=118) interpreted this information congruent with their (positive or negative) training condition. Data on the issue of implicitness showed that participants tended to be explicitly aware of the valence of their training stimuli. Effects of trained interpretive bias on anxiety were only marginal and absent on anxiety vulnerability. It appears that interpretive bias can be trained reliably, but its effects on mood and vulnerability require further explanation. PMID:16859638

Salemink, Elske; van den Hout, Marcel; Kindt, Merel

2007-02-01

240

Easily Modified Factors Contribute to Delays in Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile Infection: a Cohort Study and Intervention  

PubMed Central

Although rapid laboratory tests are available for diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), delays in completion of CDI testing are common in clinical practice. We conducted a cohort study of 242 inpatients tested for CDI to determine the timing of different steps involved in diagnostic testing and to identify modifiable factors contributing to delays in diagnosis. The average time from test order to test result was 1.8 days (range, 0.2 to 10.6), with time from order to stool collection accounting for most of the delay (mean, 1.0 day; range, 0 to 10). Several modifiable factors contributed to delays, including not providing stool collection supplies to patients in a timely fashion, rejection of specimens due to incorrect labeling or leaking from the container, and holding samples in the laboratory for batch processing. Delays in testing contributed to delays in initiation of treatment for patients diagnosed with CDI and to frequent prescription of empirical CDI therapy for patients with mild to moderate symptoms whose testing was ultimately negative. An intervention that addressed several easily modified factors contributing to delays resulted in a significant decrease in the time required to complete CDI testing. These findings suggest that health care facilities may benefit from a review of their processes for CDI testing to identify and address modifiable factors that contribute to delays in diagnosis and treatment of CDI. PMID:23678072

Kundrapu, Sirisha; Jury, Lucy A.; Sitzlar, Brett; Sunkesula, Venkata C. K.; Sethi, Ajay K.

2013-01-01

241

QUANTIFICATION AND INTERPRETATION OF TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS IN SEDIMENT SAMPLES BY A GC/MS METHOD AND COMPARISON WITH EPA 418.1 AND A RAPID FIELD METHOD  

EPA Science Inventory

ABSTRACT: Total Petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as a lumped parameter can be easily and rapidly measured or monitored. Despite interpretational problems, it has become an accepted regulatory benchmark used widely to evaluate the extent of petroleum product contamination. Three cu...

242

Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first working draft of the World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C) Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition is now available. The document "defines the process of Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition and the syntax and semantics of semantic interpretation tags that can be added to speech recognition grammars." The document is a draft, open for suggestions from W3C members and other interested users.

Lernout & Hauspie Speech Products.

243

Mantoux test and its interpretation.  

PubMed

The tuberculin skin test is one of the few investigations dating from the 19(th) century that are still widely used as an important test for diagnosing tuberculosis. Though very commonly used by physicians worldwide its interpretation always remains difficult and controversial. Various factors like age, immunological status coexisting illness etc influence its outcome, so also its interpretation. Utmost care is required while interpreting the result and giving an opinion. This article has been written with the purpose of elucidating the performance and interpretation of the standard tuberculin test. PMID:23130251

Nayak, Surajit; Acharjya, Basanti

2012-01-01

244

Health Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... which people are catching the flu, the average cost of a medical procedure. These are all types of ... statistics to see patterns of diseases in groups of people. This can help in ... ways to control diseases and deciding which diseases should be studied.

245

Statistics Investigations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage contains statistics investigations in the form of word problems. The investigations are located on the left hand side of the page on the navigation bar: the links are "Recommended Investigations" and "Additional Investigations". Within each investigation there are additional links to external resources that can be used to solve or illustrate the problem.

2013-01-01

246

Algorithmic statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

While Kolmogorov (1965, 1983) complexity is the accepted absolute measure of information content of an individual finite object, a similarly absolute notion is needed for the relation between an individual data sample and an individual model summarizing the information in the data, for example, a finite set (or probability distribution) where the data sample typically came from. The statistical theory

Peter Gacs; John Tromp; Paul Vitanyi

2001-01-01

247

Algorithmic statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

While Kolmogorov complexity is the accepted absolute measure of information content of an individual finite object, a similarly absolute notion is needed for the relation between an individual data sample and an individual model summarizing the information in the data, for example, a finite set (or probability distribution) where the data sample typically came from. The statistical theory based on

Péter Gács; John Tromp; Paul M. B. Vitányi

2001-01-01

248

Statistical Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A good resource for problems in statistics in engineering. Contains some applets, and good textual examples related to engineering. Some topics include Monte Carlo method, Central Limit Theorem, Risk, Logistic Regression, Generalized Linear Models, and Confidence. Overall, this is a well presented and good site for anyone interested in engineering or mathematics.

Annis, Charles

249

STATISTICS GROUP  

E-print Network

STATISTICS GROUP :: WEEK #1 Jordan Webster 19 October 2011 1 #12;19 October 2011 2 19 October 2011(x|, x0) = 1 /2 2/2+(x-x0)2 divergent divergent mass of resonance Table 1: some basic info for commonly

250

Statistical Java  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a collection of applets regarding various topics in statistics. Topics include central limit theorem, probability distributions, hypothesis testing, power, confidence intervals, correlation, control charts, experimental design, data analysis, and regression. Each topic has a description page and links to one or more applets.

Anderson-Cook, C.

251

Statistical ecology comes of age.  

PubMed

The desire to predict the consequences of global environmental change has been the driver towards more realistic models embracing the variability and uncertainties inherent in ecology. Statistical ecology has gelled over the past decade as a discipline that moves away from describing patterns towards modelling the ecological processes that generate these patterns. Following the fourth International Statistical Ecology Conference (1-4 July 2014) in Montpellier, France, we analyse current trends in statistical ecology. Important advances in the analysis of individual movement, and in the modelling of population dynamics and species distributions, are made possible by the increasing use of hierarchical and hidden process models. Exciting research perspectives include the development of methods to interpret citizen science data and of efficient, flexible computational algorithms for model fitting. Statistical ecology has come of age: it now provides a general and mathematically rigorous framework linking ecological theory and empirical data. PMID:25540151

Gimenez, Olivier; Buckland, Stephen T; Morgan, Byron J T; Bez, Nicolas; Bertrand, Sophie; Choquet, Rémi; Dray, Stéphane; Etienne, Marie-Pierre; Fewster, Rachel; Gosselin, Frédéric; Mérigot, Bastien; Monestiez, Pascal; Morales, Juan M; Mortier, Frédéric; Munoz, François; Ovaskainen, Otso; Pavoine, Sandrine; Pradel, Roger; Schurr, Frank M; Thomas, Len; Thuiller, Wilfried; Trenkel, Verena; de Valpine, Perry; Rexstad, Eric

2014-12-01

252

Statistical ecology comes of age  

PubMed Central

The desire to predict the consequences of global environmental change has been the driver towards more realistic models embracing the variability and uncertainties inherent in ecology. Statistical ecology has gelled over the past decade as a discipline that moves away from describing patterns towards modelling the ecological processes that generate these patterns. Following the fourth International Statistical Ecology Conference (1–4 July 2014) in Montpellier, France, we analyse current trends in statistical ecology. Important advances in the analysis of individual movement, and in the modelling of population dynamics and species distributions, are made possible by the increasing use of hierarchical and hidden process models. Exciting research perspectives include the development of methods to interpret citizen science data and of efficient, flexible computational algorithms for model fitting. Statistical ecology has come of age: it now provides a general and mathematically rigorous framework linking ecological theory and empirical data. PMID:25540151

Gimenez, Olivier; Buckland, Stephen T.; Morgan, Byron J. T.; Bez, Nicolas; Bertrand, Sophie; Choquet, Rémi; Dray, Stéphane; Etienne, Marie-Pierre; Fewster, Rachel; Gosselin, Frédéric; Mérigot, Bastien; Monestiez, Pascal; Morales, Juan M.; Mortier, Frédéric; Munoz, François; Ovaskainen, Otso; Pavoine, Sandrine; Pradel, Roger; Schurr, Frank M.; Thomas, Len; Thuiller, Wilfried; Trenkel, Verena; de Valpine, Perry; Rexstad, Eric

2014-01-01

253

Geochemical Interpretation of Collision Volcanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collision volcanism can be defined as volcanism that takes place during an orogeny from the moment that continental subduction starts to the end of orogenic collapse. Its importance in the Geological Record is greatly underestimated as collision volcanics are easily misinterpreted as being of volcanic arc, extensional or mantle plume origin. There are many types of collision volcanic province: continent-island arc collision (e.g. Banda arc); continent-active margin collision (e.g. Tibet, Turkey-Iran); continent-rear-arc collision (e.g. Bolivia); continent-continent collision (e.g. Tuscany); and island arc-island arc collision (e.g. Taiwan). Superimposed on this variability is the fact that every orogeny is different in detail. Nonetheless, there is a general theme of cyclicity on different time scales. This starts with syn-collision volcanism resulting from the subduction of an ocean-continent transition and continental lithosphere, and continues through post-collision volcanism. The latter can be subdivided into orogenic volcanism, which is related to thickened crust, and post-orogenic, which is related to orogenic collapse. Typically, but not always, collision volcanism is preceded by normal arc volcanism and followed by normal intraplate volcanism. Identification and interpretation of collision volcanism in the Geologic Record is greatly facilitated if a dated stratigraphic sequence is present so that the petrogenic evolution can be traced. In any case, the basis of fingerprinting collision terranes is to use geochemical proxies for mantle and subduction fluxes, slab temperatures, and depths and degrees of melting. For example, syn-collision volcanism is characterized by a high subduction flux relative to mantle flux because of the high input flux of fusible sediment and crust coupled with limited mantle flow, and because of high slab temperatures resulting from the decrease in subduction rate. The resulting geochemical patterns are similar regardless of collision type with extreme LILE and significant HFSE enrichment relative to MORB and with large negative Nb-Ta and Ti anomalies. Post-collision volcanism is usually ascribed to combinations of slab detachment, delamination, and slab roll back (orogenic) and extension (post-orogenic). The magma source is typically conductively-heated, sub-continental mantle lithosphere with composition and depth of melting depending on the nature and evolution of the collision zone in question. Geochemical patterns may be similar to those of syn-collision basalts or of intraplate, continental basalts - or transitional between these. This variability in space and time, though problematic for geochemical fingerprinting, can give clues to the polarity and development of the collision zone, for example by highlighting the distribution of subduction-modified mantle lithosphere and hence of pre-collision subduction zones. One characteristic common to this setting is a high crustal input resulting from the presence of a hot, thick 'crustal chemical filter' which is evident on geochemical projections that highlight AFC-type processes. Using this, and other, geochemical features it is possible to develop methodologies to at least partly see through the complexity of collision terranes.

Pearce, Julian

2014-05-01

254

Automatic Interpretation and Coding of Face Images Using Flexible Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Face images are difficult to interpret because they are highly variable. Sources of variability include individual appearance, 3D pose, facial expression , and lighting. We describe a compact parametrized model of facial appearance which takes into account all these sources of variability. The model represents both shape and gray-level appearance , and is created by performing a statistical analysis over

Andreas Lanitis; Christopher J. Taylor; Timothy F. Cootes

1997-01-01

255

Interpreting Repeated Measures Data through "Special" Mean Contrasts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Use of "special" orthonormal mean contrasts and mean contrast variances can help educational researchers interpret a wide variety of repeated measures data. Most statistical packages allow educational researchers to test for differences across repeated measures using both the univariate mixed model F test and a multivariate test. Numerous…

Barcikowski, Robert; Robey, Randall R.

256

Rapid Quantitative Analysis of Microcystins in Raw Surface Waters with MALDI MS Utilizing Easily Synthesized Internal Standards  

PubMed Central

The freshwater cyanotoxins, microcystins (MCs), pose a global public health threat as potent hepatotoxins in cyanobacterial blooms; their persistence in drinking and recreational water has been associated with potential chronic effects in addition to acute intoxications. Rapid and accurate detection of the over 80 structural congeners is challenged by the rigorous and time consuming clean up required to overcome interference found in raw water samples. MALDI-MS has shown promise for rapid quantification of individual congeners in raw water samples, with very low operative cost, but so far limited sensitivity and lack of available and versatile internal standards (ISs) has limited its use. Two easily synthesized S-hydroxyethyl–Cys(7)-MC-LR and –RR ISs were used to generate linear standard curves in a reflectron MALDI instrument, reproducible across several orders of magnitude for MC –LR, - RR and –YR. Minimum quantification limits in direct water samples with no clean up or concentration step involved were consistently below 7 ?g/L, with recoveries from spiked samples between 80 and 119%. This method improves sensitivity by 30 fold over previous reports of quantitative MALDI-TOF applications to MCs and provides a salient option for rapid throughput analysis for multiple MC congeners in untreated raw surface water blooms as a means to identify source public health threats and target intervention strategies within a watershed. As demonstrated by analysis of a set of samples from Uruguay, utilizing the reaction of different MC congeners with alternate sulfhydryl compounds, the m/z of the IS can be customized to avoid overlap with interfering compounds in local surface water samples. PMID:24388801

Roegner, Amber F.; Schirmer, Macarena Pírez; Puschner, Birgit; Brena, Beatriz; Gonzalez-Sapienza, Gualberto

2014-01-01

257

Rapid quantitative analysis of microcystins in raw surface waters with MALDI MS utilizing easily synthesized internal standards.  

PubMed

The freshwater cyanotoxins, microcystins (MCs), pose a global public health threat as potent hepatotoxins in cyanobacterial blooms; their persistence in drinking and recreational water has been associated with potential chronic effects in addition to acute intoxications. Rapid and accurate detection of the over 80 structural congeners is challenged by the rigorous and time consuming clean up required to overcome interference found in raw water samples. MALDI-MS has shown promise for rapid quantification of individual congeners in raw water samples, with very low operative cost, but so far limited sensitivity and lack of available and versatile internal standards (ISs) has limited its use. Two easily synthesized S-hydroxyethyl-Cys(7)-MC-LR and -RR ISs were used to generate linear standard curves in a reflectron MALDI instrument, reproducible across several orders of magnitude for MC-LR, -RR and -YR. Minimum quantification limits in direct water samples with no clean up or concentration step involved were consistently below 7 ?g/L, with recoveries from spiked samples between 80 and 119%. This method improves sensitivity by 30 fold over previous reports of quantitative MALDI-TOF applications to MCs and provides a salient option for rapid throughput analysis for multiple MC congeners in untreated raw surface water blooms as a means to identify source public health threats and target intervention strategies within a watershed. As demonstrated by analysis of a set of samples from Uruguay, utilizing the reaction of different MC congeners with alternate sulfhydryl compounds, the m/z of the IS can be customized to avoid overlap with interfering compounds in local surface water samples. PMID:24388801

Roegner, Amber F; Schirmer, Macarena Pírez; Puschner, Birgit; Brena, Beatriz; Gonzalez-Sapienza, Gualberto

2014-02-01

258

Input of easily available organic C and N stimulates microbial decomposition of soil organic matter in arctic permafrost soil  

PubMed Central

Rising temperatures in the Arctic can affect soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition directly and indirectly, by increasing plant primary production and thus the allocation of plant-derived organic compounds into the soil. Such compounds, for example root exudates or decaying fine roots, are easily available for microorganisms, and can alter the decomposition of older SOM (“priming effect”). We here report on a SOM priming experiment in the active layer of a permafrost soil from the central Siberian Arctic, comparing responses of organic topsoil, mineral subsoil, and cryoturbated subsoil material (i.e., poorly decomposed topsoil material subducted into the subsoil by freeze–thaw processes) to additions of 13C-labeled glucose, cellulose, a mixture of amino acids, and protein (added at levels corresponding to approximately 1% of soil organic carbon). SOM decomposition in the topsoil was barely affected by higher availability of organic compounds, whereas SOM decomposition in both subsoil horizons responded strongly. In the mineral subsoil, SOM decomposition increased by a factor of two to three after any substrate addition (glucose, cellulose, amino acids, protein), suggesting that the microbial decomposer community was limited in energy to break down more complex components of SOM. In the cryoturbated horizon, SOM decomposition increased by a factor of two after addition of amino acids or protein, but was not significantly affected by glucose or cellulose, indicating nitrogen rather than energy limitation. Since the stimulation of SOM decomposition in cryoturbated material was not connected to microbial growth or to a change in microbial community composition, the additional nitrogen was likely invested in the production of extracellular enzymes required for SOM decomposition. Our findings provide a first mechanistic understanding of priming in permafrost soils and suggest that an increase in the availability of organic carbon or nitrogen, e.g., by increased plant productivity, can change the decomposition of SOM stored in deeper layers of permafrost soils, with possible repercussions on the global climate. PMID:25089062

Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Jörg; Alves, Ricardo J. Eloy; Barsukov, Pavel; Bárta, Ji?í; ?apek, Petr; Gentsch, Norman; Gittel, Antje; Guggenberger, Georg; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Mikutta, Robert; Rusalimova, Olga; Šantr??ková, Hana; Shibistova, Olga; Urich, Tim; Watzka, Margarete; Zrazhevskaya, Galina; Richter, Andreas

2014-01-01

259

Input of easily available organic C and N stimulates microbial decomposition of soil organic matter in arctic permafrost soil.  

