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1

WINKS Statistics Tutorials: Interpreting Statistical p-values  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, created by WINKS Statistics Tutorials, discusses the understanding of and interpretation of p-values for those who read articles with statistical information. The page provides an introduction to much of the statistical jargon used in scientific journals, studies, etc. While simplistic, it is a nice overview and provides answers to many basic questions needing to be answered to best understand statistical information.

2009-10-27

2

To the Cloud! How to Compile Analyze Reference Statistics Easily and for Free  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keeping all statistics in one spreadsheet can get messy and confusing—and it leaves us vulnerable to losing our statistics in the event of technical difficulties. To organize and preserve the statistics, we copy data from Google Documents on a weekly basis into stable spreadsheets organized by month. To prevent the loss of data, we use cloud computing, saving them in

Sonnet Ireland; Faith G Simmons

2011-01-01

3

Interpretation and use of statistics in nursing research.  

PubMed

A working understanding of the major fundamentals of statistical analysis is required to incorporate the findings of empirical research into nursing practice. The primary focus of this article is to describe common statistical terms, present some common statistical tests, and explain the interpretation of results from inferential statistics in nursing research. An overview of major concepts in statistics, including the distinction between parametric and nonparametric statistics, different types of data, and the interpretation of statistical significance, is reviewed. Examples of some of the most common statistical techniques used in nursing research, such as the Student independent t test, analysis of variance, and regression, are also discussed. Nursing knowledge based on empirical research plays a fundamental role in the development of evidence-based nursing practice. The ability to interpret and use quantitative findings from nursing research is an essential skill for advanced practice nurses to ensure provision of the best care possible for our patients. PMID:18560290

Giuliano, Karen K; Polanowicz, Michelle

4

The Statistical Interpretation of Entropy: An Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The second law of thermodynamics, which states that the entropy of an isolated macroscopic system can increase but will not decrease, is a cornerstone of modern physics. Ludwig Boltzmann argued that the second law arises from the motion of the atoms that compose the system. Boltzmann's statistical mechanics provides deep insight into the…

Timmberlake, Todd

2010-01-01

5

The Statistical Interpretation of Entropy: An Activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The second law of thermodynamics, which states that the entropy of an isolated macroscopic system can increase but will not decrease, is a cornerstone of modern physics. Ludwig Boltzmann argued that the second law arises from the motion of the atoms that compose the system. Boltzmann's statistical mechanics provides deep insight into the functioning of the second law and also provided evidence for the existence of atoms at a time when many scientists (like Ernst Mach and Wilhelm Ostwald) were skeptical.1

Timmberlake, Todd

2010-11-01

6

The Statistical Interpretation of Classical Thermodynamic Heating and Expansion Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A statistical model has been developed and applied to interpret thermodynamic processes typically presented from the macroscopic, classical perspective. Through this model, students learn and apply the concepts of statistical mechanics, quantum mechanics, and classical thermodynamics in the analysis of the (i) constant volume heating, (ii)…

Cartier, Stephen F.

2011-01-01

7

Combinatorial interpretation of Haldane-Wu fractional exclusion statistics.  

PubMed

Assuming that the maximal allowed number of identical particles in a state is an integer parameter, q, we derive the statistical weight and analyze the associated equation that defines the statistical distribution. The derived distribution covers Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein ones in the particular cases q=1 and q--> infinity (n(i)/q-->1), respectively. We show that the derived statistical weight provides a natural combinatorial interpretation of Haldane-Wu fractional exclusion statistics, and present exact solutions of the distribution equation. PMID:12241246

Aringazin, A K; Mazhitov, M I

2002-08-26

8

A Statistical Discriminant Model for Face Interpretation and Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multivariate statistical approaches have played an important role of recognising face images and chara c- terizing their differences. In this paper, we introduce the idea of using a two-stage separating hyper-plan e, here called Statistical Discriminant Model (SDM), t o interpret and reconstruct face images. Analogously to the well-known Active Appearance Model proposed by Cootes et. al, SDM requires a

Edson C. Kitani; Carlos E. Thomaz; Duncan Fyfe Gillies

2006-01-01

9

Statistical analysis and interpretation of prenatal diagnostic imaging studies, Part 2: descriptive and inferential statistical methods.  

PubMed

The objective of this article is to discuss the rationale for common statistical tests used for the analysis and interpretation of prenatal diagnostic imaging studies. Examples from the literature are used to illustrate descriptive and inferential statistics. The uses and limitations of linear and logistic regression analyses are discussed in detail. PMID:21795489

Tuuli, Methodius G; Odibo, Anthony O

2011-08-01

10

Interpreting ECG data by integrating statistical and artificial intelligence tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of an automated system integrating data conditioning, statistical methods, and artificial intelligence tools to summarize and interpret high-frequency physiological data such as the electrocardiogram is investigated. The development of a methodology and its associated tools for real-time patient monitoring and diagnosis is accomplished by using the commercial programming environments MATLAB and G2, a real-time knowledge-based system (KBS) development

E. Tatara; A. Cinar

2002-01-01

11

Adapting internal statistical models for interpreting visual cues to depth  

PubMed Central

The informativeness of sensory cues depends critically on statistical regularities in the environment. However, statistical regularities vary between different object categories and environments. We asked whether and how the brain changes the prior assumptions about scene statistics used to interpret visual depth cues when stimulus statistics change. Subjects judged the slants of stereoscopically presented figures by adjusting a virtual probe perpendicular to the surface. In addition to stereoscopic disparities, the aspect ratio of the stimulus in the image provided a “figural compression” cue to slant, whose reliability depends on the distribution of aspect ratios in the world. As we manipulated this distribution from regular to random and back again, subjects’ reliance on the compression cue relative to stereoscopic cues changed accordingly. When we randomly interleaved stimuli from shape categories (ellipses and diamonds) with different statistics, subjects gave less weight to the compression cue for figures from the category with more random aspect ratios. Our results demonstrate that relative cue weights vary rapidly as a function of recently experienced stimulus statistics, and that the brain can use different statistical models for different object categories. We show that subjects’ behavior is consistent with that of a broad class of Bayesian learning models.

Seydell, Anna; Knill, David C.; Trommershauser, Julia

2010-01-01

12

Workplace statistical literacy for teachers: interpreting box plots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a consequence of the increased use of data in workplace environments, there is a need to understand the demands that are placed on users to make sense of such data. In education, teachers are being increasingly expected to interpret and apply complex data about student and school performance, and, yet it is not clear that they always have the appropriate knowledge and experience to interpret the graphs, tables and other data that they receive. This study examined the statistical literacy demands placed on teachers, with a particular focus on box plot representations. Although box plots summarise the data in a way that makes visual comparisons possible across sets of data, this study showed that teachers do not always have the necessary fluency with the representation to describe correctly how the data are distributed in the representation. In particular, a significant number perceived the size of the regions of the box plot to be depicting frequencies rather than density, and there were misconceptions associated with outlying data that were not displayed on the plot. As well, teachers' perceptions of box plots were found to relate to three themes: attitudes, perceived value and misconceptions.

Pierce, Robyn; Chick, Helen

2013-06-01

13

A novel statistical analysis and interpretation of flow cytometry data  

PubMed Central

A recently developed class of models incorporating the cyton model of population generation structure into a conservation-based model of intracellular label dynamics is reviewed. Statistical aspects of the data collection process are quantified and incorporated into a parameter estimation scheme. This scheme is then applied to experimental data for PHA-stimulated CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells collected from two healthy donors. This novel mathematical and statistical framework is shown to form the basis for accurate, meaningful analysis of cellular behaviour for a population of cells labelled with the dye carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester and stimulated to divide.

Banks, H.T.; Kapraun, D.F.; Thompson, W. Clayton; Peligero, Cristina; Argilaguet, Jordi; Meyerhans, Andreas

2013-01-01

14

Need for Caution in Interpreting Extreme Weather Statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the substantial anthropogenic contribution to 20th century global warming, it is tempting to seek an anthropogenic component in any unusual recent weather event, or more generally in any observed change in the statistics of extreme weather. This study cautions that such detection and attribution efforts may, however, very likely lead to wrong conclusions if the non-Gaussian aspects of the probability distributions of observed daily atmospheric variations, especially their skewness and heavy tails, are not explicitly taken into account. Departures of three or more standard deviations from the mean, although rare, are far more common in such a non-Gaussian world than they are in a Gaussian world. This exacerbates the already difficult problem of establishing the significance of changes in extreme value probabilities from historical climate records of limited length, using either raw histograms or Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distributions fitted to the sample extreme values. A possible solution is suggested by the fact that the non-Gaussian aspects of the observed distributions are well captured by a general class of "Stochastically Generated Skewed distributions" (SGS distributions) recently introduced in the meteorological literature by Sardeshmukh and Sura (J. Climate 2009). These distributions arise from simple modifications to a red noise process and reduce to Gaussian distributions under appropriate limits. As such, they represent perhaps the simplest physically based non-Gaussian prototypes of the distributions of daily atmospheric variations. Fitting such SGS distributions to all (not just the extreme) values in 25, 50, or 100-yr daily records also yields corresponding extreme value distributions that are much less prone to sampling uncertainty than GEV distributions. For both of the above reasons, SGS distributions provide an attractive alternative for assessing the significance of changes in extreme weather statistics (including changes in the statistics of extreme precipitation events) over the 20th century, and of the changes projected over the 21st century.

Sardeshmukh, P. D.; Compo, G. P.; Penland, M. C.

2011-12-01

15

Impact of Equity Models and Statistical Measures on Interpretations of Educational Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present three models of equity and show how these, along with the statistical measures used to evaluate results, impact interpretation of equity in education reform. Equity can be defined and interpreted in many ways. Most equity education reform research strives to achieve equity by closing achievement gaps between groups. An example is given…

Rodriguez, Idaykis; Brewe, Eric; Sawtelle, Vashti; Kramer, Laird H.

2012-01-01

16

Impact of Equity Models and Statistical Measures on Interpretations of Educational Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We present three models of equity and show how these, along with the statistical measures used to evaluate results, impact interpretation of equity in education reform. Equity can be defined and interpreted in many ways. Most equity education reform research strives to achieve equity by closing achievement gaps between groups. An example is given…

Rodriguez, Idaykis; Brewe, Eric; Sawtelle, Vashti; Kramer, Laird H.

2012-01-01

17

Statistical Mechanical Interpretation of the Inverse Scattering Method: Level Dynamics for Exclusion Statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considered is the relationship between the level dynamics and the integrable differential-difference equation. By applying the inverse scattering method to the Bogoyavlensky lattice, which is an extension of the Volterra model, the role of the exclusion statistics is clarified. Each dynamical variable is identified with an energy level. Briefly discussed is a generalization of the Yangian symmetric system, and the ``Gentile'' statistics is revealed.

Hikami, Kazuhiro

1998-05-01

18

Statistical interpretation of the Bekenstein entropy for systems with a stretched horizon.  

PubMed

For the two-charge extremal holes in string theory we show that the Bekenstein entropy obtained from the area of the stretched horizon has a statistical interpretation as a "coarse graining entropy": different microstates give geometries that differ near r = 0, and the stretched horizon cuts off the metric at r = b where these geometries start to differ. PMID:12059472

Lunin, Oleg; Mathur, Samir D

2002-05-14

19

Alternative Interpretations of Statistics on Health Effects of Low-Level Radiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four examples of problems in alternative interpretation of statistics of data on low-level radiation are reviewed: (1) post-hoc analysis and aggregation of data leading to faulty conclusions in the re-analysis of genetic effects of the atomic bomb, and pr...

L. D. Hamilton

1982-01-01

20

Misuse of Statistics in the Interpretation of Data on Low-Level Radiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four misuses of statistics in the interpretation of data of low-level radiation are reviewed: (1) post-hoc analysis and aggregation of data leading to faulty conclusions in the reanalysis of genetic effects of the atomic bomb, and premature conclusions on...

L. D. Hamilton

1982-01-01

21

Misuse of statistics in the interpretation of data on low-level radiation  

SciTech Connect

Four misuses of statistics in the interpretation of data of low-level radiation are reviewed: (1) post-hoc analysis and aggregation of data leading to faulty conclusions in the reanalysis of genetic effects of the atomic bomb, and premature conclusions on the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard data; (2) inappropriate adjustment for age and ignoring differences between urban and rural areas leading to potentially spurious increase in incidence of cancer at Rocky Flats; (3) hazard of summary statistics based on ill-conditioned individual rates leading to spurious association between childhood leukemia and fallout in Utah; and (4) the danger of prematurely published preliminary work with inadequate consideration of epidemiological problems - censored data - leading to inappropriate conclusions, needless alarm at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, and diversion of scarce research funds.

Hamilton, L.D.

1982-01-01

22

The null hypothesis significance test in health sciences research (1995-2006): statistical analysis and interpretation  

PubMed Central

Background The null hypothesis significance test (NHST) is the most frequently used statistical method, although its inferential validity has been widely criticized since its introduction. In 1988, the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) warned against sole reliance on NHST to substantiate study conclusions and suggested supplementary use of confidence intervals (CI). Our objective was to evaluate the extent and quality in the use of NHST and CI, both in English and Spanish language biomedical publications between 1995 and 2006, taking into account the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors recommendations, with particular focus on the accuracy of the interpretation of statistical significance and the validity of conclusions. Methods Original articles published in three English and three Spanish biomedical journals in three fields (General Medicine, Clinical Specialties and Epidemiology - Public Health) were considered for this study. Papers published in 1995-1996, 2000-2001, and 2005-2006 were selected through a systematic sampling method. After excluding the purely descriptive and theoretical articles, analytic studies were evaluated for their use of NHST with P-values and/or CI for interpretation of statistical "significance" and "relevance" in study conclusions. Results Among 1,043 original papers, 874 were selected for detailed review. The exclusive use of P-values was less frequent in English language publications as well as in Public Health journals; overall such use decreased from 41% in 1995-1996 to 21% in 2005-2006. While the use of CI increased over time, the "significance fallacy" (to equate statistical and substantive significance) appeared very often, mainly in journals devoted to clinical specialties (81%). In papers originally written in English and Spanish, 15% and 10%, respectively, mentioned statistical significance in their conclusions. Conclusions Overall, results of our review show some improvements in statistical management of statistical results, but further efforts by scholars and journal editors are clearly required to move the communication toward ICMJE advices, especially in the clinical setting, which seems to be imperative among publications in Spanish.

2010-01-01

23

An Easily Constructed Cube Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model of a cube which is necessary for teaching stereochemistry (especially of inorganic compounds) can be made easily, by using a sealed, empty envelope. The steps necessary to accomplish this task are presented. (JN)

Yamana, Shukichi; Kawaguchi, Makoto

1984-01-01

24

An Easily Constructed Dodecahedron Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model of a dodecahedron which is necessary for teaching stereochemistry (for example, that of dodecahedrane) can be made easily by using a sealed, empty envelope. The steps necessary for accomplishing this task are presented. (JN)

Yamana, Shukichi

1984-01-01

25

Two Easily Made Astronomical Telescopes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The directions and diagrams for making a reflecting telescope and a refracting telescope are presented. These telescopes can be made by students out of plumbing parts and easily obtainable, inexpensive, optical components. (KR)

Hill, M.; Jacobs, D. J.

1991-01-01

26

Panel discussion review: session three--issues involved in interpretation of epidemiologic analyses--statistical modeling.  

PubMed

The Clean Air Act mandates that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) develop National Ambient Air Quality Standards for criteria air pollutants and conduct periodic reviews of the standards based on new scientific evidence. In recent reviews, evidence from epidemiologic studies has played a key role. Epidemiologic studies often provide evidence for effects of several air pollutants. Determining whether there are independent effects of the separate pollutants is a challenge. Among the many issues confronting the interpretation of epidemiologic studies of multi-pollutant exposures and health effects are those specifically related to statistical modeling. The EPA convened a workshop on 13 and 14 December 2006 in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA, to discuss these and other issues; Session Three of the workshop was devoted specifically to statistical modeling. Prominent statistical modeling issues in epidemiologic studies of air pollution include (1) measurement error across the co-pollutants; (2) correlation and multi-collinearity among the co-pollutants; (3) the timing of the concentration-response function; (4) confounding; and (5) spatial analyses. PMID:18079770

Bateson, Thomas F; Coull, Brent A; Hubbell, Bryan; Ito, Kazuhiko; Jerrett, Michael; Lumley, Thomas; Thomas, Duncan; Vedal, Sverre; Ross, Mary

2007-12-01

27

Easily Constructed Microscale Spectroelectrochemical Cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and performance of an easily constructed cell for microscale spectroelectrochemical analysis are described. A cation exchange polymer film, Nafion, was used as a salt bridge to provide ionic contact between a small sample well containing a coiled-wire working electrode and separate, larger wells housing reference and auxiliary electrodes. The cell was evaluated using aqueous ferri\\/ferrocyanide as a test

Paul A. Flowers; Jordan C. Strickland

2010-01-01

28

Crossing statistic: Bayesian interpretation, model selection and resolving dark energy parametrization problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By introducing Crossing functions and hyper-parameters I show that the Bayesian interpretation of the Crossing Statistics [1] can be used trivially for the purpose of model selection among cosmological models. In this approach to falsify a cosmological model there is no need to compare it with other models or assume any particular form of parametrization for the cosmological quantities like luminosity distance, Hubble parameter or equation of state of dark energy. Instead, hyper-parameters of Crossing functions perform as discriminators between correct and wrong models. Using this approach one can falsify any assumed cosmological model without putting priors on the underlying actual model of the universe and its parameters, hence the issue of dark energy parametrization is resolved. It will be also shown that the sensitivity of the method to the intrinsic dispersion of the data is small that is another important characteristic of the method in testing cosmological models dealing with data with high uncertainties.

Shafieloo, Arman

2012-05-01

29

Interpreting the wide scattering of synchronized traffic data by time gap statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the statistical evaluation of experimental single-vehicle data, we propose a quantitative interpretation of the erratic scattering of flow-density data in synchronized traffic flows. A correlation analysis suggests that the dynamical flow-density data are well compatible with the so-called jam line characterizing fully developed traffic jams, if one takes into account the variation of their propagation speed due to the large variation of the netto time gaps (the inhomogeneity of traffic flow). The form of the time gap distribution depends not only on the density, but also on the measurement cross section: The most probable netto time gap in congested traffic flow upstream of a bottleneck is significantly increased compared to uncongested freeway sections. Moreover, we identify different power-law scaling laws for the relative variance of netto time gaps as a function of the sampling size. While the exponent is -1 in free traffic corresponding to statistically independent time gaps, the exponent is about -2/3 in congested traffic flow because of correlations between queued vehicles.

Nishinari, Katsuhiro; Treiber, Martin; Helbing, Dirk

2003-12-01

30

Beyond Statistical Significant Tests: The Importance of Using Other Estimates of Treatment Effects To Interpret Evaluation Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many evaluation students are still being taught the use of tests of statistical significance without being warned about their limitations. This paper discusses other estimates of treatment effects necessary to interpret between-group differences correctly. Sources to improve evaluation practice are also suggested. (SLD)|

Kellow, J. Thomas

1998-01-01

31

Exploring Interpretation of Complexity and Typicality in Narratives and Statistical Images about the Social Determinants of Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores public responses to narratives and statistical images, predominantly graphs and maps, designed to raise awareness of social determinants of health and health disparities. We focus particular attention on respondents' interpretation of the complexity of health causality and the typicality of the situations described. We conducted 24 focus groups with liberal and conservative adults (n?=?180 participants) living in

Helen C. Lundell; Jeff Niederdeppe; Christopher E. Clarke

2012-01-01

32

Quantum of area ?A=8?lP2 and a statistical interpretation of black hole entropy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In contrast to alternative values, the quantum of area ?A=8?lP2 does not follow from the usual statistical interpretation of black hole entropy; on the contrary, a statistical interpretation follows from it. This interpretation is based on the two concepts: nonadditivity of black hole entropy and Landau quantization. Using nonadditivity a microcanonical distribution for a black hole is found and it is shown that the statistical weight of a black hole should be proportional to its area. By analogy with conventional Landau quantization, it is shown that quantization of a black hole is nothing but the Landau quantization. The Landau levels of a black hole and their degeneracy are found. The degree of degeneracy is equal to the number of ways to distribute a patch of area 8?lP2 over the horizon. Taking into account these results, it is argued that the black hole entropy should be of the form Sbh=2?·??, where the number of microstates is ??=A/8?lP2. The nature of the degrees of freedom responsible for black hole entropy is elucidated. The applications of the new interpretation are presented. The effect of noncommuting coordinates is discussed.

Ropotenko, Kostiantyn

2010-08-01

33

Statistical analysis and biological interpretation of the flow cytometric heterogeneity observed in bacterial axenic cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histogram comparison and meaningful statistics in flow cytometry is probably the most widely encountered mathematical problem in flow cytometry. Ideally, a test for determining the statistical equality or difference of flow cytometric distributions will identify the significant differences or similarities of the obtained histograms. This situation is of particular interest when flow cytometry is used to study the heterogeneity of

J. Vives-rego; O. Resinasupasu; J. Comas; G. Loren; O. Julia

2003-01-01

34

Interpretation of MV power cables PD diagnostic data using statistical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document describes application of statistical analysis to several diagnostic parameters obtained during on-site measurements on MV power cables. The goal of this analysis is to estimate statistical borders values for different diagnostic parameters related to PD phenomena for cable insulation as well as different cable accessories like joint and termination. Data input introduced to analysis consist of mass, XLPE

P. Cichecki; E. Gulski; J. J. Smit; R. Jongen; F. Petzold

2008-01-01

35

SHORT COMMUNICATION: Statistical interpretation of key comparison degrees of equivalence based on distributions of belief  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA) requires the calculation of unilateral degrees of equivalence (DoE), defined as the difference between a laboratory's measurement and a key comparison reference value (KCRV). The functional form of the KCRV has been a source of much debate, with most of the proposed solutions being based on a frequentist interpretation of probability. The focus of this

Blaza Toman

2007-01-01

36

Tsallis statistics: averages and a physical interpretation of the Lagrange multiplier \\/beta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tsallis has proposed a generalisation of the standard entropy, which has since been applied to a variety of physical systems. In the canonical ensemble approach that is mostly used, average energy is given by an unnromalised, or normalised, \\/q-expectation value. A Lagrange multiplier \\/beta enforces the energy constraint whose physical interpretation, however, is lacking. Here, we use a microcanonical ensemble

S. Kalyana Rama

2000-01-01

37

Chance and Nonsense: A Conversation about Interpreting Tests of Statistical Significance, Part 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The second half of a dialogue between two fictional teachers examines the significance of statistical significance in research and considers the factors affecting the extent to which research results provide important or useful information. (PGD)

Shaver, James P.

1985-01-01

38

Chance and Nonsense: A Conversation about Interpreting Tests of Statistical Significance, Part 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A dialog between two fictional teachers provides some basic examples of how research that uses approved methodology may provide results that are significant statistically but not significant practically. (PGD)

Shaver, James P.

1985-01-01

39

Statistical analyses to support forensic interpretation for a new ten-locus STR profiling system.  

PubMed

A new ten-locus STR (short tandem repeat) profiling system was recently introduced into casework by the Forensic Science Service (FSS) and statistical analyses are described here based on data collected using this new system for the three major racial groups of the UK: Caucasian. Afro-Caribbean and Asian (of Indo-Pakistani descent). Allele distributions are compared and the FSS position with regard to routine significance testing of DNA frequency databases is discussed. An investigation of match probability calculations is carried out and the consequent analyses are shown to provide support for proposed changes in how the FSS reports DNA results when very small match probabilities are involved. PMID:11296886

Foreman, L A; Evett, I W

2001-01-01

40

Effect of normalization on statistical and biological interpretation of gene expression profiles.  

PubMed

An under-appreciated aspect of the genetic analysis of gene expression is the impact of post-probe level normalization on biological inference. Here we contrast nine different methods for normalization of an Illumina bead-array gene expression profiling dataset consisting of peripheral blood samples from 189 individual participants in the Center for Health Discovery and Well Being study in Atlanta, quantifying differences in the inference of global variance components and covariance of gene expression, as well as the detection of variants that affect transcript abundance (eSNPs). The normalization strategies, all relative to raw log2 measures, include simple mean centering, two modes of transcript-level linear adjustment for technical factors, and for differential immune cell counts, variance normalization by interquartile range and by quantile, fitting the first 16 Principal Components, and supervised normalization using the SNM procedure with adjustment for cell counts. Robustness of genetic associations as a consequence of Pearson and Spearman rank correlation is also reported for each method, and it is shown that the normalization strategy has a far greater impact than correlation method. We describe similarities among methods, discuss the impact on biological interpretation, and make recommendations regarding appropriate strategies. PMID:23755061

Qin, Shaopu; Kim, Jinhee; Arafat, Dalia; Gibson, Greg

2013-05-31

41

Effect of Normalization on Statistical and Biological Interpretation of Gene Expression Profiles  

PubMed Central

An under-appreciated aspect of the genetic analysis of gene expression is the impact of post-probe level normalization on biological inference. Here we contrast nine different methods for normalization of an Illumina bead-array gene expression profiling dataset consisting of peripheral blood samples from 189 individual participants in the Center for Health Discovery and Well Being study in Atlanta, quantifying differences in the inference of global variance components and covariance of gene expression, as well as the detection of variants that affect transcript abundance (eSNPs). The normalization strategies, all relative to raw log2 measures, include simple mean centering, two modes of transcript-level linear adjustment for technical factors, and for differential immune cell counts, variance normalization by interquartile range and by quantile, fitting the first 16 Principal Components, and supervised normalization using the SNM procedure with adjustment for cell counts. Robustness of genetic associations as a consequence of Pearson and Spearman rank correlation is also reported for each method, and it is shown that the normalization strategy has a far greater impact than correlation method. We describe similarities among methods, discuss the impact on biological interpretation, and make recommendations regarding appropriate strategies.

Qin, Shaopu; Kim, Jinhee; Arafat, Dalia; Gibson, Greg

2013-01-01

42

Interpreting CMB anisotropy observations: Trying to tell the truth with statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conflict has been reported between the baryon density inferred from deuterium observations and that found from recent CMB observations by BOOMERanG and MAXIMA. Despite the flurry of papers that attempt to resolve this conflict by adding new physics to the early universe, we will show that it can instead be resolved via a more careful usage of statistics. Indeed, the Bayesian analyses that produce this conflict are by their nature poorly suited for drawing this type of conclusion. A properly defined frequentist analysis can address this question directly and appears not to find a conflict. Finally, a conservative accounting of systematic uncertainties in measuring the deuterium abundance could reduce what is nominally a 3? conflict to 1?. .

Gawiser, Eric

2001-10-01

43

Statistical interpretation of transient current power-law decay in colloidal quantum dot arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new statistical model of the charge transport in colloidal quantum dot arrays is proposed. It takes into account Coulomb blockade forbidding multiple occupancy of nanocrystals and the influence of energetic disorder of interdot space. The model explains power-law current transients and the presence of the memory effect. The fractional differential analogue of the Ohm law is found phenomenologically for nanocrystal arrays. The model combines ideas that were considered as conflicting by other authors: the Scher-Montroll idea about the power-law distribution of waiting times in localized states for disordered semiconductors is applied taking into account Coulomb blockade; Novikov's condition about the asymptotic power-law distribution of time intervals between successful current pulses in conduction channels is fulfilled; and the carrier injection blocking predicted by Ginger and Greenham (2000 J. Appl. Phys. 87 1361) takes place.

Sibatov, R. T.

2011-08-01

44

Statistical Interpretation on the Brownian Steps of Kinesin and its Performance Characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kinesin is a stepping motor that moves along microtubules in discrete steps of 8 nm and there may exist three events in kinesin movement, i.e. the forward step, the backward step and the detachment. On the basis of the data obtained in the advanced experiments and the assumption that the rates of the three stochastic reaction events are Boltzmann type, the mechanical kinetic and thermodynamic properties of the kinesin motor are investigated through a statistical method. The mean dwell time, velocity, run length, power and efficiency of the motor are calculated theoretically. The effects of the temperature and load on the performance of the motor are discussed. It is found that the temperature dependent relations of both the mean run length and the efficiency ?M are not simply linear. The results are in good agreement with those obtained in previous experimental researches.

Zhang, Yue; Chen, Jincan

45

Statistic-mathematical interpretation of some assessment parameters of the grassland ecosystem according to soil characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant parameters of permanent grasslands are represented by the pastoral value and Shannon and Simpson biodiversity indices. The dynamics of these parameters has been studied in several plant associations in Banat Plain, Romania. From the point of view of their typology, these permanent grasslands belong to the steppe area, series Festuca pseudovina, type Festuca pseudovina-Achilea millefolium, subtype Lolium perenne. The methods used for the purpose of this research included plant cover analysis (double meter method, calculation of Shannon and Simpson indices), and statistical methods of regression and correlation. The results show that, in the permanent grasslands in the plain region, when the pastoral value is average to low, the level of interspecific biodiversity is on the increase.

Samfira, Ionel; Boldea, Marius; Popescu, Cosmin

2012-09-01

46

A Comprehensive Statistically-Based Method to Interpret Real-Time Flowing Measurements  

SciTech Connect

With the recent development of temperature measurement systems, continuous temperature profiles can be obtained with high precision. Small temperature changes can be detected by modern temperature measuring instruments such as fiber optic distributed temperature sensor (DTS) in intelligent completions and will potentially aid the diagnosis of downhole flow conditions. In vertical wells, since elevational geothermal changes make the wellbore temperature sensitive to the amount and the type of fluids produced, temperature logs can be used successfully to diagnose the downhole flow conditions. However, geothermal temperature changes along the wellbore being small for horizontal wells, interpretations of a temperature log become difficult. The primary temperature differences for each phase (oil, water, and gas) are caused by frictional effects. Therefore, in developing a thermal model for horizontal wellbore, subtle temperature changes must be accounted for. In this project, we have rigorously derived governing equations for a producing horizontal wellbore and developed a prediction model of the temperature and pressure by coupling the wellbore and reservoir equations. Also, we applied Ramey's model (1962) to the build section and used an energy balance to infer the temperature profile at the junction. The multilateral wellbore temperature model was applied to a wide range of cases at varying fluid thermal properties, absolute values of temperature and pressure, geothermal gradients, flow rates from each lateral, and the trajectories of each build section. With the prediction models developed, we present inversion studies of synthetic and field examples. These results are essential to identify water or gas entry, to guide flow control devices in intelligent completions, and to decide if reservoir stimulation is needed in particular horizontal sections. This study will complete and validate these inversion studies.

Keita Yoshioka; Pinan Dawkrajai; Analis A. Romero; Ding Zhu; A. D. Hill; Larry W. Lake

2007-01-15

47

A COMPREHENSIVE STATISTICALLY-BASED METHOD TO INTERPRET REAL-TIME FLOWING MEASUREMENTS  

SciTech Connect

In this project, we are developing new methods for interpreting measurements in complex wells (horizontal, multilateral and multi-branching wells) to determine the profiles of oil, gas, and water entry. These methods are needed to take full advantage of ''smart'' well instrumentation, a technology that is rapidly evolving to provide the ability to continuously and permanently monitor downhole temperature, pressure, volumetric flow rate, and perhaps other fluid flow properties at many locations along a wellbore; and hence, to control and optimize well performance. In this first year, we have made considerable progress in the development of the forward model of temperature and pressure behavior in complex wells. In this period, we have progressed on three major parts of the forward problem of predicting the temperature and pressure behavior in complex wells. These three parts are the temperature and pressure behaviors in the reservoir near the wellbore, in the wellbore or laterals in the producing intervals, and in the build sections connecting the laterals, respectively. Many models exist to predict pressure behavior in reservoirs and wells, but these are almost always isothermal models. To predict temperature behavior we derived general mass, momentum, and energy balance equations for these parts of the complex well system. Analytical solutions for the reservoir and wellbore parts for certain special conditions show the magnitude of thermal effects that could occur. Our preliminary sensitivity analyses show that thermal effects caused by near-wellbore reservoir flow can cause temperature changes that are measurable with smart well technology. This is encouraging for the further development of the inverse model.

Pinan Dawkrajai; Analis A. Romero; Keita Yoshioka; Ding Zhu; A.D. Hill; Larry W. Lake

2004-10-01

48

Statistical Equilibrium Calculation of OH: Interpretation of the 1612 MHz Absorption Line in HCL2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have recently observed four hyperfine components of the ground state ?-doublet-type transition of OH toward several positions in the Taurus Molecular Cloud with the Effelsberg 100 m radio telescope. We have found that the 1612 MHz line appears in absorption toward the eastern position of HCL2, where the [CI](3P1-3P0) emission shows a local peak. Furthermore, the spectrum observed toward the other positions in HCL2 shows two velocity components. The higher velocity component is seen in absorption, whereas the lower velocity component is seen in emission. In order to understand the above results, we have made statistical equilibrium calculations of the OH molecule. It is found that the 1612 MHz line appears in absorption only when the gas kinetic temperature is higher than 40 K. Thus, intensities of the four hyperfine components of OH can be a good thermometer. The combination of emission and absorption observed in HCL2 would reflect a cloud structure like cold dense cores surrounded by a warm less-dense envelope.

Inokuma, H.; Sakai, N.; Maezawa, H.; Menten, K.; Yamamoto, S.

2013-10-01

49

Salinization of groundwater around underground LPG storage caverns, Korea : statistical interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, we investigate the reciprocal influence between groundwater flow and its salinization occurred in two underground cavern sites, using major ion chemistry, PCA for chemical analysis data, and cross-correlation for various hydraulic data. The study areas are two underground LPG storage facilities constructed in South Sea coast, Yosu, and West Sea coastal regions, Pyeongtaek, Korea. Considerably high concentration of major cations and anions of groundwaters at both sites showed brackish or saline water types. In Yosu site, some great chemical difference of groundwater samples between rainy and dry season was caused by temporal intrusion of high-saline water into propane and butane cavern zone, but not in Pyeongtaek site. Cl/Br ratios and ? 18O- ? D distribution for tracing of salinization source water in both sites revealed that two kind of saline water (seawater and halite-dissolved solution) could influence the groundwater salinization in Yosu site, whereas only seawater intrusion could affect the groundwater chemistry of the observation wells in Pyeongtaek site. PCA performed by 8 and 10 chemical ions as statistical variables in both sites showed that intensive intrusion of seawater through butane cavern was occurred at Yosu site while seawater-groundwater mixing was observed at some observation wells located in the marginal part of Pyeongtaek site. Cross-correlation results revealed that the positive relationship between hydraulic head and cavern operating pressure was far more conspicuous at propane cavern zone in both sites (65 ~90% of correlation coefficients). According to the cross-correlation results of Yosu site, small change of head could provoke massive influx of halite-dissolved solution from surface through vertically developed fracture networks. However in Pyeongtaek site, the pressure-sensitive observation wells are not completely consistent with seawater-mixed wells, and the hydraulic change of heads at these wells related to the operating pressure is highly associated with horizontal fault developed along the east-west line of propane cavern zone.

Lee, J.; Chang, H.