PubMed

Rising temperatures in the Arctic can affect soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition directly and indirectly, by increasing plant primary production and thus the allocation of plant-derived organic compounds into the soil. Such compounds, for example root exudates or decaying fine roots, are easily available for microorganisms, and can alter the decomposition of older SOM ("priming effect"). We here report on a SOM priming experiment in the active layer of a permafrost soil from the central Siberian Arctic, comparing responses of organic topsoil, mineral subsoil, and cryoturbated subsoil material (i.e., poorly decomposed topsoil material subducted into the subsoil by freeze-thaw processes) to additions of (13)C-labeled glucose, cellulose, a mixture of amino acids, and protein (added at levels corresponding to approximately 1% of soil organic carbon). SOM decomposition in the topsoil was barely affected by higher availability of organic compounds, whereas SOM decomposition in both subsoil horizons responded strongly. In the mineral subsoil, SOM decomposition increased by a factor of two to three after any substrate addition (glucose, cellulose, amino acids, protein), suggesting that the microbial decomposer community was limited in energy to break down more complex components of SOM. In the cryoturbated horizon, SOM decomposition increased by a factor of two after addition of amino acids or protein, but was not significantly affected by glucose or cellulose, indicating nitrogen rather than energy limitation. Since the stimulation of SOM decomposition in cryoturbated material was not connected to microbial growth or to a change in microbial community composition, the additional nitrogen was likely invested in the production of extracellular enzymes required for SOM decomposition. Our findings provide a first mechanistic understanding of priming in permafrost soils and suggest that an increase in the availability of organic carbon or nitrogen, e.g., by increased plant productivity, can change the decomposition of SOM stored in deeper layers of permafrost soils, with possible repercussions on the global climate. PMID:25089062

Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Jörg; Alves, Ricardo J Eloy; Barsukov, Pavel; Bárta, Ji?í; Capek, Petr; Gentsch, Norman; Gittel, Antje; Guggenberger, Georg; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Mikutta, Robert; Rusalimova, Olga; Santr??ková, Hana; Shibistova, Olga; Urich, Tim; Watzka, Margarete; Zrazhevskaya, Galina; Richter, Andreas

2014-08-01

260

Pumping test interpretation by combination of Latin hypercube parameter sampling and analytical models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pumping tests in groundwater reservoirs are a much used and recommended method to derive hydraulic properties of aquifers and aquitards at the field scale. Interpretation of pumping tests can be done by fitting analytical or numerical models to the obtained field data using optimisation procedures. In this paper, an interpretation methodology is presented and implemented in the form of a computer code that combines analytical solutions for confined, semi-confined and unconfined single and multiple layer schematisations, with random parameter generator routines to find best fitting parameter sets to measured pumping test data. As this requires a large number of Monte Carlo (MC) runs, the number of required simulations is restricted by using a stratified instead of a pure random sampling technique. Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) is used as the stratified random sampler. The analytical solutions are defined in the Laplace domain and inverted numerically using the well-known Stehfest algorithm. The program uses a number of iteration cycles during which parameters sets are generated within predefined limits using the LHS technique. Parameters sets which satisfy a chosen maximum value for a selected objective function (root mean square (RMSE) or mean relative deviation (MRD)) are retained and used to update parameter limits for the next cycle. The objective function criterion is decreased during subsequent cycles while the limits of the sampling intervals are adapted. The number of determinable parameters is dependent on the aquifer schematisation and conceptual model that is chosen. After each cycle, statistics of the parameter values of the realisations which satisfy the objective function criterion are calculated. The method is demonstrated with examples including synthetic datasets and field data. The synthetic data examples show that the program is able to retrieve the parameter values used for generating drawdown sets very well. Typical runtimes on a PC are no more than a few minutes. The program can easily be extended with additional analytical solutions for other schematisations.

Van Camp, Marc; Walraevens, Kristine

2009-10-01

261

Students' Interpretation of a Function Associated with a Real-Life Problem from Its Graph  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The properties of a function such as limit, continuity, derivative, growth, or concavity can be determined more easily from its graph than by doing any algebraic operation. For this reason, it is important for students of mathematics to interpret some of the properties of a function from its graph. In this study, we investigated the competence of…

Mahir, Nevin

2010-01-01

262

Philosophical perspectives on quantum chaos: Models and interpretations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of quantum chaos is a special case of the larger problem of understanding how the classical world emerges from quantum mechanics. While we have learned that chaos is pervasive in classical systems, it appears to be almost entirely absent in quantum systems. The aim of this dissertation is to determine what implications the interpretation of quantum mechanics has for attempts to explain the emergence of classical chaos. There are three interpretations of quantum mechanics that have set out programs for solving the problem of quantum chaos: the standard interpretation, the statistical interpretation, and the deBroglie-Bohm causal interpretation. One of the main conclusions of this dissertation is that an interpretation alone is insufficient for solving the problem of quantum chaos and that the phenomenon of decoherence must be taken into account. Although a completely satisfactory solution of the problem of quantum chaos is still outstanding, I argue that the deBroglie-Bohm interpretation with the help of decoherence outlines the most promising research program to pursue. In addition to making a contribution to the debate in the philosophy of physics concerning the interpretation of quantum mechanics, this dissertation reveals two important methodological lessons for the philosophy of science. First, issues of reductionism and intertheoretic relations cannot be divorced from questions concerning the interpretation of the theories involved. Not only is the exploration of intertheoretic relations a central part of the articulation and interpretation of an individual theory, but the very terms used to discuss intertheoretic relations, such as `state' and `classical limit', are themselves defined by particular interpretations of the theory. The second lesson that emerges is that, when it comes to characterizing the relationship between classical chaos and quantum mechanics, the traditional approaches to intertheoretic relations, namely reductionism and theoretical pluralism, are inadequate. The fruitful ways in which models have been used in quantum chaos research point to the need for a new framework for addressing intertheoretic relations that focuses on models rather than laws.

Bokulich, Alisa Nicole

2001-09-01

263

Statistics in fusion experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the reasons for the variability in data from plasma experiments are often unknown or uncontrollable, statistical methods must be applied. Reliable interpretation and public accountability require full data sets. Two examples of data misrepresentation at PPPL are analyzed: Te >100 eV on S-1 spheromak.(M. Yamada, Nucl. Fusion 25, 1327 (1985); reports to DoE; etc.) The reported high values (statistical artifacts of Thomson scattering measurements) were selected from a mass of data with an average of 40 eV or less. ``Correlated'' spectroscopic data were meaningless. (2) Extrapolation to Q >=0.5 for DT in TFTR.(D. Meade et al., IAEA Baltimore (1990), V. 1, p. 9; H. P. Furth, Statements to U. S. Congress (1989).) The DD yield used there was the highest through 1990 (>= 50% above average) and the DT to DD power ratio used was about twice any published value. Average DD yields and published yield ratios scale to Q<0.15 for DT, in accord with the observed performance over the last 3 1/2 years. Press reports of outlier data from TFTR have obscured the fact that the DT behavior follows from trivial scaling of the DD data. Good practice in future fusion research would have confidence intervals and other descriptive statistics accompanying reported numerical values (cf. JAMA).

McNeill, D. H.

1997-11-01

264

Dream Interpretation in Ancient Civilizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dream interpretation was regarded by ancient peoples in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and Rome as an art requiring intelligence and, sometimes, divine inspiration. It became a motif in literature. It was treated as a science by philosophers and physicians. Dreams were thought to come either as clear messages, or as symbols requiring interpretation. In a method called incubation, the dreamer could

J. Donald Hughes

2000-01-01

265

Dream Interpretation and False Beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dream interpretation is a common practice in psychotherapy. In the research presented in this article, each participant saw a clinician who interpreted a recent dream report to be a sign that the participant had had a mildly traumatic experience before age 3 years, such as being lost for an extended time or feeling abandoned by his or her parents. This

Giuliana A. L. Mazzoni; Pasquale Lombardo; Stefano Malvagia; Elizabeth F. Loftus

1999-01-01

266

Museum Docents' Understanding of Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore docents' perceptions of their interpretive role in art museums and determine how those perceptions shape docents' practice. The objective was to better understand how docents conceive of their role and what shapes the interpretation they give on tours to the public. The conceptual…

Neill, Amanda C.

2010-01-01

267

Remote sensing and image interpretation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A textbook prepared primarily for use in introductory courses in remote sensing is presented. Topics covered include concepts and foundations of remote sensing; elements of photographic systems; introduction to airphoto interpretation; airphoto interpretation for terrain evaluation; photogrammetry; radiometric characteristics of aerial photographs; aerial thermography; multispectral scanning and spectral pattern recognition; microwave sensing; and remote sensing from space.

Lillesand, T. M.; Kiefer, R. W. (principal investigators)

1979-01-01

268

Interpretative Decision Making in Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that all research is interpretive and that reality is constructed at every stage of a research project. Explores three research constructs: (1) role of the researcher; (2) research questions; and (3) underlying assumptions of the researcher. Presents and applies a foundation for an interpretative research framework. (CFR)

Maitland-Gholson, Jane; Ettinger, Linda F.

1994-01-01

269

Statistical Modeling of SAR Images: A Survey  

PubMed Central

Statistical modeling is essential to SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) image interpretation. It aims to describe SAR images through statistical methods and reveal the characteristics of these images. Moreover, statistical modeling can provide a technical support for a comprehensive understanding of terrain scattering mechanism, which helps to develop algorithms for effective image interpretation and creditable image simulation. Numerous statistical models have been developed to describe SAR image data, and the purpose of this paper is to categorize and evaluate these models. We first summarize the development history and the current researching state of statistical modeling, then different SAR image models developed from the product model are mainly discussed in detail. Relevant issues are also discussed. Several promising directions for future research are concluded at last. PMID:22315568

Gao, Gui

2010-01-01

270

The statistical origins of quantum mechanics  

E-print Network

It is shown that Schroedinger's equation may be derived from three postulates. The first is a kind of statistical metamorphosis of classical mechanics, a set of two relations which are obtained from the canonical equations of particle mechanics by replacing all observables by statistical averages. The second is a local conservation law of probability with a probability current which takes the form of a gradient. The third is a principle of maximal disorder as realized by the requirement of minimal Fisher information. The rule for calculating expectation values is obtained from a fourth postulate, the requirement of energy conservation in the mean. The fact that all these basic relations of quantum theory may be derived from premises which are statistical in character is interpreted as a strong argument in favor of the statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics. The structures of quantum theory and classical statistical theories are compared and some fundamental differences are identified.

U. Klein

2011-03-08

271

The insignificance of statistical significance testing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Despite their use in scientific joumals such asThe journal of Wildlife Management, statistical hypothesis tests add very little value to the products of research. Indeed, they frequently confuse the interpretation of data. This paper describes how statistical hypothesis tests are often viewed, and then contrasts that interpretation with the correct one. I discuss the arbitrariness of P-values, conclusions that the null hypothesis is true, power analysis, and distinctions between statistical and biological significance. Statistical hypothesis testing, in which the null hypothesis about the properties of a population is almost always known a priori to be false, is contrasted with scientific hypothesis testing, which examines a credible null hypothesis about phenomena in nature. More meaningful alternatives are briefly outlined, including estimation and confidence intervals for determining the importance of factors, decision theory for guiding actions in the face of uncertainty, and Bayesian approaches to hypothesis testing and other statistical practices.

Johnson, D.H.

1999-01-01

272

Learning Statistics By Doing Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, created by Gary Smith of Pomona College, discusses a project-based approach to teaching statistics. The article focuses on the team aspect of learning, it introduces concepts such as: working with data, learning by doing, learning by writing, learning by speaking, and authentic assessment of material. An appendix contains a list of twenty projects that have been successfully assigned.

Smith, Gary

273

Statistics I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will encounter the concept of a distribution, along with parameters that describe a distribution's "typical" values (average) and a distribution's spread (variance). To understand simple distributions and uncertainty propagation in the coming sections, it is necessary to be familiar with the concept of statistical independence. When two variables fluctuate independently, their covariance vanishes, and the variance of their sum is the sum of their variances.

2013-06-21

274

Statistical Shorts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this statistics and probability activity students must determine whether each statement is always true, sometimes true, sometimes false, or always false. Students must have a basic understanding of probability statements and the foundation for understanding mean, median, and mode in order to complete this activity for all twelve statements. In addition to the task, tips for getting started, possible solutions, a teacher resource page, and a printable page are provided.

NRICH

2013-01-01

275

Statistical Optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wiley Classics Library consists of selected books that have become recognized classics in their respective fields. With these new unabridged and inexpensive editions, Wiley hopes to extend the life of these important works by making them available to future generations of mathematicians and scientists. Currently available in the Series: T. W. Anderson The Statistical Analysis of Time Series T. S. Arthanari & Yadolah Dodge Mathematical Programming in Statistics Emil Artin Geometric Algebra Norman T. J. Bailey The Elements of Stochastic Processes with Applications to the Natural Sciences Robert G. Bartle The Elements of Integration and Lebesgue Measure George E. P. Box & Norman R. Draper Evolutionary Operation: A Statistical Method for Process Improvement George E. P. Box & George C. Tiao Bayesian Inference in Statistical Analysis R. W. Carter Finite Groups of Lie Type: Conjugacy Classes and Complex Characters R. W. Carter Simple Groups of Lie Type William G. Cochran & Gertrude M. Cox Experimental Designs, Second Edition Richard Courant Differential and Integral Calculus, Volume I RIchard Courant Differential and Integral Calculus, Volume II Richard Courant & D. Hilbert Methods of Mathematical Physics, Volume I Richard Courant & D. Hilbert Methods of Mathematical Physics, Volume II D. R. Cox Planning of Experiments Harold S. M. Coxeter Introduction to Geometry, Second Edition Charles W. Curtis & Irving Reiner Representation Theory of Finite Groups and Associative Algebras Charles W. Curtis & Irving Reiner Methods of Representation Theory with Applications to Finite Groups and Orders, Volume I Charles W. Curtis & Irving Reiner Methods of Representation Theory with Applications to Finite Groups and Orders, Volume II Cuthbert Daniel Fitting Equations to Data: Computer Analysis of Multifactor Data, Second Edition Bruno de Finetti Theory of Probability, Volume I Bruno de Finetti Theory of Probability, Volume 2 W. Edwards Deming Sample Design in Business Research

Goodman, Joseph W.

2000-07-01

276

A New Class of Easily Activated Palladium Precatalysts for Facile C?N Cross-Coupling Reactions and the Low Temperature Oxidative Addition of Aryl Chlorides  

E-print Network

A new class of one-component Pd precatalysts bearing biarylphosphine ligands is described. These precatalysts are air- and thermally stable, are easily activated under normal reaction conditions at or below room temperature, ...

Biscoe, Mark R.

277

Automated Interpretation of Myocardial SPECT Perfusion Images Using Artificial Neural Networks  

E-print Network

Automated Interpretation of Myocardial SPECT Perfusion Images Using Artificial Neural Networks Dan as inputs to multilayer perceptron artificial neural networks. The networks were trained to detect coronary% and not statistically significant. Conclusions: Artificial neural networks can detect coronary artery disease

Peterson, Carsten

278

Spike statistics  

E-print Network

In this paper we explore stochastical and statistical properties of so-called recurring spike induced Kasner sequences. Such sequences arise in recurring spike formation, which is needed together with the more familiar BKL scenario to yield a complete description of generic spacelike singularities. In particular we derive a probability distribution for recurring spike induced Kasner sequences, complementing similar available BKL results, which makes comparisons possible. As examples of applications, we derive results for so-called large and small curvature phases and the Hubble-normalized Weyl scalar.

J. Mark Heinzle; Claes Uggla

2012-12-21

279

Interpretation of FTIR spectra of polymers and Raman spectra of car paints by means of likelihood ratio approach supported by wavelet transform for reducing data dimensionality.  

PubMed

The problem of interpretation of common provenance of the samples within the infrared spectra database of polypropylene samples from car body parts and plastic containers as well as Raman spectra databases of blue solid and metallic automotive paints was under investigation. The research involved statistical tools such as likelihood ratio (LR) approach for expressing the evidential value of observed similarities and differences in the recorded spectra. Since the LR models can be easily proposed for databases described by a few variables, research focused on the problem of spectra dimensionality reduction characterised by more than a thousand variables. The objective of the studies was to combine the chemometric tools easily dealing with multidimensionality with an LR approach. The final variables used for LR models' construction were derived from the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) as a data dimensionality reduction technique supported by methods for variance analysis and corresponded with chemical information, i.e. typical absorption bands for polypropylene and peaks associated with pigments present in the car paints. Univariate and multivariate LR models were proposed, aiming at obtaining more information about the chemical structure of the samples. Their performance was controlled by estimating the levels of false positive and false negative answers and using the empirical cross entropy approach. The results for most of the LR models were satisfactory and enabled solving the stated comparison problems. The results prove that the variables generated from DWT preserve signal characteristic, being a sparse representation of the original signal by keeping its shape and relevant chemical information. PMID:25757825

Martyna, Agnieszka; Michalska, Aleksandra; Zadora, Grzegorz

2015-05-01

280

Map Interpretation with Google Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Resources in this collection A highly effective, non-traditional approach for using Google Earth to teach strike, dip, and geologic map interpretation, with assignments and activities (Barbara Tewksbury, Hamilton ...

281

Modularity and locality in interpretation  

E-print Network

This thesis will argue for four broad claims: (1) That local contexts are needed for a descriptively adequate theory of linguistic interpretation, (2) That presupposition accommodation is made with respect to a set of ...

Singh, Raj, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01

282

Security bugs in embedded interpreters  

E-print Network

Because embedded interpreters offer flexibility and performance, they are becoming more prevalent, and can be found at nearly every level of the software stack. As one example, the Linux kernel defines languages to describe ...

Chen, Haogang

283

Interpreting Quantum Parallelism by Sequents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce an interpretation of quantum superposition in predicative sequent calculus, in the framework of basic logic. Then we introduce a new predicative connective for the entanglement. Our aim is to represent quantum parallelism in terms of logical proofs.

Battilotti, Giulia

2010-12-01

284

Information Theory and Oral Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how information theory can be applied to the study of oral interpretation in ways that help performers understand and use the channels available to them in sharing literature with listeners. (PD)

Overstreet, Robert

1984-01-01

285

An appeal for statistical rigour.  

PubMed

Following recent comments by Jean Cohen in this journal, this short note is yet another appeal for a higher standard of statistical analysis in Assisted Reproduction Research. In order to avoid the conflicts and contradictions highlighted by Jean Cohen, it is imperative that the highest standards of numerical evaluation are maintained. To this end, research workers are urged to recruit statisticians to assist in the analysis and interpretation of their results, and in the preparation of their manuscripts. Statistical science is held in rather low esteem in many quarters, a situation that is aggravated by the publicity attached to contradictory findings. A higher standard of statistical analysis is required to restore the subject's standing among research workers. PMID:16792838

Walters, Eurof

2006-06-01

286

Intelligent Collection Environment for an Interpretation System  

SciTech Connect

An Intelligent Collection Environment for a data interpretation system is described. The environment accepts two inputs: A data model and a number between 0.0 and 1.0. The data model is as simple as a single word or as complex as a multi-level/multidimensional model. The number between 0.0 and 1.0 is a control knob to indicate the user's desire to allow loose matching of the data (things are ambiguous and unknown) versus strict matching of the data (things are precise and known). The environment produces a set of possible interpretations, a set of requirements to further strengthen or to differentiate a particular subset of the possible interpretation from the others, a set of inconsistencies, and a logic map that graphically shows the lines of reasoning used to derive the above output. The environment is comprised of a knowledge editor, model explorer, expertise server, and the World Wide Web. The Knowledge Editor is used by a subject matter expert to define Linguistic Types, Term Sets, detailed explanations, and dynamically created URI's, and to create rule bases using a straight forward hyper matrix representation. The Model Explorer allows rapid construction and browsing of multi-level models. A multi-level model is a model whose elements may also be models themselves. The Expertise Server is an inference engine used to interpret the data submitted. It incorporates a semantic network knowledge representation, an assumption based truth maintenance system, and a fuzzy logic calculus. It can be extended by employing any classifier (e.g. statistical/neural networks) of complex data types. The World Wide Web is an unstructured data space accessed by the URI's supplied as part of the output of the environment. By recognizing the input data model as a query, the environment serves as a deductive search engine. Applications include (but are not limited to) interpretation of geophysical phenomena, a navigation aid for very large web sites, monitoring of computer or sensor networks, customer support, trouble shooting, and searching complex digital libraries (e.g. genome libraries).

Maurer, W J

2001-07-19

287

Calibrated Peer Review for Interpreting Linear Regression Parameters: Results from a Graduate Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biostatistics is traditionally a difficult subject for students to learn. While the mathematical aspects are challenging, it can also be demanding for students to learn the exact language to use to correctly interpret statistical results. In particular, correctly interpreting the parameters from linear regression is both a vital tool and a…

Enders, Felicity B.; Jenkins, Sarah; Hoverman, Verna

2010-01-01

288

Alaska Justice Forum Page 1 Please see Legal Interpreting, page 3  

E-print Network

Alaska Justice Forum Page 1 Please see Legal Interpreting, page 3 Winter 1994 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA ANCHORAGE Vol. 10, No. 4 A Publication of the Justice Center Alaska Justice Statistical Analysis Unit ALASKA a greater use of interpreters in state and municipal courts. In Alaska, with its diverse population

Pantaleone, Jim

289

A Genealogical Interpretation of Principal Components Analysis  

PubMed Central

Principal components analysis, PCA, is a statistical method commonly used in population genetics to identify structure in the distribution of genetic variation across geographical location and ethnic background. However, while the method is often used to inform about historical demographic processes, little is known about the relationship between fundamental demographic parameters and the projection of samples onto the primary axes. Here I show that for SNP data the projection of samples onto the principal components can be obtained directly from considering the average coalescent times between pairs of haploid genomes. The result provides a framework for interpreting PCA projections in terms of underlying processes, including migration, geographical isolation, and admixture. I also demonstrate a link between PCA and Wright's fst and show that SNP ascertainment has a largely simple and predictable effect on the projection of samples. Using examples from human genetics, I discuss the application of these results to empirical data and the implications for inference. PMID:19834557

McVean, Gil

2009-01-01

290

Neural Network Interpretation of Fields for Glaucoma  

E-print Network

oped in these methods. An expert system is taught by incorporating into its knowledge base the beliefs of an expert about the prevalence of each class and the conditional probabilities of the presence of each manifestation for a given class. The knowledge base is refined by adjusting the beliefs as teaching samples are presented to the system.5 The learning in statistical classifiers and neural networks occurs when the classifier estimates the frequency of the features in the teaching samples for each class. During the process of learning from training sampIes, the membership in one of G given groups is known to the classifier. Once the classifier has completed its training, it can interpret sample patterns presented to it. The test samples also belong to the same

unknown authors

291

Differences in university students' attitudes and anxiety about statistics.  

PubMed

The Statistics Anxiety Rating Scale and the Attitudes Toward Statistics questionnaire were administered to 226 university of technology students. The former scale measures anxiety about learning statistics in terms of Worth of Statistics, Interpretation Anxiety, Test and Class Anxiety, Computational Self-concept, Fear of Asking for Help, and Fear of Statistics Teachers. The latter measures attitudes toward use of statistics and statistics course for which a student was registered. These African students were enrolled in Taxation, Marketing, or Accounting. Participants took a required course in statistics intended to improve statistical skills. There were 150 women and 57 men, chosen because they had no previous mathematics learning. Students' ages ranged between 16 and 26 years (M = 20.1, SD = 2.0). There were no statistically significant sex differences on attitudes and anxiety toward statistics, but there were significant differences among areas of study programs. PMID:19708400

Mji, Andile

2009-06-01

292

The person of the analyst: interpreting, not interpreting, and countertransference.  

PubMed

The author focuses on the person of the analyst and particularly how it helps shape two key factors in psychoanalysis: clinical narration and the analyst's interpretations. Freud's comments on how treatment is influenced by the analyst's individuality are briefly reviewed; and Winnicott's notion of how the individual analyst relates to the patient--including how he does and does not interpret--is also discussed. Following a detailed description of an analytic treatment, the author discusses various aspects of the analyst's attitude and functioning, including countertransference, and how these are affected by the person of the analyst. PMID:18942500

Bonaminio, Vincenzo

2008-10-01

293

Spin, Statistics, and Reflections, II. Lorentz Invariance  

E-print Network

The analysis of the relation between modular P$_1$CT-symmetry -- a consequence of the Unruh effect -- and Pauli's spin-statistics relation is continued. The result in the predecessor to this article is extended to the Lorentz symmetric situation. A model $\\G_L$ of the universal covering $\\widetilde{L_+^\\uparrow}\\cong SL(2,\\complex)$ of the restricted Lorentz group $L_+^\\uparrow$ is modelled as a reflection group at the classical level. Based on this picture, a representation of $\\G_L$ is constructed from pairs of modular P$_1$CT-conjugations, and this representation can easily be verified to satisfy the spin-statistics relation.

Bernd Kuckert; Reinhard Lorenzen

2005-12-21

294

ENGINEERING DRIVEN CAUSE-EFFECT MODELING AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS FOR MULTI-OPERATIONAL MACHINING  

E-print Network

ENGINEERING DRIVEN CAUSE-EFFECT MODELING AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS FOR MULTI-OPERATIONAL MACHINING for product quality improvement is a critical issue in both design and manufacturing, especially, without interpretation with domain knowledge, the statistical methods provide little diagnostic capability

Li, Jing

295

New Interpretation of Skyrme Theory  

E-print Network

Based on the proposal that the Skyrme theory is a theory of monopole we provide a new interpretation of Skyrme theory, that the theory can also be viewed as an effective theory of strong interaction which is dual to QCD, where the monopoles (not the quarks) are confined through the Meissner effect. This dual picture leads us to predict the existence of a topological glueball in QCD, a chromoelectric knot which is dual to the chromomagnetic Faddeev-Niemi knot in Skyrme theory, whose mass and decay width are estimated to be around $60 GeV$ and $8 GeV$. As importantly, the existence of the magnetic vortex and the magnetic vortex ring in Skyrme theory strongly indicates that the theory could also be interpreted to describe a very interesting low energy condensed matter physics in a completely different environment. These new interpretations of Skyrme theory puts the theory in a totally new perspective.

Y. M. Cho; B. S. Park; P. M. Zhang

2006-03-10

296

Narrative pedagogy and art interpretation.  

PubMed

Contemporary practices in nursing education call for changes that will assist students in understanding a complex, rapidly changing world. Narrative pedagogy is an approach that offers teachers a way to actively engage students in the process of teaching and learning. The narrative approach provides ways to think critically, make connections, and ask questions to gain understanding through dialogue. The hermeneutic circle of understanding offers a way to interpret stories and discover meaning. Narratives exist in art forms that can be interpreted to evoke discussions and thinking that relate to nursing practice. Art interpretation is a way to gain access to others and acquire a deeper appreciation for multiple perspectives in the teaching-learning process. PMID:21323257

Ewing, Bonnie; Hayden-Miles, Marie

2011-04-01

297

Interpretational Confounding or Confounded Interpretations of Causal Indicators?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In measurement theory, causal indicators are controversial and little understood. Methodological disagreement concerning causal indicators has centered on the question of whether causal indicators are inherently sensitive to interpretational confounding, which occurs when the empirical meaning of a latent construct departs from the meaning…

Bainter, Sierra A.; Bollen, Kenneth A.

2014-01-01

298

8 CFR 1003.22 - Interpreters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpreters. 1003.22 Section 1003.22 Aliens...Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.22 Interpreters. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing shall swear or affirm...

2013-01-01

299

8 CFR 1003.22 - Interpreters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpreters. 1003.22 Section 1003.22 Aliens...Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.22 Interpreters. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing shall swear or affirm...

2014-01-01

300

8 CFR 1003.22 - Interpreters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpreters. 1003.22 Section 1003.22 Aliens...Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.22 Interpreters. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing shall swear or affirm...

2012-01-01

301

8 CFR 1003.22 - Interpreters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpreters. 1003.22 Section 1003.22 Aliens...Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.22 Interpreters. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing shall swear or affirm...

2011-01-01

302

8 CFR 1003.22 - Interpreters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpreters. 1003.22 Section 1003.22 Aliens...Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.22 Interpreters. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing shall swear or affirm...

2010-01-01

303

Using Playing Cards to Differentiate Probability Interpretations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aprioristic (classical, naïve and symmetric) and frequentist interpretations of probability are commonly known. Bayesian or subjective interpretation of probability is receiving increasing attention. This paper describes an activity to help students differentiate between the three types of probability interpretations.

López Puga, Jorge

2014-01-01

304

MQSA National Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... Act and Program National Statistics (MQSA) MQSA National Statistics In this section of the MQSA Scorecard, we present the most commonly requested national statistics regarding the MQSA program. These statistics are updated ...

305

Crunching Numbers: What Cancer Screening Statistics Really Tell Us  

Cancer.gov

Cancer screening studies have shown that more screening does not necessarily translate into fewer cancer deaths. This article explains how to interpret the statistics used to describe the results of screening studies.

306

Against many-worlds interpretations  

SciTech Connect

This is a critical review of the literature on many-worlds interpretations, MWI, with arguments drawn partly from earlier critiques. The essential postulates involved in various MWI are extracted, and their consistency with the evident physical world is examined. Arguments are presented against MWI. The relevance of frequency operators o MWI is examined; it is argued that frequency operator theorems do not in themselves provide a probability interpretation for quantum mechanics, and thus neither support existing MWI nor would be useful in constructing new MWI. Comments are made on papers that advocate MWI. It is concluded that no plausible set of axioms exists for an MWI that describes known physics.

Kent, A. (Inst. for Advanced Study, School of Natural Sciences, Princeton, NJ (US))

1990-05-10

307

A Unified Approach to Coding and Interpreting Face Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Face images are difficult to interpret because they are highlyvariable. Sources of variability include individual appear#ance, 3D pose, facial expression and lighting. We describe acompact parametrised model of facial appearance whichtakes into account all these sources of variability. The modelrepresents both shape and grey-level appearance and iscreated by performing a statistical analysis over a trainingset of face images. A robust

Andreas Lanitis; Christopher J. Taylor; Timothy F. Cootes

1995-01-01

308

Specification, evaluation, and interpretation of structural equation models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a comprehensive and user-friendly compendium of standards for the use and interpretation of structural equation\\u000a models (SEMs). To both read about and do research that employs SEMs, it is necessary to master the art and science of the\\u000a statistical procedures underpinning SEMs in an integrative way with the substantive concepts, theories, and hypotheses that\\u000a researchers desire to examine.

Richard P. Bagozzi; Youjae Yi

309

How HCI interprets the probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We trace how cultural probes have been adopted and adapted by the HCI community. The flexibility of probes has been central to their uptake, resulting in a proliferation of divergent uses and derivatives. The varying patterns of adaptation of the probes reveal important underlying issues in HCI, suggesting underacknowledged disagreements about valid interpretation and the relationship between methods and their

Kirsten Boehner; Janet Vertesi; Phoebe Sengers; Paul Dourish

2007-01-01

310

Physical interpretation of NUT solution  

E-print Network

We show that the well-known NUT solution can be correctly interpreted as describing the exterior field of two counter-rotating semi-infinite sources possessing negative masses and infinite angular momenta which are attached to the poles of a static finite rod of positive mass.

V. S. Manko; E. Ruiz

2005-04-29

311

Computational Interpretations of Linear Logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study Girard's Linear Logic from the point of view of giving a concrete computational interpretation of the logic, based on the Curry-Howard isomorphism. In the case of Intuitionistic Linear Logic, this leads to a refinement of the lambda calculus, giving finer control over order of evaluation and storage allocation, while maintaining the logical content of programs as proofs, and

Samson Abramsky

1993-01-01

312

Reference for radiographic film interpreters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reference of X-ray film images provides examples of weld defects, film quality, stainless steel welded tubing, and acceptable weld conditions. A summary sheet details the discrepancies shown on the film strip. This reference aids in interpreting and evaluating radiographic film of weldments.

Austin, D. L.

1970-01-01

313

Interpretive Reproduction in Children's Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author looks at children's play from the perspective of interpretive reproduction, emphasizing the way children create their own unique peer cultures, which he defines as a set of routines, artifacts, values, and concerns that children engage in with their playmates. The article focuses on two types of routines in the peer culture of preschool…

Corsaro, William A.

2012-01-01

314

EKG Interpretation Program. Trainers Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This trainer's manual is designed to assist nursing instructors assigned to advanced medical surgical nursing courses in teaching students how to make basic interpretations of their patients' electrocardiographic (EKG) strips. Included in the manual are pre- and posttests and instructional units dealing with the following topics: EKG indicators,…

Webb, Sandra M.

315

Eleven Interpretations of Personal Suffering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document defines suffering as the affective aspect of the pain experience while the cognitive aspect of the pain experience is the sensation of pain. It considers personal suffering, which mean's one's own suffering, and not the suffering of other people. It notes that a particular interpretation of suffering may be formulated in any number…

Foley, Daniel P.

316

Interpreting Electromagnetic Reflections In Glaciology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electromagnetic reflection (EMR) measurements are active remote sensing methods that have become a major tool for glaciological investigations. Although the basic pro- cesses are well understood, the unambiguous interpretation of EMR data, especially internal layering, still requires further information. The Antacrtic ice sheet provides a unique setting for investigating the relation between physical­chemical properties of ice and EMR data. Cold

O. Eisen; U. Nixdorf; F. Wilhelms; D. Steinhage; H. Miller

2002-01-01

317

Use and Interpretation of Radar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This undergraduate meteorology tutorial from Texas A&M University discusses the basic principles of operation of weather radars, describes how to interpret radar mosaics, and discusses the use of radar in weather forecasting. Students learn the relationship between range and elevation and how to use radar images and mosaics in short-range forecasting.

John Nielsen-Gammon

1996-01-01

318

Interpreter Training Program: Program Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes in detail the deaf interpreter training program offered at Mott Community College (Flint, Michigan). The program features field-based learning experiences, internships, team teaching, a field practicum, the goal of having students meet certification standards, and proficiency examinations. The program has special…

Massoud, LindaLee

319

Hydrostratigraphic interpretation using indicator geostatistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe an approach that uses indicator geostatistics to interpret qualitative borehole logs and compute experimental variograms for complex alluvial sediments. Borehole descriptions are first transformed into binary indicator values based on inferred relative permeability from the borehole descriptions. The resulting indicator data can then be used to compute variograms and construct three-dimensional variogram models. The ranges

Nicholas M. Johnson; Shirley J. Dreiss

1989-01-01

320

Pyrite is a mineral that is sometimes mistaken for gold, hence the nickname "fool's gold." By comparing the physical properties, one can easily distinguish  

E-print Network

Pyrite is a mineral that is sometimes mistaken for gold, hence the nickname "fool's gold." By comparing the physical properties, one can easily distinguish between the two minerals. Pyrite is less dense, harder, and more brittle than gold. In addition, pyrite will tarnish when exposed to acid, whereas gold

Polly, David

321

An easily installable groundwater lysimeter to determine water balance components and hydraulic properties of peat soils Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(1), 2332 (2003) EGU  

E-print Network

installable groundwater lysimeter to determine water balance components and hydraulic properties of peat soils. Moreover, they should allow the in situ determination of the hydraulic properties (water retentionAn easily installable groundwater lysimeter to determine water balance components and hydraulic

Boyer, Edmond

2003-01-01

322

Implementing Clinical Practice Guidelines While Taking Account of Changing Evidence: ATHENA DSS, an Easily Modifiable Decision-Support System for Managing Hypertension in Primary Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the ATHENA Decision Support System (DSS), which operationalizes guidelines for hypertension using the EON architecture. ATHENA DSS encourages blood pressure control and recommends guideline-concordant choice of drug therapy in relation to comorbid diseases. ATHENA DSS has an easily modifiable knowledge base that specifies eligibility criteria, risk stratification, blood pressure targets, relevant comorbid diseases, guideline-recommended drug classes for

M. K. Goldstein; B. B. Hoffman; R. W. Coleman; M. A. Musen; S. W. Tu; A. Advani; R. Shankar; Martin J. O'Connor

2000-01-01

323

Interpreting Sky-Averaged 21-cm Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the first ~billion years after the Big Bang, the intergalactic medium (IGM) underwent a remarkable transformation, from a uniform sea of cold neutral hydrogen gas to a fully ionized, metal-enriched plasma. Three milestones during this epoch of reionization -- the emergence of the first stars, black holes (BHs), and full-fledged galaxies -- are expected to manifest themselves as extrema in sky-averaged ("global") measurements of the redshifted 21-cm background. However, interpreting these measurements will be complicated by the presence of strong foregrounds and non-trivialities in the radiative transfer (RT) modeling required to make robust predictions.I have developed numerical models that efficiently solve the frequency-dependent radiative transfer equation, which has led to two advances in studies of the global 21-cm signal. First, frequency-dependent solutions facilitate studies of how the global 21-cm signal may be used to constrain the detailed spectral properties of the first stars, BHs, and galaxies, rather than just the timing of their formation. And second, the speed of these calculations allows one to search vast expanses of a currently unconstrained parameter space, while simultaneously characterizing the degeneracies between parameters of interest. I find principally that (1) physical properties of the IGM, such as its temperature and ionization state, can be constrained robustly from observations of the global 21-cm signal without invoking models for the astrophysical sources themselves, (2) translating IGM properties to galaxy properties is challenging, in large part due to frequency-dependent effects. For instance, evolution in the characteristic spectrum of accreting BHs can modify the 21-cm absorption signal at levels accessible to first generation instruments, but could easily be confused with evolution in the X-ray luminosity star-formation rate relation. Finally, (3) the independent constraints most likely to aide in the interpretation of global 21-cm signal measurements are detections of Lyman Alpha Emitters at high redshifts and constraints on the midpoint of reionization, both of which are among the primary science objectives of ongoing or near-future experiments.

Mirocha, Jordan

2015-01-01

324

Statistics 102 Regression Summary Spring, 2000 -1-  

E-print Network

variables (a.k.a., dummy variables) use only the numbers +1, 0, and ­1. · A categorical variable with k-ratio from the Anova summary table. #12;Statistics 102 Regression Summary Spring, 2000 -2- How do I interpret JMP output with categorical variables? · Brackets denote the JMP's version of dummy variables

Stine, Robert A.

325

SAS 8 Is Seen in the Rearview Mirror: Generate Statistical Graphics Using ODS in SAS?9  

Microsoft Academic Search

In SAS V8, the SAS Output Delivery System (ODS) in SAS\\/STAT greatly enhances the ability to manage statistical tables. In SAS 9.1, ODS Statistical Graphics (Experimental) enables SAS users to generate statistical graphics as easily as tables. This paper describes how to create statistical graphics automatically from a number of SAS\\/STAT procedures, as well as how to customize the layout

Wei Cheng

326

Teaching Business Statistics with Real Data to Undergraduates and the Use of Technology in the Class Room  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper an attempt is made to highlight some issues of interpretation of statistical concepts and interpretation of results as taught in undergraduate Business statistics courses. The use of modern technology in the class room is shown to have increased the efficiency and the ease of learning and teaching in statistics. The importance of…

Singamsetti, Rao

2007-01-01

327

Cosmic inflation and big bang interpreted as explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has become common understanding that the recession of galaxies and the corresponding redshift of light received from them can only be explained by an expansion of the space between them and us. In this paper, for the presently favored case of a universe without spatial curvature, it is shown that this interpretation is restricted to comoving coordinates. It is proven by construction that within the framework of general relativity other coordinates exist in relation to which these phenomena can be explained by a motion of the cosmic substrate across space, caused by an explosionlike big bang or by inflation preceding an almost big bang. At the place of an observer, this motion occurs without any spatial expansion. It is shown that in these “explosion coordinates” the usual redshift comes about by a Doppler shift and a subsequent gravitational shift. Making use of this interpretation, it can easily be understood why in comoving coordinates light rays of short spatial extension expand and thus constitute an exemption from the rule that small objects up to the size of the solar system or even galaxies do not participate in the expansion of the universe. It is also discussed how the two interpretations can be reconciled with each other.