2001-12-01

50

An Easily Constructed Trigonal Prism Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model of a trigonal prism which is useful for teaching stereochemistry (especially of the neodymium enneahydrate ion), can be made easily by using a sealed, empty envelope. The steps necessary to accomplish this task are presented. (JN)

Yamana, Shukichi

1984-01-01

51

Weighted Feature Significance: A Simple, Interpretable Model of Compound Toxicity Based on the Statistical Enrichment of Structural Features  

PubMed Central

In support of the U.S. Tox21 program, we have developed a simple and chemically intuitive model we call weighted feature significance (WFS) to predict the toxicological activity of compounds, based on the statistical enrichment of structural features in toxic compounds. We trained and tested the model on the following: (1) data from quantitative high–throughput screening cytotoxicity and caspase activation assays conducted at the National Institutes of Health Chemical Genomics Center, (2) data from Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutagenicity assays conducted by the U.S. National Toxicology Program, and (3) hepatotoxicity data published in the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. Enrichments of structural features in toxic compounds are evaluated for their statistical significance and compiled into a simple additive model of toxicity and then used to score new compounds for potential toxicity. The predictive power of the model for cytotoxicity was validated using an independent set of compounds from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency tested also at the National Institutes of Health Chemical Genomics Center. We compared the performance of our WFS approach with classical classification methods such as Naive Bayesian clustering and support vector machines. In most test cases, WFS showed similar or slightly better predictive power, especially in the prediction of hepatotoxic compounds, where WFS appeared to have the best performance among the three methods. The new algorithm has the important advantages of simplicity, power, interpretability, and ease of implementation.

Huang, Ruili; Southall, Noel; Xia, Menghang; Cho, Ming-Hsuang; Jadhav, Ajit; Nguyen, Dac-Trung; Inglese, James; Tice, Raymond R.; Austin, Christopher P.

2009-01-01

52

Designing easily learnable eyes-free interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental factors in mobile scenarios often prevent the user from being able to interact with a device via visual interfaces. Tactile feedback offers a promising eyes-free alternative. However, haptic research typically focuses on increasing the bandwidth of the tactile communication channel, resulting in complex patterns that can be difficult to learn. I propose the way to enable easily learnable eyes-

Kevin A. Li; William G. Griswold; James D. Hollan

53

Ruggedness tests on the high-performance liquid chromatography assay of the United States Pharmacopeia XXII for tetracycline hydrochloride. A comparison of experimental designs and statistical interpretations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ruggedness tests were performed for the high-performance liquid Chromatographic method for the determination of tetracycline hydrochloride from the United States Pharmacopeia XXII using Plackett-Burman and fractional factorial designs. Different statistical interpretation criteria for both kinds of designs were compared. The interpretation criteria for the Plackett-Burman designs were based on the use of dummy factors in the design and for the

Y. Vander Heyden; K. Luypaert; C. Hartmann; D. L. Massart; J. Hoogmartens; J. De Beer

1995-01-01

54

Hydrochemical and multivariate statistical interpretations of spatial controls of nitrate concentrations in a shallow alluvial aquifer around oxbow lakes (Osong area, central Korea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrochemical and multivariate statistical interpretations of 16 physicochemical parameters of 45 groundwater samples from a riverside alluvial aquifer underneath an agricultural area in Osong, central Korea, were performed in this study to understand the spatial controls of nitrate concentrations in terms of biogeochemical processes occurring near oxbow lakes within a fluvial plain. Nitrate concentrations in groundwater showed a large variability

Kyoung-Ho Kim; Seong-Taek Yun; Byoung-Young Choi; Gi-Tak Chae; Yongsung Joo; Kangjoo Kim; Hyoung-Soo Kim

2009-01-01

55

Development of an easily swallowed film formulation.  

PubMed

We have developed an easily swallowed film formulation that swells and turns into a jelly instantaneously upon absorption of a small amount of saliva. The formulation's structure comprises a gelating layer on both faces of a drug-containing layer, and this structure restrains the elution of a drug in the mouth. Swelling experiments confirmed the instantaneous gelation when the gelating layer absorbs purified water. Fifteen seconds after immersion in purified water, the bulk modulus of the film formulation was less than 500N/m2, which is an appropriate value for easy swallowing by elderly people. A dissolution study confirmed the delayed dissolution of glimepiride as a model drug. In a clinical study, although the stagnation at the upper esophagus was observed with a gelatin capsule, the film formulation passed the esophagus and reached the stomach quickly. PMID:18191926

Okabe, Hideaki; Suzuki, Eiji; Sugiura, Yusaku; Yanagimoto, Kaisuke; Takanashi, Yasunari; Hoshi, Masaru; Nogami, Eiji; Nakahara, Kaname; Sekiguchi, Toru; Baba, Mikoto; Saitoh, Eiichi

2007-11-29

56

Quantum of area {Delta}A=8{pi}l{sub P}{sup 2} and a statistical interpretation of black hole entropy  

SciTech Connect

In contrast to alternative values, the quantum of area {Delta}A=8{pi}l{sub P}{sup 2} does not follow from the usual statistical interpretation of black hole entropy; on the contrary, a statistical interpretation follows from it. This interpretation is based on the two concepts: nonadditivity of black hole entropy and Landau quantization. Using nonadditivity a microcanonical distribution for a black hole is found and it is shown that the statistical weight of a black hole should be proportional to its area. By analogy with conventional Landau quantization, it is shown that quantization of a black hole is nothing but the Landau quantization. The Landau levels of a black hole and their degeneracy are found. The degree of degeneracy is equal to the number of ways to distribute a patch of area 8{pi}l{sub P}{sup 2} over the horizon. Taking into account these results, it is argued that the black hole entropy should be of the form S{sub bh}=2{pi}{center_dot}{Delta}{Gamma}, where the number of microstates is {Delta}{Gamma}=A/8{pi}l{sub P}{sup 2}. The nature of the degrees of freedom responsible for black hole entropy is elucidated. The applications of the new interpretation are presented. The effect of noncommuting coordinates is discussed.

Ropotenko, Kostiantyn [State Administration of Communications, Ministry of Transport and Communications of Ukraine, 22, Khreschatyk, 01001, Kyiv (Ukraine)

2010-08-15

57

Easily available enzymes as natural retting agents.  

PubMed

Easily available commercial enzymes currently have great potential in bast fibre processing and can be modified for different end uses. There are several new technologies using enzymes that are able to modify fibre parameters, achieve requested properties, improve processing results and are more beneficial to the ecology in the area of bast fibre processing and fabrics finishing. Enzymatic methods for retting of flax, "cottonisation" of bast fibres, hemp separation, and processing of flax rovings before wet spinning, etc., fall into this group of new technologies. Such enzymatic biotechnologies can provide benefits in textile, composite, reinforced plastic and other technical applications. Laboratory, pilot and industrial scale results and experiences have demonstrated the ability of selected enzymes to decompose interfibre-bonding layers based on pectin, lignin and hemicelluloses. Texazym SER spray is able to increase flax long fibre yields by more than 40%. Other enzymes in combination with mild mechanical treatment can replace aggressive and energy-intensive processing like Laroche "cottonisation". Texazym SCW and DLG pretreatments of flax rovings are presented. PMID:17309044

Antonov, Viktor; Marek, Jan; Bjelkova, Marie; Smirous, Prokop; Fischer, Holger

2007-03-01

58

A Note on the Calculation and Interpretation of the Delta-p Statistic for Categorical Independent Variables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This methodological note illustrates how a commonly used calculation of the Delta-p statistic is inappropriate for categorical independent variables, and this note provides users of logistic regression with a revised calculation of the Delta-p statistic that is more meaningful when studying the differences in the predicted probability of an…

Cruce, Ty M.

2009-01-01

59

A Note on the Calculation and Interpretation of the Delta-p Statistic for Categorical Independent Variables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This methodological note illustrates how a commonly used calculation of the Delta-p statistic is inappropriate for categorical independent variables, and this note provides users of logistic regression with a revised calculation of the Delta-p statistic that is more meaningful when studying the differences in the predicted probability of an…

Cruce, Ty M.

2009-01-01

60

Design of systems involving easily measurable aspheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aspheric surfaces provide significant benefits to an optical design. Unfortunately, aspheres are usually more difficult to fabricate than spherical surfaces, making the choice of whether and when to use aspheres in a design less obvious. Much of the difficulty comes from obtaining aspheric measurements with comparable quality and simplicity to spherical measurements. Subaperture stitching can provide a flexible and effective test for many aspheric shapes, enabling more cost-effective manufacture of high-precision aspheres. To take full advantage of this flexible testing capability, however, the designer must know what the limitations of the measurement are, so that the asphere designs can be optimized for both performance and manufacturability. In practice, this can be quite difficult, as instrument capabilities are difficult to quantify absolutely, and standard asphere polynomial coefficients are difficult to interpret. The slope-orthogonal "Q" polynomial representation for an aspheric surface is ideal for constraining the slope departure of aspheres. We present a method of estimating whether an asphere described by Q polynomials is measurable by QED Technologies' SSI-A system. This estimation function quickly computes the testability from the asphere's prescription (Q polynomial coefficients, radius of curvature, and aperture size), and is thus suitable for employing in lens design merit functions. We compare the estimates against actual SSI-A lattices. Finally, we explore the speed and utility of the method in a lens design study.

Murphy, Paul E.; Stephenson, Dave; Jones, Andrew E. W.; Forbes, Greg W.

2013-09-01

61

Side effect of acting on the world: acquisition of action-outcome statistic relation alters visual interpretation of action outcome  

PubMed Central

Humans can acquire the statistical features of the external world and employ them to control behaviors. Some external events occur in harmony with an agent's action, and thus, humans should also be able to acquire the statistical features between an action and its external outcome. We report that the acquired action-outcome statistical features alter the visual appearance of the action outcome. Pressing either of two assigned keys triggered visual motion whose direction was statistically biased either upward or downward, and observers judged the stimulus motion direction. Points of subjective equality (PSE) for judging motion direction were shifted repulsively from the mean of the distribution associated with each key. Our Bayesian model accounted for the PSE shifts, indicating the optimal acquisition of the action-effect statistical relation. The PSE shifts were moderately attenuated when the action-outcome contingency was reduced. The Bayesian model again accounted for the attenuated PSE shifts. On the other hand, when the action-outcome contiguity was reduced, the PSE shifts were greatly attenuated, and however, the Bayesian model could not accounted for the shifts. The results indicate that visual appearance can be modified by prediction based on the optimal acquisition of action-effect causal relation.

Kawabe, Takahiro

2013-01-01

62

Multivariate Statistical Process Control Charts and the Problem of Interpretation: A Short Overview and Some Applications in Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Woodall and Montgomery [35] in a discussion paper, state that multivariate process control is one of the most rapidly developing sections of statistical process control. Nowadays, in industry, there are many situations in which the simultaneous monitoring or control, of two or more related quality - process characteristics is necessary. Process monitoring problems in which several related variables are of

S. Bersimis; J. Panaretos; S. Psarakis

2009-01-01

63

STATISTICAL BASIS FOR THE DESIGN AND INTERPRETATION OF THE NATIONAL SURFACE WATER SURVEY. PHASE 1. LAKES AND STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary objectives of Phase I of the National Surface Water Survey were to determine the number of acidic or potentially acidic lakes and streams, their location, and their physical and chemical characteristics. To meet these objectives, a statistically designed survey was im...

64

[Intranarcotic infusion therapy -- a computer interpretation using the program package SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences)].  

PubMed

In a retrospective 18-month study the infusion therapy applied in a great anesthesia institute is examined. The data of the course of anesthesia recorded on magnetic tape by routine are analysed for this purpose bya computer with the statistical program SPSS. It could be proved that the behaviour of the several anesthetists is very different. Various correlations are discussed. PMID:1184176

Link, J; Pachaly, J

1975-08-01

65

Statistical analysis and interpretation of prenatal diagnostic imaging studies, Part 1: evaluating the efficiency of screening and diagnostic tests.  

PubMed

Screening and diagnostic testing play fundamental roles in all fields of clinical medicine, with obstetric imaging and prenatal diagnosis being no exceptions. With advances in maternal serum screening and ultrasound technology, much research effort in the field of pre-natal diagnosis has actually been dedicated to the development and refinement of screening tests for fetal aneuploidy and other congenital disorders. This article aims to review the differences between screening and diagnostic tests, describe the accepted criteria for an efficient screening test, and provide an overview of the calculation and interpretation of test performance characteristics in relation to prenatal imaging studies. PMID:21795488

Goetzinger, Katherine R; Odibo, Anthony O

2011-08-01

66

The use of easily debondable orthodontic adhesives with ceramic brackets.  

PubMed

We experimentally produced an easily debondable orthodontic adhesive (EDA) containing heat-expandable microcapsules. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the best debondable condition when EDA was used for ceramic brackets. Shear bond strengths were measured before and after heating and were compared statistically. Temperatures of the bracket base and pulp wall were also examined during heating. Bond strengths of EDA containing 30 wt% and 40 wt% heat-expandable microcapsules were 13.4 and 12.9 MPa, respectively and decreased significantly to 3.8 and 3.7 MPa, respectively, after heating. The temperature of the pulp wall increased 1.8-3.6°C after heating, less than that required to induce pulp damage. Based on the results, we conclude that heating for 8 s during debonding of ceramic brackets bonded using EDA containing 40 wt% heat-expandable microcapsules is the most effective and safest method for the enamel and pulp. PMID:21946484

Ryu, Chiyako; Namura, Yasuhiro; Tsuruoka, Takashi; Hama, Tomohiko; Kaji, Kaori; Shimizu, Noriyoshi

2011-09-23

67

Skew-Laplace and Cell-Size Distribution in Microbial Axenic Cultures: Statistical Assessment and Biological Interpretation  

PubMed Central

We report a skew-Laplace statistical analysis of both flow cytometry scatters and cell size from microbial strains primarily grown in batch cultures, others in chemostat cultures and bacterial aquatic populations. Cytometry scatters best fit the skew-Laplace distribution while cell size as assessed by an electronic particle analyzer exhibited a moderate fitting. Unlike the cultures, the aquatic bacterial communities clearly do not fit to a skew-Laplace distribution. Due to its versatile nature, the skew-Laplace distribution approach offers an easy, efficient, and powerful tool for distribution of frequency analysis in tandem with the flow cytometric cell sorting.

Julia, Olga; Vidal-Mas, Jaume; Panikov, Nicolai S.; Vives-Rego, Josep

2010-01-01

68

On the likelihood of post-perovskite near the core-mantle boundary: A statistical interpretation of seismic observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent experimental studies indicate that perovskite, the dominant lower mantle mineral, undergoes a phase change to post-perovskite at high pressures. However, it has been unclear whether this transition occurs within the Earth's mantle, due to uncertainties in both the thermochemical state of the lowermost mantle and the pressure-temperature conditions of the phase boundary. In this study we compare the relative fit to global seismic data of mantle models which do and do not contain post-perovskite, following a statistical approach. Our data comprise more than 10,000 Pdiff and Sdiff travel-times, global in coverage, from which we extract the global distributions of dln VS and dln VP near the core-mantle boundary (CMB). These distributions are sensitive to the underlying lateral variations in mineralogy and temperature even after seismic uncertainties are taken into account, and are ideally suited for investigating the likelihood of the presence of post-perovskite. A post-perovskite-bearing CMB region provides a significantly closer fit to the seismic data than a post-perovskite-free CMB region on both a global and regional scale. These results complement previous local seismic reflection studies, which have shown a consistency between seismic observations and the physical properties of post-perovskite inside the deep Earth.

Cobden, Laura; Mosca, Ilaria; Trampert, Jeannot; Ritsema, Jeroen

2012-11-01

69

An Easily Constructed Model of a Square Antiprism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model of a square antiprism which is necessary for teaching stereochemistry (for example, of the octafluorotantalate ion) can be made easily by using a sealed, empty envelope. The steps necessary to accomplish this task are presented. (JN)

Yamana, Shukichi

1984-01-01

70

Criterion validity of interpreting scores from multi-informant statistical interactions as measures of informant discrepancies in psychological assessments of children and adolescents.  

PubMed

Parents and adolescents often provide discrepant reports of adolescent and family behavior. Recent work indicates that scores from indirect measures of discrepancies between parent and adolescent reports, namely, statistical interactions between reports, longitudinally predict adolescent psychopathology. However, no previous work supports the criterion validity of interpreting scores from these interactions as indirect measures of informant discrepancies. In a community sample of 50 parents and adolescents ages 14-17 years (M = 15.4 years, 20 males and 30 females), we examined indirect measures of parent-adolescent reporting discrepancies, using parent and adolescent reports of parents' awareness of adolescents' whereabouts and activities (i.e., parental monitoring). We examined these reporting discrepancies in relation to a structured interview that directly assesses "discrepant beliefs" or perceived discrepancies between parent and adolescent views of daily life topics (e.g., doing chores and homework). Greater parent- and adolescent-reported parental monitoring related to lower perceived discrepant beliefs. Importantly, the interaction between parental monitoring reports provided additional information. Specifically, when adolescents provided relatively high parental monitoring reports, we observed greater parents' parental monitoring reports relating to lower perceived discrepant beliefs, but no such relation when adolescents provided relatively low parental monitoring reports. Overall, findings suggest that indirect assessments of parent-adolescent discrepancies in reports of parental monitoring relate to direct assessments of how parents and adolescents perceive everyday life topics differently. These findings have important implications for understanding the longitudinal links between informant discrepancies and adolescent psychopathology, as well as developing multimethod assessments of informant discrepancies in psychological assessments. PMID:23544400

De Los Reyes, Andres; Salas, Salvador; Menzer, Melissa M; Daruwala, Samantha E

2013-04-01

71

Easily disassembled electrical connector for high voltage, high frequency connections  

DOEpatents

An easily accessible electrical connector capable of rapid assembly and disassembly is described wherein a wide metal conductor sheet may be evenly contacted over the entire width of the conductor sheet by opposing surfaces on the connector which provide an even clamping pressure against opposite surfaces of the metal conductor sheet using a single threaded actuating screw. 13 figures.

Milner, J.R.

1994-05-10

72

Easily disassembled electrical connector for high voltage, high frequency connections  

Microsoft Academic Search

An easily accessible electrical connector capable of rapid assembly and disassembly is described wherein a wide metal conductor sheet may be evenly contacted over the entire width of the conductor sheet by opposing surfaces on the connector which provide an even clamping pressure against opposite surfaces of the metal conductor sheet using a single threaded actuating screw. 13 figures.

1994-01-01

73

Easily disassembled electrical connector for high voltage, high frequency connections  

DOEpatents

An easily accessible electrical connector capable of rapid assembly and disassembly wherein a wide metal conductor sheet may be evenly contacted over the entire width of the conductor sheet by opposing surfaces on the connector which provide an even clamping pressure against opposite surfaces of the metal conductor sheet using a single threaded actuating screw.

Milner, Joseph R. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

74

An easily assembled laboratory exercise in computed tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a laboratory activity in computed tomography (CT) primarily composed of a photogate and a rotary motion sensor that can be assembled quickly and partially automates data collection and analysis. We use an enclosure made with a light filter that is largely opaque in the visible spectrum but mostly transparent to the near IR light of the photogate (880 nm) to scan objects hidden from the human eye. This experiment effectively conveys how an image is formed during a CT scan and highlights the important physical and imaging concepts behind CT such as electromagnetic radiation, the interaction of light and matter, artefacts and windowing. Like our setup, previous undergraduate level laboratory activities which teach the basics of CT have also utilized light sources rather than x-rays; however, they required a more extensive setup and used devices not always easily found in undergraduate laboratories. Our setup is easily implemented with equipment found in many teaching laboratories.

Mylott, Elliot; Klepetka, Ryan; Dunlap, Justin C.; Widenhorn, Ralf

2011-09-01

75

Rescue of easily shocked mutant seizure sensitivity in drosophila adults.  

PubMed

Genetic factors that influence seizure susceptibility can act transiently during the development of neural circuits or might be necessary for the proper functioning of existing circuits. We provide evidence that the Drosophila seizure-sensitive mutant easily shocked (eas) represents a neurological disorder in which abnormal functioning of existing neural circuits leads to seizure sensitivity. The eas(+) gene encodes for the protein Ethanolamine Kinase, involved in phospholipid biosynthesis. We show that induction of eas(+) in adult mutant flies rescues them from seizure sensitivity despite previously known developmental defects in brain morphology. Additionally, through cell-type-specific rescue, our results suggest a specific role for eas(+) in excitatory rather than inhibitory neural transmission. Overall, our findings emphasize an important role for proper phospholipid metabolism in normal brain function and suggest that certain classes of epilepsy syndromes could have the potential to be treated with gene therapy techniques. J. Comp. Neurol. 521:3500-3507, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23682034

Kroll, Jason R; Tanouye, Mark A

2013-10-01

76

Interpreting Math  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is to give you practice preparing for and interpreting in math education settings. 1. Activate your extra linguistic knowledge (ELK) in preparation for interpreting a math lesson. Visit the Solving Equations website and familiarize yourself with the steps for solving linear equations. Clarify any concepts you do not understand. (Remember that you cannot interpret what you do not understand.) Solving Equations 2. Begin working on ...

2007-10-01

77

Statistical treatment and preliminary interpretation of chemical data from a uranium deposit in the northeast part of the Church Rock area, Gallup mining district, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Statistical treatment of analytical data from 106 samples of uranium-mineralized and unmineralized or weakly mineralized rocks of the Morrison Formation from the northeastern part of the Church Rock area of the Grants uranium region indicates that along with uranium, the deposits in the northeast Church Rock area are enriched in barium, sulfur, sodium, vanadium and equivalent uranium. Selenium and molybdenum are sporadically enriched in the deposits and calcium, manganese, strontium, and yttrium are depleted. Unlike the primary deposits of the San Juan Basin, the deposits in the northeast part of the Church Rock area contain little organic carbon and several elements that are characteristically enriched in the primary deposits are not enriched or are enriched to a much lesser degree in the Church Rock deposits. The suite of elements associated with the deposits in the northeast part of the Church Rock area is also different from the suite of elements associated with the redistributed deposits in the Ambrosia Lake district. This suggests that the genesis of the Church Rock deposits is different, at least in part, from the genesis of the primary deposits of the San Juan Basin or the redistributed deposits at Ambrosia Lake.

Spirakis, C. S.; Pierson, C. T.; Santos, E. S.; Fishman, N. S.

1983-01-01

78

Interpretive Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)|

DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

1977-01-01

79

Statistical Inference Without Frequentist Justifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Statistical inference is often justified by long-run properties of the sampling distributions, such as the repeated sampling\\u000a rationale. These are frequentist justifications of statistical inference. I argue that these justifications are flawed. Then\\u000a I propose a novel interpretation of probability in statistics, the artefactual interpretation. I believe that this interpretation\\u000a is able to forge a link between statistical probability calculations

Jan Sprenger

2011-01-01

80

Quantum Interpretations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Difficulties and discomfort with the interpretation of quantum mechanics are due to differences in language between it and classical physics. Analogies to The Special Theory of Relativity, which also required changes in the basic worldview and language of non-relativistic classical mechanics, may help in absorbing the changes called for by quantum physics. There is no need to invoke extravagances such

A. R. P. Rau

2006-01-01

81

Interpretations of Entanglement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The peculiar statistical correlations between spatially separated systems which arise in quantum mechanics, and which the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paper of 1935 thrust into the limelight, have been the focus of much interpretive speculation and disagreement in the years since then. Amongst the questions raised along the way have been questions about the possibility of superluminal causation, the limits of quantum mechanics and its relation to relativity theory, the nature of and need for causal explanation, realism, determinism, and the presence of holism in quantum mechanics. This talk will provide an historically structured overview of these debates including discussion of the Bohm theory, the many worlds interpretation, and more recent developments and will suggest a way of dividing many of the interpretations of entanglement into clusters of like-minded views.

Jones, Martin

2002-04-01

82

Quantum Interpretations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Difficulties and discomfort with the interpretation of quantum mechanics are\\u000adue to differences in language between it and classical physics. Analogies to\\u000aThe Special Theory of Relativity, which also required changes in the basic\\u000aworldview and language of non-relativistic classical mechanics, may help in\\u000aabsorbing the changes called for by quantum physics. There is no need to invoke\\u000aextravagances such

A. R. P. Rau

2006-01-01

83

Interpret Rankings  

Cancer.gov

Interpreting Rankings Data A natural reaction of some readers when looking at charts that rank their state's cancer rates is to seek explanations as to why their state has higher incidence rates for some cancers than other states or than the national average. Some may be alarmed that exposure to environmental carcinogens may be responsible when in fact there are several other more likely explanations.

84

An Easily Accessible Web-Based Minimization Random Allocation System for Clinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Background Minimization as an adaptive allocation technique has been recommended in the literature for use in randomized clinical trials. However, it remains uncommonly used due in part to a lack of easily accessible implementation tools. Objective To provide clinical trialists with a robust, flexible, and readily accessible tool for implementing covariate-adaptive biased-coin randomization. Methods We developed a Web-based random allocation system, MinimRan, that applies Pocock–Simon (for trials with 2 or more arms) and 2-way (currently limited to 2-arm trials) minimization methods for trials using only categorical prognostic factors or the symmetric Kullback–Leibler divergence minimization method for trials (currently limited to 2-arm trials) using continuous prognostic factors with or without categorical factors, in covariate-adaptive biased-coin randomization. Results In this paper, we describe the system’s essential statistical and computer programming features and provide as an example the randomization results generated by it in a recently completed trial. The system can be used in single- and double-blind trials as well as single-center and multicenter trials. Conclusions We expect the system to facilitate the translation of the 3 validated random allocation methods into broad, efficient clinical research practice.

Xiao, Lan; Huang, Qiwen; Yank, Veronica

2013-01-01

85

CT colonography: pitfalls in interpretation.  

PubMed

As with any radiologic imaging test, there are several potential interpretive pitfalls at CT colonography that need to be recognized and handled appropriately. Perhaps the single most important step in learning to avoid most of these diagnostic traps is simply to be aware of their existence. With a little experience, most of these potential pitfalls are easily recognized. This article systematically covers the key pitfalls confronting the radiologist at CT colonography interpretation, primarily dividing them into those related to technique and those related to underlying anatomy. Tips and pointers for how to effectively handle these potential pitfalls are included. PMID:23182508

Pickhardt, Perry J; Kim, David H

2013-01-01

86

Hypothesis Formulation, Model Interpretation, and Model Equivalence: Implications of a Mereological Causal Interpretation of Structural Equation Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

One can distinguish statistical models used in causal modeling from the causal interpretations that align them with substantive hypotheses. Causal modeling typically assumes an efficient causal interpretation of the statistical model. Causal modeling can also make use of mereological causal interpretations in which the state of the parts determines the state of the whole. This interpretation shares several properties with

Keith A. Markus

2008-01-01

87

VCG Interpretation through Artificial Learning (VITAL)  

PubMed Central

A system for automated VCG interpretation using tools of artificial intelligence and statistical signal processing is presently under development. The system differs substantially from current programs in the extraction of features to be used for rhythm and morphology interpretation. These are found based on ideas of statistical data compression and sufficient statistics rather than the commonly-used waveform measurements. A relatively large data base is being collected to train and evaluate the statistical pattern recognition algorithms used for interpretation. Representative results are presented to illustrate the approach and system performance.

Gustafson, D.E.; Womble, M.E.; Lancaster, M.C.

1981-01-01

88

Introductory Statistical Mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

There exist so many textbooks on statistical thermodynamics - what is then the point of having a new one? Well, any lecturer who delivers a university course on this subject will have experienced that it is fairly difficult to explain the basic concepts, such as entropy and the probabilistic approach to it, in a way that is easily comprehensible and

K Binder

2000-01-01

89

Statistical Inference: The Big Picture  

PubMed Central

Statistics has moved beyond the frequentist-Bayesian controversies of the past. Where does this leave our ability to interpret results? I suggest that a philosophy compatible with statistical practice, labelled here statistical pragmatism, serves as a foundation for inference. Statistical pragmatism is inclusive and emphasizes the assumptions that connect statistical models with observed data. I argue that introductory courses often mis-characterize the process of statistical inference and I propose an alternative “big picture” depiction.

Kass, Robert E.

2011-01-01

90

An Easily Constructed Model of Twin Octahedrons Having a Common Line.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model of twin octahedrons having a common line which is useful for teaching stereochemistry (especially that of complex ions) can be made easily by using a sealed, empty envelope. The steps necessary to accomplish this task are presented. (JN)

Yamana, Shukichi; Kawaguchi, Makoto

1984-01-01

91

Statistical Process Control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Statistical Process Control is a lesson plan which provides an overview of Statistical Process Control, showing the value of collecting and analyzing data that enables people to systematically analyze and improve a process. After completing this module, students should be able to construct and interpret different statistical charts in order to evaluate a process. Note: This module is part of a modularized manufacturing technology curriculum created by the PSCME, found at www.pscme.org/educators.html.

King, John; Imre, John; Devine, Craig

2010-09-02

92

Bayesian Statistical Inference  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Bayesian statistics is much more easily connected to the inferential problem of Schema (1.1) than \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a classical statistics. The feature that distinguishes \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Bayesian statistical inference from \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a classical statistics is that it also employs probability assignments over \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a statistical hypotheses. It is therefore possible to present a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Bayesian statistical procedure as an inference concerning probability assignments over hypotheses. Recall that we called\\u000a the

Rolf Haenni; Jan-Willem Romeijn; Gregory Wheeler; Jon Williamson

93

Easily preparation of high yield anatase TiO2 crystals by adding a wonderful additive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TiO2 exists in three principal crystallographic forms (anatase, brookite and rutile) but only the anatase form is photocatalytically active and it is changes easily to a rutile-type one, so the technique to easily prepare high yield anatase TiO2 is difficulty. In this present work, high yield anatase TiO2 nanocrystals were easily prepared by adding a additive(the key technique) via hydrothermal treatment under optimum conditions (0.15M Ti(SO4)2 sulfate aqueous solution, the Ti4+/additive molar ratio 1/1, the heat temperature 170°C and reaction time 4h). The as-prepared TiO2 was characterized by SEM, TEM and XRD.

Zhang, Yibing; Jiang, Lei

2009-09-01

94

Interpretive media study and interpretive social science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Described by their proponents as an alternative to positivistic perspectives on media effects that ignore audience activity, interpretive approaches center on the interpretive processes employed by audience members in their decoding of media content. Meaning is viewed as a product of the interaction between media texts and the varied, at times contradictory, interpretive strategies employed by audience members. This article

Kevin M. Carragee

1990-01-01

95

Hypothesis Formulation, Model Interpretation, and Model Equivalence: Implications of a Mereological Causal Interpretation of Structural Equation Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One can distinguish statistical models used in causal modeling from the causal interpretations that align them with substantive hypotheses. Causal modeling typically assumes an efficient causal interpretation of the statistical model. Causal modeling can also make use of mereological causal interpretations in which the state of the parts…

Markus, Keith A.

2008-01-01

96

Making On-Line Science Course Materials Easily Translatable and Accessible Worldwide: Challenges and Solutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The PhET Interactive Simulations Project partnered with the Excellence Research Center of Science and Mathematics Education at King Saud University with the joint goal of making simulations useable worldwide. One of the main challenges of this partnership is to make PhET simulations and the website easily translatable into any language. The PhET…

Adams, Wendy K.; Alhadlaq, Hisham; Malley, Christopher V.; Perkins, Katherine K.; Olson, Jonathan; Alshaya, Fahad; Alabdulkareem, Saleh; Wieman, Carl E.

2012-01-01

97

Interpreting Results in Mental Health Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often difficult to interpret the clinical or policy significance of findings from mental health research when results are presented only in terms of statistical significance. Results expressed in terms of p values or as a metric corresponding to a mental health status scale are seldom intuitively meaningful. To help interpret the significance of research results, we demonstrate a

Jeffrey S. Harman; Willard G. Manning; Nicole Lurie; Chuan-Fen Liu

2001-01-01

98

Statistical Neurodynamics.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objective of the thesis is to explore the dynamical properties of small nerve networks by means of the methods of statistical mechanics. To this end, a general formalism is developed and applied to elementary groupings of model neurons which are driven by either constant (steady state) or nonconstant (nonsteady state) forces. Neuronal models described by a system of coupled, nonlinear, first-order, ordinary differential equations are considered. A linearized form of the neuronal equations is studied in detail. A Lagrange function corresponding to the linear neural network is constructed which, through a Legendre transformation, provides a constant of motion. By invoking the Maximum-Entropy Principle with the single integral of motion as a constraint, a probability distribution function for the network in a steady state can be obtained. The formalism is implemented for some simple networks driven by a constant force; accordingly, the analysis focuses on a study of fluctuations about the steady state. In particular, a network composed of N noninteracting neurons, termed Free Thinkers, is considered in detail, with a view to interpretation and numerical estimation of the Lagrange multiplier corresponding to the constant of motion. As an archetypical example of a net of interacting neurons, the classical neural oscillator, consisting of two mutually inhibitory neurons, is investigated. It is further shown that in the case of a network driven by a nonconstant force, the Maximum-Entropy Principle can be applied to determine a probability distribution functional describing the network in a nonsteady state. The above examples are reconsidered with nonconstant driving forces which produce small deviations from the steady state. Numerical studies are performed on simplified models of two physical systems: the starfish central nervous system and the mammalian olfactory bulb. Discussions are given as to how statistical neurodynamics can be used to gain a better understanding of the behavior of these systems.

Paine, Gregory Harold

1982-03-01

99

Easily fermentable carbohydrates reduce skatole formation in the distal intestine of entire male pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding different sources of easily fermentable carbohydrates to entire male pigs during the last weeks before slaughter. In Exp. 1, 48 entire male pigs (21.8 and 100.5kg initial and final body weight, respectively) were used to evaluate the effect of adding 0, 3, 6, or 9% chicory inulin (containing 70% inulin)

M. Øverland; N. K. Kjos; A. K. Fauske; J. Teige; H. Sørum

2011-01-01

100

Behavior of easily ionizable additives in the combustion wave of a solid, plasma-producing fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion products of solid, plasma-producing fuels (SPF) are used as the working medium in pulsed geophysical MHD generators [i]. To ensure the required specific electrical conductivity of the gas at the entry into the MHD channel (50-70 mho\\/m), easily ionizable additives (IA) are introduced into the composition of such fuels. These additives usually consist of nitates of cesium, or

V. A. Novikov; V. M. Polonskii; S. I. Yakovlev

1990-01-01

101

Making On-line Science Course Materials Easily Translatable and Accessible Worldwide: Challenges and Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PhET Interactive Simulations Project partnered with the Excellence Research Center of Science and Mathematics Education\\u000a at King Saud University with the joint goal of making simulations useable worldwide. One of the main challenges of this partnership\\u000a is to make PhET simulations and the website easily translatable into any language. The PhET project team overcame this challenge\\u000a by creating the

Wendy K. Adams; Hisham Alhadlaq; Christopher V. Malley; Katherine K. Perkins; Jonathan Olson; Fahad Alshaya; Saleh Alabdulkareem; Carl E. Wieman

2010-01-01

102

Interpreting DNA Evidence: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper provides a review of current issues relating to the use of DNA profiling in\\u000aforensic science. A short historical section gives the main statistical milestones that\\u000aoccurred during a rapid development of DNA technology and operational uses.\\u000aGreater detail is then provided for interpretation issues involving STR DNA profiles,\\u000aincluding:\\u000a¶ methods that take account of population substructure

L. A. Foreman; C. Champod; I. W. Evett; J. A. Lambert; S. Pope

2003-01-01

103

The Unity of Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is interpretation? One can imagine a range of answers to this question. One answer might begin with the observation that the English word “interpretation” is used to refer to a variety of human activities. Translators at the United Nations interpret remarks made in French when they offer an English translation. Literary critics interpret novels when they investigate the deep

Lawrence B. Solum

2010-01-01

104

Cancer Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... Rates Continue to Drop SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2010 Did You Know? Video Series Cancer Statistics ... and survival from the SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2010. Play Pause Volume Up Volume Down Mute ...