Rebhan, E.

2012-12-01

328

Godel's Functional ("Dialectica") Interpretation Jeremy Avigad  

E-print Network

interpretations In 1958, Kurt G¨odel published in the journal Dialectica an interpretation of intuitionisticCHAPTER VI G¨odel's Functional ("Dialectica") Interpretation Jeremy Avigad Department of Philosophy to be known as G¨odel's functional or Dialectica interpretation. When combined with G¨odel's double

Avigad, Jeremy

329

Educational Interpreting: Understanding the Rural Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 63 educational interpreters employed in two rural states, found only 10 interpreters had completed interpreter preparation programs, with 5 of these having no course work related to education. The mean score of 43 assessed using the Educational Interpreter Performance Assessment was 2.6, below the level of "coherent". (Contains…

Yarger, Carmel Collum

2001-01-01

330

Understanding AOP through the Study of Interpreters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I return to the question of what distinguishes AOP languages by considering how the interpreters of AOP languages differ from conventional interpreters. Key elements for static transformation are seen to be redefinition of the set and lookup operators in the interpretation of the language. This analysis also yields a definition of crosscutting in terms of interlacing of interpreter actions.

Filman, Robert E.

2004-01-01

331

Interpreting Inexplicit Language during Courtroom Examination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Court interpreters are required to provide accurate renditions of witnesses' utterances during courtroom examinations, but the accuracy of interpreting may be compromised for a number of reasons, among which is the effect on interpretation of the limited contextual information available to court interpreters. Based on the analysis of the discourse…

Lee, Jieun

2009-01-01

332

Probability, Interpretations of1 1. INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

1 Probability, Interpretations of1 1. INTRODUCTION 'Interpreting probability' is a commonly used but misleading name for a worthy enterprise. The so-called 'interpretations of probability' would be better called 'analyses of various concepts of probability', and 'interpreting probability' is the task

Fitelson, Branden

333

Degree-of-Entailment Interpretations of Probability  

E-print Network

Degree-of-Entailment Interpretations of Probability A number of interpretations of probability have as subjectivistic-particularly by frequency theorists- but there is a class of interpretations of probability which is subjective in a far more significant and interesting sense than Keynes' interpretation. Keynes, indeed

Fitelson, Branden

334

Statistical thermodynamics of natural images.  

PubMed

The scale invariance of natural images suggests an analogy to the statistical mechanics of physical systems at a critical point. Here we examine the distribution of pixels in small image patches and show how to construct the corresponding thermodynamics. We find evidence for criticality in a diverging specific heat, which corresponds to large fluctuations in how "surprising" we find individual images, and in the quantitative form of the entropy vs energy. We identify special image configurations as local energy minima and show that average patches within each basin are interpretable as lines and edges in all orientations. PMID:23383852

Stephens, Greg J; Mora, Thierry; Tka?ik, Gašper; Bialek, William

2013-01-01

335

Vegetation succession on the dunes near Oostvoorne, The Netherlands, since 1934, interpreted from air photographs and vegetation maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vegetation succession on the dunes near Oostvoorne, The Netherlands has been followed by means of a novel combination of repeated large-scale vegetation mapping and air photograph interpretation. Vegetation units have been discerned on the formation level because these could be distinguished fairly easily on the photographs and because the rates of change are appropriate to the time interval chosen.

Dick van Dorp; René Boot; Eddy Maarel

1985-01-01

336

Modelling Metamorphism by Abstract Interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metamorphic malware apply semantics-preserving transformations to their own code in order to foil detection systems based on signature matching. In this paper we consider the problem of automatically extract metamorphic signatures from these malware. We introduce a semantics for self-modifying code, later called phase semantics, and prove its correctness by showing that it is an abstract interpretation of the standard trace semantics. Phase semantics precisely models the metamorphic code behavior by providing a set of traces of programs which correspond to the possible evolutions of the metamorphic code during execution. We show that metamorphic signatures can be automatically extracted by abstract interpretation of the phase semantics, and that regular metamorphism can be modelled as finite state automata abstraction of the phase semantics.

Dalla Preda, Mila; Giacobazzi, Roberto; Debray, Saumya; Coogan, Kevin; Townsend, Gregg M.

337

On the formulation of interpretations.  

PubMed

The author analyses several interpretations published by different authors from the point of view of their linguistic form and the type of language used, in order to determine the therapeutic effect and the manner of working of each. Two types can be distinguished: literal-explanatory language and metaphorical language. Each performs a different function. Metaphorical language is proper to the primary process; it is related to displacement and condensation; it reactivates the most primitive levels of the mind; it serves the purpose of expressing affects and emotions. Literal-explanatory language is proper to the secondary process; it is related to logical-formal thought; it reactivates the most highly developed levels of the mind; it serves a referential, informative and explanatory purpose. A knowledge of the function of each of these forms of language allows the psychoanalyst to direct the interpretations he formulates to either the primary or the secondary process as befits the clinical requirements. PMID:2228442

Allegro, L A

1990-01-01

338

Phonological Interpretation into Preordered Algebras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel architecture for categorial grammar that clarifies the relationship between semantically relevant combinatoric reasoning and semantically inert reasoning that only affects surface-oriented phonological form. To this end, we employ a level of structured phonology that mediates between syntax (abstract combinatorics) and phonology proper (strings). To notate structured phonologies, we employ a lambda calculus analogous to the ?-terms of [8]. However, unlike Oehrle's purely equational ?-calculus, our phonological calculus is inequational, in a way that is strongly analogous to the functional programming language LCF [10]. Like LCF, our phonological terms are interpreted into a Henkin frame of posets, with degree of definedness ('height' in the preorder that interprets the base type) corresponding to degree of pronounceability; only maximal elements are actual strings and therefore fully pronounceable. We illustrate with an analysis (also new) of some complex constituent-order phenomena in Japanese.

Kubota, Yusuke; Pollard, Carl

339

Interpretative modelling of a geological cross section from boreholes: sources of uncertainty and their quantification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conducted a designed experiment to quantify sources of uncertainty in geologists' interpretations of a geological cross section. A group of 28 geologists participated in the experiment. Each interpreted borehole record included up to three Palaeogene bedrock units, including the target unit for the experiment: the London Clay. The set of boreholes was divided into batches from which validation boreholes had been withheld; as a result, we obtained 129 point comparisons between the interpreted elevation of the base of the London Clay and its observed elevation in a borehole not used for that particular interpretation. Analysis of the results showed good general agreement between the observed and interpreted elevations, with no evidence of systematic bias. Between-site variation of the interpretation error was spatially correlated, and the variance appeared to be stationary. The between-geologist component of variance was smaller overall, and depended on the distance to the nearest borehole. There was also evidence that the between-geologist variance depends on the degree of experience of the individual. We used the statistical model of interpretation error to compute confidence intervals for any one interpretation of the base of the London Clay on the cross section, and to provide uncertainty measures for decision support in a hypothetical route-planning process. The statistical model could also be used to quantify error propagation in a full 3-D geological model produced from interpreted cross sections.

Lark, R. M.; Thorpe, S.; Kessler, H.; Mathers, S. J.

2014-11-01

340

Geographical Statistics and Characteristics of P2P Query Strings  

E-print Network

Geographical Statistics and Characteristics of P2P Query Strings Adam Shaked Gish P2P Networking. Users will be able to more easily find relevant content that matches their tastes, and advertisers will be able to expose them to relevant targeted advertising content. In order to improve advertising relevance

Shavitt, Yuval

341

An Experimental Approach to Teaching and Learning Elementary Statistical Mechanics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introductory statistical mechanics is studied for a simple two-state system using an inexpensive and easily built apparatus. A large variety of demonstrations, suitable for students in high school and introductory university chemistry courses, are possible. This article details demonstrations for exothermic and endothermic reactions, the dynamic…

Ellis, Frank B.; Ellis, David C.

2008-01-01

342

The Annals of Statistics 2010, Vol. 38, No. 4, 24992524  

E-print Network

of Mathematical Statistics, 2010 ON THE DE LA GARZA PHENOMENON BY MIN YANG1 University of Missouri Deriving of model, optimality criterion and objective requires its own proof. The celebrated de la Garza Phenomenon this question. Using this new approach, it can be easily shown that the de la Garza phe- nomenon exists for many

Yang, Min

343

VDRL Test and its Interpretation  

PubMed Central

Venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) test is a nontreponemal test, used for screening of syphilis due to its simplicity, sensitivity and low cost. Prozone phenomenon and biological false positive (BFP) reaction are two shortcomings of this test. Quantitative estimation of VDRL is essential in treatment evaluation. CSF VDRL test is very specific for neurosyphilis though its sensitivity is low. Interpretation of VDRL in HIV infection is incompletely understood. PMID:22470199

Nayak, Surajit; Acharjya, Basanti

2012-01-01

344

Interpreting Chemical Labels Learning Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Southwest Center for Microsystems Education is a Regional Advanced Technology Education Center funded in part by the National Science Foundation. This safety learning module covers the content and interpretation of chemical labels and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Diamond ratings. It contains an Instructor Guide, Participant Guide and supporting presentations. Visitors are encouraged to create an account and login in order to access the full set of resources.

345

Interpreting T-X Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short problem set works well as a group activity that can be completed in class. The purpose of the exercise is for students to begin to think about T-X phase diagrams and how they are interpreted. Along the way, students learn that text book authors sometimes make mistakes. The figure in the handout is from Winter's Petrology. But, Winter goofed and left some reactions off of the phase diagram.

Dexter Perkins

346

Interpreting the Benchmark Comparisons Report  

E-print Network

are not included. Mean The mean is the weighted arithmetic average of student level benchmark scores. Bar ChartsInterpreting the Benchmark Comparisons Report Class Mean a Sig b Effect Size c Mean a Sig b Effect Size c Mean a Sig b Effect Size c First-Year 51.6 .05 50.4 * .14 51.8 .04 Senior 55.9 -.01 55.6 .02 55

Rhode Island, University of

347

Probabilistic Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics is based on Born's 1926 papers and von Neumann's formal account of quantum\\u000a mechanics in ? Hilbert space. According to Max Born (1882–1970), the quantum mechanical ? wave function ? does not have any\\u000a direct physical meaning, whereas its square ???2 is a probability [1] ? Born rule, probability in quantum mechanics. According to

Brigitte Falkenburg; Peter Mittelstaedt

348

Renyi statistics in equilibrium statistical mechanics  

E-print Network

The Renyi statistics in the canonical and microcanonical ensembles is examined in the general case and in particular for the ideal gas. In the microcanonical ensemble the Renyi statistics is equivalent with the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics. By the exact analytical results for the ideal gas, it is shown that in the canonical ensemble in the thermodynamic limit the Renyi statistics is also equivalent with the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics. Furthermore it satisfies the requirements of the equilibrium thermodynamics, i.e. the thermodynamical potential of the statistical ensemble is a homogeneous function of degree 1 of its extensive variables of state. We conclude that the Renyi statistics duplicates the thermodynamical relations stemming from the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics in the thermodynamical limit.

A. S. Parvan; T. S. Biro

2009-10-16

349

Some easily analyzable convolutional codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Convolutional codes have played and will play a key role in the downlink telemetry systems on many NASA deep-space probes, including Voyager, Magellan, and Galileo. One of the chief difficulties associated with the use of convolutional codes, however, is the notorious difficulty of analyzing them. Given a convolutional code as specified, say, by its generator polynomials, it is no easy matter to say how well that code will perform on a given noisy channel. The usual first step in such an analysis is to computer the code's free distance; this can be done with an algorithm whose complexity is exponential in the code's constraint length. The second step is often to calculate the transfer function in one, two, or three variables, or at least a few terms in its power series expansion. This step is quite hard, and for many codes of relatively short constraint lengths, it can be intractable. However, a large class of convolutional codes were discovered for which the free distance can be computed by inspection, and for which there is a closed-form expression for the three-variable transfer function. Although for large constraint lengths, these codes have relatively low rates, they are nevertheless interesting and potentially useful. Furthermore, the ideas developed here to analyze these specialized codes may well extend to a much larger class.

Mceliece, R.; Dolinar, S.; Pollara, F.; Vantilborg, H.

1989-01-01

350

Easily optimize batch pressure filtration  

SciTech Connect

Several years ago, the author wrote an article describing a design method for batch pressure filtration systems. The method maximizes the production capability of a filtration system by selecting the best operating conditions--filtration time, initial mass flux, operating temperature, and pressure drop. Most often, maximizing production will also optimize total system costs, and both capital/investment and operating expenses. The method requires a large number of calculations, and is time-consuming and cumbersome, even with a personal computer. This article presents a simplified and fast calculation technique. It`s based upon several dimensionless numbers and two graphs that relate the dimensionless numbers to each other.

Brown, T.R. [Procter and Gamble (United States)

1998-02-01

351

Statistical Analysis on Manifolds and its applications to Video Analysis  

E-print Network

Statistical Analysis on Manifolds and its applications to Video Analysis Pavan Turaga, Ashok Veeraraghavan, Anuj Srivastava, Rama Chellappa Abstract The analysis and interpretation of video data for recognizing actions or persons in a new video. These applications in video analysis require statistical

Srivastava, Anuj

352

A systematic review of statistical power in software engineering experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Statistical power is an inherent part of empirical studies that employ significance testing and is essential for the planning of studies, for the interpretation of study results, and for the validity of study conclusions. This paper reports a quantitative assessment of the statistical power of empirical software engineering research based on the 103 papers on controlled experiments (of a

Tore Dybå; Vigdis By Kampenes; Dag I. K. Sjøberg

2006-01-01

353

The Power of Teaching Activities: Statistical and Methodological Recommendations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers rarely mention statistical power in "Teaching of Psychology" teaching activity studies. Insufficiently powered tests promote uncertainty in the decision to accept or reject the tested null hypothesis and influence the interpretation of results. We analyzed the a priori power of statistical tests from 197 teaching activity effectiveness…

Tomcho, Thomas J.; Foels, Rob

2009-01-01

354

Assessment of Materials for Engaging Students in Statistical Discovery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of an NSF funded project we developed new course materials for a general introductory statistics course designed to engage students in statistical discovery. The materials were designed to actively involve students in the design and implementation of data collection and the analysis and interpretation of the resulting data. Our overall…

Froelich, Amy G.; Duckworth, William M.

2008-01-01

355

Evaluation of Computer Simulated Baseline Statistics for Use in Item Bias Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though item bias statistics are widely recommended for use in test development and analysis, problems arise in their interpretation. This research evaluates logistic test models and computer simulation methods for providing a frame of reference for interpreting item bias statistics. Specifically, the intent was to produce simulated sampling…

Rogers, H. Jane; Hambleton, Ronald K.

356

Statistical templates for visual search.  

PubMed

How do we find a target embedded in a scene? Within the framework of signal detection theory, this task is carried out by comparing each region of the scene with a "template," i.e., an internal representation of the search target. Here we ask what form this representation takes when the search target is a complex image with uncertain orientation. We examine three possible representations. The first is the matched filter. Such a representation cannot account for the ease with which humans can find a complex search target that is rotated relative to the template. A second representation attempts to deal with this by estimating the relative orientation of target and match and rotating the intensity-based template. No intensity-based template, however, can account for the ability to easily locate targets that are defined categorically and not in terms of a specific arrangement of pixels. Thus, we define a third template that represents the target in terms of image statistics rather than pixel intensities. Subjects performed a two-alternative, forced-choice search task in which they had to localize an image that matched a previously viewed target. Target images were texture patches. In one condition, match images were the same image as the target and distractors were a different image of the same textured material. In the second condition, the match image was of the same texture as the target (but different pixels) and the distractor was an image of a different texture. Match and distractor stimuli were randomly rotated relative to the target. We compared human performance to pixel-based, pixel-based with rotation, and statistic-based search models. The statistic-based search model was most successful at matching human performance. We conclude that humans use summary statistics to search for complex visual targets. PMID:24627458

Ackermann, John F; Landy, Michael S

2014-01-01

357

Statistical templates for visual search  

PubMed Central

How do we find a target embedded in a scene? Within the framework of signal detection theory, this task is carried out by comparing each region of the scene with a “template,” i.e., an internal representation of the search target. Here we ask what form this representation takes when the search target is a complex image with uncertain orientation. We examine three possible representations. The first is the matched filter. Such a representation cannot account for the ease with which humans can find a complex search target that is rotated relative to the template. A second representation attempts to deal with this by estimating the relative orientation of target and match and rotating the intensity-based template. No intensity-based template, however, can account for the ability to easily locate targets that are defined categorically and not in terms of a specific arrangement of pixels. Thus, we define a third template that represents the target in terms of image statistics rather than pixel intensities. Subjects performed a two-alternative, forced-choice search task in which they had to localize an image that matched a previously viewed target. Target images were texture patches. In one condition, match images were the same image as the target and distractors were a different image of the same textured material. In the second condition, the match image was of the same texture as the target (but different pixels) and the distractor was an image of a different texture. Match and distractor stimuli were randomly rotated relative to the target. We compared human performance to pixel-based, pixel-based with rotation, and statistic-based search models. The statistic-based search model was most successful at matching human performance. We conclude that humans use summary statistics to search for complex visual targets. PMID:24627458

Ackermann, John F.; Landy, Michael S.

2014-01-01

358

Psychometric properties of the statistics anxiety rating scale.  

PubMed

The Statistics Anxiety Rating Scale has 51 items, each scored on a 5-point rating scale to measure statistics anxiety with six subscales, Worth of Statistics, Interpretation Anxiety, Test and Class Anxiety, Computational Self-concept, Fear of Asking for Help, and Fear of Statistics Teachers. Psychometric properties included analyses of construct and concurrent validities an internal consistency and test-retest reliability. 221 college students (74% women; M age=28 yr.) in elementary statistics courses at several southwestern state universities participated. The findings are consistent with previous reports and indicate adequate concurrent validity, internal consistency, and split-half reliability, but for construct validity confirmatory factor analysis yielded marginal support. PMID:11899004

Balo?lu, Mustafa

2002-02-01

359

Testing Photons' Bose-Einstein Statistics With Compton Scattering  

E-print Network

It is an empirical question whether photons always obey Bose-Einstein statistics, but devising and interpreting experimental tests of photon statistics can be a challenge. The nonrelativistic cross section for Compton scattering illustrates how a small admixture nu of wrong-sign statistics leads to a loss of gauge invariance; there is a large anomalous amplitude for scattering timelike photons. Nevertheless, one can interpret the observed transparency of the solar wind plasma at low frequencies as a bound nu < 10^(-25) if Lorentz symmetry is required. If there is instead a universal preferred frame, the bound is nu < 10^(-14), still strong compared with previous results.

Brett Altschul

2010-08-27

360

Evidence and Interpretation in Great Ape Gestural Communication  

E-print Network

Tomasello and colleagues have offered various arguments to explain why apes find the comprehension of pointing difficult. They have argued that: (i) apes fail to understand communicative intentions; (ii) they fail to understand informative, cooperative communication, and (iii) they fail to track the common ground that pointing comprehension requires. In the course of a review of the literature on apes ’ production and comprehension of pointing, I reject (i) and (ii), and offer a qualified defence of (iii). Drawing on work on expressive communication, I sketch an account of a mechanism by which ape gestural communication may proceed: the showing of expressive and naturally meaningful embodied behaviours. Such gestures are easily interpretable because they present rich evidence for a speaker’s message. By contrast, pointing typically provides poor evidence for a speaker’s message, which must therefore be inferred from considerations in the interlocutors ’ common ground. This makes pointing comprehension comparatively difficult.

Richard Moore

361

Directionality Effects in Simultaneous Language Interpreting: The Case of Sign Language Interpreters in the Netherlands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The quality of interpretations produced by sign language interpreters was investigated. Twenty-five experienced interpreters were instructed to interpret narratives from (a) spoken Dutch to Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN), (b) spoken Dutch to Sign Supported Dutch (SSD), and (c) SLN to spoken Dutch. The quality of the interpreted narratives…

van Dijk, Rick; Boers, Eveline; Christoffels, Ingrid; Hermans, Daan

2011-01-01

362

Comparison of Dream Interpretation, Event Interpretation, and Unstructured Sessions in Brief Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-five distressed adult clients received 2 sessions each of dream and event interpretation using the Hill model during 12 sessions of successful therapy. No differences were found in depth, insight, and working alliance among dream interpretation, event interpretation, and unstructured sessions, suggesting that dream interpretation is as effective as other therapist strategies. Dream and event interpretation may be equally effective

Roberta A. Diemer; Leslie K. Lobell; Barbara L. Vivino; Clara E. Hill

1996-01-01

363

Finding One Variable Statistics With a Graphing Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This quick YouTube video from high school statistics teacher Roger W. Davis explains how to find one variable statistics using the TI-84 graphing calculator. The demonstration goes through three steps: entering the data, finding one variable statistics using the STAT menu, and interpreting the results. The data created includes mean, sum, median and more. Flash player is required to view this video, and the running time for the clip is 3:12.

Davis, Roger W.

2009-02-12

364

An Interpretation of Quantum Logic  

E-print Network

It is argued that the orthodox interpretation of quantum mechanics is in conflict with the objective existence of space-time, and suggested that kets are labels which name real states of matter but do not directly describe them. Position is a relationship between particles which necessarily contains uncertainty. The principle of superposition is seen as a definitional truism in the naming of states. The description of space in quantum logic resolves the measurement problem of quantum mechanics and related paradoxes such as Schrodinger's cat by attributing the collapse of the wave function to information.

Charles Francis

2014-05-11

365

How modern techniques improve seismic interpretation  

SciTech Connect

Reflection seismology was first applied to hydrocarbon exploration in the 1920s and today is an integral part of oil and gas business. As technology evolves, more information is derived from seismic and used in many interpretation modes. Interpreter demands are also becoming greater as more data of higher quality is available for incorporation into integrated interpretation. Part 1 of this article describes the planning involved for seismic surveys, along with current methods and equipment used for acquisition, processing, display and interpretation of seismic data. Major points covered include: interpretation objectives; seismic acquisition, processing and display; structural interpretation organization and procedure.

Risch, D.L.; Chowdhury, A.N.; Hannan, A.E.; Jamieson, G.A. (Geco-Prakla, Houston, TX (United States))

1994-04-01

366

Relativistic quantum mechanics and the Bohmian interpretation  

E-print Network

Conventional relativistic quantum mechanics, based on the Klein-Gordon equation, does not possess a natural probabilistic interpretation in configuration space. The Bohmian interpretation, in which probabilities play a secondary role, provides a viable interpretation of relativistic quantum mechanics. We formulate the Bohmian interpretation of many-particle wave functions in a Lorentz-covariant way. In contrast with the nonrelativistic case, the relativistic Bohmian interpretation may lead to measurable predictions on particle positions even when the conventional interpretation does not lead to such predictions.

H. Nikolic

2005-04-04

367

Functional programming interpreter. M. S. thesis  

SciTech Connect

Functional Programming (FP) sup BAC87 is an alternative to conventional imperative programming languages. This thesis describes an FP interpreter implementation. Superficially, FP appears to be a simple, but very inefficient language. Its simplicity, however, allows it to be interpreted quickly. Much of the inefficiency can be removed by simple interpreter techniques. This thesis describes the Illinois Functional Programming (IFP) interpreter, an interactive functional programming implementation which runs under both MS-DOS and UNIX. The IFP interpreter allows functions to be created, executed, and debugged in an environment very similar to UNIX. IFP's speed is competitive with other interpreted languages such as BASIC.

Robison, A.D.

1987-03-01

368

‘Universal’ recession curves and their geomorphological interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of recession flows offers fundamental insights into basin hydrological processes and, in particular, into the collective behavior of the governing dominant subsurface flows and properties. We use here an existing geomorphological interpretation of recession dynamics, which links the exponent in the classic recession curve -dQ/dt=kQ? to the geometric properties of the time-varying drainage network to study the general properties of recession curves across a wide variety of river basins. In particular, we show how the parameter k depends on the initial soil moisture state of the basin and can be made to explicitly depend on an index discharge, representative of initial sub-subsurface storage. Through this framework we obtain a non-dimensional, event-independent, recession curve. We subsequently quantify the variability of k across different basins on the basis of their geometry, and, by rescaling, collapse curves from different events and basins to obtain a generalized, or ‘universal’, recession curve. Finally, we analyze the resulting normalized recession curves and explain their universal characteristics, lending further support to the notion that the statistical properties of observed recession curves bear the signature of the geomorphological structure of the networks producing them.

Biswal, Basudev; Marani, Marco

2014-03-01

369

Biostratinomic utility of Archimedes in environmental interpretation  

SciTech Connect

Biostratinomic information from the bryozoan Archimedes can be used to infer paleocurrent senses when other more traditional sedimentary structures are lacking. As with other elongate particles, Archimedes zooaria become oriented in the current and, upon settling, preserve a sense of the flow direction. Orientations and lengths were measured on over 200 individuals from bedding plane exposures in the Upper Mississippian Union Limestone (Greenbrier Group) of West Virginia. These were separated into long and short populations and plotted on rose diagrams. The results show that long and short segments become preferentially oriented in the current and the bimodally distributed long segments can be used to infer the current sense. The current sense is defined by the line which bisects the obtuse angle created by the two maxima in the rose diagram for long segments. Statistical evaluation of the long and short populations indicate they are significant to the 99.9 percent level. Elongate fossils such as Archimedes can be used in paleocurrent evaluations and can add more detail to the interpretation of paleodepositional conditions.

Wulff, J.I. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (USA))

1990-04-01

370

Autologistic models with interpretable parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecologists are interested in characterizing succession processes, in particular monitoring the spread of invasive species\\u000a and their effect on resident species. In situations for which binary response variables representing presence or absence of\\u000a plants are observed over a spatial lattice, it may be desirable to use a model that accounts for the statistical dependence\\u000a in the data, as well as

Petru?a C. Caragea; Mark S. Kaiser

2009-01-01

371

Securing wide appreciation of health statistics  

PubMed Central

All the authors are agreed on the need for a certain publicizing of health statistics, but do Amaral Pyrrait points out that the medical profession prefers to convince itself rather than to be convinced. While there is great utility in articles and reviews in the professional press (especially for paramedical personnel) Aubenque, de Groot, and Kohn show how appreciation can effectively be secured by making statistics more easily understandable to the non-expert by, for instance, including readable commentaries in official publications, simplifying charts and tables, and preparing simple manuals on statistical methods. Aubenque and Kohn also stress the importance of linking health statistics to other economic and social information. Benjamin suggests that the principles of market research could to advantage be applied to health statistics to determine the precise needs of the “consumers”. At the same time, Aubenque points out that the value of the ultimate results must be clear to those who provide the data; for this, Kohn suggests that the enumerators must know exactly what is wanted and why. There is general agreement that some explanation of statistical methods and their uses should be given in the curricula of medical schools and that lectures and postgraduate courses should be arranged for practising physicians. PMID:13199668

Pyrrait, A. M. DO Amaral; Aubenque, M. J.; Benjamin, B.; DE Groot, Meindert J. W.; Kohn, R.

1954-01-01

372

Fluid Interpretation of Cardassian Expansion  

E-print Network

A fluid interpretation of Cardassian expansion is developed. Here, the Friedmann equation takes the form $H^2 = g(\\rho_M)$ where $\\rho_M$ contains only matter and radiation (no vacuum). The function $g(\\rhom)$ returns to the usual $8\\pi\\rhom/(3 m_{pl}^2)$ during the early history of the universe, but takes a different form that drives an accelerated expansion after a redshift $z \\sim 1$. One possible interpretation of this function (and of the right hand side of Einstein's equations) is that it describes a fluid with total energy density $\\rho_{tot} = {3 m_{pl}^2 \\over 8 \\pi} g(\\rhom) = \\rhom + \\rho_K$ containing not only matter density (mass times number density) but also interaction terms $\\rho_K$. These interaction terms give rise to an effective negative pressure which drives cosmological acceleration. These interactions may be due to interacting dark matter, e.g. with a fifth force between particles $F \\sim r^{\\alpha -1}$. Such interactions may be intrinsically four dimensional or may result from higher dimensional physics. A fully relativistic fluid model is developed here, with conservation of energy, momentum, and particle number. A modified Poisson's equation is derived. A study of fluctuations in the early universe is presented, although a fully relativistic treatment of the perturbations including gauge choice is as yet incomplete.

Paolo Gondolo; Katherine Freese

2003-10-13

373

Interpretation of the Cosmological Metric  

E-print Network

The cosmological Robertson-Walker metric of general relativity is often said to have the consequences that (1) the recessional velocity $v$ of a galaxy at proper distance $\\ell$ obeys the Hubble law $v=H\\ell$, and therefore galaxies at sufficiently great distance $\\ell$ are receding faster than the speed of light $c$; (2) faster than light recession does not violate special relativity theory because the latter is not applicable to the cosmological problem, and because ``space itself is receding'' faster than $c$ at great distance, and it is velocity relative to local space that is limited by $c$, not the velocity of distant objects relative to nearby ones; (3) we can see galaxies receding faster than the speed of light; and (4) the cosmological redshift is not a Doppler shift, but is due to a stretching of photon wavelength during propagation in an expanding universe. We present a particular Robertson-Walker metric (an empty universe metric) for which a coordinate transformation shows that none of these interpretation necessarily holds. The resulting paradoxes of interpretation lead to a deeper understanding of the meaning of the cosmological metric.

Richard J. Cook; M. Shane Burns

2008-09-03

374

When interpretation masquerades as explanation.  

PubMed

The principal goal of the clinical interpretation (and of the larger clinical narrative) is to bring about insight and change in the patient, and not to present a reasoned argument that relies on public data and shared rules of evidence and logic. When the clinical account is transposed to the public domain and presented as a form of explanation, it is no longer designed for the benefit of one individual but must now be accessible to all. We are still under the shadow of Freud's five famous cases which are literary landmarks of exposition and persuasion. As a result, we are less sensitive to what happens when interpretations are substituted for explanations. The time has come to develop a new genre and a new mode of clinical reporting that would allow the reader to participate in the argument, allow him to evaluate the proposed links between evidence and conclusion (instead of relying on the authority of the analyst-author), and open up the clinical report to the possibilities of refutation, disconfirmation, and falsification. PMID:3519739

Spence, D P

1986-01-01

375

Uses and Abuses of Statistical Significance Tests and Other Statistical Resources: A Comparative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The empirical study we present here deals with a pedagogical issue that has not been thoroughly explored up until now in our field. Previous empirical studies in other sectors have identified the opinions of researchers about this topic, showing that completely unacceptable interpretations have been made of significance tests and other statistical…

Monterde-i-Bort, Hector; Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Pascual-Llobell, Juan

2010-01-01

376

State and spaces of official labour statistics in the Federal Republic of Germany, c.1950-1973   

E-print Network

This PhD examines the historical making and interpretation of West-German official labour statistics in the period 1950-1973: how did official statistics come to be inscribed in state and administrative attempts to ...

Mayer, Jochen

2012-11-29

377

Pure quantum interpretations are not viable  

E-print Network

Pure interpretations of quantum theory, which reject the classical part of the Copenhagen interpretation without adding new structure to it's quantum part, are not viable. This is a consequence of a non-uniqueness result for the canonical operators.

I. Schmelzer

2010-03-07

378

On the Scientific Status of Interpretive Inquiry   

E-print Network

Interpretive social science is well established institutionally at universities and research centres. It benefits from this institutional context in terms of prestige, credibility and grants. In comparison with non-interpretive disciplines however...

Sosenko, Filip

2007-01-01

379

Interpretation and clustering of handwritten student responses  

E-print Network

This thesis presents an interpretation and clustering framework for handwritten student responses on tablet computers. The ink analysis system is able to capture and interpret digital ink strokes for many types of classroom ...

Von Tish, Kelsey Leigh

2012-01-01

380

The Interpreted Executive: Theory, Models, and Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes the interpreter's role in international business ventures. Presents descriptive models of the role, highlights major implications executives should consider before hiring an interpreter, and poses research questions based on these implications. (SR)

Sussman, Lyle; Johnson, Denise M.

1993-01-01

381

12 CFR 609.920 - Interpretations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Interpretations...handwritten signatures in business, consumer, or...recognized. Generally, an electronic record or signature...interpreted to permit electronic transmissions, communications...and submissions in business, consumer, or...

2014-01-01

382

12 CFR 609.920 - Interpretations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Interpretations...handwritten signatures in business, consumer, or...recognized. Generally, an electronic record or signature...interpreted to permit electronic transmissions, communications...and submissions in business, consumer, or...

2013-01-01

383

12 CFR 609.920 - Interpretations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Interpretations...handwritten signatures in business, consumer, or...recognized. Generally, an electronic record or signature...interpreted to permit electronic transmissions, communications...and submissions in business, consumer, or...

2012-01-01

384

12 CFR 609.920 - Interpretations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Interpretations...handwritten signatures in business, consumer, or...recognized. Generally, an electronic record or signature...interpreted to permit electronic transmissions, communications...and submissions in business, consumer, or...

2011-01-01

385

16 CFR 1.73 - Interpretations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...corrective action by the Commission under applicable statutory... (1) Requests for Commission interpretations should...Secretary of the Federal Trade Commission stating the nature...Any interpretation issued pursuant to this...

2010-01-01

386

10 CFR 26.7 - Interpretations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 26.7 Section 26.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Administrative Provisions § 26.7 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the...

2012-01-01

387

10 CFR 26.7 - Interpretations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 26.7 Section 26.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Administrative Provisions § 26.7 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the...

2010-01-01

388

Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy contains a comprehensive introduction to the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. It includes discussions of the probability, tests, and objections to this interpretation.

Vaidman, Lev

389

10 CFR 76.6 - Interpretations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Interpretations. 76.6 Section 76.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.6 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in...

2011-01-01

390

10 CFR 76.6 - Interpretations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Interpretations. 76.6 Section 76.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.6 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in...

2012-01-01

391

10 CFR 76.6 - Interpretations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Interpretations. 76.6 Section 76.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.6 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in...

2014-01-01

392

10 CFR 76.6 - Interpretations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Interpretations. 76.6 Section 76.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.6 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in...

2013-01-01

393

10 CFR 76.6 - Interpretations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Interpretations. 76.6 Section 76.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.6 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in...

2010-01-01

394

CONTEMPORARY ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Aerial Photographic Interpretation is a timed-tested technique for extracting landscape- level information from aerial photographs and other types of remotely sensed images. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) has a 2...

395

American Statistical Association: Statistics in Sports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section of the American Statistical Association website covers Statistics in Sports. Available here are a few older articles dealing with sports statistics and links to websites containing data for several professional and amateur sports, as well as websites with general news and information about sports, and a listing of official team websites for pro teams. A section called Statistics on the Web provides links to academic departments, conferences, and employers, while another section answers some frequently asked questions about sports statistics as a career. The website also provides an explanation of the Player Game Percentage (PGP) technique and uses the 2004 World Series as an example to demonstrate the technique. Educators will find a link to a website that offers suggestions of ways to incorporate sports statistics in the classroom.

396

Statistical Reference Datasets  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

Statistical Reference Datasets (Web, free access)   The Statistical Reference Datasets is also supported by the Standard Reference Data Program. The purpose of this project is to improve the accuracy of statistical software by providing reference datasets with certified computational results that enable the objective evaluation of statistical software.

397

STATISTICAL METHODS INFECTIOUS METHODS  

E-print Network

Appendix G STATISTICAL METHODS INFECTIOUS METHODS STATISTICAL ROADMAP Prepared in Support of: CDC for Environmental Health 1 #12;Statistical Methods for Analyzing Data Collected During the Churchill County Study 1 with the complex statistical analysis, investigators from the CDC contracted with Battelle for their assistance

398

Statistical Parsing Inside Algorithm  

E-print Network

Parsing · Review · Statistical Parsing · SCFG · Inside Algorithm · Outside Algorithm NLP NLP statistical parsing 2 language and is often viewed as an important prerequisite for building A syntactic tree NLP statistical parsing 3 #12;Parsing Another syntactic tree NLP statistical parsing 4 #12

Ageno, Alicia

399

Statistical Reference Datasets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A project designed to improve the accuracy of statistical software by providing reference datasets with certified computational results that enable the objective evaluation of statistical software. Dataset archives (Analysis of Variance, Linear Regression, Nonlinear Regression, and Univariate Summary Statistics); background information; related resources and links; FAQs. A project component of of NIST's Tools for Evaluating Mathematical and Statistical Software.

400

Direct interpretation of dreams: typology.  