105

An easily removable stereo-dictating group for enantioselective synthesis of propargylic amines.  

PubMed

We report herein a CuBr-catalyzed three-component coupling of 2-methylbut-3-yn-2-ol, aldehydes and pyrrolidine or 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline leading to the corresponding chiral propargylamines in excellent enantiomeric excess (91 to >99% ee) and high yields (79-95% yield). The dimethylcarbinol unit in 2-methylbut-3-yn-2-ol, which may be easily removed at the later stage to regenerate a terminal alkyne unit for further elaboration, plays a very important role in ensuring high enantioselectivity. This protocol provides easy and very general access to different terminal and non-terminal tertiary propargylic amines. PMID:24051867

Fan, Wu; Ma, Shengming

2013-10-01

106

Making On-line Science Course Materials Easily Translatable and Accessible Worldwide: Challenges and Solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PhET Interactive Simulations Project partnered with the Excellence Research Center of Science and Mathematics Education at King Saud University with the joint goal of making simulations useable worldwide. One of the main challenges of this partnership is to make PhET simulations and the website easily translatable into any language. The PhET project team overcame this challenge by creating the Translation Utility. This tool allows a person fluent in both English and another language to easily translate any of the PhET simulations and requires minimal computer expertise. In this paper we discuss the technical issues involved in this software solution, as well as the issues involved in obtaining accurate translations. We share our solutions to many of the unexpected problems we encountered that would apply generally to making on-line scientific course materials available in many different languages, including working with: languages written right-to-left, different character sets, and different conventions for expressing equations, variables, units and scientific notation.

Adams, Wendy K.; Alhadlaq, Hisham; Malley, Christopher V.; Perkins, Katherine K.; Olson, Jonathan; Alshaya, Fahad; Alabdulkareem, Saleh; Wieman, Carl E.

2012-02-01

107

Removal of easily biodegradable organic compounds by drinking water biofilms: analysis of kinetics and mass transfer.  

PubMed

This paper evaluates the rate of utilization of easily biodegradable organic compounds by drinking water biofilms. Tap water, which had been filtered through biologically active granular activated carbon, was used as an innoculum for biofilm growth in annular reactors (ARs). Synthetic cocktails of easily biodegradable material in the concentration range of 50-2,000 mgC/m3 were used as substrate for biofilm growth. Influent and effluent aggregate concentrations of biodegradable organic matter (BOM) were calculated by adding the measurable BOM components on a mass carbon basis. The aggregate BOM values were used for calculating the observed Damköhler number and Theile modulus (based on a reaction rate per unit surface area), which were used to determine whether external or internal mass transfer limited BOM removal. For all of the experimental trials, it was shown that neither external nor internal mass transfer limited BOM removal. Because the biofilms in this research are thin and the fact that mass transfer is not limiting, it was assumed that the bulk BOM concentration was approximately equal to the average BOM concentration in the biofilm. A linear model was obtained for the aggregate BOM flux and the product of the effluent BOM concentration and the biofilm density. The slope or the areal biodegradation rate (ka) for the aggregate BOM was 0.033 m/h, as determined through a linear regression. PMID:11394791

Gagnon, G A; Huck, P M

2001-07-01

108

Statistical Inference  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An important application of probability theory is the use of statistics in science, in particular classical statistics as\\u000a devised by Fisher and Neyman and Pearson. Good introductions to this type of statistics are provided in (Barnett, 1999) and\\u000a in (Mood et al., 1974). We should emphasize that classical statistics is not an uncontroversial tool for reasoning statistically,\\u000a and that it

Rolf Haenni; Jan-Willem Romeijn; Gregory Wheeler; Jon Williamson

109

Resources for Interpreters: Bibliographies for Historical Interpretation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains fourteen bibliographies on a variety of topics. These bibliographies are designed as basic references for park interpreters. Each bibliography has two parts: a key list of ten annotated references followed by other less significant wor...

H. Huyck

1982-01-01

110

The effect of easily degradable substrate feeding on the community structure of laboratory-scale wastewater sludge digesters.  

PubMed

The effect of several easily degradable substrates, such as protein, starch and sunflower oil was investigated on the bacterial community of a laboratory-scale biogas model system. Besides measuring gas yield, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), Phospholipids Fatty Acid Analysis (PLFA) for Bacteria and T-RFLP analysis of the mcrA gene for Archaea were used. The community of the examined biogas reactors adapted to the new substrates through a robust physiological reaction followed by moderate community abundance shifts. Gas yield data clearly demonstrated the physiological adaptation to substrate shifts. Statistical analysis of DNA and chemotaxonomic biomarkers revealed community abundance changes. Sequences gained from DGGE bands showed the dominance of the phyla Bacteroidetes and the presence of Firmicutes (Clostridia) and Thermotogae. This was supported by the detection of large amounts of branched 15-carbon non-hydroxy fatty acids in PLFA profiles, as common PLFA markers of the Bacteroidetes group. Minor abundance ratios changes were observed in the case of Archaea in accordance with changes of the fed substrates. PMID:24060553

Tóth, Erika M; Tauber, Tamás; Wirth, Balázs; Nikolausz, Marcell; Palatinszky, Márton; Schumann, Peter; Márialigeti, Károly

2013-09-01

111

Evaluation of easily measured risk factors in the prediction of osteoporotic fractures  

PubMed Central

Background Fracture represents the single most important clinical event in patients with osteoporosis, yet remains under-predicted. As few premonitory symptoms for fracture exist, it is of critical importance that physicians effectively and efficiently identify individuals at increased fracture risk. Methods Of 3426 postmenopausal women in CANDOO, 40, 158, 99, and 64 women developed a new hip, vertebral, wrist or rib fracture, respectively. Seven easily measured risk factors predictive of fracture in research trials were examined in clinical practice including: age (<65, 65–69, 70–74, 75–79, 80+ years), rising from a chair with arms (yes, no), weight (< 57, ? 57kg), maternal history of hip facture (yes, no), prior fracture after age 50 (yes, no), hip T-score (>-1, -1 to >-2.5, ?-2.5), and current smoking status (yes, no). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results The inability to rise from a chair without the use of arms (3.58; 95% CI: 1.17, 10.93) was the most significant risk factor for new hip fracture. Notable risk factors for predicting new vertebral fractures were: low body weight (1.57; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.37), current smoking (1.95; 95% CI: 1.20, 3.18) and age between 75–79 years (1.96; 95% CI: 1.10, 3.51). New wrist fractures were significantly identified by low body weight (1.71, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.90) and prior fracture after 50 years (1.96; 95% CI: 1.19, 3.22). Predictors of new rib fractures include a maternal history of a hip facture (2.89; 95% CI: 1.04, 8.08) and a prior fracture after 50 years (2.16; 95% CI: 1.20, 3.87). Conclusion This study has shown that there exists a variety of predictors of future fracture, besides BMD, that can be easily assessed by a physician. The significance of each variable depends on the site of incident fracture. Of greatest interest is that an inability to rise from a chair is perhaps the most readily identifiable significant risk factor for hip fracture and can be easily incorporated into routine clinical practice.

Bensen, Robert; Adachi, Jonathan D; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Ioannidis, George; Olszynski, Wojciech P; Sebaldt, Rolf J; Murray, Timothy M; Josse, Robert G; Brown, Jacques P; Hanley, David A; Petrie, Annie; Puglia, Mark; Goldsmith, Charlie H; Bensen, W

2005-01-01

112

Image Interpretation Cell.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Image Interpretation Cell is to generate forward echelon accurate intelligence data in the form of Flash and Immediate Photo Interpretation Reports. The IIC is a completely self-contained, deployable and adaptable image data system. It ...

V. Abraham A. Dobbs J. K. Libby

1964-01-01

113

A class of line-transformed cloaks with easily realizable constitutive parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a class of line-transformed cylindrical cloaks which have easily realizable constitutive parameters. The scattering properties of such cloaks have been investigated numerically for both transverse-electric and transverse-magnetic incidences of plane waves. A line-transformed invisibility cloak with a perfectly electric conducting (PEC) inner boundary is actually a reshaping of a PEC line to which the cloaked object is crushed. The numerical results of near-field distributions and far-field scattering properties have verified the above conclusions. We also investigate the relationship between the constitutive parameters of a line-transformed cloak and the length of the corresponding line. The changing range of constitutive parameters is large when the line is short, while the changing range becomes small when the line is long. The above conclusion provides an efficient way to realize the invisibility cloaks using artificial metamaterials.

Jiang, Wei Xiang; Feng Ma, Hui; Cheng, Qiang; Cui, Tie Jun

2010-02-01

114

Estimation of nutrient values of pig slurries in Southeast Spain using easily determined properties.  

PubMed

The contents of available nutrients in pig slurries are not easy to quantify in situ without laboratory facilities, but chemical analyses using standard laboratory methods also take time and are costly and not practical for most farms. Thus, when animal slurries are applied to land, their fertiliser potential is often unknown. In addition, in the last years, the changes in the management of industrial piggeries has changed the nature of the pig slurries vg. decrease of the dry matter content, and consequently the methods and equations used for estimating the nutrient contents in these residues must be checked. In our study, slurry samples were collected from the storage tanks of 36 commercial farms in Southeast Spain. Samples were analysed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), redox potential (RP), specific density (D), total solids (TS), sedimentable solids (SS), biological oxygen demand (BOD(5)), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TKN), ammonium nitrogen (AN), organic nitrogen (ON), and total contents of phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium. Relationships between major nutrient levels of pig slurries and a range of physical and chemical properties were investigated. We also analysed the variability of pig slurries according to the production stage. TKN, AN and K were closely related to EC. The P content in slurries was related more closely to solids-derived parameters such as D. The use of multiple properties to estimate nutrient contents in pig slurries, especially for AN and K, seemed unnecessary due to the limited improvement achieved with an additional property. Therefore, electrical conductivity seemed to be the most appropriate single, easily determined parameter for estimation of total and ammonium nitrogen and potassium in pig slurries, with more than 83% of the variance explained. P seemed to be the worst key nutrient for estimation using any easily determined parameter. PMID:16009306

Moral, R; Perez-Murcia, M D; Perez-Espinosa, A; Moreno-Caselles, J; Paredes, C

2004-11-21

115

Surface structure, model and mechanism of an insect integument adapted to be damaged easily.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Several sawfly larvae of the Tenthredinidae (Hymenoptera) are called easy bleeders because their whole body integument, except the head capsule, disrupts very easily at a given spot, under a slight mechanical stress at this spot. The exuding haemolymph droplet acts as a feeding deterrent towards invertebrate predators. The present study aimed to describe the cuticle surface, to consider it from a mechanistic point of view, and to discuss potential consequences of the integument surface in the predator-prey relationships. RESULTS: The integument surface of sawfly larvae was investigated by light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) which revealed that the cuticle of easy bleeders was densely covered by what we call "spider-like" microstructures. Such microstructures were not detected in non-easy bleeders. A model by finite elements of the cuticle layer was developed to get an insight into the potential function of the microstructures during easy bleeding. Cuticle parameters (i.e., size of the microstructures and thickness of the epi-versus procuticle) were measured on integument sections and used in the model. A shear force applied on the modelled cuticle surface led to higher stress values when microstructures were present, as compared to a plan surface. Furthermore, by measuring the diameter of a water droplet deposited on sawfly larvae, the integument of several sawfly species was determined as hydrophobic (e.g., more than Teflon(R)), which was related to the sawfly larvae's ability to bleed easily. CONCLUSION: Easy bleeders show spider-like microstructures on their cuticle surface. It is suggested that these microstructures may facilitate integument disruption as well as render the integument hydrophobic. This latter property would allow the exuding haemolymph to be maintained as a droplet at the integument surface. PMID:15461785

Boevé, Jean-Luc; Ducarme, Véronique; Mertens, Tanguy; Bouillard, Philippe; Angeli, Sergio

2004-10-01

116

Journalists as interpretive communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article suggests that the notion of “profession” may not offer the most fruitful way of examining community among American journalists. It proposes viewing journalists as members of an interpretive community instead, one united by its shared discourse and collective interpretations of key public events. The article applies the frame of the interpretive community to journalistic discourse about two events

Barbie Zelizer

1993-01-01

117

Interpreting. NETAC Teacher Tipsheet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This tipsheet explains that an interpreter's role is to facilitate communication and convey all auditory and signed information so that individuals with and without hearing may fully interact. It outlines the common types of services provided by interpreters, and discusses principles guiding the professional behaviors of interpreters. When working…

Darroch, Kathy; Marshall, Liza

118

Journalists as Interpretive Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Proposes viewing journalists as members of an interpretive community (not a profession) united by its shared discourse and collective interpretations of key public events. Applies the frame of the interpretive community to journalistic discourse about two events central for American journalists--Watergate and McCarthyism. (SR)|

Zelizer, Barbie

1993-01-01

119

Statistics of paleomagnetic inclination data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The statistical method of Briden and Ward is reconsidered to derive an easy but exact method to calculate true mean inclination and precision parameter when the data consist of only inclinations. Expectations of sin I, sin2 I, etc. are obtained for samples of following the Fisher distribution. The best estimate of the mean inclination and precision parameter can easily be

Masaru Kono

1980-01-01

120

The Perils of Provocative Statistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Demonstrates that conclusions drawn from statistics concerning racial disparities in income, infant mortality, sports participation, and other areas may be partly or wholly wrong, because disparities generally increase as conditions improve. Observes that flawed uses of statistics abound; points out some common errors in interpretation. (DM)|

Scanlan, James P.

1991-01-01

121

Design of easily synchronizable oscillator networks using the Monte Carlo optimization method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting with an initial random network of oscillators with a heterogeneous frequency distribution, its autonomous synchronization ability can be largely improved by appropriately rewiring the links between the elements. Ensembles of synchronization-optimized networks with different connectivities are generated and their statistical properties are studied.

Yanagita, Tatsuo; Mikhailov, Alexander S.

2010-05-01

122

Development of a numerical atlas of the easily flooded zones by marine immersions of the sandy littoral of Languedoc Roussillon (France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Regional Direction of the Infrastructure (France) entrusted to the Technical Studies Center of the Infrastructure (CETE Mediterranee) the study of a numerical atlas of the easily flooded area by marine immersions of the sandy littoral of Languedoc Roussillon. The objective of this paper is to present the methodological results. To do the map making of the easily flooded area by marine immersions (storm), we used several numerical data base. We can list, for example, the "BD Topo Pays" and the aerial photography of the National Geographical Institute (IGN), the geological mapping of the Geological and Mining Researsh Department (BRGM). To complete this data, we have realised a geomorphological interpretation of the littoral with the aerial photography. This naturalist approach can give the geomorphological object (beach, sand dune, ...) of the sandy littoral. Our objective was to determinate the limit about coastal plain (flooded by storm) and the alluvial plain (flooded by overfloowing) and not liable to flooding form. In the first phase of the study, a progressive methodology was used to develop a version of the numerical atlas based on the available geographical data of geomorphological, historical and topographic nature. During the second phase, we have developed this approach on the four french's department (Pyrénées-Orientales, Aude, Hérault and Gard). The result is the map making of the easily flooded area by marine immersions for 230 km of the sandy littoral. This mapping define the geomorphological factor of the littoral. Like this, we can found a qualitative hazard about marine immersions. Keywords : Storm, Marine immersions, Atlas of the easily flooded zones, Languedoc-Roussillon, France

Christophe, Esposito

2010-05-01

123

Fluorescence lifetimes: fundamentals and interpretations.  

PubMed

Fluorescence measurements have been an established mainstay of photosynthesis experiments for many decades. Because in the photosynthesis literature the basics of excited states and their fates are not usually described, we have presented here an easily understandable text for biology students in the style of a chapter in a text book. In this review we give an educational overview of fundamental physical principles of fluorescence, with emphasis on the temporal response of emission. Escape from the excited state of a molecule is a dynamic event, and the fluorescence emission is in direct kinetic competition with several other pathways of de-excitation. It is essentially through a kinetic competition between all the pathways of de-excitation that we gain information about the fluorescent sample on the molecular scale. A simple probability allegory is presented that illustrates the basic ideas that are important for understanding and interpreting most fluorescence experiments. We also briefly point out challenges that confront the experimenter when interpreting time-resolved fluorescence responses. PMID:19568954

Noomnarm, Ulai; Clegg, Robert M

2009-07-01

124

Statistical Software.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This buyer's guide to seven major types of statistics software packages for microcomputers reviews Edu-Ware Statistics 3.0; Financial Planning; Speed Stat; Statistics with DAISY; Human Systems Dynamics package of Stats Plus, ANOVA II, and REGRESS II; Maxistat; and Moore-Barnes' MBC Test Construction and MBC Correlation. (MBR)|

Callamaras, Peter

1983-01-01

125

Mindless statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical rituals largely eliminate statistical thinking in the social sciences. Rituals are indispensable for identification with social groups, but they should be the subject rather than the procedure of science. What I call the “null ritual” consists of three steps: (1) set up a statistical null hypothesis, but do not specify your own hypothesis nor any alternative hypothesis, (2) use

Gerd Gigerenzer; Max Planck

2004-01-01

126

Statistical Diversions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As a branch of knowledge, Statistics is ubiquitous and its applications can be found in (almost) every field of human endeavour. In this article, the authors track down the possible source of the link between the "Siren song" and applications of Statistics. Answers to their previous five questions and five new questions on Statistics are…

Petocz, Peter; Sowey, Eric

2008-01-01

127

Health Statistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Overview of federal collection of health statistics highlights federal budgets; the National Center for Health Statistics (role, periodicity report); vital statistics (surveys of physicians, hospitals, nursing homes); household surveys (National Health Interview Survey); and proposed reorganization of the Office of the Assistant Secretary of…

Melnick, Daniel; Huckabee, David

1983-01-01

128

SIDS Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... Alaska Natives (National Center for Health Statistics' (NCHS) linked birth/infant death data . See Chart 2 below. More information on these ... 2013. Infant mortality statistics from the 2009 period linked birth/infant death data set . National Vital Statistics Reports 61(8):1– ...

129

Statistical Applets: The Reasoning of a Statistical Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by authors Duckworth, McCabe, Moore and Sclove for W.H. Freeman and Co., this statistical demo is designed to help students master "The Reasoning of a Statistical Test" covered in the "Practice of Business Statistics." This site was intended to accompany this textbook, but the text is not necessary for its use. The applet itself presents a basketball player shooting free throws. The player takes twenty-five shots and then this data is analyzed versus its null hypothesis. This is an excellent example of hypothesis testing in a format that students can easily comprehend.

Sclove, Stanley; Moore, David; Mccabe, George; Duckworth, William

2009-03-12

130

An easily made, low-cost phantom for ultrasound airway exam training and assessment  

PubMed Central

Background: Recent manuscripts have described the use of ultrasound imaging to evaluate airway structures. Ultrasound training tools are necessary for practitioners to become proficient at obtaining and interpreting images. Few training tools exist and those that do can often times be expensive and rendered useless with repeated needle passes. Methods: We utilised inexpensive and easy to obtain materials to create a gel phantom model for ultrasound-guided airway examination training. Results: Following creation of the gel phantom model, images were successfully obtained of the thyroid and cricoid cartilages, cricothyroid membrane and tracheal rings in both the sagittal transverse planes. Conclusion: The gel phantom model mimics human airway anatomy and may be used for ultrasound-guided airway assessment and intervention training. This may have important safety implications as ultrasound imaging is increasingly used for airway assessment.

Schroeder, Kristopher M; Ramamoorthy, Jagan; Galgon, Richard E

2013-01-01

131

American children with reading problems can easily learn to read English represented by Chinese characters.  

PubMed

With 2.5 to 5.5 hours of tutoring, eight second-grade inner-city school children with clear reading disability were taught to read English material written as 30 different Chinese characters. This accomplishment eliminates certain general interpretations of dyslexia, for example, as a visual-auditory memory deficit. The success of this program can be attributed to the novelty of the Chinese orthography and to the fact that Chinese characters map into speech at the level of words rather than of phonemes. It is proposed that much reading disability can be accounted for in terms of the highly abstract nature of the phoneme (the critical unit of speech in alphabetic systems) and that an intermediate unit, such as the syllable, might well be used to introduce reading. PMID:5101816

Rozin, P; Poritsky, S; Sotsky, R

1971-03-26

132

Prepraring to Interpret: AA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn about Alcoholics Anonymous and prepare to interpret for a deaf member at a traditional AA meeting. Interpreting for Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) requires that the interpreter have an understanding of the purpose of the meetings, prepares adequately for frozen text and informal register that will be used, and has respect for the organization and its members. It can be a difficult, but rewarding assignment. Preparing to ...

2007-10-03

133

Interpreting Technical Drawings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interpreting Technical Drawings introduces students to the various sources of information found within technical drawings and provides practice interpreting various projections. After completing this module, students should be able to identify orthographic, isometric, and sectional views and interpret key information on technical drawings. Note: This module is part of a modularized manufacturing technology curriculum created by the PSCME, found at www.pscme.org/educators.html.

2010-08-11

134

Easily Removable Ureteral Catheters for Internal Drainage in Children: A Preliminary Report  

PubMed Central

Purpose We review our experience using a new and easily removable ureteral catheter in patients who underwent complicated ureteral reimplantation. Our goal was to shorten hospital stay and lower anxiety during catheter removal without fear of postoperative ureteral obstruction. Materials and Methods Between April 2009 and September 2010, nine patients who underwent our new method of catheter removal after ureteral reimplantation were enrolled. Patients who underwent simple ureteral reimplantation were excluded from the study. Following ureteral reimplantation, a combined drainage system consisting of a suprapubic cystostomy catheter and a ureteral catheter was installed. Proximal external tubing was clamped with a Hem-o-lok clamp and the rest of the external tubing was eliminated. Data concerning the age and sex of each patient, reason for operation, method of ureteral reimplantation, and postoperative parameters such as length of hospital stay and complications were recorded. Results Of the nine patients, four had refluxing megaureter, four had a solitary or non-functional contralateral kidney and one had ureteral stricture due to a previous anti-reflux operation. The catheter was removed at postoperative week one. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 2.4 days (range 1-4 days), and the mean follow-up was 9.8 months. None of the patients had postoperative ureteral obstructions, and there were no cases of migration or dislodgement of the catheter. Conclusion Our new method for removing the ureteral catheter would shorten hospital stays and lower levels of anxiety when removing ureteral catheters in patients with a high risk of postoperative ureteral obstruction.

Park, Kyung Kgi; Kim, Myung Up; Chung, Mun Su; Lee, Dong Hoon

2013-01-01

135

An Interpreter’s Interpretation: Sign Language Interpreters’ View of Musculoskeletal Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Sign language interpreters are at increased risk for musculoskeletal disorders associated with work. Previous studies have used survey techniques to identify potential risk factors and approaches to their medical management. Little is known about risk factors and management of symptoms in this group from the perspective of the interpreter. Such qualitative information should help inform future research related to

William L. Johnson; Michael Feuerstein

2005-01-01

136

Functional demands of statistical literacy: Ability to read press releases from statistical agencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

ability to comprehend, interpret, and critically evaluate messages with statistical elements or arguments (Gal, 2002). Statistical literacy has been positioned as an important skill for citizens and a desired outcome of statistics education (Wallman, 1993). However, while the knowledge bases and beliefs and attitudes that underlie statistically literate behavior have been outlined in some detail, it is less clear how

Iddo Gal

137

Assessing compositional variability through graphical analysis and Bayesian statistical approaches: case studies on transgenic crops.  

PubMed

New transgenic (GM) crops are subjected to extensive safety assessments that include compositional comparisons with conventional counterparts as a cornerstone of the process. The influence of germplasm, location, environment, and agronomic treatments on compositional variability is, however, often obscured in these pair-wise comparisons. Furthermore, classical statistical significance testing can often provide an incomplete and over-simplified summary of highly responsive variables such as crop composition. In order to more clearly describe the influence of the numerous sources of compositional variation we present an introduction to two alternative but complementary approaches to data analysis and interpretation. These include i) exploratory data analysis (EDA) with its emphasis on visualization and graphics-based approaches and ii) Bayesian statistical methodology that provides easily interpretable and meaningful evaluations of data in terms of probability distributions. The EDA case-studies include analyses of herbicide-tolerant GM soybean and insect-protected GM maize and soybean. Bayesian approaches are presented in an analysis of herbicide-tolerant GM soybean. Advantages of these approaches over classical frequentist significance testing include the more direct interpretation of results in terms of probabilities pertaining to quantities of interest and no confusion over the application of corrections for multiple comparisons. It is concluded that a standardized framework for these methodologies could provide specific advantages through enhanced clarity of presentation and interpretation in comparative assessments of crop composition. PMID:22616479

Harrigan, George G; Harrison, Jay M

2012-01-01

138

Psychological testing of sign language interpreters.  

PubMed

Twenty-eight sign language interpreters participated in a battery of tests to determine if a profile of cognitive, motor, attention, and personality attributes might distinguish them as a group and at different credential levels. Eight interpreters held Level II and nine held Level III Virginia Quality Assurance Screenings (VQAS); the other 11 held Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf (RID) certification. Six formal tests, the Quick Neurological Screening Test-II, the Wonderlic Personnel Test, the Test of Visual-Motor Skills (TVMS), the d2 Test of Attention, the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test, and the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF), were administered to the interpreters. Average scores were high on most of the tests; differences across the three groups were not statistically significant. Results from only one test, the d2 Test of Attention, were significantly correlated with interpreter level. Comparisons between educational and community interpreters also revealed no differences. Personality traits were widely distributed, but one trait, abstract reasoning, tested extremely high in 18 interpreters. Discussion of the potential implications of these results, particularly for educational interpreters, is offered. PMID:15304401

Seal, Brenda C

2004-01-01

139

Filtered statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Column statistics are an important element of cardinality estimation frameworks. More accurate estimates allow the optimizer of a RDBMS to generate better plans and improve the overall system's efficiency. This paper introduces filtered statistics, which model value distribution over a set of rows restricted by a predicate. This feature, available in Microsoft SQL Server, can be used to handle column

Pawel Terlecki; Hardik Bati; César A. Galindo-legaria; Peter Zabback

2009-01-01

140

BAYESIAN STATISTICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematical statistics uses two major paradigms, conventional (or frequentist), and Bayesian. Bayesian methods provide a complete paradigm for both statistical inference and decision mak- ing under uncertainty. Bayesian methods may be derived from an axiomatic system, and hence provide a general, coherentmethodology. Bayesian methods contain as particular cases many of the more often used frequentist procedures, solve many of the

José M. Bernardo

141

Descriptive statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistics is a science that provides precise techniques for collecting and sorting information made easy by tools and methods for further analysis.The object of descriptive statistics, from sample data, is to describe the most important characteristics, by which we refer to those amounts that provide information on the topic of interest which we are studying.

S. Pérez-Vicente; M. Expósito Ruiz

2009-01-01

142

Preparation and Use of an Easily Constructed, Inexpensive Chamber for Viewing Courtship Behaviors of Fruit Flies, Drosophila sp.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Details the construction of a viewing chamber for fruit flies that connects to a dissecting microscope and features a design that enables students to easily move fruit flies in and out of the chamber. (DDR)|

Christensen, Timothy J.; Labov, Jay B.

1997-01-01

143

Revolutionizing Volunteer Interpreter Services: An Evaluation of an Innovative Medical Interpreter Education Program.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: In our ever-increasingly multicultural, multilingual society, medical interpreters serve an important role in the provision of care. Though it is known that using untrained interpreters leads to decreased quality of care for limited English proficiency patients, because of a short supply of professionals and a lack of formalized, feasible education programs for volunteers, community health centers and internal medicine practices continue to rely on untrained interpreters. OBJECTIVE: To develop and formally evaluate a novel medical interpreter education program that encompasses major tenets of interpretation, tailored to the needs of volunteer medical interpreters. DESIGN: One-armed, quasi-experimental retro-pre-post study using survey ratings and feedback correlated by assessment scores to determine educational intervention effects. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-eight students; 24 Spanish, nine Mandarin, and five Vietnamese. The majority had prior interpreting experience but no formal medical interpreter training. OUTCOME MEASURES: Students completed retrospective pre-test and post-test surveys measuring confidence in and perceived knowledge of key skills of interpretation. Primary outcome measures were a 10-point Likert scale for survey questions of knowledge, skills, and confidence, written and oral assessments of interpreter skills, and qualitative evidence of newfound knowledge in written reflections. RESULTS: Analyses showed a statistically significant (P <0.001) change of about two points in mean self-ratings on knowledge, skills, and confidence, with large effect sizes (d?>?0.8). The second half of the program was also quantitatively and qualitatively shown to be a vital learning experience, resulting in 18 % more students passing the oral assessments; a 19 % increase in mean scores for written assessments; and a newfound understanding of interpreter roles and ways to navigate them. CONCLUSIONS: This innovative program was successful in increasing volunteer interpreters' skills and knowledge of interpretation, as well as confidence in own abilities. Additionally, the program effectively taught how to navigate the roles of the interpreter to maintain clear communication. PMID:23739810

Hasbún Avalos, Oswaldo; Pennington, Kaylin; Osterberg, Lars

2013-06-01

144

Implementation of a Management Agent fo r Interpreting Obligation Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributing management functionality into intelligent management agents has now been accepted as the way to manage large scale distributed systems. However, it is necessary to easily change the functionality of the agents to adapt to changing application requirements. Agents which interpret policy can have their behaviour changed by modifying the policies loaded in them. This paper gives an overview of

Damian Marriott; Morris Sloman

1996-01-01

145

Customizable tool for ecological data entry, assessment, monitoring, and interpretation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Database for Inventory, Monitoring and Assessment (DIMA) is a highly customizable tool for data entry, assessment, monitoring, and interpretation. DIMA is a Microsoft Access database that can easily be used without Access knowledge and is available at no cost. Data can be entered for common, nat...

146

Robust statistics: A brief introduction and overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The paper gives a highly condensed first introduction into robust statistics and some guidance for the interpretation of the literature, with some consideration for the uses in geodetics in the background. Robust statistics is the stability theory of statistical procedures. It systematically

Frank Hampel

147

Building Statistical Appearance Models Using Residual Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical appearance models are generated by applying statistical analysis on the color and shape variation in an ensemble of image objects be- longing to the same class. Statistical appearance models have proved useful for locating, reconstructing and interpreting image objects that undergo systematic appearance variation. In this paper we demonstrate how residual information can be incorporated in the model building

Andreas Lanitis

148

How Implicit Is Visual Statistical Learning?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In visual statistical learning, participants learn the statistical regularities present in a sequence of visual shapes. A recent study (Kim, Seitz, Feenstra, & Shams, 2009) suggests that visual statistical learning occurs implicitly, as it is not accompanied by conscious awareness of these regularities. However, that interpretation of the data depends on 2 unwarranted assumptions concerning the nature and sensitivity of

Julie Bertels; Ana Franco; Arnaud Destrebecqz

2012-01-01

149

Integrated 3-D quality control of geological interpretation through the use of simple methods and programs  

SciTech Connect

Integrating different petroleum geology disciplines gives insight and help in analyzing data and in checking the quality of different interpretations. Simple approaches and affordable programs allow rapid visualization of data in 3-D. Displaying geological data from stratigraphy, diagenesis, and structural geology together, allows identification of anomalies (i.e. development targets) and often gives clues of the controlling processes. Four case studies from world class fields are used to illustrate the vital need to integrate quality control of interpretation across disciplines. Distribution of diagenetic alterations is revealed by visualizing diagenetic and petrographic data against faults in a 3-D statistical program. Faults are transferred from 3-D seismic into such a program and then analyzed against other data. Fault intersections wrongly correlated are also easily picked. Other powerful tools include a modified use of the Bischke Plots that allow the identification of missing sections previously identified as fault cut-outs. The quality of interpretation has sometimes been assessed from the presence of stacked anomalies of various expression. In other cases repeated unexpected isopach trends revealed subtle faults such as riedels sealing and compartmentizing the reservoirs. Occasionally the timing of fault reactivation was assessed precisely whereas all other techniques failed even to identify these hidden features. Unrecognized porosity-depth trends were identified after filtering data for stratigraphy or sedimentology and studying it in its geographical and tectonic context. Three dimensional visualization was needed in cases of quartz overgrowth where grain size, depth, stratigraphy and location with respect to faults were all important.

Chatellier, J.Y.; Gustavo, F.; Magaly, Q. (Intevep, Caracas (Venezuela))

1996-01-01

150

Interpretation of Airphotos and Remotely Sensed Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the proliferation of easily accessible remotely sensed imagery over the last several years, image analysts from a wide variety of working environments are in high demand. These analysts do not always have advanced technical backgrounds in science. Robert Arnold's useful and timely laboratory manual serves as an adequate introduction to interpreting remotely sensed photographs and imagery. The book poses a graduated set of examples and questions with a generally increasing but low level of sophistication. It is easy to read, and considerable care has been exercised in the layout of the subject index and overall organization of the manual.

Ainsworth, Thomas L.; Jansen, Robert

151

Interpreting Laboratory Test Results  

MedlinePLUS

... Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Interpreting Laboratory Test Results A laboratory test is a medical procedure in which a sample of blood , urine , or other tissues or substances in the ...

152

Interpretation of Extraterrestrial Imagery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Imagery interpretation is playing an important role in the investigation of celestial bodies. Astronomers utilize terrestrially based photography in the identification and mensuration of celestial objects such as galaxies, planetary nebulae, supernova rem...

P. M. Merifield J. M. Saari R. W. Shorthill R. L. Wildey D. E. Wilhems

1969-01-01

153

Interpretation of Bernoulli's Equation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses Bernoulli's equation with regards to: horizontal flow of incompressible fluids, change of height of incompressible fluids, gases, liquids and gases, and viscous fluids. Provides an interpretation, properties, terminology, and applications of Bernoulli's equation. (MVL)|

Bauman, Robert P.; Schwaneberg, Rolf

1994-01-01

154

MRSA Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... better recognize and prevent MRSA skin infections MRSA Statistics Reducing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in both ... to MRSA, visit: CDC MRSA website CDC Active Bacterial Core Surveillance CDC Vital Signs Report National Healthcare ...

155

Statistics Indonesia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 1997, the Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS-Statistics Indonesia) is a non-departmental Indonesian government institution directly responsible to the Indonesian president. As the law that created this valuable institution stipulates, the BPS is intended to provide data to the government and the public, along cooperating with other international statistical institutions. Visitors looking for statistics on any number of topics will not be disappointed, as the areas covered include agriculture, consumer price indices, employment, energy, foreign trade, mining, population, public finance, tourism, and social welfare. Additionally, there are monthly macro-economic statistical reports for the years from 1998 to 2001 that can be downloaded and viewed as well. The site is rounded out by a collection of some 21 papers from the past four years that analyze various economic data from the country, such as earning data and manufacturing production.