PubMed

The dream typology assorts dreams into three major categories: dreams whose origin is endogenous, exogenous, or relational. Dreams of the first type arise from somatic needs, feelings, and states that accompany organismic adjustments to system requirements. Dreams of the second type are initiated by kinetic and dispositional tendencies toward engagement and exploration of the outer world. And dreams of the third type derive from interpersonal dispositions to interaction and relationship with other people. Within each category, dreams may occur at different levels of complexity. The dream typology permits the integration of psychoanalytic observations about the dreams from a variety of perspectives within a common framework. Freud's view that a dream is a wish fulfillment finds its primary niche in endogenous need, wish fulfillment, and convenience dreams. Kohut's observations about self-state dreams and inner regulation (1971, 1977) are accommodated to the middle range of endogenous dreams, and Jung's individuation dreams (1930) occupy the advanced range. Similarly, Bonime's interpersonal approach to dream interpretation (1962) is encompassed by relational dreams of the middle level. In addition, types and modes of dreams that are only infrequently encountered in clinical psychoanalysis are accommodated. The dream typology suggests that different psychoanalytic theories are like the position papers that might have derived from the fabled committee of learned blind who were commissioned to determine the appearance of an elephant. Each individual got a hold on some part, but could not see the whole; so for each, the part became the whole. The psychoanalytic theorist is in exactly an analogous position because, in fact, he is blind to the extent of the unconscious and is constrained to what he can infer. What he can infer depends on cohort, client population, and how he calibrates his observations. The result has been procrustean interpretation, dissention, and a remarkable stasis in the psychoanalytic theory of the unconscious. The theory of the unconscious that arises from the method of direct interpretation reflects a differentiated inner world with variegated landscapes of images and frameworks. The derivatives of the unconscious are determined by complex decision rules, symbol systems, and syntax. Images and dreams possess a primary autonomy from the conscious mind and arise through the configural mind, which serves the construction and synthesis of experience and knowledge. The derivatives emerge out of common human nature conjoined with concrete human experience. For this reason, dreams and images appear universal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1489016

van den Daele, L

1992-12-01

401

Annual summary of vital statistics--1985.  

PubMed

Data for this article, as in previous reports, are drawn principally from Monthly Vital Statistics Report, published by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). The international data come from the Demographic Yearbook and the quarterly Population and Vital Statistics Reports, both published by the Statistical Office of the United Nations, which has also been kind enough to provide directly more recent data. Except for mortality data by cause and age, which are based on a 10% sample, all the US data for 1984 are estimates by place of occurrence, based upon a count of certificates received in state offices between two dates, 1 month apart, regardless of when the event occurred. Experience has shown that for the country as a whole the estimates, with few exceptions, are close to the subsequent final figures. There are, however, considerable variations in some states, particularly in comparing data by place of occurrence and place of residence. State information should be interpreted cautiously. PMID:3786054

Wegman, M E

1986-12-01

402

The Role of Interpreters in Inclusive Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative 3-year case study followed three deaf interpreters in an inclusive school. Results of interviews indicated that, in addition to sign interpreting, the interpreters clarified teacher directions, facilitated peer interaction, tutored the deaf children, and kept teachers and special educators informed of the deaf children's progress.…

Antia, Shirin D.; Kreimeyer, Kathryn H.

2001-01-01

403

Comparison of Two Interpretations of Josephson Effect  

E-print Network

This paper puts forward an interpretation of the Josephson effect based on the Alternative Theory of Superconductivity (ATS). A comparison of ATS- and BCS-based interpretations is provided. It is demonstrated that the ATS-based interpretation, unlike that based on BCS theory, does not require a revision of fundamentals of quantum physics.

I. M. Yurin

2008-09-16

404

Probability in modal interpretations of quantum mechanics  

E-print Network

Probability in modal interpretations of quantum mechanics Dennis Dieks Institute for the History interpretations have the ambition to construe quantum mechanics as an ob- jective, man-independent description in modal interpretations, and to this end we make a comparison with many-worlds alternatives. An overall

Seevinck, Michiel

405

Dream Interpretation with Heterosexual Dating Couples  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effectiveness of the Hill cognitive–experiential model of dream interpretation for working with male and female partners in heterosexual dating couples. Results showed that female partners who received dream interpretation (N = 20) had greater improvements in relationship well-being, insight, and gains from dream interpretation than female partners in the wait-list control group (N = 20). However, male

Misty R. Kolchakian; Clara E. Hill

2002-01-01

406

An Online Synchronous Test for Professional Interpreters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is based on an experiment designed to conduct an interpreting test for multiple candidates online, using web-based synchronous cyber classrooms. The test model was based on the accreditation test for Professional Interpreters produced by the National Accreditation Authority of Translators and Interpreters (NAATI) in Australia.…

Chen, Nian-Shing; Ko, Leong

2010-01-01

407

Negative interpretation bias in social phobia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the hypothesis that, compared to non-anxious controls (NACs) and individuals with other anxiety disorders (e.g., individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder; OCs), individuals with generalized social phobia (GSPs) would tend to interpret ambiguous social scenarios as negative when provided with various alternative interpretations. Participants were presented with 22 ambiguous scenarios each followed by three possible interpretations: positive, negative, and

Nader Amin; Edna B. Foa; Meredith E. Coles

1998-01-01

408

Comprehension and Error Monitoring in Simultaneous Interpreters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the current study we explored lexical, syntactic, and semantic processes during text comprehension in English monolinguals and Spanish/English (first language/second language) bilinguals with different experience in interpreting (nontrained bilinguals, interpreting students and professional interpreters). The participants performed an…

Yudes, Carolina; Macizo, Pedro; Morales, Luis; Bajo, M. Teresa

2013-01-01

409

Court Interpreting: The Anatomy of a Profession.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For both translators and interpreters, language proficiency is only the starting point for professional work. The equivalence of both meaning and style are necessary for faithful translation. The legal interpreter or translator must understand the complex characteristics and style of legal language. Court interpreting is a relatively young…

de Jongh, Elena M.

410

Framework for Interpreting Handwritten Strokes using Grammars  

E-print Network

Framework for Interpreting Handwritten Strokes using Grammars Buntarou Shizuki1 , Kazuhisa Iizuka1 handwritten strokes and other objects, which can be used to interpret ambiguous results of pattern matching using a stylus. The system would then interpret the handwritten strokes to recognize the structure

Tanaka, Jiro

411

Anthropic interpretation of quantum theory  

E-print Network

The problem of interpreting quantum theory on a large (e.g. cosmological) scale has been commonly conceived as a search for objective reality in a framework that is fundamentally probabilistic. The Everett programme attempts to evade the issue by the reintroduction of determinism at the global level of a ``state vector of the universe''. The present approach is based on the recognition that, like determinism, objective reality is an unrealistic objective. It is shown how an objective theory of an essentially subjective reality can be set up using an appropriately weighted probability measure on the relevant set of Hilbert subspaces. It is suggested that an entropy principle (superseding the weak anthropic principle) should be used to provide the weighting that is needed.

Brandon Carter

2004-03-01

412

Interpretation of rapidly rotating pulsars  

SciTech Connect

The minimum possible rotational period of pulsars, which are interpreted as rotating neutron stars, is determined by applying a representative collection of realistic nuclear equations of state. It is found that none of the selected equations of state allows for neutron star rotation at periods below 0.8--0.9 ms. Thus, this work strongly supports the suggestion that if pulsars with shorter rotational periods were found, these are likely to be strange-quark-matter stars. The conclusion that the confined hadronic phase of nucleons and nuclei is only metastable would then be almost inescapable, and the plausible ground-state in that event is the deconfined phase of (3-flavor) strange-quark-matter.

Weber, F. (Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik); Glendenning, N.K. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

1992-08-05

413

Interpreting neurodynamics: concepts and facts  

PubMed Central

The dynamics of neuronal systems, briefly neurodynamics, has developed into an attractive and influential research branch within neuroscience. In this paper, we discuss a number of conceptual issues in neurodynamics that are important for an appropriate interpretation and evaluation of its results. We demonstrate their relevance for selected topics of theoretical and empirical work. In particular, we refer to the notions of determinacy and stochasticity in neurodynamics across levels of microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic descriptions. The issue of correlations between neural, mental and behavioral states is also addressed in some detail. We propose an informed discussion of conceptual foundations with respect to neurobiological results as a viable step to a fruitful future philosophy of neuroscience. PMID:19003452

Rotter, Stefan

2008-01-01

414

QUALITATIVE INTERPRETATION OF GALAXY SPECTRA  

SciTech Connect

We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is for general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means-based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to H II galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. We compare the mean ages of the stellar populations with those inferred using the code STARLIGHT. We also examine the estimated gas-phase metallicity with the metallicities obtained using electron-temperature-based methods. A number of byproducts follow from the analysis. There is a tight correlation between the age of the stellar population and the metallicity of the gas, which is stronger than the correlations between galaxy mass and stellar age, and galaxy mass and gas metallicity. The galaxy spectra are known to follow a one-dimensional sequence, and we identify the luminosity-weighted mean stellar age as the affine parameter that describes the sequence. All ASK classes happen to have a significant fraction of old stars, although spectrum-wise they are outshined by the youngest populations. Old stars are metal-rich or metal-poor depending on whether they reside in passive galaxies or in star-forming galaxies.

Sanchez Almeida, J.; Morales-Luis, A. B. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Terlevich, R.; Terlevich, E. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Cid Fernandes, R., E-mail: jos@iac.es, E-mail: abml@iac.es, E-mail: rjt@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: eterlevi@inaoep.mx, E-mail: cid@astro.ufsc.br [Departamento de Fisica-CFM, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

2012-09-10

415

Statistical Applets: Animated Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of statistical applets is designed to accompany the textbook, "Practice of Business Statistics." The applets can be used without the textbook and cover many introductory statistics concepts including mean, normal curve, correlation and regression, probability, the law of large numbers, the central limit theorem, confidence intervals, statistical significance, power, and ANOVA. This is a great collection of interactive materials for either instructors or students studying statistics.

Duckworth, William

416

Contour Statistics in Natural Images  

PubMed Central

Correctly interpreting a natural image requires dealing properly with the effects of occlusion, and hence contour grouping across occlusions is a major component of many natural visual tasks. To better understand the mechanisms of contour grouping across occlusions we (a) measured the pair-wise statistics of edge elements from contours in natural images, as a function of edge-element geometry and contrast polarity, (b) derived the ideal Bayesian observer for a contour occlusion task where the stimuli were extracted directly from natural images, and then (c) measured human performance in the same contour occlusion task. In addition to discovering new statistical properties of natural contours, we found that naïve human observers closely parallel ideal performance in our contour occlusion task. In fact, there was no region of the four-dimensional stimulus space (3 geometry dimensions and 1 contrast dimension) where humans did not closely parallel the performance of the ideal observer (i.e., efficiency was approximately constant over the entire space). These results reject many other contour grouping hypotheses and strongly suggest that the neural mechanisms of contour grouping are tightly related to the statistical properties of contours in natural images. PMID:19216819

Geisler, Wilson S.; Perry, Jeffrey S.

2008-01-01

417

Statistics and probability. Grades 6-8  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This MathPARTNERS unit contains seven lessons with hands-on learning activities for exploring statistics and probability with students in grades 6-8. The lessons, designed for mentoring situations, may also be helpful for teachers and parents. Each lesson with reproducible student materials, features an overview of the mathematics, preparation guidelines, teaching tips, and suggestions for how to use each activity to develop specific mathematics concepts. Statistics activities focus on posing questions, data gathering, identifying bias, understanding measures of central tendency, representing data with graphs, and interpreting data. Probability activities introduce fairness in games and the computation of probability. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Education Development Center

2003-01-01

418

Statistics 5126 Introduction to Applied Statistics  

E-print Network

program. Instructions on obtaining and using R will be provided in class. Course Policy Classroom to the class on time. Opening and closing the classroom door in the middle of a class cause distractionStatistics 5126 Introduction to Applied Statistics Fall 2012 Course Information Class Meeting Time

Barbu, Adrian

419

Interface problems: Structural constraints on interpretation?  

PubMed Central

Five experiments investigated the interpretation of quantified noun phrases in relation to discourse structure. They demonstrated, using questionnaire and on-line reading techniques, that readers in English prefer to give a quantified noun phrase in (VP-external) subject position a presuppositional interpretation, in which the noun phrase limits or restricts the interpretation of an already available set, rather than giving it a nonpresuppositional or existential interpretation, in which it introduces completely new entities into the discourse. Experiment 1 showed that readers prefer a presuppositional interpretation of three ships over the existential interpretation in Five ships appeared on the horizon. Three ships sank. Experiment 2 showed longer reading times in sentences that are disambiguated toward the existential interpretation than in sentences that permit the presuppositional interpretation. Experiment 3 suggested that the presuppositional preference is greater when the phrase three ships occurs outside the verb phrase than when it occurs inside the verb phrase. Experiment 4 showed that Korean subjects marked with a topic marker received more presuppositional interpretations than subjects marked with a nominative marker. Experiment 5 showed that German subjects in VP-external (but nontopic) position received more presuppositional interpretations than VP-internal subjects. The results suggest the syntactic position of a phrase is one determinant of its interpretation, as expected according to the mapping hypothesis of Diesing (1990). PMID:16050443

Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles; Rayner, Keith; Deevy, Patricia; Koh, Sungryong; Bader, Markus

2006-01-01

420

Equilibrium statistical mechanics for incomplete nonextensive statistics  

E-print Network

The incomplete nonextensive statistics in the canonical and microcanonical ensembles is explored in the general case and in a particular case for the ideal gas. By exact analytical results for the ideal gas it is shown that taking the thermodynamic limit, with $z=q/(1-q)$ being an extensive variable of state, the incomplete nonextensive statistics satisfies the requirements of equilibrium thermodynamics. The thermodynamical potential of the statistical ensemble is a homogeneous function of the first degree of the extensive variables of state. In this case, the incomplete nonextensive statistics is equivalent to the usual Tsallis statistics. If $z$ is an intensive variable of state, i.e. the entropic index $q$ is a universal constant, the requirements of the equilibrium thermodynamics are violated.

A. S. Parvan; T. S. Biro

2010-03-29

421

Searching for non-gaussianity: Statistical tests  

E-print Network

Non-gaussianity represents the statistical signature of physical processes such as turbulence. It can also be used as a powerful tool to discriminate between competing cosmological scenarios. A canonical analysis of non-gaussianity is based on the study of the distribution of the signal in the real (or direct) space (e.g. brightness, temperature). This work presents an image processing method in which we propose statistical tests to indicate and quantify the non-gaussian nature of a signal. Our method is based on a wavelet analysis of a signal. Because the temperature or brightness distribution is a rather weak discriminator, the search for the statistical signature of non-gaussianity relies on the study of the coefficient distribution of an image in the wavelet decomposition basis which is much more sensitive. We develop two statistical tests for non-gaussianity. In order to test their reliability, we apply them to sets of test maps representing a combination of gaussian and non-gaussian signals. We deliberately choose a signal with a weak non-gaussian signature and we find that such a non-gaussian signature is easily detected using our statistical discriminators. In a second paper, we apply the tests in a cosmological context.

O. Forni; N. Aghanim

1999-05-11

422

Photon statistics of coherent harmonic radiation of a linac free electron laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of statistical fluctuations in a free electron laser (FEL) is both fundamental and significant to the understanding of FEL radiation. This dissertation deals with two relevant issues in this regard: the photon statistics of the visible coherent spontaneous harmonic radiation (CSHR); and the examination of the electron shot-noise interpretation of the observed statistical fluctuations. In this dissertation, we

Teng Chen

1999-01-01

423

Surveys Assessing Students' Attitudes toward Statistics: A Systematic Review of Validity and Reliability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students with positive attitudes toward statistics are likely to show strong academic performance in statistics courses. Multiple surveys measuring students' attitudes toward statistics exist; however, a comparison of the validity and reliability of interpretations based on their scores is needed. A systematic review of relevant electronic…

Nolan, Meaghan M.; Beran, Tanya; Hecker, Kent G.

2012-01-01

424

The Power of Statistical Tests for Moderators in Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Calculation of the statistical power of statistical tests is important in planning and interpreting the results of research studies, including meta-analyses. It is particularly important in moderator analyses in meta-analysis, which are often used as sensitivity analyses to rule out moderator effects but also may have low statistical power. This…

Hedges, Larry V.; Pigott, Therese D.

2004-01-01

425

Sign Language Interpreting: The Relationship between Metalinguistic Awareness and the Production of Interpreting Omissions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the findings of the first linguistic analysis of sign language interpreting carried out in Australia. A study was conducted on 10 Australian Sign Language/English interpreters to determine the rate and occurrence of interpreting omissions and the interpreters' level of metalinguistic awareness in relation to their production…

Napier, Jemina; Barker, Roz

2004-01-01

426

Predictors of Outcome of Dream Interpretation Sessions: Volunteer Client Characteristics, Dream Characteristics, and Type of Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

105 volunteer clients completed single sessions of dream interpretation using the Hill (1996) model, with half randomly assigned to waking life interpretation and the other half to parts of self interpretation in the insight stage of the Hill model. No differences were found between waking life and parts of self interpretations, suggesting that therapists can use either type of dream

Clara E. Hill; Frances A. Kelley; Timothy L. Davis; Rachel E. Crook; Leslie E. Maldonado; Maria A. Turkson; Teresa L. Wonnell; V. Suthakaran; Jason S. Zack; Aaron B. Rochlen; Misty R. Kolchakian; Jamila N. Codrington

2001-01-01

427

Comparison of Dream Interpretation, Event Interpretation, and Unstructured Sessions in Brief Therapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-five distressed adult clients received 2 sessions each of dream and event interpretation using the Hill model during 12 sessions of successful therapy. No differences were found in depth, insight, and working alliance among dream interpretation, event interpretation, and unstructured sessions, suggesting that dream interpretation is as…

Diemer, Roberta A.; And Others

1996-01-01

428

Testing quantum mechanics: a statistical approach  

E-print Network

As experiments continue to push the quantum-classical boundary using increasingly complex dynamical systems, the interpretation of experimental data becomes more and more challenging: when the observations are noisy, indirect, and limited, how can we be sure that we are observing quantum behavior? This tutorial highlights some of the difficulties in such experimental tests of quantum mechanics, using optomechanics as the central example, and discusses how the issues can be resolved using techniques from statistics and insights from quantum information theory.

Mankei Tsang

2014-01-27

429

The Extended Statistical Analysis of Toxicity Tests Using Standardised Effect Sizes (SESs): A Comparison of Nine Published Papers  

PubMed Central

The safety of chemicals, drugs, novel foods and genetically modified crops is often tested using repeat-dose sub-acute toxicity tests in rats or mice. It is important to avoid misinterpretations of the results as these tests are used to help determine safe exposure levels in humans. Treated and control groups are compared for a range of haematological, biochemical and other biomarkers which may indicate tissue damage or other adverse effects. However, the statistical analysis and presentation of such data poses problems due to the large number of statistical tests which are involved. Often, it is not clear whether a “statistically significant” effect is real or a false positive (type I error) due to sampling variation. The author's conclusions appear to be reached somewhat subjectively by the pattern of statistical significances, discounting those which they judge to be type I errors and ignoring any biomarker where the p-value is greater than p?=?0.05. However, by using standardised effect sizes (SESs) a range of graphical methods and an over-all assessment of the mean absolute response can be made. The approach is an extension, not a replacement of existing methods. It is intended to assist toxicologists and regulators in the interpretation of the results. Here, the SES analysis has been applied to data from nine published sub-acute toxicity tests in order to compare the findings with those of the author's. Line plots, box plots and bar plots show the pattern of response. Dose-response relationships are easily seen. A “bootstrap” test compares the mean absolute differences across dose groups. In four out of seven papers where the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was estimated by the authors, it was set too high according to the bootstrap test, suggesting that possible toxicity is under-estimated. PMID:25426843

Festing, Michael F. W.

2014-01-01

430

The extended statistical analysis of toxicity tests using standardised effect sizes (SESs): a comparison of nine published papers.  

PubMed

The safety of chemicals, drugs, novel foods and genetically modified crops is often tested using repeat-dose sub-acute toxicity tests in rats or mice. It is important to avoid misinterpretations of the results as these tests are used to help determine safe exposure levels in humans. Treated and control groups are compared for a range of haematological, biochemical and other biomarkers which may indicate tissue damage or other adverse effects. However, the statistical analysis and presentation of such data poses problems due to the large number of statistical tests which are involved. Often, it is not clear whether a "statistically significant" effect is real or a false positive (type I error) due to sampling variation. The author's conclusions appear to be reached somewhat subjectively by the pattern of statistical significances, discounting those which they judge to be type I errors and ignoring any biomarker where the p-value is greater than p = 0.05. However, by using standardised effect sizes (SESs) a range of graphical methods and an over-all assessment of the mean absolute response can be made. The approach is an extension, not a replacement of existing methods. It is intended to assist toxicologists and regulators in the interpretation of the results. Here, the SES analysis has been applied to data from nine published sub-acute toxicity tests in order to compare the findings with those of the author's. Line plots, box plots and bar plots show the pattern of response. Dose-response relationships are easily seen. A "bootstrap" test compares the mean absolute differences across dose groups. In four out of seven papers where the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was estimated by the authors, it was set too high according to the bootstrap test, suggesting that possible toxicity is under-estimated. PMID:25426843

Festing, Michael F W

2014-01-01

431

Deteriorating air or improving measurements? On interpreting concatenate time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements reported by Eldred and Cahill [1994] provide an extended record of fine-particle sulfur concentrations at Shenandoah National Park. Begun in 1982, the measurements were upgraded in 1986 to improve time resolution and again in 1988 to improve sensitivity and particle size discrimination. Standard hypothesis rejection tests indicate a statistically significant upward trend in measured concentrations from 1982 to 1992. However, similar tests also indicate statistically significant differences between measurements made by the different methods, even when the apparent trend is accounted for. Does the trend in measured concentrations reflect increasing atmospheric concentrations, or is it an artifact of evolving measurement methods? This paper frames the question in rudimentary Bayesian terms and shows that one's interpretation of the trend is sensitive to one's prior confidence in the measurements.

White, Warren H.

1997-03-01

432

Tardive diskinesia: a clinical interpretation.  

PubMed

This paper discusses various clinical conditions with oral diskinetic movements and proposes, on the basis of clinical evidence, an interpretation of drug-induced oral diskinesia as a conditioned response to local aversive stimuli related to drug use (local side effects), or other factors such as missing teeth and ill-fitting dentures. There is an accompanying anxiety associated with the aversive stimulus or with difficulties in verbal expression, as in the case of brain damaged patients. The diskinetic movements are initially Voluntary movements aiming at removing the aversive stimulus (stage of voluntary movements). If they succeed in reducing the accompanying anxiety, the reduction of anxiety reinforces the diskinetic response. In a subsequent stage, these movements lose their laborious voluntary quality and become automatic (stage of automatic movements). In a final stage, the diskinetic movements become instrumental in reducing anxiety in the absence of the aversive stimulus (stage of instrumentalization). The question is raised whether drug-induced oral diskinesia can be placed under the general rubric of tics, as a special drug-induced form of it. PMID:17894085

Siomopoulos, V

1974-03-01

433

Hydrostratigraphic Interpretation Using Indicator Geostatistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe an approach that uses indicator geostatistics to interpret qualitative borehole logs and compute experimental variograms for complex alluvial sediments. Borehole descriptions are first transformed into binary indicator values based on inferred relative permeability from the borehole descriptions. The resulting indicator data can then be used to compute variograms and construct three-dimensional variogram models. The ranges of computed indicator variograms for a groundwater contamination site in Santa Clara Valley, California, are very sensitive to the orientation of the search plane. These variograms are consistent with known stratigraphie features and describe the spatial structure of deposits from different depositional environments. Indicator kriging weighs all the available data on the basis of a three-dimensional, anisotropic variogram model and provides an estimate of uncertainty in the hydrostratigraphic correlation. Kriged indicator values represent probabilities that sediments at a specific location fall into one of two indicator categories. The location of the 0.5 indicator contour is approximately the boundary between high- and low-permeability sediments that might be constructed in a geologic cross section.

Johnson, Nicholas M.; Dreiss, Shirley J.

1989-12-01

434

Guide to Magellan image interpretation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of Magellan Mission requirements, radar system characteristics, and methods of data collection is followed by a description of the image data, mosaic formats, areal coverage, resolution, and pixel DN-to-dB conversion. The availability and sources of image data are outlined. Applications of the altimeter data to estimate relief, Fresnel reflectivity, and surface slope, and the radiometer data to derive microwave emissivity are summarized and illustrated in conjunction with corresponding SAR image data. Same-side and opposite-side stereo images provide examples of parallax differences from which to measure relief with a lateral resolution many times greater than that of the altimeter. Basic radar interactions with geologic surfaces are discussed with respect to radar-imaging geometry, surface roughness, backscatter modeling, and dielectric constant. Techniques are described for interpreting the geomorphology and surface properties of surficial features, impact craters, tectonically deformed terrain, and volcanic landforms. The morphologic characteristics that distinguish impact craters from volcanic craters are defined. Criteria for discriminating extensional and compressional origins of tectonic features are discussed. Volcanic edifices, constructs, and lava channels are readily identified from their radar outlines in images. Geologic map units are identified on the basis of surface texture, image brightness, pattern, and morphology. Superposition, cross-cutting relations, and areal distribution of the units serve to elucidate the geologic history.

Ford, John P.; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Weitz, Catherine M.; Farr, Tom G.; Senske, David A.; Stofan, Ellen R.; Michaels, Gregory; Parker, Timothy J.; Fulton, D. (editor)

1993-01-01

435

Bioinformatics for personal genome interpretation  

PubMed Central

An international consortium released the first draft sequence of the human genome 10 years ago. Although the analysis of this data has suggested the genetic underpinnings of many diseases, we have not yet been able to fully quantify the relationship between genotype and phenotype. Thus, a major current effort of the scientific community focuses on evaluating individual predispositions to specific phenotypic traits given their genetic backgrounds. Many resources aim to identify and annotate the specific genes responsible for the observed phenotypes. Some of these use intra-species genetic variability as a means for better understanding this relationship. In addition, several online resources are now dedicated to collecting single nucleotide variants and other types of variants, and annotating their functional effects and associations with phenotypic traits. This information has enabled researchers to develop bioinformatics tools to analyze the rapidly increasing amount of newly extracted variation data and to predict the effect of uncharacterized variants. In this work, we review the most important developments in the field—the databases and bioinformatics tools that will be of utmost importance in our concerted effort to interpret the human variome. PMID:22247263

Nehrt, Nathan L.; Kann, Maricel G.; Bromberg, Yana

2012-01-01

436

Modification of the Swern Oxidation: Use of Stoichiometric Amounts of an Easily Separable, Recyclable, and Odorless Sulfoxide That Can Be Polymer-Bound.  

PubMed

Readily available 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexanoic acid (1) is employed as a substitute for DMSO in Swern oxidation reactions using oxalyl chloride to smoothly convert primary or secondary alcohols to corresponding aldehydes or ketones in high yield. The resulting 6-(methylthio)hexanoic acid (2) is easily separable by aqueous extraction or by filtration through silica gel and can be reoxidized to 1 with sodium metaperiodate in 97% yield. Low temperature (-60 degrees C) (13)C NMR spectrometry is used to examine the intermediates of this Swern process. The results indicate that any residual unoxidized alcohol is generated during Pummerer elimination of the alkoxysulfonium intermediate and can be minimized by extended exposure to triethylamine at -40 degrees C. Reaction of the potassium salt of 1 with cross-linked chloromethyl polystyrene affords a polymer-bound reagent 12 that quantitatively oxidizes borneol to camphor when used in two-fold excess. PMID:11667743

Liu, Yaoquan; Vederas, John C.

1996-11-01

437

R.A. Fisher's contributions to genetical statistics.  

PubMed

R. A. Fisher (1890-1962) was a professor of genetics, and many of his statistical innovations found expression in the development of methodology in statistical genetics. However, whereas his contributions in mathematical statistics are easily identified, in population genetics he shares his preeminence with Sewall Wright (1889-1988) and J. B. S. Haldane (1892-1965). This paper traces some of Fisher's major contributions to the foundations of statistical genetics, and his interactions with Wright and with Haldane which contributed to the development of the subject. With modern technology, both statistical methodology and genetic data are changing. Nonetheless much of Fisher's work remains relevant, and may even serve as a foundation for future research in the statistical analysis of DNA data. For Fisher's work reflects his view of the role of statistics in scientific inference, expressed in 1949: There is no wide or urgent demand for people who will define methods of proof in set theory in the name of improving mathematical statistics. There is a widespread and urgent demand for mathematicians who understand that branch of mathematics known as theoretical statistics, but who are capable also of recognising situations in the real world to which such mathematics is applicable. In recognising features of the real world to which his models and analyses should be applicable, Fisher laid a lasting foundation for statistical inference in genetic analyses. PMID:2085639

Thompson, E A

1990-12-01

438

Bayes Estimation Bayes Statistical Thinking  

E-print Network

Bayes Estimation Bayes Statistical Thinking Mathematical Statistics Chapter Seven Bayes Estimation #12;Bayes Estimation Bayes Statistical Thinking Method of Estimation (IV)---Bayes Estimation Part I. Three Types of Information in Statistical Inference #12;Bayes Estimation Bayes Statistical Thinking

Zhang, Li-Xin

439

Statistics for Chemists: Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a group of exercises that allow students to practice basic statistical calculations for descriptive statistics, confidence intervals, hypothesis tests, regression and experimental design. The exercises are interactive and provide feedback for students who submit wrong answers.

Wehrens, Ron

440

Pneumocystis Pneumonia Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... CDC.gov . Fungal Diseases Share Compartir Pneumocystis pneumonia Statistics Before the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic ... Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & Testing Treatment Health Professionals Statistics More Resources Blastomycosis Definition Symptoms People at Risk & ...

441

Uterine Cancer Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... Research AMIGAS Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed Statistics for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal ( ... Skin Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer Home Uterine Cancer Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

442

Sleep Data and Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... Sleep and Sleep Disorders Share Compartir Data and Statistics Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System ( BRFSS ) Population : Adults ... Podcasts and Sleep e-Cards Fact Sheets Data & Statistics Projects and Partners Resources Events File Formats Help: ...

443

Immigration and Naturalization Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Immigration and Naturalizations Service Statistics site provides "comprehensive annual immigration statistics from 1994-1996, as well as state estimates of the United States' illegal alien resident and foreign-born populations."

United States. Immigration and Naturalization Service.

444

Statistical dynamics of religion evolutions  

E-print Network

A religion affiliation can be considered as a "degree of freedom" of an agent on the human genre network. A brief review is given on the state of the art in data analysis and modelization of religious "questions" in order to suggest and if possible initiate further research, ... after using a "statistical physics filter". We present a discussion of the evolution of 18 so called religions, as measured through their number of adherents between 1900 and 2000. Some emphasis is made on a few cases presenting a minimum or a maximum in the investigated time range, - thereby suggesting a competitive ingredient to be considered, beside the well accepted "at birth" attachement effect. The importance of the "external field" is still stressed through an Avrami late stage crystal growth-like parameter. The observed features and some intuitive interpretations point to opinion based models with vector, rather than scalar, like agents.

Ausloos, Marcel

2008-01-01

445

Statistical dynamics of religion evolutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A religion affiliation can be considered as a “degree of freedom” of an agent on the human genre network. A brief review is given on the state of the art in data analysis and modelization of religious “questions” in order to suggest and if possible initiate further research, after using a “statistical physics filter”. We present a discussion of the evolution of 18 so-called religions, as measured through their number of adherents between 1900 and 2000. Some emphasis is made on a few cases presenting a minimum or a maximum in the investigated time range-thereby suggesting a competitive ingredient to be considered, besides the well accepted “at birth” attachment effect. The importance of the “external field” is still stressed through an Avrami late stage crystal growth-like parameter. The observed features and some intuitive interpretations point to opinion based models with vector, rather than scalar, like agents.

Ausloos, M.; Petroni, F.

2009-10-01

446

Environment for statistical computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a short exposition on the current state of art as far as statistical software is concerned. The main aims are to take a look at current tendencies in information technologies for statistics and data analysis, especially for describing selected programs and systems.We start with statistical packages, i.e. a suite of computer programs that are specialized in statistical analysis,

Jaromír Antoch

2008-01-01

447

The effect of image interpretation training on the fracture recognition performance of radiographers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AIM: The aim of this study is to measure the effect of medical image interpretation training on radiographers ability to detect wrist fractures. To achieve this, the study aimed to establish any differences in performance between radiographers without image interpretation training and radiographers with interpretation training. In the course of the study, effects of number of years of radiographic experience and previous image interpretation experience. METHOD: A FROC study was performed to assess nine radiographers undergoing medical image interpretation training and to compare their performance with nineteen radiographers, from a previous study, without similar training. The radiographers evaluated thirty postero-anterior wrist images, in carefully monitored conditions, which included normal and abnormal distal radius'. The results were evaluated with Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) analysis. AUC, sensitivity, specificity, and average times were statistically compared using a one-way ANOVA. RESULTS: The study showed there was no statistical difference between the groups of radiographers' AUC values (p<=0.98). There was no statistical difference in sensitivity (p<=0.31), while there was an improved performance noted in specificity (p<=0.06). The study found there was little correlation between increasing years of radiographic experience and improved performance (p<=0.52), but it was noted there was an improvement when radiographers' previous image interpretation experience was considered (p<=0.04). It was seen there was a weak correlation of increasing time spent on interpretation and improved performance (p<=0.70). CONCLUSION This work demonstrates that experienced technologist have inherent image interpretation skills that improves with training, allowing the performance to be comparable to non specialist radiologists.

McEntee, Mark F.; Bergin, Naomi

2010-02-01

448

Statistical quality management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some aspects of statistical quality management are discussed. Quality has to be defined as a concrete, measurable quantity. The concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM), Statistical Process Control (SPC), and inspection are explained. In most cases SPC is better than inspection. It can be concluded that statistics has great possibilities in the field of TQM.

Vanderlaan, Paul

1992-10-01

449

Statistics for Applications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dmitry Panchenko of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is an undergraduate course in Statistics for Applications. The site features lecture notes, a syllabus and assignments. Course topics include hypothesis testing and estimation, confidence intervals, chi-square tests, nonparametric statistics, analysis of variance, regression and correlation. This is a nice example of a course structure for an applied statistics course.

Panchenko, Dmitry

450

Giovanni Gallavotti STATISTICAL MECHANICS  

E-print Network

Giovanni Gallavotti STATISTICAL MECHANICS Short Treatise Roma 1999 #12; . #12; Short treatise of Statistical Mechanics Giovanni Gallavotti Dipartimento di Fisica Universitâ??a di Roma La Sapienza 00185 Roma that started with my involvement as Coordinator of the Statistical Mechanics section of the Italian Encyclo

Roma "La Sapienza", Università di

451

Giovanni Gallavotti STATISTICAL MECHANICS  

E-print Network

Giovanni Gallavotti STATISTICAL MECHANICS Short Treatise Roma 1999 #12;. #12;Short treatise of Statistical Mechanics Giovanni Gallavotti Dipartimento di Fisica Universit`a di Roma La Sapienza 00185 Roma that started with my involvement as Coordinator of the Statistical Mechanics section of the Italian Encyclo

Roma "La Sapienza", Università di

452

Statistical Mechanics its applications  

E-print Network

Statistical Mechanics and its applications Dr A. Alavi Part II Chemistry 2007-2008 1 #12;I. INTRODUCTION Statistical Mechanics is concerned with how to describe the behaviour of systems containing large, and how this is done, as well as its theoretical justification, is the subject of Statistical Mechanics. A

Alavi, Ali

453

FISHERY STATISTICS UNITED STATES  

E-print Network

of the landings, by species Relative value of the landings, by species. Seed oyster fisheryFISHERY STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES 1974 STATISTICAL DIGEST NO. 68 Prepared by Data Management. These statistics include data on the volume and value of landed catches, employment, quantity of gear operated

454

Minnesota Health Statistics 1988.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document comprises the 1988 annual statistical report of the Minnesota Center for Health Statistics. After introductory technical notes on changes in format, sources of data, and geographic allocation of vital events, an overview is provided of vital health statistics in all areas. Thereafter, separate sections of the report provide tables…

Minnesota State Dept. of Health, St. Paul.

455

Glossary of Statistical Terms  

Cancer.gov

Defines common statistical terms, NCI terminology, and the five key statistical measures of cancer: incidence, mortality, survival, prevalence, and lifetime risk. NCI monitors these cancer statistics to assess progress and to identify population subgroups and geographic areas in which cancer control efforts need to be concentrated.

456

A bird's eye view: the cognitive strategies of experts interpreting seismic profiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geoscience is perhaps unique in its reliance on incomplete datasets and building knowledge from their interpretation. This interpretation basis for the science is fundamental at all levels; from creation of a geological map to interpretation of remotely sensed data. To teach and understand better the uncertainties in dealing with incomplete data we need to understand the strategies individual practitioners deploy that make them effective interpreters. The nature of interpretation is such that the interpreter needs to use their cognitive ability in the analysis of the data to propose a sensible solution in their final output that is both consistent not only with the original data but also with other knowledge and understanding. In a series of experiments Bond et al. (2007, 2008, 2011, 2012) investigated the strategies and pitfalls of expert and non-expert interpretation of seismic images. These studies focused on large numbers of participants to provide a statistically sound basis for analysis of the results. The outcome of these experiments showed that techniques and strategies are more important than expert knowledge per se in developing successful interpretations. Experts are successful because of their application of these techniques. In a new set of experiments we have focused on a small number of experts to determine how they use their cognitive and reasoning skills, in the interpretation of 2D seismic profiles. Live video and practitioner commentary were used to track the evolving interpretation and to gain insight on their decision processes. The outputs of the study allow us to create an educational resource of expert interpretation through online video footage and commentary with associated further interpretation and analysis of the techniques and strategies employed. This resource will be of use to undergraduate, post-graduate, industry and academic professionals seeking to improve their seismic interpretation skills, develop reasoning strategies for dealing with incomplete datasets, and for assessing the uncertainty in these interpretations. Bond, C.E. et al. (2012). 'What makes an expert effective at interpreting seismic images?' Geology, 40, 75-78. Bond, C. E. et al. (2011). 'When there isn't a right answer: interpretation and reasoning, key skills for 21st century geoscience'. International Journal of Science Education, 33, 629-652. Bond, C. E. et al. (2008). 'Structural models: Optimizing risk analysis by understanding conceptual uncertainty'. First Break, 26, 65-71. Bond, C. E. et al., (2007). 'What do you think this is?: "Conceptual uncertainty" In geoscience interpretation'. GSA Today, 17, 4-10.