156

Entrance : Interpretation and Paradigms  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a When we try to understand our surroundings - places, systems, situations, behaviors - we interpret the stimuli we receive.\\u000a Starting with a clue, shaped by our memories and our knowledge, we construct a narrative, linking together familiar forms,\\u000a and an interpretation emerges… we understand, more or less. This complex process, never completely explicit, leaves a particular\\u000a impression: there is meaning.

Nicolas Bouleau

157

SOCR: Statistics Online Computational Resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for hands-on computer laboratory experience in undergraduate and graduate statistics education has been firmly established in the past decade. As a result a number of attempts have been undertaken to develop novel approaches for problem-driven statistical thinking, data analysis and result interpretation. In this paper we describe an integrated educational web-based framework for: interactive distribution modeling, virtual online

Ivo D. Dinov

2006-01-01

158

Using M&Ms to Develop Statistical Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Statistical literacy is defined as "the ability to read and interpret data: the ability to use statistics as evidence in arguments. Statistical literacy is a competency: the ability to think critically about statistics" (Schield, p. 2). When a definition of statistical literacy is considered it can be seen that all students can manage a level of…

Marshall, Linda; Swan, Paul

2006-01-01

159

Considerations When Working with Interpreters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the current training and certification procedures in place for linguistic interpreters, the continuum of interpreter roles, and how interpreters' perspectives may influence the interpretive interaction. The specific skills needed for interpreting in either health care or educational settings are identified. A table compares…

Hwa-Froelich, Deborah A.; Westby, Carol E.

2003-01-01

160

Statistical optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book is based on the thesis that some training in the area of statistical optics should be included as a standard part of any advanced optics curriculum. Random variables are discussed, taking into account definitions of probability and random variables, distribution functions and density functions, an extension to two or more random variables, statistical averages, transformations of random variables, sums of real random variables, Gaussian random variables, complex-valued random variables, and random phasor sums. Other subjects examined are related to random processes, some first-order properties of light waves, the coherence of optical waves, some problems involving high-order coherence, effects of partial coherence on imaging systems, imaging in the presence of randomly inhomogeneous media, and fundamental limits in photoelectric detection of light. Attention is given to deterministic versus statistical phenomena and models, the Fourier transform, and the fourth-order moment of the spectrum of a detected speckle image.

Goodman, J. W.

161

Interpreting Astronomical Spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interpreting Astronomical Spectra D. Emerson Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Edingurgh "Interpreting Astronomical Spectra" describes how physical conditions such as temperature, density and composition can be obtained from the spectra of a broad range of astronomical environments ranging from the cold interstellar medium to very hot coronal gas and from stellar atmospheres to quasars. In this book the author has succeeded in providing a coherent and integrated approach to the interpretation of astronomical spectroscopy, placing the emphasis on the physical understanding of spectrum formation rather than on instrumental considerations. MKS units and consistent symbols are employed throughout so that the fundamental ideas common to diverse environments are made clear and the importance of different temperature ranges and densities can be seen. Aimed at senior undergraduates and graduates studying physics, astronomy and astrophysics, this book will also appeal to the professional astronomer.

Emerson, D.

1996-06-01

162

Interpreting Astronomical Spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interpreting Astronomical Spectra D. Emerson Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Edingurgh "Interpreting Astronomical Spectra" describes how physical conditions such as temperature, density and composition can be obtained from the spectra of a broad range of astronomical environments ranging from the cold interstellar medium to very hot coronal gas and from stellar atmospheres to quasars. In this book the author has succeeded in providing a coherent and integrated approach to the interpretation of astronomical spectroscopy, placing the emphasis on the physical understanding of spectrum formation rather than on instrumental considerations. MKS units and consistent symbols are employed throughout so that the fundamental ideas common to diverse environments are made clear and the importance of different temperature ranges and densities can be seen. Aimed at senior undergraduates and graduates studying physics, astronomy and astrophysics, this book will also appeal to the professional astronomer.

Emerson, D.

1999-03-01

163

Scatter Plot (Engineering Statistics Handbook)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, created by authors James Filliben and Alan Heckert, provides an explanation of scatter plots, their use, purpose and interpretation. It uses examples of the various relationships described by scatter plots as well as case studies and related techniques. Overall, this is a solid representation of this graphing process and could be used by almost any statistics classroom.

Filliben, James; Heckert, Alan

2008-12-19

164

The ADAMS interactive interpreter  

SciTech Connect

The ADAMS (Advanced DAta Management System) project is exploring next generation database technology. Database management does not follow the usual programming paradigm. Instead, the database dictionary provides an additional name space environment that should be interactively created and tested before writing application code. This document describes the implementation and operation of the ADAMS Interpreter, an interactive interface to the ADAMS data dictionary and runtime system. The Interpreter executes individual statements of the ADAMS Interface Language, providing a fast, interactive mechanism to define and access persistent databases. 5 refs.

Rietscha, E.R.

1990-12-17

165

Global Warming Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students research real-time and historic temperature data of United States and world locations, and analyze the data using mean, median, and mode averages. Students graph the data and draw conclusions from analysis. Resources include websites with real-time and archived data, temperature-sensitive computer graphics, meteorology, government agencies, and Earth Day information. Students use a calculator or electronic spreadsheet to compile their statistics, graph the data, and explore reasons for extreme temperature changes. The Internet is used as a tool to identify, gather, calculate, graph, and interpret data, showing how statistics can be skewed using different scales. The site provides an overview of the lesson, detailed procedures for the teacher, including a list of research sites, and organizational tips for the students.

166

Statistics Revelations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The use, and misuse, of statistics is commonplace, yet in the printed format data representations can be either over simplified, supposedly for impact, or so complex as to lead to boredom, supposedly for completeness and accuracy. In this article the link to the video clip shows how dynamic visual representations can enliven and enhance the…

Chicot, Katie; Holmes, Hilary

2012-01-01

167

Vital Statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article questions the idea that quantitative methods, in particular the analysis of social statistics, is at odds with critical approaches to geography. It argues that numbers-based research is vital to highlight social injustice and oppression and that quantitative research can meet the requirements of critical geography to be reflexive, politically conscious, and activist. The article highlights two issues of

Mark Ellis

2009-01-01

168

``Applied Statistics''  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN his review of my book ``Statistical Methods in Electrical Engineering'' (Nature, March 19, p. 484), Mr. F. Downton criticizes my statement that Bayes' theorem is controversial. The heading of the paragraph in Sir Ronald Fisher's book which I cited is ``The Rejection of Inverse Probability''. Coupled with the lack of mention of Bayes beyond the introductory chapter, I can

D. A. Bell

1955-01-01

169

Statistical Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present document sumarizes the methodology utilized by the UNESCO Division of Statistics in the 1994 assessment of estimates and projections of adult illiteracy by country in the world, Section I of this document provides an overview of the background and rationale behind the recent 1994 assessment, and the policy and monitoring relevance of literacy as a key indicator of

K. J. Holzinger

1924-01-01

170

Statistical Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A good resource for problems in statistics in engineering. Contains some applets, and good textual examples related to engineering. Some topics include Monte Carlo method, Central Limit Theorem, Risk, Logistic Regression, Generalized Linear Models, and Confidence. Overall, this is a well presented and good site for anyone interested in engineering or mathematics.

Annis, Charles

2008-12-30

171

VLF method: elimination of noises and quantitative interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geophysical investigations by the very low frequency method are greatly complicated by time variations and the rugged-relief effect. For elimination of these noises effective statistical procedures have been developed. Quantitative interpretation of VLF anomalies under difficult geological conditions can be conducted with modified methods, developed in magnetic prospecting. Over complex geological sections interpretation of the method's integration can be conducted

L. V. Eppelbaum; B. E. Khesin

1992-01-01

172

Statistical reviewing for medical journals.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the difficulties associated with being a statistical reviewer for a medical journal. As background, I consider first the use of statistical reviewers by medical journals, medical journals' policies on statistical peer review, and the limited evidence of its effectiveness. The assessment of a manuscript is considered under the headings of design, methods of analysis, presentation and interpretation, with many illustrative examples of the difficulties to be overcome. I emphasize the judgemental nature of many aspects. I suggest how to present and structure the reviewer's report to the editor. Finally, I consider wider issues, including the various other ways in which statisticians can interact with medical journals. PMID:9881413

Altman, D G

1998-12-15

173

CYCLOPS Objective Steering Model Output Statistics (COSMOS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

COSMOS is a statistical aid designed to assist the forecastor in interpreting CYCLOPS output. Using CYCLOPS (a geostrophic steering model) output in the unmodified prognostic mode for the 850, 700, and 500 mb levels, the model categorizes the forecast sit...

R. L. Allen

1984-01-01

174

Tale of a Sleeping Beauty: A New and Easily Cultured Model Organism for Experimental Studies on Bdelloid Rotifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the description of a new species of bdelloid rotifer, Adineta ricciae n. sp., which emerged from dry mud of Ryan’s billabong, Victoria, Australia. Its conspicuous frontal eyes easily diagnose the species; it differs from A. oculata (Milne) by the position of the eyes and its general habitus. The animal came to our attention because it is exceptionally easy

Hendrik Segers; Russell J. Shiel

2005-01-01

175

Live weight assessment based on easily accessible morphometric characteristics in the double-muscled Belgian Blue beef breed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Live weight is an important trait in cattle farming. Weighing is not always feasible and therefore live weight is often estimated from easily accessible data. In this study, data on live weight, age and gender, and four body measurements, withers height (WH), heart girth (HG) and width of the shoulders (SW) and hind quarters (BcW) of double-muscled Belgian Blue beef

Frank Coopman; Stefaan De Smet; Hans Laevens; Alex Van Zeveren; Luc Duchateau

2009-01-01

176

Modeling the Interpretive Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes and compares three models used in planning interpretive environmental experiences: an intuitive program-planning model; an interactive communications model; and Cherem's model, in which the audience directly influences program goals and techniques. Cherem's model includes managerial realities, but doesn't recognize the social aspect of…

McKean, Barbara

1999-01-01

177

Food sustainability : Diverging interpretations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of sustainability in general and food sustainability, in particular, entails many aspects and many interpretations. During a conference on food sustainability a broad, multidisciplinary picture was painted and many key issues were dealt with, from ecology, economy and society. In sessions on food security – the focus in developing countries – and food safety – primarily a preoccupation

Harry Aiking; Joop de Boer

2004-01-01

178

Interpreting the Constitution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

Brennan, William J., Jr.

1987-01-01

179

Interpretation as Abduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hobbs, J.R., M.E. Stickel, D.E. Appelt and P. Martin, Interpretation as abduction, Artificial Intelligence 63 (1993) 69-142. Abduction is inference to the best explanation. In the TACITUS project at SRI we have developed an approach to abductive inference, called \\

Jerry R. Hobbs; Mark E. Stickel; Douglas E. Appelt; Paul A. Martin

1993-01-01

180

Kinematics Graph Interpretation Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The primary goal of the Kinematics Graphing Project is to investigate the ability of students to interpret kinematics graphs and to generate a set of suggestions for faculty teaching the subject. Evaluation instruments are used to uncover the common misconceptions of students.

Beichner, Robert J.

2003-10-10

181

Professionalism as Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this Article, I defend the interpretive attitude of professionalism. Professionalism is a stance toward the law which accepts that a lawyer is not merely an agent of her client. Rather, in carrying out her client's lawful instructions, a lawyer has an obligation to apply the law to her client's situation with due regard to the meaning of legal norms,

W. Bradley Wendel

2005-01-01

182

Seclusion: Definitional interpretations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seclusion of psychiatric patients means different things to different people and different organizations. Without a clear definitional framework misunderstanding can occur and comparative analyses are made difficult. In an attempt to establish universal themes 166 international articles and books on seclusion were reviewed and their definitional interpretations evaluated. The results highlight a wide disparity between studies and there is little

Tom Mason

1992-01-01

183

Interpreting Genesis One  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like other parts of Scripture, Genesis 1 must be interpreted in terms of its historical and literary context. This creation account was given to the Israelites in the wilderness, after the exodus from Egypt but before the conquest of Canaan. What the message meant then to the original hearers must govern the application of what it means now to us

CHARLES E. HUMMEL

1986-01-01

184

Interpreting & Biomechanics. PEPNet Tipsheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) refers to a collection of disorders associated with nerves, muscles, tendons, bones, and the neurovascular (nerves and related blood vessels) system. CTD symptoms may involve the neck, back, shoulders, arms, wrists, or hands. Interpreters with CTD may experience a variety of symptoms including: pain, joint…

PEPNet-Northeast, 2001

2001-01-01

185

The ADAMS interactive interpreter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ADAMS (Advanced DAta Management System) project is exploring next generation database technology. Database management does not follow the usual programming paradigm. Instead, the database dictionary provides an additional name space environment that should be interactively created and tested before writing application code. This document describes the implementation and operation of the ADAMS Interpreter, an interactive interface to the ADAMS

Rietscha

1990-01-01

186

Patients and Medical Statistics  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND People are increasingly presented with medical statistics. There are no existing measures to assess their level of interest or confidence in using medical statistics. OBJECTIVE To develop 2 new measures, the STAT-interest and STAT-confidence scales, and assess their reliability and validity. DESIGN Survey with retest after approximately 2 weeks. SUBJECTS Two hundred and twenty-four people were recruited from advertisements in local newspapers, an outpatient clinic waiting area, and a hospital open house. MEASURES We developed and revised 5 items on interest in medical statistics and 3 on confidence understanding statistics. RESULTS Study participants were mostly college graduates (52%); 25% had a high school education or less. The mean age was 53 (range 20 to 84) years. Most paid attention to medical statistics (6% paid no attention). The mean (SD) STAT-interest score was 68 (17) and ranged from 15 to 100. Confidence in using statistics was also high: the mean (SD) STAT-confidence score was 65 (19) and ranged from 11 to 100. STAT-interest and STAT-confidence scores were moderately correlated (r=.36, P<.001). Both scales demonstrated good test–retest repeatability (r=.60, .62, respectively), internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's ?=0.70 and 0.78), and usability (individual item nonresponse ranged from 0% to 1.3%). Scale scores correlated only weakly with scores on a medical data interpretation test (r=.15 and .26, respectively). CONCLUSION The STAT-interest and STAT-confidence scales are usable and reliable. Interest and confidence were only weakly related to the ability to actually use data.

Woloshin, Steven; Schwartz, Lisa M; Welch, H Gilbert

2005-01-01

187

Statistical microeconomics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A statistical generalization is made of microeconomics in the spirit of going from classical to statistical mechanics. The price and quantity of every commodity1The term commodities is used for goods and services. traded in the market, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable: all prices and quantities are considered to be stochastic processes, with the observed market prices being a random sample of the stochastic prices. The dynamics of market prices is determined by an action functional and, for concreteness, a specific model is proposed. The model can be calibrated from the unequal time correlation of the market commodity prices. A perturbation expansion for the correlation functions is defined in powers of the inverse of the total budget of the aggregate consumer and the propagator for the market prices is evaluated.

Baaquie, Belal E.

2013-10-01

188

Learning Statistics By Doing Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, created by Gary Smith of Pomona College, discusses a project-based approach to teaching statistics. The article focuses on the team aspect of learning, it introduces concepts such as: working with data, learning by doing, learning by writing, learning by speaking, and authentic assessment of material. An appendix contains a list of twenty projects that have been successfully assigned.

Smith, Gary

2009-02-02

189

Statistics I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will encounter the concept of a distribution, along with parameters that describe a distribution's "typical" values (average) and a distribution's spread (variance). To understand simple distributions and uncertainty propagation in the coming sections, it is necessary to be familiar with the concept of statistical independence. When two variables fluctuate independently, their covariance vanishes, and the variance of their sum is the sum of their variances.

Liao, David

190

Statistical Shorts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this statistics and probability activity students must determine whether each statement is always true, sometimes true, sometimes false, or always false. Students must have a basic understanding of probability statements and the foundation for understanding mean, median, and mode in order to complete this activity for all twelve statements. In addition to the task, tips for getting started, possible solutions, a teacher resource page, and a printable page are provided.

Nrich

2013-01-01

191

Interpreting Carnivore Scent-Station Surveys  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) has placed online a 1998 scientific publication from the Journal of Wildlife Management (Vol 62(4):1235-1245) entitled "Interpreting Carnivore Scent-Station Surveys." In it, the authors analyze a subset of data from the Minnesota carnivore scent-station survey collected during 1986-93, "to determine statistical properties and to examine analyses of scent-station data." This resource, of interest to wildlife managers, may be downloaded as a .zip files.

192

Interpreting the Urinalysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial is designed to aid first and second year medical students learn interpretation of the urinalysis. It includes material on how the test is done, its general application and pitfalls in interpretation. General introductory material is followed by a series of short clinical vignettes illustrating diagnostic application of the test with various medical conditions. QuickTime movie player and Java script runtime plug-in scripts are required for some pages. The tutorial concludes with a short self-help quiz covering the major points developed. The plug-ins noted above are available free at the following sites: http://www.apple.com/quicktime/download/win.html and http://www.sun.com/. Questions should be directed to Dr. Mark Braun (braunm@indiana.edu).

Braun, Mark

2007-03-02

193

Trained interpretive bias and anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between anxiety and interpretive bias has been studied extensively, but the causal direction of this relationship remains largely unexplored. Do negative interpretations cause anxiety or is anxiety the cause of negative interpretations? Or are the two mutually reinforcing? The present study addressed this issue by experimentally inducing either a negative or a positive interpretive bias using Mathews and

Elske Salemink; Marcel van den Hout; Merel Kindt

2007-01-01

194

What is a Faithful Interpretation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fidelity to the source message for both spoken language and sign language interpreters has been at the core of our conception of the role of the interpreter. This article presents a selection of research and reflections on the theme of the faithful interpretation in an effort to bring this research to the attention of the practicing interpreter. It includes brief

Bill Moody

2012-01-01

195

Interpretive Historical Archaeologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In agreeing to do this chapter, I convinced myself that the task would be easier than it actually has been. I found that it\\u000a was easier to recognize what made an interpretive historical archaeology than to explicitly define what made one so. As I\\u000a sat at my computer, agonizing how to begin, I realized that perhaps I needed to begin

Laurie A. Wilkie

196

Interpreting Geologic Sections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Athro, Limited is a for-profit corporation that publishes high school and college level biology, earth science, and geology course supplements and independent learning materials on the Web. This site provides instruction in interpreting the order of events in three hypothetical and one real geological section. For each section there is a list of events and an animation of the history of the section once the student has decided on the order of events.

Morris, Paul

197

Social Signal Interpretation (SSI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of anticipatory user interfaces is a key issue in human-centred computing. Building systems that allow humans\\u000a to communicate with a machine in the same natural and intuitive way as they would with each other requires detection and interpretation\\u000a of the user’s affective and social signals. These are expressed in various and often complementary ways, including gestures,\\u000a speech, mimics

Johannes Wagner; Florian Lingenfelser; Nikolaus Bee; Elisabeth André

198

Interpretation of Quantum Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

ATTENTION has been directed to persistent questions of interpretation in quantum physics by the recent exchange of views1 on the subject between Dr. H. V. Stopes-Roe and Prof. A. Landé. To Prof. Landé's picture2 of the particle as permanently localized phenomenon, influenced through action-at-a-distance by the extended structure of a measuring instrument, Dr. Stopes-Roe understandably objects that a necessarily detailed

T. E. Phipps

1962-01-01

199

Interpretation and creationism.  

PubMed

This paper is an attempt to raise questions about certain underlying and implicit assumptions in some hermeneutic and narrative approaches to psychoanalysis. Starting from the view that Freud saw interpretation in the clinical setting as an attempt to unveil the analysand's psychic reality, it is argued that he envisaged that psychoanalysis aims to interpret what is real in the analysand's inner world--an empirical line of thought underpinned by the idea of analytic neutrality and an emphasis on the analysand's capacity to judge reality. By contrast, the tendency within the hermeneutic-narrative tradition is to demote psychic reality in favour of an emphasis on the analyst's capacity to interpret in order to help his analysand construct meaning. This approach may be said to put the analyst's words in the place of those of the Creator; in other words, it amounts to a 'verbal creationism', which the author argues is rooted in the idealistic philosophy of Hegel, Vico and Descartes and, further back, can be traced to the Book of Genesis--a conclusion causing the author to express some reservations. PMID:7989142

Ahumada, J L

1994-08-01

200

SOCR: Statistics Online Computational Resource.  

PubMed

The need for hands-on computer laboratory experience in undergraduate and graduate statistics education has been firmly established in the past decade. As a result a number of attempts have been undertaken to develop novel approaches for problem-driven statistical thinking, data analysis and result interpretation. In this paper we describe an integrated educational web-based framework for: interactive distribution modeling, virtual online probability experimentation, statistical data analysis, visualization and integration. Following years of experience in statistical teaching at all college levels using established licensed statistical software packages, like STATA, S-PLUS, R, SPSS, SAS, Systat, etc., we have attempted to engineer a new statistics education environment, the Statistics Online Computational Resource (SOCR). This resource performs many of the standard types of statistical analysis, much like other classical tools. In addition, it is designed in a plug-in object-oriented architecture and is completely platform independent, web-based, interactive, extensible and secure. Over the past 4 years we have tested, fine-tuned and reanalyzed the SOCR framework in many of our undergraduate and graduate probability and statistics courses and have evidence that SOCR resources build student's intuition and enhance their learning. PMID:21451741

Dinov, Ivo D

2006-10-01

201

SOCR: Statistics Online Computational Resource  

PubMed Central

The need for hands-on computer laboratory experience in undergraduate and graduate statistics education has been firmly established in the past decade. As a result a number of attempts have been undertaken to develop novel approaches for problem-driven statistical thinking, data analysis and result interpretation. In this paper we describe an integrated educational web-based framework for: interactive distribution modeling, virtual online probability experimentation, statistical data analysis, visualization and integration. Following years of experience in statistical teaching at all college levels using established licensed statistical software packages, like STATA, S-PLUS, R, SPSS, SAS, Systat, etc., we have attempted to engineer a new statistics education environment, the Statistics Online Computational Resource (SOCR). This resource performs many of the standard types of statistical analysis, much like other classical tools. In addition, it is designed in a plug-in object-oriented architecture and is completely platform independent, web-based, interactive, extensible and secure. Over the past 4 years we have tested, fine-tuned and reanalyzed the SOCR framework in many of our undergraduate and graduate probability and statistics courses and have evidence that SOCR resources build student’s intuition and enhance their learning.

Dinov, Ivo D.

2011-01-01

202

Highly concentrated synthesis of copper-zinc-tin-sulfide nanocrystals with easily decomposable capping molecules for printed photovoltaic applications.  

PubMed

Among various candidate materials, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a promising earth-abundant semiconductor for low-cost thin film solar cells. We report a facile, less toxic, highly concentrated synthetic method utilizing the heretofore unrecognized, easily decomposable capping ligand of triphenylphosphate, where phase-pure, single-crystalline, and well-dispersed colloidal CZTS nanocrystals were obtained. The favorable influence of the easily decomposable capping ligand on the microstructural evolution of device-quality CZTS absorber layers was clarified based on a comparative study with commonly used oleylamine-capped CZTS nanoparticles. The resulting CZTS nanoparticles enabled us to produce a dense and crack-free absorbing layer through annealing under a N2 + H2S (4%) atmosphere, demonstrating a solar cell with an efficiency of 3.6% under AM 1.5 illumination. PMID:24057000

Kim, Youngwoo; Woo, Kyoohee; Kim, Inhyuk; Cho, Yong Soo; Jeong, Sunho; Moon, Jooho

2013-09-13

203

Easily denaturing nucleic acids derived from intercalating nucleic acids: thermal stability studies, dual duplex invasion and inhibition of transcription start  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bulged insertions of (R )-1-O-(pyren-1-ylmethyl)- glycerol (monomer P) in two complementary 8mer DNA strands (intercalating nucleic acids) opposite to each other resulted in the formation of an easily denaturing duplex, which had lower thermal stability (21.0? C) than the wild-type double-stranded DNA (dsDNA, 26.0? C), but both modified oligodeoxy- nucleotides had increased binding affinity toward complementary single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)

Vyacheslav V. Filichev; Birte Vester; Lykke H. Hansen; Erik B. Pedersen

2005-01-01

204

Coloration and decoloration of glasses by photo-irradiation and heat treatment for easily recycled glass products  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been developing a technique of coloration and decoloration of glasses by photo-irradiation and heat-treatment for application to easily recyclable colored glass products. The mechanisms of the photo-induced coloration of glasses used in this research are a) the photo-induced defects (color centers) formation, b) the photo-induced change in oxidation state of ions, and c) the photo-induced formation of nanoparticles

Kohei Kadono; T. Akai; M. Yamashita; J. Sheng; S. Chen; Z. Yao; N. Itakura; T. Yamate; Y. Utagawa; Y. Matsumoto; T. Yazawa

2003-01-01

205

[Effect of diets with easily assimilated carbohydrates on the lipid composition of tissues of young rats with alloxan diabetes].  

PubMed

The blood serum, liver, cerebral and pancreatic tissues of 250 rats aged 1 to 1.5 mos. were investigated. Alloxan diabetes caused profound changes in the lipid composition of various tissues, the most noticeable ones in the pancreas. Of all easily assimilable carbohydrates used as admixtures to a common ration fructose followed by xylite and sorbitol produced the most unfavorable effect on lipid metabolism. The best results were obtained by adding up glucose. PMID:3658954

Pogorelova, T N; Dluzhevskaia, T S; Drukker, N A; Ostashevskaia, M I; Afanas'eva, N B

206

FIDEA: a server for the functional interpretation of differential expression analysis.  

PubMed

The results of differential expression analyses provide scientists with hundreds to thousands of differentially expressed genes that need to be interpreted in light of the biology of the specific system under study. This requires mapping the genes to functional classifications that can be, for example, the KEGG pathways or InterPro families they belong to, their GO Molecular Function, Biological Process or Cellular Component. A statistically significant overrepresentation of one or more category terms in the set of differentially expressed genes is an essential step for the interpretation of the biological significance of the results. Ideally, the analysis should be performed by scientists who are well acquainted with the biological problem, as they have a wealth of knowledge about the system and can, more easily than a bioinformatician, discover less obvious and, therefore, more interesting relationships. To allow experimentalists to explore their data in an easy and at the same time exhaustive fashion within a single tool and to test their hypothesis quickly and effortlessly, we developed FIDEA. The FIDEA server is located at http://www.biocomputing.it/fidea; it is free and open to all users, and there is no login requirement. PMID:23754850

D'Andrea, Daniel; Grassi, Luigi; Mazzapioda, Mariagiovanna; Tramontano, Anna

2013-06-10

207

Statistics of galaxy warps in the HDF North and South  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a statistical study of the presence of galaxy warps in the Hubble deep fields. Among a complete sample of 45 edge-on galaxies above a diameter of 1\\farcs3, we find 5 galaxies to be certainly warped and 6 galaxies as good candidates. In addition, 4 galaxies reveal a characteristic U-warp. Compared to statistical studies of local warps, and taking into account the strong bias against observing the outer parts of galaxies at high redshift, these numbers point towards a very high frequency of warps at z ~ 1: almost all galaxy discs might be warped. Furthermore, the amplitude of warps are stronger than for local warps. This is easily interpreted in terms of higher galaxy interactions and matter accretion in the past. This result supports these two mechanisms as the best candidates for the origin of early warps. The mean observed axis ratio of our sample of edge-on galaxies is significantly larger in the high-z sample than is found for samples of local spiral galaxies. This might be due to disk thickening due to more frequent galaxy interactions.

Reshetnikov, V.; Battaner, E.; Combes, F.; Jiménez-Vicente, J.

2002-02-01

208

Screencast Tutorials Enhance Student Learning of Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although the use of computer-assisted instruction has rapidly increased, there is little empirical research evaluating these technologies, specifically within the context of teaching statistics. The authors assessed the effect of screencast tutorials on learning outcomes, including statistical knowledge, application, and interpretation. Students…

Lloyd, Steven A.; Robertson, Chuck L.

2012-01-01

209

INCREASING SCIENTIFIC POWER WITH STATISTICAL POWER  

EPA Science Inventory

A brief survey of basic ideas in statistical power analysis demonstrates the advantages and ease of using power analysis throughout the design, analysis, and interpretation of research. he power of a statistical test is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis of the test...

210

Statistical characterization of multibeam echosounder data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The statistical studies of high resolution sonar images recorded by a 95 kHz multibeam echosounder prove that the Rayleigh law is no more adapted to the description of the textured sonar images. Seafloor reverberation statistical models have been put forward to interpret those high resolution particularities and to propose the correlated K-law distributions. Moreover, the author takes advantage of the

L. Hellequin

1998-01-01

211

Data Interpretation: Using Probability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experimental data are analysed statistically to allow researchers to draw conclusions from a limited set of measurements. The hard fact is that researchers can never be certain that measurements from a sample will exactly reflect the properties of the entire group of possible candidates available to be studied (although using a sample is often the…

Drummond, Gordon B.; Vowler, Sarah L.

2011-01-01

212

Data Interpretation: Using Probability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Experimental data are analysed statistically to allow researchers to draw conclusions from a limited set of measurements. The hard fact is that researchers can never be certain that measurements from a sample will exactly reflect the properties of the entire group of possible candidates available to be studied (although using a sample is often…

Drummond, Gordon B.; Vowler, Sarah L.

2011-01-01

213

Interpretation of extragalactic jets  

SciTech Connect

The nature of extragalatic radio jets is modeled. The basic hypothesis of these models is that extragalatic jets are outflows of matter which can be described within the framework of fluid dynamics and that the outflows are essentially continuous. The discussion is limited to the interpretation of large-scale (i.e., kiloparsec-scale) jets. The central problem is to infer the physical parameters of the jets from observed distributions of total and polarized intensity and angle of polarization as a function of frequency. 60 refs., 6 figs.

Norman, M.L.

1985-01-01

214

Interpreting Paleoenvironments with Microfossils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is constructed to help students gain a better understanding of how scientists can use foraminifera to interpret past environments. Specifically, they will have the opportunity to understand one of the basic tenets of geology: the present is the key to the past, a principle otherwise known as uniformitarianism. Objectives include: distinguishing between planktonic, benthic, hyaline, porcelaneous, and agglutinated foraminifera, calculating the proportion of planktonic specimens in a sample, establishing the species diversity of a sample, establishing the shell-type ratio of a sample, and reconstructing the environment of deposition of the sample.

Culver, Stephen

215

Graphs: Interpret Line Plots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website application provides practice interpreting line plots. The format of the website makes it available to use with individual students on one computer or with an entire class on an interactive white board. Each practice problem is submitted to determine if it is correct, when an incorrect answer is submitted the correct answer and an option for an explanation appears. Each problem set is also timed and the user is provided with a percent correct. This website does have a membership option for a fee which would enable the teacher to track the progress of multiple students over time.

2012-01-01

216

Cultural interpretations of contagion.  

PubMed

Anthropological research in recent years has examined how single diseases such as Aids, tuberculosis, measles, malaria and leprosy are conceptualized by laypersons in non-Western societies. But how is disease transmission itself interpreted in other cultures? Data from ethnographical studies in Côte d'Ivoire and the Afro-Brazilian culture in Bahia, Brazil show that the interpretations of contagion and preventive practices cut across society involving five main relationships: empirical and analogical thinking, symbolic factors and social organization, the concept of person and body elements, natural and supernatural powers and individual and contextual factors. There is not a general theory, such as Pasteur's theory of germs. Instead, contagion presents itself as a transversal, multidimensional concept crossing and interconnecting society and culture. Public health programmes aimed at controlling infectious diseases need first to understand how contagion is conceptualized by laypersons, the extent to which diseases are considered infectious and the relation between perceptions and preventive practices. This would help in implementing infectious disease control programmes within local contexts based on meaningful community participation. PMID:9892285

Caprara, A

1998-12-01

217

Mixed-handed persons are more easily persuaded and are more gullible: Interhemispheric interaction and belief updating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that persons with mixed hand preference (i.e., who report using their non-dominant hand for at least some manual activities) display an increased tendency to update beliefs in response to information inconsistent with those beliefs. This has been interpreted as reflecting the fact that the left hemisphere maintains our current beliefs while the right hemisphere evaluates and updates

Stephen D. Christman; Bradley R. Henning; Andrew L. Geers; Ruth E. Propper; Christopher L. Niebauer

2008-01-01

218

Highly concentrated synthesis of copper-zinc-tin-sulfide nanocrystals with easily decomposable capping molecules for printed photovoltaic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among various candidate materials, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a promising earth-abundant semiconductor for low-cost thin film solar cells. We report a facile, less toxic, highly concentrated synthetic method utilizing the heretofore unrecognized, easily decomposable capping ligand of triphenylphosphate, where phase-pure, single-crystalline, and well-dispersed colloidal CZTS nanocrystals were obtained. The favorable influence of the easily decomposable capping ligand on the microstructural evolution of device-quality CZTS absorber layers was clarified based on a comparative study with commonly used oleylamine-capped CZTS nanoparticles. The resulting CZTS nanoparticles enabled us to produce a dense and crack-free absorbing layer through annealing under a N2 + H2S (4%) atmosphere, demonstrating a solar cell with an efficiency of 3.6% under AM 1.5 illumination.Among various candidate materials, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a promising earth-abundant semiconductor for low-cost thin film solar cells. We report a facile, less toxic, highly concentrated synthetic method utilizing the heretofore unrecognized, easily decomposable capping ligand of triphenylphosphate, where phase-pure, single-crystalline, and well-dispersed colloidal CZTS nanocrystals were obtained. The favorable influence of the easily decomposable capping ligand on the microstructural evolution of device-quality CZTS absorber layers was clarified based on a comparative study with commonly used oleylamine-capped CZTS nanoparticles. The resulting CZTS nanoparticles enabled us to produce a dense and crack-free absorbing layer through annealing under a N2 + H2S (4%) atmosphere, demonstrating a solar cell with an efficiency of 3.6% under AM 1.5 illumination. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental methods for CZTS nanocrystal synthesis, device fabrication, and characterization; the size distribution and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra of the synthesized CZTS nanoparticles; UV-vis spectra of the CZTS films; isothermal analysis of triphenylphosphate (TPP) and oleylamine (OLA); microstructural SEM images of annealed CZTS nanocrystal films. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03104g

Kim, Youngwoo; Woo, Kyoohee; Kim, Inhyuk; Cho, Yong Soo; Jeong, Sunho; Moon, Jooho

2013-10-01

219

Sorting chromatic sextupoles for easily and effectively correcting second order chromaticity in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider  

SciTech Connect

Based on the contributions of the chromatic sextupole families to the half-integer resonance driving terms, we discuss how to sort the chromatic sextupoles in the arcs of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to easily and effectively correct the second order chromaticities. We propose a method with 4 knobs corresponding to 4 pairs of chromatic sextupole families to online correct the second order chromaticities. Numerical simulation justifies this method, showing that this method reduces the unbalance in the correction strengths of sextupole families and avoids the reversal of sextupole polarities. Therefore, this method yields larger dynamic apertures for the proposed RHIC 2009 100GeV polarized proton run lattices.

Luo,Y.; Tepikian, S.; Fischer, W.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Trbojevic, D.

2009-01-02

220

Interpreting Hawthorne: Subjectivity in Biography  

Microsoft Academic Search

:In observing the attentive processes by which I reached interpretations of Nathaniel Hawthorne's life and fiction, I found surprising congruence between Hawthorne's identity themes and my own. Properly tempered psychoanalytic interpretative techniques such as \\

Gloria C. Erlich

1989-01-01

221

Interpreting Hawthorne: Subjectivity in Biography  

Microsoft Academic Search

In observing the attentive processes by which I reached interpretations of Nathaniel Hawthorne's life and fiction, I found surprising congruence between Hawthorne's identity themes and my own. Properly tempered psychoanalytic interpretative techniques such as \\

Gloria C. Erlich

1989-01-01

222

Interpreting bruises at necropsy  

PubMed Central

The accurate interpretation of bruising at necropsy is essential to understanding how a victim has been injured and assists the pathologist in a reliable reconstruction of the events leading to death. It is essential not only to assess the mechanism of production of a bruise, taking into account the type of impacting surface and the magnitude of force used, but also to estimate when the injury was caused. An account is given of the various methods used in the examination of bruises, particularly with respect to aging, as well as the factors that may affect their appearance. Differentiation from artefacts resulting from postmortem changes is also discussed in some detail. Key Words: bruising • necropsy • time of death • cause of death

Vanezis, P

2001-01-01

223

Improve MWD data interpretation  

SciTech Connect

This article reports that measurement-while-drilling (MWD) technology is being used today in a broad range of real-time drilling applications. In its infancy, MWD was limited to providing directional survey and steering information. Today, the addition of formation sensors (resistivity, gamma) and drilling efficiency sensors (WOB, torque) has made MWD a much more useful drilling decision tool. In the process, the desirability of combining downhole MWD data with powerful analytical software and interpretive techniques has been recognized by both operators and service companies. However, the usual form in which MWD and wellsite analytical capabilities are combined leaves much to be desired. The most common approach is to incorporate MWD with large-scale computerized mud logging (CML) systems. Essentially, MWD decoding and display equipment is added to existing full-blown CML surface units.

Santley, D.J.; Ardrey, W.E.

1987-01-01

224

Interpreting Title I Evaluation Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a workshop simulation and interpretation guide designed for Title I teachers and district personnel. The participants should have some experience with the norm-referenced evaluation model. They learn to interpret normal curve equivalents (NCE) and NCE gains. Participants are led through an interpretive hierarchy from simple, descriptive…

Davis, Ann E.; And Others

225

Stupid statistics!  

PubMed

The method of least squares is probably the most powerful data analysis tool available to scientists. Toward a fuller appreciation of that power, this work begins with an elementary review of statistics fundamentals, and then progressively increases in sophistication as the coverage is extended to the theory and practice of linear and nonlinear least squares. The results are illustrated in application to data analysis problems important in the life sciences. The review of fundamentals includes the role of sampling and its connection to probability distributions, the Central Limit Theorem, and the importance of finite variance. Linear least squares are presented using matrix notation, and the significance of the key probability distributions-Gaussian, chi-square, and t-is illustrated with Monte Carlo calculations. The meaning of correlation is discussed, including its role in the propagation of error. When the data themselves are correlated, special methods are needed for the fitting, as they are also when fitting with constraints. Nonlinear fitting gives rise to nonnormal parameter distributions, but the 10% Rule of Thumb suggests that such problems will be insignificant when the parameter is sufficiently well determined. Illustrations include calibration with linear and nonlinear response functions, the dangers inherent in fitting inverted data (e.g., Lineweaver-Burk equation), an analysis of the reliability of the van't Hoff analysis, the problem of correlated data in the Guggenheim method, and the optimization of isothermal titration calorimetry procedures using the variance-covariance matrix for experiment design. The work concludes with illustrations on assessing and presenting results. PMID:17964948

Tellinghuisen, Joel

2008-01-01

226

Impact of Statistical Learning Methods on the Predictive Power of Multivariate Normal Tissue Complication Probability Models  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To study the impact of different statistical learning methods on the prediction performance of multivariate normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models. Methods and Materials: In this study, three learning methods, stepwise selection, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), and Bayesian model averaging (BMA), were used to build NTCP models of xerostomia following radiotherapy treatment for head and neck cancer. Performance of each learning method was evaluated by a repeated cross-validation scheme in order to obtain a fair comparison among methods. Results: It was found that the LASSO and BMA methods produced models with significantly better predictive power than that of the stepwise selection method. Furthermore, the LASSO method yields an easily interpretable model as the stepwise method does, in contrast to the less intuitive BMA method. Conclusions: The commonly used stepwise selection method, which is simple to execute, may be insufficient for NTCP modeling. The LASSO method is recommended.

Xu Chengjian, E-mail: c.j.xu@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Schaaf, Arjen van der; Schilstra, Cornelis; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Veld, Aart A. van't [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

2012-03-15

227

Geologic interpretation of gravity anomalies  

SciTech Connect

This Russian textbook provides a sufficiently complete and systematic illumination of physico-geologic and mathematical aspect of complex problem of interpretation of gravity anomalies. The rational methods of localization of anomalies are examined in detail. All methods of interpreting gravity anomalies are described which have found successful application in practice. Also given are ideas of some new methods of the interpretation of gravity anomalies, the prospects for further development and industrial testing. Numerous practical examples to interpretation are given. Partial Contents: Bases of gravitational field theory; Physico-geologic bases of gravitational prospecting; Principles of geologic interpretation of gravity anomalies; Conversions and calculations of anomalies; Interpretation of gravity anomalies for bodies of correct geometric form and for bodies of arbitrary form; Geologic interpretation of the results of regional gravitational photographing; Searches and prospecting of oil- and gas-bearing structures and of deposits of ore and nonmetalliferous useful minerals.

Andreyev, B.A.; Klushin, I.G.

1990-04-19

228

Statistical Analysis by Statistical Physics Model for the STOCK Markets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new stochastic stock price model of stock markets based on the contact process of the statistical physics systems is presented in this paper, where the contact model is a continuous time Markov process, one interpretation of this model is as a model for the spread of an infection. Through this model, the statistical properties of Shanghai Stock Exchange (SSE) and Shenzhen Stock Exchange (SZSE) are studied. In the present paper, the data of SSE Composite Index and the data of SZSE Component Index are analyzed, and the corresponding simulation is made by the computer computation. Further, we investigate the statistical properties, fat-tail phenomena, the power-law distributions, and the long memory of returns for these indices. The techniques of skewness-kurtosis test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and R/S analysis are applied to study the fluctuation characters of the stock price returns.

Wang, Tiansong; Wang, Jun; Fan, Bingli

229

An easily integrative and efficient micromixer and its application to the spectroscopic detection of glucose-catalyst reactions.  

PubMed

The focus of this paper is on the fabrication of a PDMS-based passive efficient micromixer to be easily integrated into the other on-chip microfluidic system. The mixing is achieved by "strong stretching and folding," which employs a three-dimensional microchannel structure. By the simultaneously vertical and transversal dispersion of fluids, strong advection is developed. Owing to this powerful mixing performance (more than 70% of the mixing is accomplished within 2.3 mm over a wide range of Reynold number (Re)), the smaller integrative mixer can be realized. The feasibility and the potential usefulness of an integrative micromixer were evaluated by incorporating two mixers into the microchannel for the spectroscopic detection of a glucose-catalyst reaction. The results demonstrate a promising performance for diverse applications in the assay or synthesis of biological or chemical materials. PMID:15724156

Kim, D J; Oh, H J; Park, T H; Choo, J B; Lee, S H

2005-01-24

230

Interpreting Epsilon Aurigae  

SciTech Connect

The eclipsing binary Epsilon Aurigae consists of an F0 supergiant and a cool, mysterious eclipsing companion with an orbital period of 27.1 yr. The light curve of this system reveals two sources of variability: the eclipses themselves and the variation of the supergiant. Photoelectric observations were made with the 38 cm reflector at the Villanova University Observatory. The bright star undergoes semiregular light variations both inside and outside the eclipse, with a characteristic time scale of a few months which are found to correlate extremely well with changes in color index. It appears that these light and color variations arise from pulsations of the supergiant. The light variations are similar to those found for other luminous A-F supergiants. A computer code has been developed to model the eclipse and explore possible configurations of the disk. The properties of the disk appear more consistent with an interpretation as a protoplanetary system than a remnant of mass transfer from the supergiant. 77 refs.

Carroll, S.M.; Guinan, E.F.; Mccook, G.P.; Donahue, R.A. (Villanova Univ., PA (USA) Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (USA) New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces (USA))

1991-01-01

231

Reading and Interpreting Tables and Graphs Involving Rates and Percentages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This survey, created by Milo Schield of Augsburg College, assesses statistical literacy. The survey focuses on the general use of informal statistics in everyday situations: reading and interpreting tables and graphs involving rates and percentages. The survey itself takes between thirty and forty minutes. The author does apologize for the length, but insists that it is due to how comprehensive the survey is. Sixty-nine questions in length, almost every topic concerning statistics is covered. The survey was funded by the W.M. Keck Statistical Literacy Project.

Schield, Milo

2009-03-11

232

Easily available adjustment criteria for the comparison of antibiotic consumption in a hospital setting: experience in France.  

PubMed

Hospitals in France are encouraged to monitor antibiotic consumption (AbC) and it is known that this differs among hospitals. The aim of the current study was to identify relevant and easily available adjustment criteria for the purpose of benchmarking. We analysed data from 34 public non-teaching hospitals and 43 private hospitals located in south-western France and overseas departments using retrospective data from 2005. This study investigated the relationship between AbC expressed as defined daily doses per 1000 patient-days (DDD/1000 PDs) or per 100 admissions (DDD/100 admissions) and the number of venous central lines, the number of episodes of bacteraemia and various hospital characteristics. The relationship was tested using multiple linear analyses. The median total AbC in public hospitals was 395 DDD/1000 PDs (range, 196-737) and 341 DDD/100 admissions (range, 180-792). In private hospitals this was 422 DDD/1000 PDs (range, 113-717) and 212 DDD/100 admissions (range, 38-510). The best model for public hospitals included the proportion of PDs in surgery, intensive care and medical wards and explained 84% of the variability in AbC expressed as DDD/1000 PDs. For private hospitals, the mean length of stay and the proportion of PDs in surgery and medical wards explained 68% of the variability in AbC expressed as DDD/100 admissions. Overall, this French experience shows that relevant adjustment criteria for the comparison among hospitals are easily available. It is important that each country establish its own model considering the intrinsic peculiarities of the hospital system and taking into account both indicators (DDD/1000 PDs or DDD/100 admissions) to design the best model. PMID:19778299

Amadeo, B; Dumartin, C; Robinson, P; Venier, A G; Parneix, P; Gachie, J P; Fourrier-Réglat, A; Rogues, A M

2009-09-23

233

Enhancing the Teaching of Statistics: Portfolio Theory, an Application of Statistics in Finance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper we present an application of statistics using real stock market data. Most, if not all, students have some familiarity with the stock market (or at least they have heard about it) and therefore can understand the problem easily. It is the real data analysis that students find interesting. Here we explore the building of efficient…

Christou, Nicolas

2008-01-01

234

Teaching speech pathology students the interpretation of videofluoroscopic swallowing studies.  

PubMed

This article examines a teaching package that was designed to cover the progression of skills agreed to by clinicians and educators as being pertinent to interpreting Videofluoroscopy Swallowing Studies (VFSSs). Sessions taught included knowledge of anatomy and physiology of swallowing, examination and identification of structures and landmarks from radiographs, and the use of an assessment scale such as the Bethlehem Assessment Scale (BAS) to interpret VFSSs. The ability to interpret eight VFSSs using the BAS was used as the final assessment. ANOVA for repeated measures and post hoc tests using Tukey's HSD statistic revealed that there was a statistically significant correlation between students' knowledge of anatomy and physiology and their knowledge of radiographic anatomy. There was a statistically significant correlation between their knowledge of radiographic anatomy and their ability to interpret videofluoroscopic examinations, as assessed using the BAS. There was also a statistically significant correlation between their knowledge of anatomy and physiology and their ability to interpret videofluoroscopic examinations using the BAS. PMID:11213244

Wooi, M; Scott, A; Perry, A

2001-01-01

235

STAPP: a statistical analysis and plotting package  

SciTech Connect

The Statistical Analysis and Plotting Package (STAPP) is a software system that integrates several oft-used statistical and plotting programs into one system. STAPP functions in either a batch or interactive environment on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) dual CDC Cyber 176 computer system. Many statistical routines are currently accessible within STAPP. They include: GEORGE (Generalized Linear Regression Analysis Program), STEPWISE (Stepwise Regression Program), MOCARS (A Monte Carlo Simulation Code), DATAPLOT (Data Plotting Package). Also, STAPP has the capability to access statistical and mathematical library routines, such as IMSL (International Mathematical and Statistical Library), DATAPAC (Data Analysis Package) or a user-supplied software module. Future additions to STAPP can be easily made, too. Finally, a general capability exists to enter NOS/BE or INTERCOM commands into the CDC system.

Matthews, S.D.; Smith, N.C.

1981-09-01

236

Video National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale criteria survey results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Video National Imagery Interpretability Rating Standard (V-NIIRS) consists of a ranked set of subjective criteria to assist analysts in assigning an interpretability quality level to a motion imagery clip. The V-NIIRS rating standard is needed to support the tasking, retrieval, and exploitation of motion imagery. A criteria survey was conducted to yield individual pair-wise criteria rankings and scores. Statistical analysis shows good agreement with expectations across the 9-levels of interpretability, for each of the 7 content domains.

Young, Darrell; Yen, James; Petitti, Fred; Bakir, Tariq; Brennan, Michelle; Butto, Robert, Jr.

2009-05-01

237

Interpretation of Geological, Hydrogeological, and Geochemical Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Almost all data obtained in geoscientific investigations need some kind of statistical treatment for interpretation, as well\\u000a as for the assessment of reliability and errors. The following statistical methods are frequently used to analyze data sets:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • univariate analysis, i.e., analysis of an individual parameter (e.g., concentration of a substance, pH, or electrical conductivity\\u000a at several locations),\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a •

Florian Jenn; Claus Kofahl; Mike Müller; Jens Radschinski; Hans-Jürgen Voigt

238

EIA publications manual: Statistical graphs  

SciTech Connect

Statistical graphs both illustrate a set of data and provide an analytical perspective. The distinction between these two functions is one of emphasis. Where the purpose of a graph is to dramatize or highlight a set of data, its primary function is illustration. Where the purpose of a graph is to explore, measure, calculate, and derive relationships, the primary function of the graph is analytical. In general practice, these two functions can be so interdependent as to be indistinguishable. The following guidelines are intended to aid in resolving problems common to the presentation of data in statistical graphs. The variety and complexity of data to be presented call for a flexible approach; therefore, the following examples are intended not as inflexible specifications but rather as guides to the design of graphs that are attractive and easily understood. All the types of graphs discussed here have appeared in EIA publications. A list of references that provides further examples is included. Also included is a glossary of statistical terms used in discussing the statistical properties of different types of graphs. 11 refs., 24 figs.

Not Available

1985-04-01

239

Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first working draft of the World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C) Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition is now available. The document "defines the process of Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition and the syntax and semantics of semantic interpretation tags that can be added to speech recognition grammars." The document is a draft, open for suggestions from W3C members and other interested users.

Lernout & Hauspie Speech Products.; Tichelen, Luc V.

2001-01-01

240

Interpreting cosmological vacuum decay  

SciTech Connect

The cosmological vacuum decay scenario recently proposed by Wang and Meng [Classical Quantum Gravity 22, 283 (2005)] is rediscussed. From thermodynamic arguments it is found that the {epsilon} parameter quantifying the vacuum decay rate must be positive in the presence of particle creation. If there is no particle creation, the proper mass of Cold Dark Matter (CDM) particles is necessarily a time-dependent quantity, scaling as m(t)=m{sub o}a(t){sup {epsilon}}. By considering the presence of baryons in the cosmological scenario, it is also shown that their dynamic effect is to alter the transition redshift z{sub *} (the redshift at which the Universe switches from decelerating to accelerating expansion), predicting values of z{sub *} compatible with current estimates based on type Ia supernova. In order to constrain the {omega}{sub m}-{epsilon} plane, a joint statistical analysis involving the current supernovae observations, gas mass fraction measurements in galaxy clusters and CMB data is performed. At 95% c.l. it is found that the vacuum decay rate parameter lies on the interval {epsilon}=0.06{+-}0.10. The possibility of a vacuum decay into photons is also analyzed. In this case, the energy density of the radiation fluid scales as {rho}{sub r}={rho}{sub ro}a{sup -4+{epsilon}}, and its temperature evolution law obeys T(t)=T{sub o}a(t){sup {epsilon}}{sup /4-1}.

Alcaniz, J.S.; Lima, J.A.S. [Departamento de Astronomia, Observatorio Nacional, 20921-400 Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, USP, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2005-09-15

241

Mantoux test and its interpretation.  

PubMed

The tuberculin skin test is one of the few investigations dating from the 19(th) century that are still widely used as an important test for diagnosing tuberculosis. Though very commonly used by physicians worldwide its interpretation always remains difficult and controversial. Various factors like age, immunological status coexisting illness etc influence its outcome, so also its interpretation. Utmost care is required while interpreting the result and giving an opinion. This article has been written with the purpose of elucidating the performance and interpretation of the standard tuberculin test. PMID:23130251

Nayak, Surajit; Acharjya, Basanti

2012-01-01

242

Statistical consulting, a matter of breaking tradition in applied research  

Microsoft Academic Search

common task for a statistician is to analyse data and to deliver tables, curves and p-values for the paper to be written. A statistical consultant can also be involved in a project at an even later stage-to interpret what the computer has done. The accessibility and reliance on statistical software imply that advanced statistical analyses and modelling can be performed

Elisabeth Svensson

243

Statistical Physics, Mixtures of Distributions, and the EM Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that there are strong relationships between approaches to optmization and learning based on statistical physics or mixtures of experts. In particular, the EM algorithm can be interpreted as converging either to a local maximum of the mixtures model or to a saddle point solution to the statistical physics system. An advantage of the statistical physics approach is that

Alan L. Yuille; Paul E. Stolorz; Joachim Utans

1994-01-01

244

Properties of Bayes Factors Based on Test Statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the consistency, interpretation and application of Bayes factors constructed from standard test statistics. Primary conclusions are that Bayes factors based on multinomial and normal test statistics are consistent for suitable choices of the hyperparameters used to specify alternative hypotheses, and that such constructions can be extended to obtain consistent Bayes factors based on likelihood ratio statistics. A

VALEN E. JOHNSON

2008-01-01

245

Internet For Social Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, created by the University of Bristol, is a tutorial that lets you practice your internet information skills in searching and researching statistics in the social sciences. This site has indexed other statistics resources into five main categories: official statistics, published statistics, timely statistics, datasets for secondary analysis and statistical help and teaching materials. This is a nice overview of this broad topic.

2009-01-29

246

Easily implementable field programmable gate array-based adaptive optics system with state-space multichannel control.  

PubMed

In this paper, an easily implementable adaptive optics system (AOS) based on a real-time field programmable gate array (FPGA) platform with state-space multichannel control programmed by LabVIEW has been developed, and also integrated into a laser focusing system successfully. To meet the requirements of simple programming configuration and easy integration with other devices, the FPGA-based AOS introduces a standard operation procedure including AOS identification, computation, and operation. The overall system with a 32-channel driving signal for a deformable mirror (DM) as input and a Zernike polynomial via a lab-made Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) as output is optimally identified to construct a multichannel state-space model off-line. In real-time operation, the FPGA platform first calculates the Zernike polynomial of the optical wavefront measured from the SHWS as the feedback signal. Then, a state-space multichannel controller according to the feedback signal and the identified model is designed and implemented in the FPGA to drive the DM for phase distortion compensation. The current FPGA-based AOS is capable of suppressing low-frequency thermal disturbances with a steady-state phase error of less than 0.1 ? within less than 10 time steps when the control loop is operated at a frequency of 30 Hz. PMID:24089871

Chang, Chia-Yuan; Ke, Bo-Ting; Su, Hung-Wei; Yen, Wei-Chung; Chen, Shean-Jen

2013-09-01

247

Easily misdiagnosed delayed metastatic intraspinal extradural melanoma of the lumbar spine: A case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Metastatic melanoma of the spine usually occurs as vertebral metastatic melanoma or intramedullary spinal cord metastatic melanoma. The present study reports a case of easily misdiagnosed delayed metastatic intraspinal extradural melanoma of the lumbar spine. A 67-year-old female patient presented with lower back pain accompanied by progressive intermittent claudication. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested compression of the lumbar spinal cord caused by an extradural mass. The mass showed T2-hypointensity, T1-hypointensity and slight enhancement following a gadolinium-contrast injection. The patient had been diagnosed with a vulvar melanoma 13 years previously and had also undergone a resection of this tumor. A current diagnosis of a lumbar stenosis resulting from hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum was suspected. However during corrective surgery, a dark gray solid mass was observed. An L3 laminectomy and removal of the tumor was performed. The tumor was confirmed to be a malignant melanoma by histopathological investigation. The patient was treated with radiotherapy and immunotherapy. At the final 13-month follow-up, the patient showed no signs of recurrence. It may be concluded that an early diagnosis of metastatic melanoma was prevented by delayed metastasis, the location of the mass and its unusual appearance in MRI scans. In such cases, early surgical removal and an appropriate comprehensive treatment are critical for patient survival. These observations suggest that caution should be used in the diagnosis of similar cases.

SUN, LIN; SONG, YUEMING; GONG, QUAN

2013-01-01

248

Easily implementable field programmable gate array-based adaptive optics system with state-space multichannel control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, an easily implementable adaptive optics system (AOS) based on a real-time field programmable gate array (FPGA) platform with state-space multichannel control programmed by LabVIEW has been developed, and also integrated into a laser focusing system successfully. To meet the requirements of simple programming configuration and easy integration with other devices, the FPGA-based AOS introduces a standard operation procedure including AOS identification, computation, and operation. The overall system with a 32-channel driving signal for a deformable mirror (DM) as input and a Zernike polynomial via a lab-made Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) as output is optimally identified to construct a multichannel state-space model off-line. In real-time operation, the FPGA platform first calculates the Zernike polynomial of the optical wavefront measured from the SHWS as the feedback signal. Then, a state-space multichannel controller according to the feedback signal and the identified model is designed and implemented in the FPGA to drive the DM for phase distortion compensation. The current FPGA-based AOS is capable of suppressing low-frequency thermal disturbances with a steady-state phase error of less than 0.1 ? within less than 10 time steps when the control loop is operated at a frequency of 30 Hz.

Chang, Chia-Yuan; Ke, Bo-Ting; Su, Hung-Wei; Yen, Wei-Chung; Chen, Shean-Jen

2013-09-01

249

Interpreting Texts in Classroom Contexts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a series of instructional episodes in an 11th-grade classroom discussing J.D. Salinger's short story "The Laughing Man." Presents and discusses the "Text and Context" model for the negotiation of interpretations in classroom contexts. Offers suggestions for developing interpretive classroom communities. (SR)|

Unrau, Norman J.; Ruddell, Robert B.

1995-01-01

250

Metaphorical interpretations: A critical examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to place the technique of metaphorical interpretations (called amplification in analytical psychology) under scrutiny due to theoretical uncertainty surrounding the therapeutic value of the practice. The historical roots in Freud and Jung are briefly presented, as well as the contributions of subsequent psychoanalytic theory. The theoretical and technical implications of the practice of metaphorical interpretations have relevance

Ryan Kemp

2006-01-01

251

Action Theory and Literary Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article relates the logic of literary interpretation to the logic of administrative action theory. It offers criteria for validating interpretations of administrative action. It shows how action theory can be rescued from misplaced claims of subjectivism by locating the meaning of an act with the intention of the actor. It also points out that both the meaning and the

Jay D. White

1987-01-01

252

ISIS: Interactive Spectral Interpretation System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ISIS, the Interactive Spectral Interpretation System, is designed to facilitate the interpretation and analysis of high resolution X-ray spectra. It is being developed as a programmable, interactive tool for studying the physics of X-ray spectrum formation, supporting measurement and identification of spectral features, and interaction with a database of atomic structure pa

Houck, John C.; Davis, John E.; Huenemoerder, David; Dewey, Dan; Nowak, Mike; Davis, David S.

2013-02-01

253

Interpreting low template DNA profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the interpretation of DNA profiles obtained from low template DNA samples. The most important challenge to interpretation in this setting arises when either or both of “drop-out” and “drop-in” create discordances between the crime scene DNA profile and the DNA profile expected under the prosecution allegation. Stutter and unbalanced peak heights are also problematic, in addition to the

David J. Balding; John Buckleton

2009-01-01

254

Interpretation in medicine: An introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interpretation in medicine is both old and new: old in traditional medical practice and new in conceptual theory. Physicians in every culture have built reputations on skillful readings of signs and symptoms in their fellow humans, but only recently has there arisen shared scholarly reflection on the nature of interpretation as practiced by clinicians. It remains to be seen whether

Stephen L. Daniel

1990-01-01

255

Basic Interpreting Strategies for Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some deaf interpreting strategies are offered to parents of children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Parents are urged to utilize space in their interpreting, use name signs, utilize sight lines to distinguish characters in stories, use exaggerated signs to translate nursery rhymes, place themselves carefully at a public performance, and learn…

Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara

1993-01-01

256

Dream Interpretation and False Beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dream interpretation is a common practice in psychotherapy. In the research presented in this article, each participant saw a clinician who interpreted a recent dream report to be a sign that the participant had had a mildly traumatic experience before age 3 years, such as being lost for an extended time or feeling abandoned by his or her parents. This

Giuliana A. L. Mazzoni; Pasquale Lombardo; Stefano Malvagia; Elizabeth F. Loftus

1999-01-01

257

Dream Interpretation in Ancient Civilizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dream interpretation was regarded by ancient peoples in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and Rome as an art requiring intelligence and, sometimes, divine inspiration. It became a motif in literature. It was treated as a science by philosophers and physicians. Dreams were thought to come either as clear messages, or as symbols requiring interpretation. In a method called incubation, the dreamer could

J. Donald Hughes

2000-01-01

258

Random evolution approach to universal conductance statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that the Dorokhov-Mello-Pereyra-Kumar equation can be solved by propagating an ordinary stochastic differential equation. Such a random evolution approach allows any transport statistics to be easily calculated from the ballistic to localization regime for an arbitrary number of channels. As an example, a disordered wire with reflectionless contacts is considered. The conductance distribution, transmission channel density, and shot-noise suppression are fully analyzed.

Mil'nikov, Gennady; Mori, Nobuya

2013-01-01

259

Silica-dendrimer core-shell microspheres with encapsulated ultrasmall palladium nanoparticles: efficient and easily recyclable heterogeneous nanocatalysts.  

PubMed

We report the synthesis, characterization, and catalytic properties of novel monodisperse SiO(2)@Pd-PAMAM core-shell microspheres containing SiO(2) microsphere cores and PAMAM dendrimer-encapsulated Pd nanoparticle (Pd-PAMAM) shells. First, SiO(2) microspheres, which were prepared by the Stöber method, were functionalized with vinyl groups by grafting their surfaces with vinyltriethoxysilane (VTS). The vinyl groups were then converted into epoxides by using m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid. Upon treatment with amine-terminated G4 poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers, the SiO(2)-supported epoxides underwent ring-opening and gave SiO(2)@PAMAM core-shell microspheres. Pd nanoparticles within the cores of the SiO(2)-supported PAMAM dendrimers were synthesized by letting Pd(II) ions complex with the amine groups in the cores of the dendrimers and then reducing them into Pd(0) with NaBH(4). This produced the SiO(2)@Pd-PAMAM core-shell microspheres. The presence of the different functional groups on the materials was monitored by following the changes in FTIR spectra, elemental analyses, and weight losses on thermogravimetric traces. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed the presence of Pd nanoparticles with average size of 1.56 ± 0.67 nm on the surface of the monodisperse SiO(2)@Pd-PAMAM core-shell microspheres. The SiO(2)@Pd-PAMAM core-shell microspheres were successfully used as an easily recyclable catalyst for hydrogenation of various olefins, alkynes, keto, and nitro groups, giving ~100% conversion and high turnover numbers (TONs) under 10 bar H(2) pressure, at room temperature and in times ranging from 10 min to 3 h. In addition, the SiO(2)@Pd-PAMAM core-shell microspheres were proven to be recyclable catalysts up to five times with barely any leaching of palladium into the reaction mixture. PMID:21951192

Biradar, Ankush V; Biradar, Archana A; Asefa, Tewodros

2011-11-08

260

Misconceptions About Statistics and Statistical Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Thanks in large part to advances in computing and information technology, statistics are everywhere. Whether the information\\u000a concerns business, health, politics, sports, or nearly anything else, it is likely to appear in statistical form. The front\\u000a page of the country’s highest circulation daily newspaper (USA Today) is littered with descriptive statistics and graphical depictions of those statistics. The star of

Jonathan J. Koehler

261

Statistical methods for material characterization and qualification  

SciTech Connect

This document describes a suite of statistical methods that can be used to infer lot parameters from the data obtained from inspection/testing of random samples taken from that lot. Some of these methods will be needed to perform the statistical acceptance tests required by the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) Program. Special focus has been placed on proper interpretation of acceptance criteria and unambiguous methods of reporting the statistical results. In addition, modified statistical methods are described that can provide valuable measures of quality for different lots of material. This document has been written for use as a reference and a guide for performing these statistical calculations. Examples of each method are provided. Uncertainty analysis (e.g., measurement uncertainty due to instrumental bias) is not included in this document, but should be considered when reporting statistical results.

Hunn, John D [ORNL; Kercher, Andrew K [ORNL

2005-01-01

262

Statistical Methods for Material Characterization and Qualification  

SciTech Connect

This document describes a suite of statistical methods that can be used to infer lot parameters from the data obtained from inspection/testing of random samples taken from that lot. Some of these methods will be needed to perform the statistical acceptance tests required by the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) Program. Special focus has been placed on proper interpretation of acceptance criteria and unambiguous methods of reporting the statistical results. In addition, modified statistical methods are described that can provide valuable measures of quality for different lots of material. This document has been written for use as a reference and a guide for performing these statistical calculations. Examples of each method are provided. Uncertainty analysis (e.g., measurement uncertainty due to instrumental bias) is not included in this document, but should be considered when reporting statistical results.

Kercher, A.K.

2005-04-01

263

Philosophical perspectives on quantum chaos: Models and interpretations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of quantum chaos is a special case of the larger problem of understanding how the classical world emerges from quantum mechanics. While we have learned that chaos is pervasive in classical systems, it appears to be almost entirely absent in quantum systems. The aim of this dissertation is to determine what implications the interpretation of quantum mechanics has for attempts to explain the emergence of classical chaos. There are three interpretations of quantum mechanics that have set out programs for solving the problem of quantum chaos: the standard interpretation, the statistical interpretation, and the deBroglie-Bohm causal interpretation. One of the main conclusions of this dissertation is that an interpretation alone is insufficient for solving the problem of quantum chaos and that the phenomenon of decoherence must be taken into account. Although a completely satisfactory solution of the problem of quantum chaos is still outstanding, I argue that the deBroglie-Bohm interpretation with the help of decoherence outlines the most promising research program to pursue. In addition to making a contribution to the debate in the philosophy of physics concerning the interpretation of quantum mechanics, this dissertation reveals two important methodological lessons for the philosophy of science. First, issues of reductionism and intertheoretic relations cannot be divorced from questions concerning the interpretation of the theories involved. Not only is the exploration of intertheoretic relations a central part of the articulation and interpretation of an individual theory, but the very terms used to discuss intertheoretic relations, such as `state' and `classical limit', are themselves defined by particular interpretations of the theory. The second lesson that emerges is that, when it comes to characterizing the relationship between classical chaos and quantum mechanics, the traditional approaches to intertheoretic relations, namely reductionism and theoretical pluralism, are inadequate. The fruitful ways in which models have been used in quantum chaos research point to the need for a new framework for addressing intertheoretic relations that focuses on models rather than laws.

Bokulich, Alisa Nicole

2001-09-01

264

Statistics Poker: Reinforcing Basic Statistical Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning basic statistical concepts does not need to be tedious or dry; it can be fun and interesting through cooperative learning in the small-group activity of Statistics Poker. This article describes a teaching approach for reinforcing basic statistical concepts that can help students who have high anxiety and makes learning and reinforcing…

Leech, Nancy L.

2008-01-01

265

Interpretation of in-situ concrete strength test results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full scale insitu reinforced concrete building frame built in a laboratory provided an opportunity to assess the use of the in-situ pull-out test on a systematic basis during construction. Interpretation of strength correlations should take into account the uncertainties that exist and therefore should be made by the use of standard statistical procedures. Two procedures recently adopted by BS

Marios SOUTSOS; John BUNGEY; Adrian LONG; Geoff TICKELL

266

Interpreting simple STR mixtures using allele peak areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although existing statistical models can interpret mixtures qualitatively based upon the alleles present, the use of automated sequencers opens the opportunity to take account of quantitative aspects embodied by the peak area. One step in understanding simple mixtures consisting of just two donors is to estimate the mixture ratio. This is relatively easy to do when four-allele mixtures are evident

P. Gill; R. Sparkes; R. Pinchin; T. Clayton; J. Whitaker; J. Buckleton

1998-01-01

267

Academic Growth Expectations under Various Testing Options in Title I: How Do We Interpret Aggregate Results?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method for translating the achievement gains in Normal Curve Equivalents (NCE) to a more conceptually understandable index of academic growth is described. This method calculates "Expected Growth (EG)" and expresses the relationship of observed achievement gains. The method is shown to be easily applied and well suited to local interpretation.…

Gabriel, Roy M.

268

Literate Statistical Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literate Statistical Practice (LSP) is an method for statistical practice which suggests that documentation and specication occur at the same time as statistical coding. It applies literate programming Knuth (1992) to the practice of statistics. We discuss 2 dierent approaches for LSP, one currently implemented using Emacs with Noweb and Emacs Speaks Statistics (ESS), and the other developed based on

A. J. Rossini

269

Lymphoma associated chromosomal abnormalities can easily be detected by FISH on tissue imprints. An underused diagnostic alternative  

PubMed Central

Background: Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) is useful for detecting specific chromosomal abnormalities in various tumours. In lymphomas, diagnosis is frequently made using paraffin wax embedded tissue. However, FISH performed under these conditions presents potential technical problems and difficulties in interpretation. Aims: To show that FISH using tissue imprints and cytopreps or alternatively, bone marrow (BM) smears, constitutes an easy and rapid strategy to overcome these constraints. Methods: The study comprised 46 patients with lymphoma. Sixty nine tissue imprints, cytopreps, or BM smears were analysed by FISH. Dual colour, dual fusion FISH probes were used to detect the t(8;14), t(11;14), and t(14;18) translocations, whereas a dual colour breakapart FISH probe was used to detect chromosomal translocations involving the BCL6 gene. Results: Tissue imprints and cytopreps were successfully hybridised in all 52 cases, whereas hybridisation was successful in 16 of 17 archival BM smears. All patients could be analysed to identify either the presence or absence of chromosomal translocations. Conclusions: The use of tissue imprints, cytopreps, or BM smears to identify chromosomal abnormalities by FISH is a rapid and useful ancillary approach for diagnostic purposes. Therefore, it could be used on a routine basis whenever fresh samples are available.