Bond, C. E.; Butler, R.

2012-12-01

457

Statistical Abstract: USA Statistics in Brief  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page, authored by the United State Census Bureau, contains statistics about the current population. Some of these statistics include: sex, age, state population, births, deaths, households, housing, construction, education, government, social welfare, law enforcement, employment, income, poverty, prices, energy, transportation, communications, agriculture, business, finance and foreign commerce. As demonstrated this is a fairly comprehensive data set. The sets are contained in both html or Excel format.

458

Statistical Applets: Two Variable Statistical Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Duckworth, McCabe, Moore and Sclove for W.H. Freeman and Co., this applet calculates correlation and regression information and displays graphs for a number of data sets from the text "��Practice of Business Statistics."� Users can also enter their own data. Even though brief, this interactive resource is still valuable for an introductory statistics course.

Duckworth, William

459

Collapse challenge for interpretations of quantum mechanics  

E-print Network

The collapse challenge for interpretations of quantum mechanics is to build from first principles and your preferred interpretation a complete, observer-free quantum model of the described experiment (involving a photon and two screens), together with a formal analysis that completely explains the experimental result. The challenge is explained in detail, and discussed in the light of the Copenhagen interpretation and the decoherence setting.

Arnold Neumaier

2005-05-23

460

The paleoclassical interpretation of quantum theory  

E-print Network

This interpretation establishes a completely classical ontology -- only the classical trajectory in configuration space -- and interpretes the wave function as describing incomplete information (in form of a probability flow) about this trajectory. This combines basic ideas of de Broglie-Bohm theory and Nelsonian stochastics about the trajectory with a Bayesian interpretation of the wave function. Various objections are considered and discussed. In particular a regularity principle for the zeros of the wave function allows to meet the Wallstrom objection.

I. Schmelzer

2011-03-17

461

The modern Prometheus and the interpretive communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein is a text read by completely different groups of readers, and therefore it may be a tempting medium for research on interpretive\\u000a communities. The paper analyses the possible strategies of elite and popular interpretations. For a typical elite strategy\\u000a it uses the myth of Prometheus as interpretive subtext of the novel, while as an example of typical

Péter Hajdu

2007-01-01

462

Statistical Convergence and Convergence in Statistics  

E-print Network

Statistical convergence was introduced in connection with problems of series summation. The main idea of the statistical convergence of a sequence l is that the majority of elements from l converge and we do not care what is going on with other elements. We show (Section 2) that being mathematically formalized the concept of statistical convergence is directly connected to convergence of such statistical characteristics as the mean and standard deviation. At the same time, it known that sequences that come from real life sources, such as measurement and computation, do not allow, in a general case, to test whether they converge or statistically converge in the strict mathematical sense. To overcome limitations induced by vagueness and uncertainty of real life data, neoclassical analysis has been developed. It extends the scope and results of the classical mathematical analysis by applying fuzzy logic to conventional mathematical objects, such as functions, sequences, and series. The goal of this work is the further development of neoclassical analysis. This allows us to reflect and model vagueness and uncertainty of our knowledge, which results from imprecision of measurement and inaccuracy of computation. In the context on the theory of fuzzy limits, we develop the structure of statistical fuzzy convergence and study its properties.

Mark Burgin; Oktay Duman

2006-12-07

463

Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics: a critical survey  

E-print Network

This brief survey analyzes the epistemological implications about the role of observer in the interpretations of Quantum Mechanics. As we know, the goal of most interpretations of quantum mechanics is to avoid the apparent intrusion of the observer into the measurement process. In the same time, there are implicit and hidden assumptions about his role. In fact, most interpretations taking as ontic level one of these fundamental concepts as information, physical law and matter bring us to new problematical questions. We think, that no interpretation of the quantum theory can avoid this intrusion until we do not clarify the nature of observer.

Michele Caponigro

2008-11-24

464

Interpreting results from field deployments of semipermeable membrane devices.  

PubMed

Three canisters of semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), each containing five SPMDs, were deployed at three different locations on a transect across a small river removed from the impact of near-field point sources. Following a 62-day deployment, the masses of various polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) sequestered by each SPMD in each canister were determined. The compound-specific mean residues (ng/SPMD) obtained for the PAHs with pK(ow) values >4.4 showed statistically significant (alpha = 0.10) differences between the three deployment locations (canisters) ranging from approximately 10 to 160 ng/SPMD, corresponding to relative percent differences (RPDs) ranging from 10% to 54%. There were no statistically significant differences between the same three locations for the single PAH with a pK(ow) <4.4. A detailed discussion of how different (uncontrollable) environmental variables may have impacted the experimental results is provided to illustrate the uncertainties associated with interpreting the results from SPMD field deployments and highlight the need for some means of correcting for these impacts. The results from this work also illustrate the need to account for spatial variability in water column concentrations (i.e., sample heterogeneity) as part of any interpretation. PMID:12680676

Louch, Jeff; Allen, Ginny; Erickson, Cathy; Wilson, Glenn; Schmedding, Dave

2003-03-15

465

Understanding and Interpreting Effect Size Measures in General Linear Model Analyses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Best practice is now understood by many to include reporting effect sizes when submitting manuscripts for publication since some (and potentially more) journals in the education field require, or strongly encourage, authors to report magnitude of effect measures with their statistical interpretation discussion. Therefore, it is important that…

Vasquez, Linda M.; Gangstead, Sandra Kay; Henson, Robin K.

466

Enhancing the Interpretation of "Significant" Findings: The Role of Mixed Methods Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present essay outlines how mixed methods research can be used to enhance the interpretation of significant findings. First, we define what we mean by significance in educational evaluation research. With regard to quantitative-based research, we define the four types of significance: statistical significance, practical significance, clinical…

Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.

2004-01-01

467

On de-Sitter geometry in crater statistics  

E-print Network

The cumulative size-frequency distributions of impact craters on planetary bodies in the solar system appear to approximate a universal inverse square power-law for small crater radii. In this article, we show how this distribution can be understood easily in terms of geometrical statistics, using a de-Sitter geometry of the configuration space of circles on the Euclidean plane and on the unit sphere. The effect of crater overlap is also considered.

Gary W. Gibbons; Marcus C. Werner

2012-11-15

468

Weighted order statistic classifiers with large rank-order margin.  

SciTech Connect

We describe how Stack Filters and Weighted Order Statistic function classes can be used for classification problems. This leads to a new design criteria for linear classifiers when inputs are binary-valued and weights are positive . We present a rank-based measure of margin that can be directly optimized as a standard linear program and investigate its effect on generalization error with experiment. Our approach can robustly combine large numbers of base hypothesis and easily implement known priors through regularization.

Porter, R. B. (Reid B.); Hush, D. R. (Donald R.); Theiler, J. P. (James P.); Gokhale, M. (Maya)

2003-01-01

469

Discussion. Additive logistic regression: a statistical view of boosting, by Friedman, J., Hastie, T. and Tibshirani, R.  

E-print Network

to share our thoughts and reflections on boosting and related statistical ideas, inspired by FHT. 1 What statistical modeling ideas. With this bridge, ideas can now flow easily in both directions so that a deeper. Under this light, it is not hard to find instances of sta­ tistical procedures sharing traces

Yu, Bin

470

Bounded Functional Interpretation Fernando Ferreira a,1  

E-print Network

Introduction In 1958 Kurt G¨odel presented an interpretation of Heyting Arithmetic HA into a quantifier assignment of formulas. In contrast with G¨odel's functional "Dialectica" interpretation, the new interpre of first-order arithmetic to quantifier-free formulas of the language of T. G¨odel's so-called functional

Oliva, Paulo

471

Two Interpretive Systems for Natural Language?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is proposed that humans have available to them two systems for interpreting natural language. One system is familiar from formal semantics. It is a type based system that pairs a syntactic form with its interpretation using grammatical rules of composition. This system delivers both plausible and implausible meanings. The other proposed system…

Frazier, Lyn

2015-01-01

472

Psychological Testing of Sign Language Interpreters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-eight sign language interpreters participated in a battery of tests to determine if a profile of cognitive, motor, attention, and personality attributes might distinguish them as a group and at different credential levels. Eight interpreters held Level II and nine held Level III Virginia Quality Assurance Screenings (VQAS); the other 11…

Seal, Brenda C.

2004-01-01

473

Clinical interpretation: The hermeneutics of medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

I argue that clinical medicine can best be understood not as a purified science but as a hermeneutical enterprise: that is, as involved with the interpretation of texts. The literary critic reading a novel, the judge asked to apply a law, must arrive at a coherent reading of their respective texts. Similarly, the physician interprets the ‘text’ of the ill

Drew Leder

1990-01-01

474

Just Do It: Resources for Interpretive Planning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Now that you have finished reading this journal issue and understand what interpretive planning is and when to apply it, how can you get started and just "do" it? This article provides an annotated list of practical handbooks and internet resources that provide guidelines for museum practitioners to engage in interpretive planning at institutions…

Koepler, Jes

2008-01-01

475

AERIAL PHOTO INTERPRETATION NATIONAL INVENTORY OF LANDSCAPES  

E-print Network

2003 2003-11-17 SLU Department of Forest Resource Management and Geomatics 901 83 Umeå, Sweden Authors for aerial photo interpretation 1 www-nils.slu.se SLU, Department of Forest Resource Management and Geomatics....................................................................................................................... 11 2.2 Aerial photos and interpretation equipment

476

Optimizing an ANSI C interpreter with superoperators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces superoperators, an optimization technique for bytecoded interpreters. Superoperators are virtual machine operations automatically synthesized from smaller operations to avoid costly per-operation overheads. Superoperators decrease executable size and can double or triple the speed of interpreted programs. The paper describes a simple and effective heuristic for inferring powerful superoperators from the usage patterns of simple operators.The paper describes

Todd A. Proebsting

1995-01-01

477

Unconscious perception: assumptions and interpretive difficulties.  

PubMed

Reingold and Merikle's (1988, 1990) critique of the classic dissociation paradigm identified several issues as inherent problems that severely undermine the utility of this paradigm. Erdelyi (2004) extending his prior analysis points out several additional factors that may complicate the interpretation of empirically obtained dissociations. The goal of the present manuscript is to further discuss some of these commonly neglected interpretive difficulties. PMID:14990246

Reingold, Eyal M

2004-03-01

478

Dream interpretation as a projective technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject is presented with ten dreams and asked to explain each one. When an interpretation is made without reference to the person having had the dream, as in this test, the interpreter is projecting his own emotions, attitudes, and experiences into the dream material.

Dorothy Day

1949-01-01

479

On the interpretation of mantle discontinuities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic discontinuities in the mantle are conventionally interpreted to be caused by phase transformations observed in the individual mineral species (including, to some extent, solid solution). Recent investigations, however, indicate that there are many difficulties in interpreting these discontinuities in terms of phase transformations alone. It is suggested that some of the seismic discontinuities in the mantle are due to

Lin-Gun Liu

1980-01-01

480

Oral Interpretation of Literature: Readers' Theater  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pedagogical principle of experiential learning embodied in the oral interpretation of literature through Readers' Theater provides an avenue to accomplish a seemingly daunting task. Students' participation in reading, interpreting, discussing, writing, assessing, and performing their own creative responses to a literary work promotes a…

Kennedy, Joan

2011-01-01

481

Towards automatic interpretation of sheep ultrasound scans  

E-print Network

Towards automatic interpretation of sheep ultrasound scans C.A. Glasbey Scottish Agricultural and within individuals. Hence, this study investigated the automatic interpretation of ultrasound scans from of the speed of transmission of ultrasound across the body, and the fat content of the tissue through which

Stone, J. V.

482

Translators and Interpreters: Professionals or Shoemakers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Translators and interpreters are not currently trained as professionals, but taught a "do-as-I-do" system inherited from the medieval guilds. Most are self-made, having acquired technique and applied it to languages already known. However, there is now enough known about mediated interlingual communication to teach translators and interpreters how…

Viaggio, Sergio

483

Interpreting and Translation. Specialised Bibliography A10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography is divided into five sections. In the first section, bibliographies pertaining to interpreting and translating are listed. The second section cites general studies and directories. The entries in the third, fourth, and fifth sections concern the areas of interpreting, translation, and machine translation respectively. Entries…

British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

484

Tolman's interpretation of vicarious trial and error  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reply to the objections of Taylor and Reichlin to Tolman's interpretation of vicarious trial and error (VTE) behavior. Tolman's sowbug schema forms an integral part of his theory of behavior, the theory accounts for the facts of VTE, and VTE may be interpreted as an aid to learning. 16 references.

George A. Austin

1953-01-01

485

Interpretation in a tool-fragment environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The philosophy of composition of new software tools from previously created tool fragments is a useful approach to facilitating the development of software systems. This paper examines the extension of this philosophy to the design of program interpreters, demonstrating how the separation of interpretation into a core algorithm, value kind definitions, and computation model allows the capture of conventional execution

Steven J. Zeil; Edward C. Epp

1988-01-01

486

EMOTION AND CARDIAC TECHNOLOGY: AN INTERPRETIVE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a frequently overlooked aspect of advanced technological care - that of the human dimension and emotions. Emotionality is defined as the emotional ways that a client experiences their embodied experience as a recipient of a cardiac pacemaker. One individual' s story from a larger interpretive study of clients who received pacemakers is presented and interpreted. Kev' s

Carole Anderson; Wendy Moyle; Margaret McAllister

487

Basic Interpretation of EKG's. N203.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description is provided of an associate degree in nursing science course, "Rapid Interpretation of Electrocardiograms (EKG's)," designed to emphasize the nurse's role in the interpretation of the basic EKG and the medical interventions necessary to treat arrythmias. The first section of the course description provides information on curricular…

Hall, Laura T.

488

State of the Atmosphere: Interpreting Weather Observations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this lesson is to let students analyze atmospheric radiosonde data from a balloon launched at NASA Langley Research Center by teachers attending a workshop. Other resources are included to assist in interpreting the observations. Students are asked to explain in paragraph format their interpretation of the atmospheric conditions depicted by the data and the graph produced using the data.

LaFrance, Kim

2010-08-23

489

A Method for Teaching Topographic Map Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students learn how to read and interpret topographic maps by using a set of simplified map exercise cards. Students learn in the field as opposed to a traditional classroom. Map symbols, distance, direction, form, and relief are among the map interpretation topics taught with this method. The multiple-choice format of the exercise also allows for…

Schuit, Walter

2011-01-01

490

A Psychological Approach to Consecutive Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Believes the techniques used by interpreter in taking notes is a process of computing a representation of the sentence representative of its entailments. Although these are not spelled out, they are available to the interpreter in the form of notes. (Author/BK)

Garretson, Deborah A.

1981-01-01

491

Interpreting Histograms. As Easy as It Seems?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Histograms are widely used, but recent studies have shown that they are not as easy to interpret as it might seem. In this article, we report on three studies on the interpretation of histograms in which we investigated, namely, (1) whether the misinterpretation by university students can be considered to be the result of heuristic reasoning, (2)…

Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

2014-01-01

492

Aboriginal Interpretation in Australian Wildlife Tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates Aboriginal cultural interpretation at wildlife attractions and on wildlife tours in Australia. The sites included 14 wildlife parks or zoos; three Aboriginal-owned emu or crocodile farms; and 16 wildlife tours, river cruises or resorts with Indigenous interpretation of wildlife. Telephone interviews were conducted with 35 managers (nine Indigenous) and 26 Indigenous staff at wildlife attractions that included

Heather Zeppel; Sue Muloin

2008-01-01

493

On the validity of Freud's dream interpretations.  

PubMed

In this article I defend Freud's method of dream interpretation against those who criticize it as involving a fallacy-namely, the reverse causal fallacy-and those who criticize it as permitting many interpretations, indeed any that the interpreter wants to put on the dream. The first criticism misconstrues the logic of the interpretative process: it does not involve an unjustified reversal of causal relations, but rather a legitimate attempt at an inference to the best explanation. The judgement of whether or not a particular interpretation is the best explanation depends on the details of the case in question. I outline the kinds of probabilities involved in making the judgement. My account also helps to cash out the metaphors of the jigsaw and crossword puzzles that Freudians have used in response to the 'many interpretations' objection. However, in defending Freud's method of dream interpretation, I do not thereby defend his theory of dreams, which cannot be justified by his interpretations alone. PMID:18331954

Michael, Michael

2008-03-01

494

Medical Interpreting: Improving Communication with Your Patients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guide is designed for physicians and other medical practitioners who need to work with medical interpreters to improve communication with patients. Special attention is given to the Australian context. An introductory section discusses the need for medical interpreters and explains the guide's organization. Subsequent sections address these…

Tebble, Helen

495

ACTIVE VIEWINGGirls' Interpretations of Family Television Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses reception analysis based in cultural studies, which argues that audiences actively view media and critically and socially create media meanings and interpretations. Examining data from individual interviews and focus groups, the author identifies how nine- to thirteen-year-old girls individually and collectively interpret family situation comedies. The results indicate that girls use their own individual experiences to critically

LAURA FINGERSON

1999-01-01

496

Interpreting Physical Sketches as Architectural Models  

E-print Network

and relationships are still evolving. In contrast, technical architectural CAD drawing, used in the later stagesInterpreting Physical Sketches as Architectural Models Barbara Cutler Rensselaer Polytechnic interpretations made by other humans for a set of relatively ambiguous sketches. In our system, the user sketches

497

Infusing Counseling Skills in Test Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an instructional model based on Neurolinguistic Programming that links counseling student course work in measurement and test interpretation with counseling techniques and theory. A process incorporating Neurolinguistic Programming patterns is outlined for teaching graduate students the counseling skills helpful in test interpretation

Rawlins, Melanie E.; And Others

1991-01-01

498

Interpretation and Manipulation in Human Plans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses an analysis of children's interpretations of a complex episode of social interaction to illustrate three features that distinguish them from robot plans and that form a basis for a theory of the development of social action: human plans (1) are social, (2) operate on interpretations, and (3) are used, not just executed. (FL)

Newman, Denis; Bruce, Bertram C.

1986-01-01

499

Interpretation of Cultural and Natural Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This postsecondary-level textbook prepares the student for a career in interpretation, defined as the translation of historic, cultural, or natural phenomena to increase audience understanding and enjoyment. The mission of interpretation consists of developing an informed and experienced citizenry in our natural and cultural heritage. The term…

Knudson, Douglas M.; Cable, Ted T.; Beck, Larry

500

A Nonstochastic Interpretation of Reported Significance Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests of significance are often made in situations where the standard assumptions underlying the probability calculations do not hold. As a result, the reported significance levels become difficult to interpret. This article sketches an alternative interpretation of a reported significance level, valid in considerable generality. This level locates the given data set within the spectrum of other data sets derived

David Freedman

1983-01-01