Buno, I; Nava, P; Alvarez-Doval, A; Alvarez-Rodriguez, F; Diez-Martin, J L; Menarguez, J

2005-01-01

270

An easily accessible sulfated saccharide mimetic inhibits in vitro human tumor cell adhesion and angiogenesis of vascular endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

Summary Oligosaccharides aberrantly expressed on tumor cells influence processes such as cell adhesion and modulation of the cell’s microenvironment resulting in an increased malignancy. Schmidt’s imidate strategy offers an effective method to synthesize libraries of various oligosaccharide mimetics. With the aim to perturb interactions of tumor cells with extracellular matrix proteins and host cells, molecules with 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan as core structure were synthesized and screened in biological assays for their abilities to interfere in cell adhesion and other steps of the metastatic cascade, such as tumor-induced angiogenesis. The most active compound, (4-{[(?-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]methyl}furan-3-yl)methyl hydrogen sulfate (GSF), inhibited the activation of matrix-metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) as well as migration of the human melanoma cells of the lines WM-115 and WM-266-4 in a two-dimensional migration assay. GSF inhibited completely the adhesion of WM-115 cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, fibrinogen and fibronectin. In an in vitro angiogenesis assay with human endothelial cells, GSF very effectively inhibited endothelial tubule formation and sprouting of blood vessels, as well as the adhesion of endothelial cells to ECM proteins. GSF was not cytotoxic at biologically active concentrations; neither were 3,4-bis{[(?-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]methyl}furan (BGF) nor methyl ?-D-galactopyranoside nor 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan, which were used as controls, eliciting comparable biological activity. In silico modeling experiments, in which binding of GSF to the extracellular domain of the integrin ?v?3 was determined, revealed specific docking of GSF to the same binding site as the natural peptidic ligands of this integrin. The sulfate in the molecule coordinated with one manganese ion in the binding site. These studies show that this chemically easily accessible molecule GSF, synthesized in three steps from 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan and benzoylated galactose imidate, is nontoxic and antagonizes cell physiological processes in vitro that are important for the dissemination and growth of tumor cells in vivo.

Marano, Grazia; Gronewold, Claas; Frank, Martin; Merling, Anette; Kliem, Christian; Sauer, Sandra; Wiessler, Manfred; Frei, Eva

2012-01-01

271

An easily accessible sulfated saccharide mimetic inhibits in vitro human tumor cell adhesion and angiogenesis of vascular endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Oligosaccharides aberrantly expressed on tumor cells influence processes such as cell adhesion and modulation of the cell's microenvironment resulting in an increased malignancy. Schmidt's imidate strategy offers an effective method to synthesize libraries of various oligosaccharide mimetics. With the aim to perturb interactions of tumor cells with extracellular matrix proteins and host cells, molecules with 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan as core structure were synthesized and screened in biological assays for their abilities to interfere in cell adhesion and other steps of the metastatic cascade, such as tumor-induced angiogenesis.The most active compound, (4-{[(?-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]methyl}furan-3-yl)methyl hydrogen sulfate (GSF), inhibited the activation of matrix-metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) as well as migration of the human melanoma cells of the lines WM-115 and WM-266-4 in a two-dimensional migration assay. GSF inhibited completely the adhesion of WM-115 cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, fibrinogen and fibronectin.In an in vitro angiogenesis assay with human endothelial cells, GSF very effectively inhibited endothelial tubule formation and sprouting of blood vessels, as well as the adhesion of endothelial cells to ECM proteins. GSF was not cytotoxic at biologically active concentrations; neither were 3,4-bis{[(?-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]methyl}furan (BGF) nor methyl ?-D-galactopyranoside nor 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan, which were used as controls, eliciting comparable biological activity. In silico modeling experiments, in which binding of GSF to the extracellular domain of the integrin ?(v)?(3) was determined, revealed specific docking of GSF to the same binding site as the natural peptidic ligands of this integrin. The sulfate in the molecule coordinated with one manganese ion in the binding site.These studies show that this chemically easily accessible molecule GSF, synthesized in three steps from 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan and benzoylated galactose imidate, is nontoxic and antagonizes cell physiological processes in vitro that are important for the dissemination and growth of tumor cells in vivo. PMID:23015827

Marano, Grazia; Gronewold, Claas; Frank, Martin; Merling, Anette; Kliem, Christian; Sauer, Sandra; Wiessler, Manfred; Frei, Eva; Schwartz-Albiez, Reinhard

2012-05-29

272

A Statistical Overview for the Non-statistician Densitometrist  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Many physicians in clinical practice have not had formal training in statistics. A basic knowledge of certain aspects of statistics\\u000a is essential for the physician densitometrist. Quality control procedures for the various machines require some statistical\\u000a analyses. The computer-generated reports of bone density data include statistical devices such as T- and z-scores and confidence intervals. To interpret serial studies, the

Sydney Lou Bonnick; M ODE

273

Individual differences in statistics anxiety among college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated differences in statistics anxiety levels based on students' gender and age. Using the statistics anxiety scores of 246 college students, a 2×3 between-subjects factorial multivariate analysis of covariance was performed on the six dependent variables (worth of statistics, interpretation anxiety, test and class anxiety, computational self-concept, fear of asking for help, and fear of statistics teachers)

Mustafa Balo?lu

2003-01-01

274

Statistical tools for clinical gait analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gait analysis studies involve continuous curves of data measured over a gait cycle. Curve analysis and interpretation require adequate statistical methods. Three principal problems may be encountered in clinical practice: (i) the reliability of gait curves for a given patient, (ii) classifying a new subject as belonging to a given population or not and (iii) comparison of two populations (independent

A. Duhamel; J. L. Bourriez; P. Devos; P. Krystkowiak; A. Destée; P. Derambure; L. Defebvre

2004-01-01

275

Interpreting Quantum Parallelism by Sequents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce an interpretation of quantum superposition in predicative sequent calculus, in the framework of basic logic. Then we introduce a new predicative connective for the entanglement. Our aim is to represent quantum parallelism in terms of logical proofs.

Battilotti, Giulia

2010-12-01

276

Real Time Viewing Interpreter Training.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The experiments undertaken in this study were aimed at determining (1) the effect a mission briefing, oriented toward either completeness or accuracy, has on mission performance, (2) if courses teaching static interpretation are adequate for training pers...

S. S. Pilette F. C. Foard H. T. Beagle

1968-01-01

277

INTERPRETATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes preliminary attempts to formulate viable models for interpreting environmental assessment data. The models are evaluated using data from the four most comprehensive environmental assessments. A format for entering environmental assessment results on FORTRAN c...

278

Macroinvertebrate Data Interpretation Guidance Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guidance manual is designed to assist Departmental staff interpret macroinvertebrate data reported to the Department through contractual arrangements with the University of Wisconsin Stevens Point (UWSP). Data are analyzed, and the computer software ...

R. A. Lillie S. W. Szczytko M. A. Miller

2003-01-01

279

Research and Development Interpretation Service.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Research and Development Interpretation Service (RDIS) and its activities as a regional support of the Research and Development Exchange (RDx) are described; both organizations are part of a federal effort to bring educational research and school prac...

1977-01-01

280

Statistical Models in Sedimentology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three stages of statistical development can be recognized in sedimentology. The first is descriptive statistics, in which the sample is the object of interest, and the second is analytical statistics, in which the population assumes major importance. The ...

W. C. Krumbein

1967-01-01

281

Near-Concrete Program Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a near-concrete interpretation, a program anal- ysis that aims to cut very close to program execution while retaining decidability. Both in name and in spirit, the approach is similar to ab- stract interpretation, but models heaps with possibly recursive strucure, is path sensitive, and applies in a fully higher-order setting. The main technical contribution is a prune-rerun technique

Paritosh Shro; Christian Skalka; Scott F. Smith

2006-01-01

282

Probabilistic Interpretation of Population Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We present a general encoding-decoding framework,for interpreting the activity of a population of units. A standard population code interpretation method, the Poisson model, starts from a description,as to how,a single value of an underlying,quantity can generate,the activities of each unit in the population. In casting it in the encoding-decoding framework, we find that this model,is too restrictive to describe

Richard S. Zemel; Peter Dayan; Alexandre Pouget

1998-01-01

283

The quantum statistics of pre-equilibrium phenomenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown how the widely used phenomenological models of multi-step direct precompound decay can be given a quantum-mechanical interpretation on the basis of what we call leading-particle statistics.

Akkermans, J. M.; Koning, A. J.

1990-01-01

284

Ordination and significance testing of microbial community composition derived from terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms: application of multivariate statistics.  

PubMed

Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) is increasingly being used to examine microbial community structure and accordingly, a range of approaches have been used to analyze data sets. A number of published reports have included data and results that were statistically flawed or lacked rigorous statistical testing. A range of simple, yet powerful techniques are available to examine community data, however their use is seldom, if ever, discussed in microbial literature. We describe an approach that overcomes some of the problems associated with analyzing community datasets and offer an approach that makes data interpretation simple and effective. The Bray-Curtis coefficient is suggested as an ideal coefficient to be used for the construction of similarity matrices. Its strengths include its ability to deal with data sets containing multiple blocks of zeros in a meaningful manner. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling is described as a powerful, yet easily interpreted method to examine community patterns based on T-RFLP data. Importantly, we describe the use of significance testing of data sets to allow quantitative assessment of similarity, removing subjectivity in comparing complex data sets. Finally, we introduce a quantitative measure of sample dispersion and suggest its usefulness in describing site heterogeneity. PMID:15702386

Rees, Gavin N; Baldwin, Darren S; Watson, Garth O; Perryman, Shane; Nielsen, Daryl L

2004-11-01

285

Intelligent Collection Environment for an Interpretation System  

SciTech Connect

An Intelligent Collection Environment for a data interpretation system is described. The environment accepts two inputs: A data model and a number between 0.0 and 1.0. The data model is as simple as a single word or as complex as a multi-level/multidimensional model. The number between 0.0 and 1.0 is a control knob to indicate the user's desire to allow loose matching of the data (things are ambiguous and unknown) versus strict matching of the data (things are precise and known). The environment produces a set of possible interpretations, a set of requirements to further strengthen or to differentiate a particular subset of the possible interpretation from the others, a set of inconsistencies, and a logic map that graphically shows the lines of reasoning used to derive the above output. The environment is comprised of a knowledge editor, model explorer, expertise server, and the World Wide Web. The Knowledge Editor is used by a subject matter expert to define Linguistic Types, Term Sets, detailed explanations, and dynamically created URI's, and to create rule bases using a straight forward hyper matrix representation. The Model Explorer allows rapid construction and browsing of multi-level models. A multi-level model is a model whose elements may also be models themselves. The Expertise Server is an inference engine used to interpret the data submitted. It incorporates a semantic network knowledge representation, an assumption based truth maintenance system, and a fuzzy logic calculus. It can be extended by employing any classifier (e.g. statistical/neural networks) of complex data types. The World Wide Web is an unstructured data space accessed by the URI's supplied as part of the output of the environment. By recognizing the input data model as a query, the environment serves as a deductive search engine. Applications include (but are not limited to) interpretation of geophysical phenomena, a navigation aid for very large web sites, monitoring of computer or sensor networks, customer support, trouble shooting, and searching complex digital libraries (e.g. genome libraries).

Maurer, W J

2001-07-19

286

A Genealogical Interpretation of Principal Components Analysis  

PubMed Central

Principal components analysis, PCA, is a statistical method commonly used in population genetics to identify structure in the distribution of genetic variation across geographical location and ethnic background. However, while the method is often used to inform about historical demographic processes, little is known about the relationship between fundamental demographic parameters and the projection of samples onto the primary axes. Here I show that for SNP data the projection of samples onto the principal components can be obtained directly from considering the average coalescent times between pairs of haploid genomes. The result provides a framework for interpreting PCA projections in terms of underlying processes, including migration, geographical isolation, and admixture. I also demonstrate a link between PCA and Wright's fst and show that SNP ascertainment has a largely simple and predictable effect on the projection of samples. Using examples from human genetics, I discuss the application of these results to empirical data and the implications for inference.

McVean, Gil

2009-01-01

287

A genealogical interpretation of principal components analysis.  

PubMed

Principal components analysis, PCA, is a statistical method commonly used in population genetics to identify structure in the distribution of genetic variation across geographical location and ethnic background. However, while the method is often used to inform about historical demographic processes, little is known about the relationship between fundamental demographic parameters and the projection of samples onto the primary axes. Here I show that for SNP data the projection of samples onto the principal components can be obtained directly from considering the average coalescent times between pairs of haploid genomes. The result provides a framework for interpreting PCA projections in terms of underlying processes, including migration, geographical isolation, and admixture. I also demonstrate a link between PCA and Wright's f(st) and show that SNP ascertainment has a largely simple and predictable effect on the projection of samples. Using examples from human genetics, I discuss the application of these results to empirical data and the implications for inference. PMID:19834557

McVean, Gil

2009-10-16

288

STATLIB. Conversational Statistical Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

STATLIB is a conversational statistical program library developed in conjunction with a Sandia National Laboratories applied statistics course intended for practicing engineers and scientists. STATLIB is a group of 15 interactive, argument-free, statistical routines including analysis of sensitivity tests; sample statistics for the normal, exponential, hypergeometric, Weibull, and extreme value distributions; three models of multiple regression analysis; x-y data plots;

1992-01-01

289

Quality of Statistical Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is acontribution to this work. Statistical Norms considered here encompasspopulations, statistical units, classifications, characteristics, reference periods and"statistical summaries". It is shown that specific quality components for norms canbe isolated, in a way consistent with the definition of quality in statistics. Thismakes possible to report on the quality of norms in a standard way.

Raoul Depoutot Eurostat; Batiment Jean Monnet

1998-01-01

290

International Statistical Institute - Glossary of Statistical Terms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site shows the International Statistical Institutes alphabetical list of technical terms showing the translation in a number of languages. The page covers a myriad of different terms and our translated into many languages such as: English, French, German, Dutch, Italian, Spanish, Catalan, Portuguese, Romanian, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, Greek and many more. This is a nice reference site for anyone interested in statistics.

2009-12-08

291

A4-4: Visualizing VDW Lab Results Data: Why You Should, and How You Can - Easily!  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims One of the most difficult tasks facing the VDW lab results file implementer is figuring out which records from local lab data should be included in their VDW file, and which should be left out. These decisions frequently hinge on neat points of clinical science that are often outside the expertise of the programmer. We will describe a set of graphics that implementers can use to shed light on these decisions, useful during implementation, and afterwards as indication of data quality and even as documentation. Methods SAS’ new Statistical Graphics procedures allow unprecedented control and ease of use in the creation of descriptive graphs and charts. The ODS Graphics Designer utility, paired with the SGDESIGN procedure make it easy to create a single image composed of multiple different graphs, each of which can use its own dataset. These tools allowed us to create something of a “data report card” for each VDW test_type, depicting: (1) number of result records over time; (2) number of result values that are numeric vs. character, stratified by the local lab codes used; 3) distributions of numeric result values, by unit; (4) number of numeric result values, by unit and local lab code; (5) values of character results by local lab code. The report card is produced by a standard VDW program available from the author, which can be run at any VDW lab results-implementing site with access to SAS version 9.2 or greater. Results The graphics produced by this program allow both implementers and end-users to evaluate at a glance, how cohesive the data from various different local codes are, how much data there is, how it waxes and wanes over time, whether the values are of the expected types, and whether units and character values are within valid values. Being able to depict all of this disparate information in a single, compact display allows users to glean insights that, for example, viewing series of larger graphs separately would not afford. Conclusions The author has found this program an extremely useful tool in implementing VDW labs by quickly pinpointing misclassified local codes. Other sites surely will also.

Pardee, Roy

2013-01-01

292

A4-4: Visualizing VDW Lab Results Data: Why You Should, and How You Can - Easily!  

PubMed

Background/Aims One of the most difficult tasks facing the VDW lab results file implementer is figuring out which records from local lab data should be included in their VDW file, and which should be left out. These decisions frequently hinge on neat points of clinical science that are often outside the expertise of the programmer. We will describe a set of graphics that implementers can use to shed light on these decisions, useful during implementation, and afterwards as indication of data quality and even as documentation. Methods SAS' new Statistical Graphics procedures allow unprecedented control and ease of use in the creation of descriptive graphs and charts. The ODS Graphics Designer utility, paired with the SGDESIGN procedure make it easy to create a single image composed of multiple different graphs, each of which can use its own dataset. These tools allowed us to create something of a "data report card" for each VDW test_type, depicting: (1) number of result records over time; (2) number of result values that are numeric vs. character, stratified by the local lab codes used; 3) distributions of numeric result values, by unit; (4) number of numeric result values, by unit and local lab code; (5) values of character results by local lab code. The report card is produced by a standard VDW program available from the author, which can be run at any VDW lab results-implementing site with access to SAS version 9.2 or greater. Results The graphics produced by this program allow both implementers and end-users to evaluate at a glance, how cohesive the data from various different local codes are, how much data there is, how it waxes and wanes over time, whether the values are of the expected types, and whether units and character values are within valid values. Being able to depict all of this disparate information in a single, compact display allows users to glean insights that, for example, viewing series of larger graphs separately would not afford. Conclusions The author has found this program an extremely useful tool in implementing VDW labs by quickly pinpointing misclassified local codes. Other sites surely will also. PMID:24086029

Pardee, Roy

2013-09-01

293

Differences Help Recognition: A Probabilistic Interpretation  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a computational model to address one prominent psychological behavior of human beings to recognize images. The basic pursuit of our method can be concluded as that differences among multiple images help visual recognition. Generally speaking, we propose a statistical framework to distinguish what kind of image features capture sufficient category information and what kind of image features are common ones shared in multiple classes. Mathematically, the whole formulation is subject to a generative probabilistic model. Meanwhile, a discriminative functionality is incorporated into the model to interpret the differences among all kinds of images. The whole Bayesian formulation is solved in an Expectation-Maximization paradigm. After finding those discriminative patterns among different images, we design an image categorization algorithm to interpret how these differences help visual recognition within the bag-of-feature framework. The proposed method is verified on a variety of image categorization tasks including outdoor scene images, indoor scene images as well as the airborne SAR images from different perspectives.

Deng, Yue; Zhao, Yanyu; Liu, Yebin; Dai, Qionghai

2013-01-01

294

The Interpretive Approach to Religious Education: Challenging Thompson's Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a recent book chapter, Matthew Thompson makes some criticisms of my work, including the interpretive approach to religious education and the research and activity of Warwick Religions and Education Research Unit. Against the background of a discussion of religious education in the public sphere, my response challenges Thompson's account,…

Jackson, Robert

2012-01-01

295

SCIENCE INTERPRETIVE PROGRAM--SPERMACETI COVE INTERPRETIVE CENTER.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|DESCRIBED IS THE OUTDOOR EDUCATION PROGRAM FOR THE MIDDLETOWN, NEW JERSEY ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS AT THE SPERMACETI COVE INTERPRETIVE CENTER IN SANDY HOOK STATE PARK. THE PROGRAM IS FUNDED UNDER PL89-10 OF THE ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION ACT (ESEA). PHASE 1 (MARCH, 1966-JUNE, 1966) INVOLVED THE SELECTION OF NINE PUBLIC AND THREE PAROCHIAL…

COLE, RICHARD C.

296

Complete Blood Count (CBC) Interpretation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial is designed to aid first and second year medical students learn how to interpret a complete blood count. It includes material on how the test is done, its general application and pitfalls in interpretation. QuickTime movies and Java script runtime plug-in scripts are required for some pages. The tutorial concludes with a short self-help quiz covering the major points developed. The plug-ins noted above are available free at the following sites: http://www.apple.com/quicktime/download/win.html and http://www.sun.com/. Questions should be directed to Dr. Mark Braun (braunm@indiana.edu).Annotated: false

2010-05-31

297

Interobserver variability in EEG interpretation.  

PubMed

A random sample of 100 active electroencephalographers in the United States evaluated 10-second samples of 12 selected EEGs. The evaluations consisted of multiple-choice questions related to the age of the patient, EEG finding, artifact, and consciousness of the patient. The rate of reporting the "correct" response was examined in terms of various respondent characteristics such as EEG board certification, age, percent of time in clinical EEG work, and number of recordings interpreted annually. This study indicates that, even today, there is considerable variability in EEG interpretation, and that this variability is influenced by specific reader characteristics. PMID:4069362

Williams, G W; Lüders, H O; Brickner, A; Goormastic, M; Klass, D W

1985-12-01

298

Statistical Project Work: The Pretoria Experience  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, created by H.S. Schoeman and A.G.W. Steyn of the University of Pretoria, defines the importance, organization, and evaluation of undergraduate project work. This lesson plan in congruent with the authors teaching, they state: "Since it is the ability of the statistician to apply his subject in practice which makes him a statistician rather than a mathematician, and the ability to cope with real world situations develops from professional experience and a maturity of outlook, the inclusion of project work as part of the statistics curriculum is seen as important by the Department of Statistics at the University of Pretoria." This is an excellent introduction into the curriculum of different statistics programs around the country. This could easily be implemented in portions of other programs.

Schoeman, H. S.; Steyn, A. G.

2009-04-09

299

32 CFR 1605.81 - Interpreters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ORGANIZATION] [Sec. 1605.81 - Interpreters.] 32 NATIONAL DEFENSE 6 2009-07-01...SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Sec. 1605.81 Interpreters. (a) The local board, district...Appeal Board are authorized to use interpreters when necessary. (b) The...

2009-07-01

300

An Experimental Approach to Teaching and Learning Elementary Statistical Mechanics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introductory statistical mechanics is studied for a simple two-state system using an inexpensive and easily built apparatus. A large variety of demonstrations, suitable for students in high school and introductory university chemistry courses, are possible. This article details demonstrations for exothermic and endothermic reactions, the dynamic…

Ellis, Frank B.; Ellis, David C.

2008-01-01

301

Statistical Test Specifications for Performance Assessments: Is This an Oxymoron?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that special procedures for constructing assessment tools containing performance assessment tasks are unnecessary and that current test methodology can easily be generalized to complex performance assessment tasks without destroying the desirable characteristics of those tasks. Reasonable statistical requirements for sound…

Reckase, Mark D.

302

The Arrow-Semantics Interpreter  

Microsoft Academic Search

People often sketch diagrams to facilitate their communication. If computers understood such diagrams, people could interact with information systems more intuitively using similar multimodal dialogs that include sketched diagrams. It remains a challenging problem, however, to make computers interpret arrow symbols, which are a frequent and versatile ingredient of such diagrams. This paper develops an algorithm for deducing possible semantic

Yohei Kurata; Max J. Egenhofer

2008-01-01

303

Interpretation of grease test results  

SciTech Connect

Standard ASTM tests, their typical results and how those results may be interpreted by the practicing lubrication engineer or specialist in the field will be discussed. Some field experiences and examples will be given. In addition, examples of inventive non-standard field tests will be shown and described. Illustrations from the old and revised lubrication engineers handbook will be used.

Rush, R.E. [Uno-Ven Co., Arlington Heights, IL (United States)

1995-09-01

304

Probability Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper draws attention to the frequency meaning of the probability concept and its implications for quantum mechanics. It emphasizes that the very meaning of probability implies the ensemble interpretation of both pure and mixed states. As a result some of the "paradoxical" aspects of quantum mechanics lose their counterintuitive character.…

Newton, Roger G.

1980-01-01

305

Art Lessons: Learning To Interpret.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When required to interpret works of art, students arrive at a broad-based, well-grounded understanding of the nature, value, and meaning of art in their lives. Teachers should offer art works, like those of Amalia Mesa-Bains, Joseph Stella, and Beverly Buchanan, whose narratives are complex and challenging, but not conceptually dense or…

Carpenter, B. Stephen, II

1999-01-01

306

Interpretation of Macroscopic Quantum Phenomena.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is argued that a quantum theory without observer is required for the interpretation of macroscopic quantum tunnelling. Such a theory is obtained by augmenting QED by the actual electric field in the rest system of the universe. An equation of the motio...

K. Baumann

1986-01-01

307

Worlds in the Everett interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a discussion of how we can understand the world-view given to us by the Everett interpretation of quantum mechanics, and in particular the rôle played by the concept of ‘world’. The view presented is that we are entitled to use ‘many-worlds’ terminology even if the theory does not specify the worlds in the formalism; this is defended by

David Wallace

2002-01-01

308

Enteric parasitology. Interpreting laboratory reports.  

PubMed Central

Intestinal parasites are common in the stools of human beings. With care and due attention to the techniques of testing, they are relatively easy to find. Unfortunately, deciding on the clinical importance of stool findings is often difficult. This article is an introduction and guide to interpreting enteric parasitology laboratory reports.

MacPherson, D. W.

1995-01-01

309

Eleven Interpretations of Personal Suffering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document defines suffering as the affective aspect of the pain experience while the cognitive aspect of the pain experience is the sensation of pain. It considers personal suffering, which mean's one's own suffering, and not the suffering of other people. It notes that a particular interpretation of suffering may be formulated in any number…

Foley, Daniel P.

310

Strategies of marxist cultural interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay distinguishes ten approaches to the methodology for the interpretation of cultural texts and messages within the terrain of Marxist theory. By analyzing concrete exemplars of each position, the essay presents each approach as a strategic response to two issues: the nature of significance, and the relationship between culture (signifying practices) and society (structures of power and domination).

Lawrence Grossberg

1984-01-01

311

How to Interpret Circuit Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents an explanation of how to interpret circuit diagrams. Two diagrams show the difference between a "short hand" circuit diagram and a more detailed one. The detailed circuit diagram is useful for those first learning circuits in an effort to eventually understand the "short hand" diagram without difficulty.

Lesurf, Jim

2013-06-07

312

Can Pediatric Residents Interpret Electrocardiograms?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation skills of pediatric residents in a controlled environment and determine if the level of residency training (intern vs senior) improves accuracy. A list of ECG diagnoses was provided to four pediatric residency educators with instructions to categorize each diagnosis as follows: I, all residents; II, the majority of

C. S. Snyder; J. T. Bricker; A. L. Fenrich; R. A. Friedman; G. L. Rosenthal; C. L. Johnsrude; C. Kertesz; N. J. Kertesz

2005-01-01

313

Modern Muslim interpretations of shirk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to examine some of the attempts made by Muslims in modern times to reinterpret the concept of shirk (‘association’), applying it to changing circumstances. After a short discussion of the concept in the Qur'?n and its development before the 18th century, there is an analysis of interpretations by several major influential thinkers from Arabia, Egypt, Pakistan and

Elizabeth Sirriyeh

1990-01-01

314

Interpretation of arterial blood gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arterial blood gas analysis is a frequently used and extremely useful clinical tool. Doctors of all levels understand the results to varying degrees. This article aims to explain some of the more important points and thus help with interpretation of results. Not all of the results produced by a blood gas analyser are measured; the machine calculates some itself. The

Claire Baylis; Chris Till

2009-01-01

315

Visual Interpretation of Children's Books.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how visual literacy (the ability to interpret the visual images of advertisements, illustrations, television, and other visual media) can promote creative and analytic thinking. Provides several instructional strategies to teach visual literacy through book illustrations. Notes that visual literacy is essential in a world increasingly…

Goldstone, Bette P.

1989-01-01

316

Interpretive Reproduction in Children's Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author looks at children's play from the perspective of interpretive reproduction, emphasizing the way children create their own unique peer cultures, which he defines as a set of routines, artifacts, values, and concerns that children engage in with their playmates. The article focuses on two types of routines in the peer culture of…

Corsaro, William A.

2012-01-01

317

Smartberries: Interpreting Erdrich's Love Medicine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The structure of "Love Medicines" interpreted by Hertha D. Sweet Wong who claims that the book's "multiple narrators confound conventional Western expectations of an autonomous protagonist, a dominant narrative voice, and a consistently chronological narrative". "Love Medicine" is a brilliant use of the Western literary tactics that create the…

Treuer, David

2005-01-01

318

Design Document. EKG Interpretation Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This teaching plan is designed to assist nursing instructors assigned to advanced medical surgical nursing courses in acquainting students with the basic skills needed to perform electrocardiographic (ECG or EKG) interpretations. The first part of the teaching plan contains a statement of purpose; audience recommendations; a flow chart detailing…

Webb, Sandra M.

319

EKG Interpretation Program. Trainers Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This trainer's manual is designed to assist nursing instructors assigned to advanced medical surgical nursing courses in teaching students how to make basic interpretations of their patients' electrocardiographic (EKG) strips. Included in the manual are pre- and posttests and instructional units dealing with the following topics: EKG indicators,…

Webb, Sandra M.

320

Children's Interpretation of Nutrition Messages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to further our understanding of how children understand and use nutrition messages. As part of formative assessment for the development of nutrition messages for elementary age school children, focus groups and one-on-one interviews were conducted with 141 students, grades K to 6. Children were asked to interpret the messages found in the Dietary Guidelines

Leslie A. Lytle; Alison l. Eldridge; Krista Kotz; Janice Piper; Sarah Williams; Barbara Kalina

1997-01-01

321

Recent Trends in Oral Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The field of oral interpretation has been influenced by both the analytical approach to literature study, with significant emphasis on understanding the literary text, and the interpersonal approach. While oral reading may utilize various performance arts or media such as dance, music, or film, the most popular movement currently is Readers…

Armstrong, Chloe

1974-01-01

322

Interpretation of the Weyl tensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to folklore in general relativity, the Weyl tensor can be decomposed into parts corresponding to Newton-like, incoming and outgoing wavelike field components. It is shown here that this one-to-one correspondence does not hold for space-time geometries with cylindrical isometries. This is done by investigating some well-known exact solutions of Einstein’s field equations with whole-cylindrical symmetry, for which the physical interpretation is very clear, but for which the standard Weyl interpretation would give contradictory results. For planar or spherical geometries, however, the standard interpretation works for both static and dynamical space-times. It is argued that one reason for the failure in the cylindrical case is that for waves spreading in two spatial dimensions there is no local criterion to distinguish incoming and outgoing waves already at the linear level. It turns out that Thorne’s local energy notion, subject to certain qualifications, provides an efficient diagnostic tool to extract the proper physical interpretation of the space-time geometry in the case of cylindrical configurations.

Hofmann, Stefan; Niedermann, Florian; Schneider, Robert

2013-09-01

323

Quantitative interpretation of geological and geophysical well data  

SciTech Connect

Geophysical and geological properties of rocks are analyzed using a search for internal consistency between geophysical log measurements, composition estimates from core or cuttings, stratigraphically controlled predictions of properties from adjacent wells, comprehensive interpretation equations, and rigorous solution uncertainty estimates. The analysis technique is tested on a cored interval of the Dakota Sandstone, in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Thirty-two core samples were taken, each with 13 log measurements and measurements of 14 geologic properties. A log interpretation with all log and geologic information verifies correctness of interpretation equations and mineral properties. Reanalysis of logs, with core porosity assumed unknown, verifies that log estimates of mineralogy and porosity match well with the core measurements. Uncertainties on compositions estimated from only logs are consistent with errors between core measurements and log estimates. A statistical summary of log analysis results in the cored well is then used to constrain log analyses on various log suites in an adjacent well. Interpretations first compare full log suites with, and without, the stratigraphically controlled predictions, and are found to match closely. A second comparison of the full log suite interpretation with results from interpretation of the spontaneous potential and deep induction resistivity logs show that the stratigraphic information allows some properties to be accurately estimated while others are not resolved. A comparison of the gradient descent solution with the maximum likelihood solution indicates that true solution distributions are probably multimodal and asymmetric.

Baker, M.R.

1988-01-01

324

Changing philosophies and tools for statistical inferences in behavioral ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in ecological statistics have reached behavioral ecology, and an increasing number of studies now apply analytical tools that incorporate alternatives to the conventional null hypothesis testing based on significance levels. However, these approaches continue to receive mixed support in our field. Because our statistical choices can influence research design and the interpretation of data, there is a compelling

László Zsolt Garamszegi; Sara Calhim; Ned Dochtermann; Gergely Hegyi; Peter L. Hurd; Christian Jørgensen; Nobuyuki Kutsukake; Marc J. Lajeunesse; Kimberly A. Pollard; Holger Schielzeth; Matthew R. E. Symonds; Shinichi Nakagawal

2009-01-01

325

Controversies Around the Role of Statistical Tests in Experimental Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of the widespread use of significance testing in empirical research, its interpretation and researchers' excessive confidence in its results have been criticized for years. In this paper, we first describe the logic of statistical testing in the Fisher and Neyman-Pearson approaches, review some common misinterpretations of basic concepts behind statistical tests, and analyse the philosophical and psychological issues

Carmen Batanero

2000-01-01

326

What Is the next Trend in Usage Statistics in Libraries?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In answering the question "What is the next trend in usage statistics in libraries?" an eclectic group of respondents has presented an assortment of possibilities, suggestions, complaints and, of course, questions of their own. Undoubtedly, usage statistics collection, interpretation, and application are areas of growth and increasing complexity…

King, Douglas

2009-01-01

327

An application of physics-based statistics in electrical engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most widely accepted and used definition of probability is the relative-frequency definition. Strict adherence to this interpretation of probability requires the empirical development of statistical models from measured data. Using this definition of probability usually results in statistical models that are adequate for predicting the occurrence of the most common events, i.e., events near the mean. However, experience has

W. Perry Wheless; T. H. Lehman

1995-01-01

328

Applied Probability Statistical Methodology and Computational Statistics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This final report form the Department of Statistics, University of Georgia, concerns the above referenced grant, an equipment grant that provided partial funding for the acquisition of specified computing equipment to support research in the department. T...

R. Bradley

1986-01-01

329

Securing wide appreciation of health statistics  

PubMed Central

All the authors are agreed on the need for a certain publicizing of health statistics, but do Amaral Pyrrait points out that the medical profession prefers to convince itself rather than to be convinced. While there is great utility in articles and reviews in the professional press (especially for paramedical personnel) Aubenque, de Groot, and Kohn show how appreciation can effectively be secured by making statistics more easily understandable to the non-expert by, for instance, including readable commentaries in official publications, simplifying charts and tables, and preparing simple manuals on statistical methods. Aubenque and Kohn also stress the importance of linking health statistics to other economic and social information. Benjamin suggests that the principles of market research could to advantage be applied to health statistics to determine the precise needs of the “consumers”. At the same time, Aubenque points out that the value of the ultimate results must be clear to those who provide the data; for this, Kohn suggests that the enumerators must know exactly what is wanted and why. There is general agreement that some explanation of statistical methods and their uses should be given in the curricula of medical schools and that lectures and postgraduate courses should be arranged for practising physicians.

Pyrrait, A. M. DO Amaral; Aubenque, M. J.; Benjamin, B.; DE Groot, Meindert J. W.; Kohn, R.

1954-01-01

330

Statistical Science, Statistical Data Modeling, and Statistical Education.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper is intended to communicate to a general audience current directions in the discipline of statistics, and in my own research. It consists of three parts. Part I (Sections 1-3) explores perspectives on the future development of the science of sta...

E. Parzen

1979-01-01

331

Statistical Review & Evaluation - XYNTHA  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Descriptive statistics were used to summarize demographic and baseline data ... It was determined using an agreed upon Bayesian statistical model ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts

332

Tobacco Statistics Snapshot  

MedlinePLUS

... Trials Cancer Statistics Research & Funding News About NCI Tobacco Statistics Snapshot Updated: 11/09/2012 Page Options ... Professionals Cancer Trends Progress Report: 2011/2012 Update Tobacco Facts Tobacco is the leading cause of preventable ...

333

Metropolitan Statistical Areas, 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is Office of Management and Budget Bulletin - 88-14 - Metropolitan Statistical Areas. It establishes a new Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) and changes the boundaries of an existing MSA.

1988-01-01

334

Metropolitan Statistical Areas, 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bulletin establishes a new Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) and two new central cities of existing MSAs. The Bulletin also provides guidance on the use of the definitions of MSAs. Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) are defined in terms of entire...

1989-01-01

335

Statistics of radiation at Josephson parametric resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by recent experiments, we study theoretically the full counting statistics of radiation emitted below the threshold of parametric resonance in a Josephson-junction circuit. In contrast to most optical systems, a significant part of emitted radiation can be collected and converted to an output signal. This permits studying the correlations of the radiation. To quantify the correlations, we derive a closed expression for full counting statistics in the limit of long measurement times. We demonstrate that the statistics can be interpreted in terms of uncorrelated bursts, each encompassing 2N photons; this accounts for the bunching of the photon pairs produced in the course of the parametric resonance. We present the details of the burst rates. In addition, we study the time correlations within the bursts and discuss experimental signatures of the statistics deriving the frequency-resolved cross-correlations.

Padurariu, Ciprian; Hassler, Fabian; Nazarov, Yuli V.

2012-08-01

336

Interpreting population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analyses - a clinical viewpoint  

PubMed Central

The population analysis approach is an important tool for clinical pharmacology in aiding the dose individualization of medicines. However, due to their statistical complexity the clinical utility of population analyses is often overlooked. One of the key reasons to conduct a population analysis is to investigate the potential benefits of individualization of drug dosing based on patient characteristics (termed covariate identification). The purpose of this review is to provide a tool to interpret and extract information from publications that describe population analysis. The target audience is those readers who are aware of population analyses but have not conducted the technical aspects of an analysis themselves. Initially we introduce the general framework of population analysis and work through a simple example with visual plots. We then follow-up with specific details on how to interpret population analyses for the purpose of identifying covariates and how to interpret their likely importance for dose individualization.

Duffull, Stephen B; Wright, Daniel F B; Winter, Helen R

2011-01-01

337

The role of the sampling distribution in understanding statistical inference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many statistics educators believe that few students develop the level of conceptual understanding essential for them to apply correctly the statistical techniques at their disposal and to interpret their outcomes appropriately. It is also commonly believed that the sampling distribution plays an important role in developing this understanding. This study clarifies the role of the sampling distribution in student understanding of statistical inference, and makes recommendations concerning the content and conduct of teaching and learning strategies in this area.

Lipson, Kay

2003-12-01

338

Finding One Variable Statistics With a Graphing Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This quick YouTube video from high school statistics teacher Roger W. Davis explains how to find one variable statistics using the TI-84 graphing calculator. The demonstration goes through three steps: entering the data, finding one variable statistics using the STAT menu, and interpreting the results. The data created includes mean, sum, median and more. Flash player is required to view this video, and the running time for the clip is 3:12.

Davis, Roger W.

2009-02-12

339

Artificial intelligence and statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book explores the possible applications of artificial intelligence in statistics and conversely, statistics in artificial intelligence. It is a collection of seventeen papers written by leaders in the field. Most of the papers were prepared for the Workshop on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics held in April 1985 and sponsored by ATandT Bell Laboratories. The book is divided into six

Gale

1987-01-01

340

Editorial: Statistics and  

Microsoft Academic Search

What makes a problem suitable for statistical analysis? Are historical and religious questions addressable using statistical calculations? Such issues have long been debated in the statistical community and statisticians and others have used historical information and texts to analyze such questions as the economics of slavery, the authorship of the Federalist Papers and the question of the existence of God.

Stephen E. Fienberg

2008-01-01

341

Statistical quality management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some aspects of statistical quality management are discussed. Quality has to be defined as a concrete, measurable quantity. The concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM), Statistical Process Control (SPC), and inspection are explained. In most cases SPC is better than inspection. It can be concluded that statistics has great possibilities in the field of TQM.

Vanderlaan, Paul

1992-10-01

342

Library Statistics Cooperative Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Library Statistics Cooperative Program collects statistics about all types of libraries--academic libraries, public libraries, school library media centers, state library agencies, federal libraries and information centers, and library cooperatives. The Library Statistics Cooperative Program depends on collaboration with all types of libraries…

National Commission on Libraries and Information Science, Washington, DC.

343

The Statistics of Style  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by J. Swift of the Royal Statistical Society, this article describes an exercise, probability and statistics, which develops a statistic that measures the variety of noun usage in order to distinguish two authors. The exercise emphasizes the use of frequency.

Swift, J.

2009-03-10

344

Statistics for Chemists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is a comprehensive resource on statistics, including information on descriptive statistics, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, regression, ANOVA, experimental design, and multivariate statistics. Web-based exercises are interspersed throughout the text, allowing students to practice what they are learning and to obtain immediate feedback.

Wehrens, R.

2011-02-14

345

Statistics Teacher Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides links to all current and past issues of "The Statistics Teacher Network". This newsletter for K-12 teachers is published three times a year, and presents up to date articles that describe statistical activities that have been successful in the classroom. It also informs educators of statistical workshops, programs, and reviews of books, software, and calculators.

2012-01-01

346

Implementing Clinical Practice Guidelines While Taking Account of Changing Evidence: ATHENA DSS, an Easily Modifiable Decision-Support System for Managing Hypertension in Primary Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the ATHENA Decision Support System (DSS), which operationalizes guidelines for hypertension using the EON architecture. ATHENA DSS encourages blood pressure control and recommends guideline-concordant choice of drug therapy in relation to comorbid diseases. ATHENA DSS has an easily modifiable knowledge base that specifies eligibility criteria, risk stratification, blood pressure targets, relevant comorbid diseases, guideline-recommended drug classes for

M. K. Goldstein; B. B. Hoffman; R. W. Coleman; M. A. Musen; S. W. Tu; A. Advani; R. Shankar; Martin J. O'Connor

2000-01-01

347

Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease and Multiple Subcortical Infarction with Mild Cognitive Impairment: Neuropsychological Comparison Using an Easily Applicable Test Battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a neuropsychological study comparing early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 22) and multiple subcortical infarction with mild cognitive impairment (MSI; n = 22) using an easily applicable test battery which included 8 tests. Two groups were matched for age, education and score on the Mini-Mental State Examination. Patients with AD had significantly lower scores than MSI patients in

Hideaki Tei; Akiko Miyazaki; Makoto Iwata; Mikio Osawa; Yoko Nagata; Shoichi Maruyama

1997-01-01

348

Inuit interpretations of sleep paralysis.  

PubMed

Traditional and contemporary Inuit concepts of sleep paralysis were investigated through interviews with elders and young people in Iqaluit, Baffin Island. Sleep paralysis was readily recognized by most respondents and termed uqumangirniq (in the Baffin region) or aqtuqsinniq (Kivalliq region). Traditional interpretations of uqumangirniq referred to a shamanistic cosmology in which the individual's soul was vulnerable during sleep and dreaming. Sleep paralysis could result from attack by shamans or malevolent spirits. Understanding the experience as a manifestation of supernatural power, beyond one's control, served to reinforce the experiential reality and presence of the spirit world. For contemporary youth, sleep paralysis was interpreted in terms of multiple frameworks that incorporated personal, medical, mystical, traditional/shamanistic, and Christian views, reflecting the dynamic social changes taking place in this region. PMID:15881270

Law, Samuel; Kirmayer, Laurence J

2005-03-01

349

Modelling Metamorphism by Abstract Interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metamorphic malware apply semantics-preserving transformations to their own code in order to foil detection systems based on signature matching. In this paper we consider the problem of automatically extract metamorphic signatures from these malware. We introduce a semantics for self-modifying code, later called phase semantics, and prove its correctness by showing that it is an abstract interpretation of the standard trace semantics. Phase semantics precisely models the metamorphic code behavior by providing a set of traces of programs which correspond to the possible evolutions of the metamorphic code during execution. We show that metamorphic signatures can be automatically extracted by abstract interpretation of the phase semantics, and that regular metamorphism can be modelled as finite state automata abstraction of the phase semantics.

Dalla Preda, Mila; Giacobazzi, Roberto; Debray, Saumya; Coogan, Kevin; Townsend, Gregg M.

350

Interpreting geological structure using kriging  

SciTech Connect

We applied kriging (geostatistics) to interpret the structure of basement rock in Yucca Flat, NTS from borehole data. The estimation error for 118 data is 81 m comparable with those based on both gravity and borehole data. Using digitized topographic data, we tested the kriging results and found that the model validation process (Thomas option) on data gave a fair representation of the overall uncertainty of the kriged values. 5 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Mao, N.

1985-07-01

351

Interpreting geological structure using kriging  

SciTech Connect

The authors applied kriging (geostatistics) to interpret the structure of basement rock in Yucca Flat, NTS from borehole data. The estimation error for 118 data is 81 m comparable with those based on both gravity and borehole data. Using digitized topographic data, they tested the kriging results and found that the model validation process (Thomas option) on data gave a fair representation of the overall uncertainty of the kriged values.

Mao, N.H.

1985-01-01

352

Operational interpretations of quantum discord  

SciTech Connect

Quantum discord quantifies nonclassical correlations beyond the standard classification of quantum states into entangled and unentangled. Although it has received considerable attention, it still lacks any precise interpretation in terms of some protocol in which quantum features are relevant. Here we give quantum discord its first information-theoretic operational meaning in terms of entanglement consumption in an extended quantum-state-merging protocol. We further relate the asymmetry of quantum discord with the performance imbalance in quantum state merging and dense coding.

Cavalcanti, D.; Modi, K. [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Aolita, L. [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Boixo, S. [Institute for Quantum Information, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Piani, M. [Institute for Quantum Computing and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Winter, A. [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Department of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TW (United Kingdom)

2011-03-15

353

NEW INTERPRETATION OF SKYRME THEORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the proposal that the Skyrme theory is a theory of monopole we\\u000aprovide a new interpretation of Skyrme theory, that the theory can also be\\u000aviewed as an effective theory of strong interaction which is dual to QCD, where\\u000athe monopoles (not the quarks) are confined through the Meissner effect. This\\u000adual picture leads us to predict the

Y. M. CHO; P. M. Zhang

2008-01-01

354

Interpretive themes in relational communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the themes used by married couples, dating couples, relatives, live?in friends, and non?live?in friends to interpret their current relational episodes. One hundred eighteen people participated in fifty?five report tasks. Among the findings were that dating couples used themes of commitment, fragility, and manipulation, while marital couples, relatives, and live?in friends used themes of involvement, work, and respect.

William Foster Owen

1984-01-01

355

Measuring statistical heterogeneity: The Pietra index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are various ways of quantifying the statistical heterogeneity of a given probability law: Statistics uses variance — which measures the law’s dispersion around its mean; Physics and Information Theory use entropy — which measures the law’s randomness; Economics uses the Gini index — which measures the law’s egalitarianism. In this research we explore an alternative to the Gini index-the Pietra index-which is a counterpart of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic. The Pietra index is shown to be a natural and elemental measure of statistical heterogeneity, which is especially useful in the case of asymmetric and skewed probability laws, and in the case of asymptotically Paretian laws with finite mean and infinite variance. Moreover, the Pietra index is shown to have immediate and fundamental interpretations within the following applications: renewal processes and continuous time random walks; infinite-server queueing systems and shot noise processes; financial derivatives. The interpretation of the Pietra index within the context of financial derivatives implies that derivative markets, in effect, use the Pietra index as their benchmark measure of statistical heterogeneity.

Eliazar, Iddo I.; Sokolov, Igor M.

2010-01-01

356

Statistics and probability. Grades 6-8  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This MathPARTNERS unit contains seven lessons with hands-on learning activities for exploring statistics and probability with students in grades 6-8. The lessons, designed for mentoring situations, may also be helpful for teachers and parents. Each lesson with reproducible student materials, features an overview of the mathematics, preparation guidelines, teaching tips, and suggestions for how to use each activity to develop specific mathematics concepts. Statistics activities focus on posing questions, data gathering, identifying bias, understanding measures of central tendency, representing data with graphs, and interpreting data. Probability activities introduce fairness in games and the computation of probability. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Center, Education D.

2003-01-01

357

Statistical Approaches to Combine Genetic Association Data  

PubMed Central

In an attempt to discover and unravel genetic predisposition to complex traits, new statistical methods have emerged that utilize multiple sources of data. This appeal to data aggregation is seen on various levels: across genetic variants, across genomic/biological/environmental measures and across different studies, often with fundamentally differing designs. While combining data can increase power to detect genetic variants associated with disease phenotypes, care must be taken in the design, analysis, and interpretation of such studies. Here, we explore methodologies employed to combine sources of genetic data and discuss the prospects for novel advances in the fields of statistical genetics and genetic epidemiology.

Lutz, Sharon M; Fingerlin, Tasha; Fardo, David W

2013-01-01

358

Journal of Statistics Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the American Statistical Association (ASA), the Journal of Statistics Education (JSE) "disseminates knowledge for the improvement of statistics education at all levels." Articles address such topics as curriculum reform, cooperative learning, and instruction methods, to name a few. Besides the regular articles, there are two extra features titled Teaching Bits and Data Sets and Stories. Teaching Bits give statistics teachers fun, original ideas to incorporate into their classes. Data Sets and Stories have downloadable material that can also be used in the classroom for statistical analysis. Past issues can be viewed from an archive that dates back to 1993.

2002-01-01

359

Black hole statistics from holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the microstates of the ``small'' black hole in the 1/2-BPS sector of AdS5 × S5, the superstar [1], using the powerful holographic description provided by LLM [2]. The system demonstrates the inherently statistical nature of black holes, with the geometry of [1] emerging only after averaging over an ensemble of geometries. The individual microstate geometries differ in the highly non-trivial topology of a quantum foam at their core, and the entropy can be understood as a partition of N units of flux among 5-cycles, as required by flux quantization. While the system offers confirmation of the most controversial aspect of Mathur and Lunin's recent ``fuzzball'' proposal [3,4], we see signs of a discrepancy in interpreting its details.

Shepard, Peter G.

2005-10-01

360

Statistical dynamics of religion evolutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A religion affiliation can be considered as a “degree of freedom” of an agent on the human genre network. A brief review is given on the state of the art in data analysis and modelization of religious “questions” in order to suggest and if possible initiate further research, after using a “statistical physics filter”. We present a discussion of the evolution of 18 so-called religions, as measured through their number of adherents between 1900 and 2000. Some emphasis is made on a few cases presenting a minimum or a maximum in the investigated time range—thereby suggesting a competitive ingredient to be considered, besides the well accepted “at birth” attachment effect. The importance of the “external field” is still stressed through an Avrami late stage crystal growth-like parameter. The observed features and some intuitive interpretations point to opinion based models with vector, rather than scalar, like agents.

Ausloos, M.; Petroni, F.

2009-10-01

361

Quantified naturalness from Bayesian statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a formulation of naturalness made in the framework of Bayesian statistics, which unravels the conceptual problems related to previous approaches. Among other things, the relative interpretation of the measure of naturalness turns out to be unambiguously established by Jeffreys’ scale. Also, the usual sensitivity formulation (the so-called Barbieri-Giudice measure) appears to be embedded in our formulation under an extended form. We derive the general sensitivity formula applicable to an arbitrary number of observables. Several consequences and developments are further discussed. As a final illustration, we work out the map of combined fine-tuning associated with the gauge hierarchy problem and neutralino dark matter in a classic supersymmetric model.

Fichet, S.

2012-12-01

362

Meteor trail footprint statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Footprint statistics derived from field-test data are presented. The statistics are the probability that two receivers will lie in the same footprint. The dependence of the footprint statistics on the transmitter range, link orientation, and antenna polarization are examined. Empirical expressions for the footprint statistics are presented. The need to distinguish the instantaneous footprint, which is the area illuminated at a particular instant, from the composite footprint, which is the total area illuminated during the lifetime of the meteor trail, is explained. The statistics for the instantaneous and composite footprints have been found to be similar. The only significant difference lies in the parameter that represents the probability of two colocated receivers being in the same footprint. The composite footprint statistics can be used to calculate the space diversity gain of a multiple-receiver system. The instantaneous footprint statistics are useful in the evaluation of the interference probability in a network of meteor burst communication nodes.

Mui, S. Y.; Ellicott, R. C.

363

What Can Be Learned from Inverse Statistics?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a One stylized fact of financial markets is an asymmetry between the most likely time to profit and to loss. This gain–loss\\u000a asymmetry is revealed by inverse statistics, a method closely related to empirically finding first passage times. Many papers\\u000a have presented evidence about the asymmetry, where it appears and where it does not. Also, various interpretations and explanations\\u000a for the

Peter Toke Heden Ahlgren; Henrik Dahl; Mogens Høgh Jensen; Ingve Simonsen

364

Discrepancies between film and digital mammography interpretations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency and reasons of disagreement between film and full-field digital mammography (FFDM) interpretations observed in a prospective clinical trial performed with the GE Senographe 2000D system. The data from 643 mammography examinations comprising both digital and film mammograms were analyzed for this purpose. Reports indicated that 455 findings were identified on the digital softcopy reading and 457 findings on the standard film mammography with 408 discrepancies. Findings with discrepancies were matched and analyzed. A reason was identified and a relative conspicuity score of 0 to 10 was assigned to each finding at the time of resolution; 0 corresponded to a finding highly conspicuous on digital, 10 to a finding highly conspicuous on film, and 5 denoted equal visibility on both. After review, agreement was established between the two modalities in 73.3% of the findings; 13.5% of findings were seen better on digital and 13.2% of the findings were seen better on film. Approximately 63% of the discrepancies occurred due to variability in the reporting style of the radiologists and/or unavailability of prior films for comparison. Three cancer cases were identified in this study; two were seen on both modalities and one only on film. In conclusion, no statistically significant differences were observed between digital and film mammography, a result that despite the small size of our dataset is in agreement with previous reports. Inter-observer variability, display differences, and presentation disagreements are the main reasons for interpretation differences that are primarily identified in the classification and BIRADS assignment.

Malhotra, Poonam; Kallergi, Maria; Alexander, Dominik; Berman, Claudia G.; Gardner, Mary; Hersh, Marla R.; Hooper, Lisa; Kim, Jihai J.; Venugopal, Priya

2002-04-01

365

Classes with Easily Learnable Subclasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study the question of whether identiable classes have subclasses which are identiable under a more restrictive criterion. The chosen framework is inductive inference, in particular the criterion of explanatory learning (Ex) of recursive functions as introduced by Gold in 1967. Among the more restrictive criteria is nite learning where the learner outputs, on every function to

Sanjay Jain; Wolfram Menzel; Frank Stephan

2002-01-01

366

Nofetumomab Verluma Statistical Review  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... hard to interpret. The sponsor's method may work well on the clear cut cases, but not on the fuzzy ones. Therefore, the results ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess

367

Quantum Statistics and Astrophysical Photodisintegration Rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tabulated rates for astrophysical photodisintegration reactions make use of Boltzmann statistics for the photons as well as the interacting nuclei. Here we derive analytic corrections for the Planck-spectrum quantum statistics of the photon energy distribution. These are deduced directly from the detailed-balance condition without the assumption of equilibrium. We show that these corrections affect not only the photodisintegration rates but also modify the conditions of nuclear statistical equilibrium. We deduce new analytic corrections to the classical Maxwell- Boltzmann statistics which can easily be added to existing reaction network tabulations. We show that the effects of quantum statistics, though generally small, always tend to speed up photodisintegration rates and become significant for nuclei and environments for which Q/kT 5. We examine possible effects of these corrections on the r-process, the rp-process, the ?-process, and big bang nucleosynthesis. We find that, although in most cases one is justified in neglecting these corrections, several cases arise for which significant corrections could occur. These include an r-process with very high neutron density, or an rp- process with reactions dominated by a low-lying resonances and low proton separation energies.

Mathews, Grant; Pehlivan, Yamac; Kajino, Toshitaka; Balantekin, Baha

2010-11-01

368

Quantum Statistical Corrections to Astrophysical Photodisintegration Rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tabulated rates for astrophysical photodisintegration reactions make use of Boltzmann statistics for the photons involved as well as the interacting nuclei. Here, we derive analytic corrections for the Planck-spectrum quantum statistics of the photon energy distribution. These corrections can be deduced directly from the detailed balance condition without the assumption of equilibrium as long as the photons are represented by a Planck spectrum. Moreover, we show that these corrections affect not only the photodisintegration rates but also modify the conditions of nuclear statistical equilibrium as represented in the Saha equation. We deduce new analytic corrections to the classical Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics which can easily be added to the reverse reaction rates of existing reaction network tabulations. We show that the effects of quantum statistics, though generally quite small, always tend to speed up photodisintegration rates and are largest for nuclei and environments for which Q/kT ~ 1. As an illustration, we examine possible effects of these corrections on the r-process, the rp-process, explosive silicon burning, the ?-process, and big bang nucleosynthesis. We find that in most cases one is quite justified in neglecting these corrections. The correction is largest for reactions near the drip line for an r-process with very high neutron density, or an rp-process at high temperature.

Mathews, G. J.; Pehlivan, Yamac; Kajino, Toshitaka; Balantekin, A. B.; Kusakabe, Motohiko

2011-01-01

369

On the interpretation of constrained climate model ensembles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ensemble of models can be interpreted in two ways. The first treats each model as an approximation of the true system with some random error. Alternatively, the true system can be interpreted as a sample drawn from a distribution of models, such that model and truth are statistically indistinguishable. Both interpretations are ubiquitous and have different consequences for the uncertainty of model projections, but are rarely defended. Here we argue that the two seemingly conflicting views are in fact complementary, and the interpretation of the ensemble may evolve seamlessly from the former to the latter. We show some ‘truth plus error’ like properties exist for historical and present day climate simulations in the CMIP archive, and that they can be explained by the ensemble design and tuning to observations, although both models and tuning are imperfect. For future projections, structural differences in model response arise which are independent of the present day state and thus the ‘indistinguishable’ interpretation is increasingly favored. Our inability to define performance metrics that identify ‘good’ and ‘bad’ models can be explained by the models having largely exploited the available observations. The remaining model error is largely structural and the observations are often uninformative to further reduce model biases or reduce the range of projections covered by the ensemble. The discussion here is motivated by the use of multi model ensembles in climate projections, but the arguments are generic to any situation where multiple different models constrained by observations are used to describe the same system.

Sanderson, Benjamin M.; Knutti, Reto

2012-08-01

370

Radiologists' Performance and Their Enjoyment of Interpreting Screening Mammograms  

PubMed Central

Objective One might speculate that radiologists who enjoy mammography may exhibit better performance than radiologists who do not. Materials and Methods One hundred thirty-one radiologists at three Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) registries completed a survey about their characteristics, clinical practices, and attitudes related to screening mammography. Survey results were linked with BCSC performance data for 662,084 screening and 33,977 diagnostic mammograms. Using logistic regression, we modeled the odds of an abnormal interpretation, cancer detection, sensitivity, and specificity among radiologists who reported they enjoy interpreting screening mammograms compared with those who do not. Results Overall, 44.3% of radiologists reported not enjoying interpreting screening mammograms. Radiologists who reported enjoying interpreting screening mammograms were more likely to be women, spend at least 20% of their time in breast imaging, have a primary academic affiliation, read more than 2,000 mammograms per year, and be salaried. Enjoyment was not associated with screening mammography performance. Among diagnostic mammograms, there was a significant increase in sensitivity among radiologists who reported enjoyment (85.2%) compared with those who did not (78.2%). In models adjusting for radiologist characteristics, similar trends were found; however, no statistically significant associations remained. Conclusion Almost one half of radiologists actively interpreting mammograms do not enjoy that part of their job. Once we adjusted for radiologist and patient characteristics, we found that reported enjoyment was not related to performance in our study, although suggestive trends were noted.

Geller, Berta M.; Bowles, Erin J. A.; Sohng, Hee Yon; Brenner, R. James; Miglioretti, Diana L.; Carney, Patricia A.; Elmore, Joann G.

2010-01-01

371

Statistical Inference Using Extreme Order Statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for making statistical inferences about the upper tail of a distribution function. It is useful for estimating the probabilities of future extremely large observations. The method is applicable if the underlying distribution function satisfies a condition which holds for all common continuous distribution functions.

James Pickands III

1975-01-01

372

Interpretations of cosmological spectral shifts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that for Robertson-Walker models with flat or closed space sections, all of the cosmological spectral shift can be attributed to the non-flat connection (and thus indirectly to space-time curvature). For Robertson-Walker models with hyperbolic space sections, it is shown that cosmological spectral shifts uniquely split up into "kinematic" and "gravitational" parts provided that distances are small. For large distances no such unique split-up exists in general. A number of common, but incorrect assertions found in the literature regarding interpretations of cosmological spectral shifts, is pointed out.

Østvang, Dag

2013-03-01

373

Optimal Nonbipartite Matching and Its Statistical Applications  

PubMed Central

Matching is a powerful statistical tool in design and analysis. Conventional two-group, or bipartite, matching has been widely used in practice. However, its utility is limited to simpler designs. In contrast, nonbipartite matching is not limited to the two-group case, handling multiparty matching situations. It can be used to find the set of matches that minimize the sum of distances based on a given distance matrix. It brings greater flexibility to the matching design, such as multigroup comparisons. Thanks to improvements in computing power and freely available algorithms to solve nonbipartite problems, the cost in terms of computation time and complexity is low. This article reviews the optimal nonbipartite matching algorithm and its statistical applications, including observational studies with complex designs and an exact distribution-free test comparing two multivariate distributions. We also introduce an R package that performs optimal nonbipartite matching. We present an easily accessible web application to make nonbipartite matching freely available to general researchers.

Lu, Bo; Greevy, Robert; Xu, Xinyi; Beck, Cole

2012-01-01

374

Experiments in statistical mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present experiments designed to illustrate the basic concepts of statistical mechanics using a gas of ``motorized molecules.'' Two molecular motion machines are constructed. The pressure fluctuation machine (mechanical interaction simulator) is a working model of two gases separated by a movable piston. The Boltzmann machine (canonical simulator) is a working model of a two-level quantum system in a temperature bath. Dynamical probabilities (fraction of time) are measured using mechanical devices, such as stop watches and motion sensors. Statistical probabilities (fraction of states) are calculated using physical statistics, such as microcanonical and canonical statistics. The experiments enable one to quantitatively test the fundamental principles of statistical mechanics, including the fundamental postulate, the ergodic hypothesis, and the statistics of Boltzmann.

Prentis, Jeffrey J.

2000-12-01

375

MEDICAL LIBRARY STATISTICS.  

PubMed

Four compilations of medical library statistics have been published to date, namely those by Louise Darling in 1956, by the Medical Library Association in its 1959 Directory, by Harold Bloomquist in 1962, and by the author in 1964. In addition to these sources and to the annual statistics compiled by the Library Services Branch of the U. S. Office of Education, surveys of pharmacy, hospital, and medical society libraries have been completed recently. Standards for medical and special libraries are being considered by the Medical Library Association through its Guidelines Survey and by the Special Libraries Association through its Statistics Coordinating Project and its Standards Survey. To coordinate the collection of medical library statistics and to make the information readily available to the profession, it is suggested that the Medical Library Association support the collection and publication of statistics of representative medical libraries until such time as the Library Services Branch is able to implement fully its program of library statistics. PMID:14271113

KEENAN, E L

1965-04-01

376

A fast procedure for finding a tracker in a statistical database  

Microsoft Academic Search

To avoid trivial compromises, most on-line statistical databases refuse to answer queries for statistics about small subgroups. Previous research discovered a powerful snooping tool, the tracker, with which the answers to these unanswerable queries are easily calculated. However, the extent of this threat was not clear, for no one had shown that finding a tracker is guaranteed to be easy.This

Dorothy E. Denning; Jan Schlörer

1980-01-01

377

Statistical analysis of tensor fields.  

PubMed

In this paper, we propose a Riemannian framework for statistical analysis of tensor fields. Existing approaches to this problem have been mainly voxel-based that overlook the correlation between tensors at different voxels. In our approach, the tensor fields are considered as points in a high-dimensional Riemannian product space and accordingly, we extend Principal Geodesic Analysis (PGA) to the product space. This provides us with a principled method for linearizing the problem, and coupled with the usual log-exp maps that relate points on manifold to tangent vectors, the global correlation of the tensor field can be captured using Principal Component Analysis in a tangent space. Using the proposed method, the modes of variation of tensor fields can be efficiently determined, and dimension reduction of the data is also easily implemented. Experimental results on characterizing the variation of a large set of tensor fields are presented in the paper, and results on classifying tensor fields using the proposed method are also reported. These preliminary experimental results demonstrate the advantages of our method over the voxel-based approach. PMID:20879290

Xie, Yuchen; Vemuri, Baba C; Ho, Jeffrey

2010-01-01

378

Statistical Analysis of Tensor Fields  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we propose a Riemannian framework for statistical analysis of tensor fields. Existing approaches to this problem have been mainly voxel-based that overlook the correlation between tensors at different voxels. In our approach, the tensor fields are considered as points in a high-dimensional Riemannian product space and accordingly, we extend Principal Geodesic Analysis (PGA) to the product space. This provides us with a principled method for linearizing the problem, and coupled with the usual log-exp maps that relate points on manifold to tangent vectors, the global correlation of the tensor field can be captured using Principal Component Analysis in a tangent space. Using the proposed method, the modes of variation of tensor fields can be efficiently determined, and dimension reduction of the data is also easily implemented. Experimental results on characterizing the variation of a large set of tensor fields are presented in the paper, and results on classifying tensor fields using the proposed method are also reported. These preliminary experimental results demonstrate the advantages of our method over the voxel-based approach.

Xie, Yuchen; Vemuri, Baba C.; Ho, Jeffrey

2011-01-01

379

Comparison of Dream Interpretation, Event Interpretation, and Unstructured Sessions in Brief Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-five distressed adult clients received 2 sessions each of dream and event interpretation using the Hill model during 12 sessions of successful therapy. No differences were found in depth, insight, and working alliance among dream interpretation, event interpretation, and unstructured sessions, suggesting that dream interpretation is as effective as other therapist strategies. Dream and event interpretation may be equally effective

Roberta A. Diemer; Leslie K. Lobell; Barbara L. Vivino; Clara E. Hill

1996-01-01

380

Statistics and Data Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online introductory statistics textbook covers basic descriptive, statistical, and graphical procedures for analyzing data sets and contains three data sets and a practice final exam. Chapter headings include: descriptive statistics, probability, resampling, discrete probability models, continuous probability models, central limit theorem, confidence intervals, tests of hypotheses, estimation of effect: two independent samples, design of experiments, and regression. The relation to this site includes exercises.

Abebe, Asheber; Daniels, John E.; Mckean, Joe W.; Kapenga, J. A.

2008-12-19

381

Media Awareness Network: Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Canadian media conglomerate Cochran Communications has provided this compilation of statistics to heighten public awareness of the media industry. Statistics on radio, television, film, video, and Internet ownership, production, and marketing are given in a concise, browsable format. Although Canadian statistics are emphasized, many American and international figures are included and students may benefit from clear bibliographic and web links to a variety of government, think-tank, and news sources.

382

Statistics on the Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, by SPSS statistician Clay Helberg, is a broad resource containing statistical information, brief descriptions of professional organizations, lists of email discussion groups, and links to online textbooks and courses. The heart of the site is the Educational Resources section, which offers links to valuable Websites that describe and demonstrate statistical techniques. For graduate students and researchers alike, this statistics resource is sure to come in handy.

383

Statistics and Graphing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Statistics play a vital role in the scientific enterprise. This activity provides background information and tutorials on basic statistics (mean, median, standard deviation, etc.) used in science. Topics include descriptive statistics (measures of central tendency and dispersion) and presenting data (tables, figures, and graphs). Sample datasets from actual scientific experiments are used to illustrate points. Links to an online statisitical tool and an online graphing application are also provided.

Laposata, Matt

384

Statistical Analysis of Genetic Interactions  

PubMed Central

Many common human diseases and complex traits are highly heritable and influenced by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified many disease-associated variants, these genetic variants explain only a small proportion of the heritability of most complex diseases. Genetic interactions (gene-gene and gene-environment) substantially contribute to complex traits and diseases and could be one of the main sources of the missing heritability. This paper provides an overview of the available statistical methods and related computer software for identifying genetic interactions in animal and plant experimental crosses and human genetic association studies. The main discussion falls under the three broad issues in statistical analysis of genetic interactions: the definition, detection and interpretation of genetic interactions. Recently developed methods based on modern techniques for high-dimensional data are reviewed, including penalized likelihood approaches and hierarchical models; the relationships among these methods are also discussed. I conclude this review by highlighting some areas of future research.

Yi, Nengjun

2011-01-01

385

Business conversion. Catholic Healthcare West ends formal ties to church and hopes as Dignity Health that it can more easily add non-Catholic hospitals.  

PubMed

Catholic Healthcare West is now rechristened Dignity Health. Freed from its formal ties with the Roman Catholic Church, it's seeking to expand east by more easily adding hospitals that may have previously been apprehensive about adopting Catholic ethical directives. "I would say our vision has not changed and neither has our mission as being a voice for the voiceless," says Lloyd Dean, left, the system's president and CEO. PMID:22356071

Selvam, Ashok

2012-01-30

386

Federal Law Enforcement Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Supplies census statistics about federal employees with law enforcement authority. Provides additional information about the functionality, budget, expenditures, and staffing of federal crime labs and police departments.

Justice, U. S.

387

Simple Interactive Statistical Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Simple Interactive Statistical Analysis (SISA), designed by a research consultant in the Netherlands, "allows you to do statistical analysis directly on the Internet." The program will calculate a variety of statistical procedures, including T-Tests, Poisson Distributions, and other calculations. The ability to perform analysis online provides users an opportunity to assess the software, which is also for sale. The Guide to Procedures provides helpful explanations of the different statistical procedures and guidelines for deciding on the appropriate procedure and filling out the calculation form. Numerous spreadsheets are also available to download.

388

Black hole statistics  

SciTech Connect

The quantum statistics of charged, extremal black holes is investigated beginning with the hypothesis that the quantum state is a functional on the space of closed three-geometries, with each black hole connected to an oppositely charged black hole through a spatial wormhole. From this starting point a simple argument is given that a collection of extremal black holes obeys neither Bose nor Fermi statistics. Rather, they obey an exotic variety of particle statistics known as infinite statistics'' which resembles that of distinguishable particles and is realized by a [ital q] deformation of the quantum commutation relations.

Strominger, A. (Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, University of California (enSanta Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)))

1993-11-22

389

Statistical Review - Cervarix  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Executive Summary Statement and Conclusion. The applicant addressed all major concerns related to assay validation statistics. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/vaccines/approvedproducts

390

Interpretation of the cosmological metric  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cosmological Robertson-Walker metric of general relativity is often said to have the consequences that (1) the recessional velocity v of a galaxy at proper distance l obeys the Hubble law v=Hl, and therefore galaxies at sufficiently great distance l are receding faster than the speed of light c; (2) faster than light recession does not violate special relativity theory because the latter is not applicable to the cosmological problem, and because ``space itself is receding'' faster than c at great distance, and it is velocity relative to local space that is limited by c, not the velocity of distant objects relative to nearby ones; (3) we can see galaxies receding faster than the speed of light; and (4) the cosmological redshift is not a Doppler shift, but is due to a stretching of photon wavelength during propagation in an expanding universe. We present a particular Robertson-Walker metric (an empty universe metric) for which a coordinate transformation shows that none of these interpretation necessarily holds. The resulting paradoxes of interpretation lead to a deeper understanding of the meaning of the cosmological metric.

Cook, Richard J.; Burns, M. Shane

2009-01-01

391

Interpretation of the Cosmological Metric  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Robertson-Walker metric is often said to have the consequences that (1) the recessional velocity v of a galaxy at proper distance d obeys the Hubble law v = H d, and therefore galaxies at sufficiently great distance d are receding faster than the speed of light c (2) faster than light recession does not violate special relativity theory because the latter is not applicable to the cosmological problem, and because "space itself is receding" faster than c at great distance, and it is velocity relative to local space that is limited by c, not the velocity of distant objects relative to nearby ones; (3) we can see galaxies receding faster than the speed of light; and (4) the cosmological redshift is not a Doppler shift, but is due to a stretching of photon wavelength during propagation in an expanding universe. We present a particular Robertson-Walker metric (an empty universe metric) for which a coordinate transformation shows that none of these interpretation necessarily holds. The resolution of these seeming paradoxes of interpretation lead to a deeper understanding of the meaning of the cosmological metric.

Burns, Michael Shane; Cook, R. J.

2009-05-01

392

Communication and interpretation of risk.  

PubMed

The 'new genetics' enables people's risk status for many diseases and disorders to be assessed much more accurately than before, yet considerable uncertainty remains over how risk information will be evaluated and acted upon. This paper summarises some of the main themes of psychological research on risk. Risk is traditionally defined in terms of probability. However, people often have difficulty in processing statistical information and may rely instead on simplified decision rules. Decision making under risk is also critically affected by people's subjective assessments of benefits and costs. In the field of genetic risk, such assessments may vary greatly between individuals, reflecting personal and cultural preferences and ethical concerns. The goals of risk communication should, therefore, not be merely the imparting of statistical 'facts' or the reduction of anxiety, but also enabling individuals and their families to make important decisions under conditions of uncertainty. PMID:10367414

Eiser, J R

1998-01-01

393

Stratigraphic statistical curvature analysis techniques  

SciTech Connect

SCAT applies statistical techniques to dipmeter data to identify patterns of bulk curvature, determine transverse and longitudinal structural directions, and reconstruct cross sections and contour maps. STRAT-SCAT applies the same concepts to geometric interpretation of multistoried unimodal, bimodal, or trough-type cross-bedding and also to seismic stratigraphy-scale stratigraphic structures. Structural dip, which comprises the bulk of dipmeter data, is related to beds that (statistically) were deposited with horizontal attitudes; stratigraphic dip is related to beds that were deposited with preferentially oriented nonhorizontal attitudes or to beds that assumed such attitudes because of differential compaction. Stratigraphic dip generates local zones of departure from structural dip on special SCAT plots. The RMS (root-mean-square) of apparent structural dip is greatest in the (structural) T-direction and least in the perpendicular L-direction; the RMS of stratigraphic dip (measured with respect to structural dip) is greatest in the stratigraphic T*-direction and least in the stratigraphic L*-direction. Multistoried, cross-bedding appears on T*-plots as local zones of either greater scatter or statistically significant departure of stratigraphic median dip from structural dip. In contrast, the L*-plot (except for trough-type cross-bedding) is sensitive to cross-bedding. Seismic stratigraphy-scale depositional sequences are identified on Mercator dip versus azimuth plots and polar tangent plots as secondary cylindrical-fold patterns imposed on global structural patterns. Progradational sequences generate local cycloid-type patterns on T*-plots, and compactional sequences generate local cycloid-type patterns on T*-plots, and compactional sequences generate local half-cusp patterns. Both features, however, show only structural dip on L*-plots.

Bengtson, C.A.; Ziagos, J.P.

1987-05-01

394

The wetland continuum: a conceptual framework for interpreting biological studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We describe a conceptual model, the wetland continuum, which allows wetland managers, scientists, and ecologists to consider simultaneously the influence of climate and hydrologic setting on wetland biological communities. Although multidimensional, the wetland continuum is most easily represented as a two-dimensional gradient, with ground water and atmospheric water constituting the horizontal and vertical axis, respectively. By locating the position of a wetland on both axes of the continuum, the potential biological expression of the wetland can be predicted at any point in time. The model provides a framework useful in the organization and interpretation of biological data from wetlands by incorporating the dynamic changes these systems undergo as a result of normal climatic variation rather than placing them into static categories common to many wetland classification systems. While we developed this model from the literature available for depressional wetlands in the prairie pothole region of North America, we believe the concept has application to wetlands in many other geographic locations.

Euliss, N. H., Jr.; LaBaugh, J. W.; Fredrickson, L. H.; Mushet, D. M.; Swanson, G. A.; Winter, T. C.; Rosenberry, D. O.; Nelson, R. D.

2004-01-01

395

Multivariate statistical analysis of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry images using AXSIA.  

SciTech Connect

Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) by its parallel nature, generates complex and very large datasets quickly and easily. An example of such a large dataset is a spectral image where a complete spectrum is collected for each pixel. Unfortunately, the large size of the data matrix involved makes it difficult to extract the chemical information from the data using traditional techniques. Because time constraints prevent an analysis of every peak, prior knowledge is used to select the most probable and significant peaks for evaluation. However, this approach may lead to a misinterpretation of the system under analysis. Ideally, the complete spectral image would be used to provide a comprehensive, unbiased materials characterization based on full spectral signatures. Automated eXpert spectral image analysis (AXSIA) software developed at Sandia National Laboratories implements a multivariate curve resolution technique that was originally developed for energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) [Microsci. Microanal. 9 (2003) 1]. This paper will demonstrate the application of the method to TOF-SIMS. AXSIA distills complex and very large spectral image datasets into a limited number of physically realizable and easily interpretable chemical components, including both spectra and concentrations. The number of components derived during the analysis represents the minimum number of components needed to completely describe the chemical information in the original dataset. Since full spectral signatures are used to determine each component, an enhanced signal-to-noise is realized. The efficient statistical aggregation of chemical information enables small and unexpected features to be automatically found without user intervention.

Peebles, Diane Elaine; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Ohlhausen, James Anthony; Keenan, Michael Robert

2003-08-01

396

An Experimental Study of Interpreter Proficiency as a Criterion for Image Interpretation Personnel Assignments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods of improving image interpretation system output through use of interpreter proficiency as a criterion for making interpreter personnel assignments were investigated. An experiment was conducted to determine if either of two personnel assignment me...

W. L. Schwabe

1968-01-01

397

Explorations in Statistics: Regression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This seventh installment of "Explorations in Statistics" explores regression, a technique that estimates the nature of the relationship between two things for which we may only surmise a mechanistic or predictive…

Curran-Everett, Douglas

2011-01-01

398

Confound Those Speculative Statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speculative statistics are model-based statistics. These include deaths attributable to being in a group (deaths linked to a distant cause). Such deaths are those due to primary smoke, second-hand smoke, obesity and radon. This paper reviews the epidemiological model used and introduces a graphical technique to present three big ideas: that a confounder can influence (1) an association in an

Milo Schield

2009-01-01

399

Statistical Applets: Confidence Intervals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Duckworth, McCabe, Moore and Sclove for W.H. Freeman and Co., this applet is a visual representation of confidence levels and accompanies "ÃÂÃÂPractice of Business Statistics;" however, it can be used without this text. Even though brief, this is a nice interactive resource for an introductory statistics course.

Sclove, Stanley; Moore, David; Mccabe, George; Duckworth, William

2009-03-04

400

Explorations in Statistics: Power  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This fifth installment of "Explorations in Statistics" revisits power, a concept fundamental to the test of a null hypothesis. Power is the probability that we reject the null hypothesis when it is false. Four things affect…

Curran-Everett, Douglas

2010-01-01

401

Statistical Methods and Linguistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the space of the last ten years, statistical methods have gone from being virtually unknown in computational linguistics to being a fundamental given. In 1996, no one can profess to be a computational linguist without a passing knowl- edge of statistical methods. HMM's are as de rigeur as LR tables, and anyone who cannot at least use the terminology

Steven Abney

1996-01-01

402

Bayesian statistics for parasitologists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bayesian statistical methods are increasingly being used in the analysis of parasitological data. Here, the basis of differences between the Bayesian method and the classical or frequentist approach to statistical inference is explained. This is illustrated with practical implications of Bayesian analyses using prevalence estimation of strongyloidiasis and onchocerciasis as two relevant examples. The strongyloidiasis example addresses the problem of

Mar??a-Gloria Basáñez; Clare Marshall; Hélène Carabin; Theresa Gyorkos; Lawrence Joseph

2004-01-01

403

Water Quality Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water quality experiments, especially the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of water quality, offer an ideal context for connecting statistics and science. In the STAR program for secondary students and teachers, water quality experiments were also used as a context for teaching statistics. In this article, we trace one activity that uses…

Hodgson, Ted; Andersen, Lyle; Robison-Cox, Jim; Jones, Clain

2004-01-01

404

Visualizing natural image statistics.  

PubMed

Natural image statistics is an important area of research in cognitive sciences and computer vision. Visualization of statistical results can help identify clusters and anomalies as well as analyze deviation, distribution, and correlation. Furthermore, they can provide visual abstractions and symbolism for categorized data. In this paper, we begin our study of visualization of image statistics by considering visual representations of power spectra, which are commonly used to visualize different categories of images. We show that they convey a limited amount of statistical information about image categories and their support for analytical tasks is ineffective. We then introduce several new visual representations, which convey different or more information about image statistics. We apply ANOVA to the image statistics to help select statistically more meaningful measurements in our design process. A task-based user evaluation was carried out to compare the new visual representations with the conventional power spectra plots. Based on the results of the evaluation, we made further improvement of visualizations by introducing composite visual representations of image statistics. PMID:23661013

Fang, Hui; Tam, Gary Kwok-Leung; Borgo, Rita; Aubrey, Andrew J; Grant, Philip W; Rosin, Paul L; Wallraven, Christian; Cunningham, Douglas; Marshall, David; Chen, Min

2013-07-01

405

Applied Statistics with SPSS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accessibly written and easy to use, "Applied Statistics Using SPSS" is an all-in-one self-study guide to SPSS and do-it-yourself guide to statistics. What is unique about Eelko Huizingh's approach is that this book is based around the needs of undergraduate students embarking on their own research project, and its self-help style is designed to…

Huizingh, Eelko K. R. E.

2007-01-01

406

Explorations in Statistics: Correlation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This sixth installment of "Explorations in Statistics" explores correlation, a familiar technique that estimates the magnitude of a straight-line relationship between two variables. Correlation is meaningful only when the…

Curran-Everett, Douglas

2010-01-01

407

Issues in Labor Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics collects "succinct, up-to-the-minute background papers on current topics" at the Issues in Labor Statistics publication page. Each two-page edition addresses labor topics as diverse as auto dealer employment and highway fatalities with graphical summaries and BLS contacts for additional information.

408

Understanding descriptive statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing expectation that critical care nurses use clinical research when making decisions about patient care. This article is the second in a series which addresses statistics for clinical nursing practice. In this article we provide an introduction to the use of descriptive statistics. Concepts such as levels of measurement, measures of central tendency and dispersion are described

Murray J. Fisher; Andrea P. Marshall

2009-01-01

409

The Statistical Drake Equation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide the statistical generalization of the Drake equation.From a simple product of seven positive numbers, the Drake equation is now turned into the product of seven positive random variables. We call this “the Statistical Drake Equation”. The mathematical consequences of this transformation are then derived. The proof of our results is based on the Central Limit Theorem (CLT) of

Claudio Maccone

2010-01-01

410

Water Quality Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Water quality experiments, especially the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of water quality, offer an ideal context for connecting statistics and science. In the STAR program for secondary students and teachers, water quality experiments were also used as a context for teaching statistics. In this article, we trace one activity that uses…

Hodgson, Ted; Andersen, Lyle; Robison-Cox, Jim; Jones, Clain

2004-01-01

411

Frequentist Statistical Inference  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative-frequency view of probability leads to statistical inferences using hypothesis tests and confidence intervals. Parametric tests target inference on distribution parameters, whereas nonparametric tests may relate to any sample statistic of interest. Special problems arise for correlated data, and for multiple simultaneous inferences (“field significance”).

D. S. Wilks

2011-01-01

412

Statistical Mapping by Computer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The function of a statistical map is to provide readers with a visual impression of the data so that they may be able to identify any geographic characteristics of the displayed phenomena. The increasingly important role played by the computer in the production of statistical maps is manifested by the varied examples of computer maps in recent…

Utano, Jack J.

413

Statistical Tables Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, created by Ino Dinov of the University of California, Berkeley, provides distribution calculators for the binomial, normal, Student's T, Chi-square, and Fisher's F distributions. Users set the parameters and enter either the probability or the test statistic and the calculators return the missing value. This is a simple, yet effective, statistical tool for instructors and students.

Dinov, Ivo

2009-01-20

414

Reform in Statistical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two questions are considered in this article: (a) What should professionals in school psychology do in an effort to stay current with developments in applied statistics? (b) What should they do with their existing knowledge to move from surface understanding of statistics to deep understanding? Written for school psychologists who have completed…

Huck, Schuyler W.

2007-01-01

415

Statistical Summaries: Public Institutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document, presents a statistical portrait of the Virginia's 17 public higher education institutions. Data provided include: enrollment figures (broken down in categories such as sex, residency, full- and part-time status, residence, ethnicity, age, and level of postsecondary education); FTE figures; admissions statistics (such as number…

Virginia State Council of Higher Education, Richmond.

416

Application Statistics, 1974.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Statistics on application and registration patterns of applicants wishing to pursue full-time study in first-year places in the Ontario universities were obtained throughout the admission cycle from the processing of applicants by the Center and from the universities themselves. All application and registration statistics presented refer to…

Payton, L. C.

417

RECONCEPTUALISING 'STATISTICS' AND 'EDUCATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although most interesting problems are multivariate (MV) and students and citizens need to be able to reason using MV data, appropriate challenges are rarely encountered in class. In this paper we argue that the curriculum (and ideas about statistical literacy) should encompass reasoning with MV data. Statistics education can occur in a range of disciplines, and in informal settings -

Jim Ridgway; James Nicholson; Sean McCusker

418

Hate Crime Statistics, 1998.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Statistical publications like Hate Crime Statistics are designed to be factual presentations of data. Their purpose is not to evoke emotion, make pleas, or sway opinion. The neat columns and rows of numbers in this book cannot convey the suffering experie...

1998-01-01

419

Reform in Statistical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two questions are considered in this article: (a) What should professionals in school psychology do in an effort to stay current with developments in applied statistics? (b) What should they do with their existing knowledge to move from surface understanding of statistics to deep understanding? Written for school psychologists who have completed…

Huck, Schuyler W.

2007-01-01

420

Elementary Concepts in Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This introductory statistics introduction, by StatSoft, gives an overview of variables, classifications, measurements, relations, and other basic statistical concepts. There are also two animated graphs illustrating density and distribution functions, as well as how sample size influences sampling distribution.

2008-12-25

421

DISABILITY STATISTICS CENTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the Disability Statistics Center is to produce and disseminate statistical information on disability and the status of people with disabilities in American society and to establish and monitor indicators of how conditions are changing over time to meet their health...

422

JSTOR: Statistical Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This journals from The Institute of Mathematical Statistics is now available online. Statistical Science, Vols. 1-12 (1986-1997) is fully accessible to the hundreds of academic institutions participating in JSTOR. The journal may be searched by keyword, full-text, title, author, and abstract, or browsed by date of publication. A list of JSTOR participants is provided at the JSTOR site.

1999-01-01

423

Family Violence Statistics Including Statistics on Strangers and Acquaintances.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This compendium contains the most recent family violence statistics from these sources: surveys conducted by the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), the BJS database of Federal statistics, and two statistical databases maintained by the FBI. The sources p...

2005-01-01

424

Interpretive Model for a ''A Concurrency Method''.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

''A Concurrency Method'' is a language embodying the data flow characteristics of data-drive and single-assignment. The interpreter for ''A Concurrency Method'' models a physical machine with an architecture directed toward this language. The interpreter ...

C. L. Carter

1986-01-01

425

Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy contains a comprehensive introduction to the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. It includes discussions of the probability, tests, and objections to this interpretation.

Vaidman, Lev

2010-04-09

426

10 CFR 71.2 - Interpretations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL General Provisions § 71.2 Interpretations...authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations in this part by any officer or employee...

2013-01-01

427

10 CFR 61.5 - Interpretations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE General Provisions § 61.5 Interpretations...authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations in this part by any officer or employee...

2013-01-01

428

75 FR 39196 - Proposed Legal Interpretation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FAA-2010-0667] Proposed Legal Interpretation AGENCY: Federal Aviation...FAA's Office of the Chief Counsel issued a legal interpretation of this provision that...and Internal Revenue Service employ the concept of ``specified individuals'' in...

2010-07-08

429

CONTEMPORARY ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Aerial Photographic Interpretation is a timed-tested technique for extracting landscape- level information from aerial photographs and other types of remotely sensed images. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) has a 2...

430

10 CFR 74.5 - Interpretations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Interpretations. 74.5 Section 74.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Provisions § 74.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by...

2013-01-01

431

10 CFR 76.6 - Interpretations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Interpretations. 76.6 Section 76.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.6 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in...

2013-01-01

432

Statistical physics on the light-front  

SciTech Connect

The formulation of statistical physics using light-front quantization, instead of conventional equal-time boundary conditions, has important advantages for describing relativistic statistical systems, such as heavy ion collisions. We develop light-front field theory at finite temperature and density with special attention to Quantum Chromodynamics. We construct the most general form of the statistical operator allowed by the Poincare algebra and introduce the chemical potential in a covariant way. In light-front quantization, the Green's functions of a quark in a medium can be defined in terms of just 2-component spinors and does not lead to doublers in the transverse directions. A seminal property of light-front Green's functions is that they are related to parton densities in coordinate space. Namely, the diagonal and off-diagonal parton distributions measured in hard scattering experiments can be interpreted as light-front density matrices.

Raufeisen, J. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik der Universitaet, Philosophenweg 19, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2005-06-14

433

How implicit is visual statistical learning?  

PubMed

In visual statistical learning, participants learn the statistical regularities present in a sequence of visual shapes. A recent study (Kim, Seitz, Feenstra, & Shams, 2009) suggests that visual statistical learning occurs implicitly, as it is not accompanied by conscious awareness of these regularities. However, that interpretation of the data depends on 2 unwarranted assumptions concerning the nature and sensitivity of the tasks used to measure learning. In a replication of this study, we used a 4-choice completion task as a direct measure of learning, in addition to an indirect measure consisting of a rapid serial visual presentation task. Moreover, binary confidence judgments were recorded after each completion trial. This way, we measured systematically the extent to which sequence knowledge was available to consciousness. Supporting the notion that the role of unconscious knowledge was overestimated in Kim et al.'s study, our results reveal that participants' performance cannot be exclusively accounted for by implicit knowledge. PMID:22329789

Bertels, Julie; Franco, Ana; Destrebecqz, Arnaud

2012-02-13

434

Statistical metrology for interlevel dielectric thickness variation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistical metrology seeks to assess the sources and magnitude of variation in semiconductor manufacturing. The methodology emphasizes electrical measurements resulting from short process flows, statistical design of experiments and analysis of data, and close coupling to technology computer aided design tools for the interpretation of data. In this paper, we apply statistical metrology to interlevel dielectric thickness variation. Capacitive test structures, in conjunction with resistive line width structures and two-dimensional capacitance simulations, are used to estimate ILD thickness for a variety of layout and process factors in a poly-metal BPSG planarization process. The methodology is successful in highlighting the key factors, including underlying structure line width spacing,and finger length that impact ILD thickness. Future work will examine other planarization processes, including chemical mechanical polishing.

Boning, Duane; Maung, Tinaung; Chung, Jim E.; Chang, Keh-Jeng; Oh, Soo-Young; Bartelink, Dirk

1994-09-01

435

A new statistical tool for NOAA local climate studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Weather Services (NWS) Local Climate Analysis Tool (LCAT) is evolving out of a need to support and enhance the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) field offices' ability to efficiently access, manipulate, and interpret local climate data and characterize climate variability and change impacts. LCAT will enable NOAA's staff to conduct regional and local climate studies using state-of-the-art station and reanalysis gridded data and various statistical techniques for climate analysis. The analysis results will be used for climate services to guide local decision makers in weather and climate sensitive actions and to deliver information to the general public. LCAT will augment current climate reference materials with information pertinent to the local and regional levels as they apply to diverse variables appropriate to each locality. The LCAT main emphasis is to enable studies of extreme meteorological and hydrological events such as tornadoes, flood, drought, severe storms, etc. LCAT will close a very critical gap in NWS local climate services because it will allow addressing climate variables beyond average temperature and total precipitation. NWS external partners and government agencies will benefit from the LCAT outputs that could be easily incorporated into their own analysis and/or delivery systems. Presently we identified five existing requirements for local climate: (1) Local impacts of climate change; (2) Local impacts of climate variability; (3) Drought studies; (4) Attribution of severe meteorological and hydrological events; and (5) Climate studies for water resources. The methodologies for the first three requirements will be included in the LCAT first phase implementation. Local rate of climate change is defined as a slope of the mean trend estimated from the ensemble of three trend techniques: (1) hinge, (2) Optimal Climate Normals (running mean for optimal time periods), (3) exponentially-weighted moving average. Root mean squared error is used to determine the best fit of trend to the observations with the least error. The studies of climate variability impacts on local extremes use composite techniques applied to various definitions of local variables: from specified percentiles to critical thresholds. Drought studies combine visual capabilities of Google maps with statistical estimates of drought severity indices. The process of development will be linked to local office interactions with users to ensure the tool will meet their needs as well as provide adequate training. A rigorous internal and tiered peer-review process will be implemented to ensure the studies are scientifically-sound that will be published and submitted to the local studies catalog (database) and eventually to external sources, such as the Climate Portal.

Timofeyeva, M. M.; Meyers, J. C.; Hollingshead, A.

2011-12-01

436

Australian Bureau of Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those looking for statistical information on a broad set of themes and geographical areas within Australia, they should visit the Australian Bureau of Statistics Web site. From the main page, visitors can view recent statistical reports, such as the Australian Consumer Price Index, information about the labor force (e.g., employment rates), and a series of occasional papers. Particularly helpful to the casual user will be the Themes section, which provides summary statistics about the environment, tourism, transportation, economic well-being, and education. Additionally, the Bureau publishes reports organized by administrative and regional divisions of the country, a feature that will be helpful to students doing research on a particular area of the country. If users are seeking to learn more about the organization, history, and mission of the Australian Bureau of Statistics, they will find this material located under the About the ABS section of the site.

2000-01-01

437

Statistical efficiency of adaptive algorithms.  

PubMed

The statistical efficiency of a learning algorithm applied to the adaptation of a given set of variable weights is defined as the ratio of the quality of the converged solution to the amount of data used in training the weights. Statistical efficiency is computed by averaging over an ensemble of learning experiences. A high quality solution is very close to optimal, while a low quality solution corresponds to noisy weights and less than optimal performance. In this work, two gradient descent adaptive algorithms are compared, the LMS algorithm and the LMS/Newton algorithm. LMS is simple and practical, and is used in many applications worldwide. LMS/Newton is based on Newton's method and the LMS algorithm. LMS/Newton is optimal in the least squares sense. It maximizes the quality of its adaptive solution while minimizing the use of training data. Many least squares adaptive algorithms have been devised over the years, but no other least squares algorithm can give better performance, on average, than LMS/Newton. LMS is easily implemented, but LMS/Newton, although of great mathematical interest, cannot be implemented in most practical applications. Because of its optimality, LMS/Newton serves as a benchmark for all least squares adaptive algorithms. The performances of LMS and LMS/Newton are compared, and it is found that under many circumstances, both algorithms provide equal performance. For example, when both algorithms are tested with statistically nonstationary input signals, their average performances are equal. When adapting with stationary input signals and with random initial conditions, their respective learning times are on average equal. However, under worst-case initial conditions, the learning time of LMS can be much greater than that of LMS/Newton, and this is the principal disadvantage of the LMS algorithm. But the strong points of LMS are ease of implementation and optimal performance under important practical conditions. For these reasons, the LMS algorithm has enjoyed very widespread application. It is used in almost every modem for channel equalization and echo cancelling. Furthermore, it is related to the famous backpropagation algorithm used for training neural networks. PMID:12850029

Widrow, Bernard; Kamenetsky, Max

438

Measuring and interpreting neuronal correlations  

PubMed Central

Mounting evidence suggests that understanding how the brain encodes information and performs computations will require studying correlations between neurons. The recent advent of recording techniques such as multielectrode arrays and two-photon imaging has made it easier to measure correlations, opening the door to detailed exploration of their properties and contributions to cortical processing. Studies to date, however, have reported discrepant findings, providing a confusing picture. Here, we briefly review these studies and conduct simulations to explore the influence of several experimental and physiological factors on correlation measurements. Differences in response strength, the time window over which spikes are counted, spike sorting conventions, and internal states can all dramatically affect measured correlations and systematically bias estimates. Given these complicating factors, we offer guidelines for interpreting correlation data and a discussion of how best to evaluate the impact of correlations on cortical processing.

Cohen, Marlene R.; Kohn, Adam

2013-01-01

439

Slowness techniques in seismic interpretation  

SciTech Connect

Wave propagation in a horizontally statified medium may be characterized by the slowness p of the waves. In ray theory the travel time curves are parameterized by the slowness p, and this dependence is exploited in modern methods of tau inversion for travel times. The complete response of a stratified medium may also be represented as a superposition of cylindrical waves of varying slowness. This representation leads to the possibility of presenting the response of the stratification in a slowness time map containing both travel time and amplitude information. Such an approach requires copious good quality data but offers advantages in interpretation. Even in the presence of lateral variations of structure, slowness methods can provide useful information.

Kennett, B.L.N.

1981-12-10

440

Computer-interpretable Guideline Formalisms  

PubMed Central

Implementing Computer-Interpretable Guidelines (CIGs) in active computer-based decision support systems promises to improve the acceptance and application of guidelines in daily practice. The model and underlying language are the core characteristics of every CIG approach. However, currently no standard model or language has been accepted by the CIG community. This aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of well-known approaches and to formulate a set of (minimal) requirements that can be used in the process of developing new CIG approaches or improving existing ones. It presents five CIG approaches (the Arden Syntax, GLIF, PROforma, Asbru and EON), followed by a general discussion of the strong points of each approach as well as their implications for future research.

CLERCQ, Paul DE; KAISER, Katharina; HASMAN, Arie

2010-01-01

441

Interpreting neurodynamics: concepts and facts  

PubMed Central

The dynamics of neuronal systems, briefly neurodynamics, has developed into an attractive and influential research branch within neuroscience. In this paper, we discuss a number of conceptual issues in neurodynamics that are important for an appropriate interpretation and evaluation of its results. We demonstrate their relevance for selected topics of theoretical and empirical work. In particular, we refer to the notions of determinacy and stochasticity in neurodynamics across levels of microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic descriptions. The issue of correlations between neural, mental and behavioral states is also addressed in some detail. We propose an informed discussion of conceptual foundations with respect to neurobiological results as a viable step to a fruitful future philosophy of neuroscience.

Rotter, Stefan

2008-01-01

442

Interpretation of the adult polysomnogram.  

PubMed

Polysomnography provides information on the physiological changes occurring in many different organ systems in relation to sleep stages and wakefulness. It allows qualitative and quantitative documentation of abnormalities of sleep and wakefulness, of sleep-wake transition, and of physiological function of other organ systems that are influenced by sleep. Polysomnography is considered to be the "gold standard" for diagnosing sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and other sleep disorders; however, as with most other diagnostic tests, polysomnography is not ideal, but is rather the best available method to diagnose SDB. Review of clinical history, pre- and post study questionnaires, medications, and technician's comments at the time of interpreting the PSG provides a unique opportunity to correlate clinical and electrophysiological data, and is a good investment of time toward improving patient outcomes and avoidance of unnecessary testing. PMID:17606020

Kakkar, Rahul K; Hill, Gilbert K

2007-08-01

443

A First-Order Conditional Logic with Qualitative Statistical Semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define a first-order conditional logic in which conditionals, such as a —• 0, are interpreted as saying that nor- mal\\/commonAypical objects which satisfy a satisfy 0 as well. This qualitative 'statistical' interpretation is achieved by imposing additional structure on the domain of a single first-order model in the form of an ordering over domain elements and tuples, a —*

Ronen I. Brafman

1997-01-01

444

Qualitative Interpretation of Galaxy Spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is for general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means-based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to H II galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. We compare the mean ages of the stellar populations with those inferred using the code STARLIGHT. We also examine the estimated gas-phase metallicity with the metallicities obtained using electron-temperature-based methods. A number of byproducts follow from the analysis. There is a tight correlation between the age of the stellar population and the metallicity of the gas, which is stronger than the correlations between galaxy mass and stellar age, and galaxy mass and gas metallicity. The galaxy spectra are known to follow a one-dimensional sequence, and we identify the luminosity-weighted mean stellar age as the affine parameter that describes the sequence. All ASK classes happen to have a significant fraction of old stars, although spectrum-wise they are outshined by the youngest populations. Old stars are metal-rich or metal-poor depending on whether they reside in passive galaxies or in star-forming galaxies.

Sánchez Almeida, J.; Terlevich, R.; Terlevich, E.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Morales-Luis, A. B.

2012-09-01

445

QUALITATIVE INTERPRETATION OF GALAXY SPECTRA  

SciTech Connect

We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is for general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means-based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to H II galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. We compare the mean ages of the stellar populations with those inferred using the code STARLIGHT. We also examine the estimated gas-phase metallicity with the metallicities obtained using electron-temperature-based methods. A number of byproducts follow from the analysis. There is a tight correlation between the age of the stellar population and the metallicity of the gas, which is stronger than the correlations between galaxy mass and stellar age, and galaxy mass and gas metallicity. The galaxy spectra are known to follow a one-dimensional sequence, and we identify the luminosity-weighted mean stellar age as the affine parameter that describes the sequence. All ASK classes happen to have a significant fraction of old stars, although spectrum-wise they are outshined by the youngest populations. Old stars are metal-rich or metal-poor depending on whether they reside in passive galaxies or in star-forming galaxies.

Sanchez Almeida, J.; Morales-Luis, A. B. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Terlevich, R.; Terlevich, E. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Cid Fernandes, R., E-mail: jos@iac.es, E-mail: abml@iac.es, E-mail: rjt@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: eterlevi@inaoep.mx, E-mail: cid@astro.ufsc.br [Departamento de Fisica-CFM, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

2012-09-10

446

Watching Music: Interpretations of Visual Music Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discourse concerning audience interpretation of media, particularly music videos, has shifted to focus on individual understanding. The individual controls his or her final interpretation based on personal, cultural, and social experiences. This study, using a questionnaire and focus groups, looks at how visual music performance is interpreted, particularly how gender and race influences individual relevancy and understanding. Five music

Venise T. Berry; Vanessa Shelton

1999-01-01

447

On Interpretations of Arithmetic and Set Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper starts by investigating Ackermann's interpretation of finite set theory in the natural numbers. We give a formal version of this interpretation from Peano arithmetic (PA) to Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory with the infinity axiom negated (ZF?inf) and provide an inverse interpretation going the other way. In particular, we emphasize the precise axiomatization of our set theory that is required

Richard Kaye; Tin Lok Wong

2007-01-01

448

8 CFR 1003.22 - Interpreters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpreters. 1003.22 Section 1003.22 Aliens...Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.22 Interpreters. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing shall swear or affirm...

2013-01-01

449

Sequence-based abstract interpretation of Prolog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract interpretation is a general methodology for systematic development of program analyses. An abstract interpretation framework is centered around a parametrized non- standard semantics that can be instantiated by various domains to approximate different program properties. Many abstract interpretation frameworks and analyses for Prolog have been proposed, which seek to extract information useful for program optimization. Although motivated by practical

Baudouin Le Charlier; Sabina Rossi; Pascal Van Hentenryck

2002-01-01

450

Two Interpretations of the Discrimination Parameter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper we propose two interpretations for the discrimination parameter in the two-parameter logistic model (2PLM). The interpretations are based on the relation between the 2PLM and two stochastic models. In the first interpretation, the 2PLM is linked to a diffusion model so that the probability of absorption equals the 2PLM. The…

Tuerlinckx, Francis; De Boeck, Paul

2005-01-01

451

Autoadaptivity and optimization in distributed ECG interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses principal issues of the ECG interpretation adaptivity in a distributed surveillance network. In the age of pervasive access to wireless digital communication, distributed biosignal interpretation networks may not only optimally solve difficult medical cases, but also adapt the data acquisition, interpretation, and transmission to the variable patient's status and availability of technical resources. The background of such

Piotr Augustyniak

2010-01-01

452

Environmental Interpretation Evaluation in Natural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental interpretation is widely assumed to influence visitor behaviour and reduce impacts on a natural site. Assumptions of cause and effect are difficult to attribute and relatively few studies evaluate the effects of interpretation on visitor behaviours. We reviewed a sample of the interpretation evaluation literature available through online databases. We looked at the internal validity of evaluative studies and

Jennifer K. Munro; Angus Morrison-Saunders; Michael Hughes

2008-01-01

453

An Online Synchronous Test for Professional Interpreters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article is based on an experiment designed to conduct an interpreting test for multiple candidates online, using web-based synchronous cyber classrooms. The test model was based on the accreditation test for Professional Interpreters produced by the National Accreditation Authority of Translators and Interpreters (NAATI) in Australia.…

Chen, Nian-Shing; Ko, Leong

2010-01-01

454

Meaning and interpretation: insights and discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper seeks to analyze the discourse of meaning and interpretation in the social sciences. It aims to provide a historical overview of the hermeneutics and the need for scientific as well as general understanding, and to emphasize the importance of the interpretive approach in management history. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper provides an in-depth literature review of interpretation.

Nada K. Kakabadse; Peter Steane

2010-01-01

455

Negative interpretation bias in social phobia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the hypothesis that, compared to non-anxious controls (NACs) and individuals with other anxiety disorders (e.g., individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder; OCs), individuals with generalized social phobia (GSPs) would tend to interpret ambiguous social scenarios as negative when provided with various alternative interpretations. Participants were presented with 22 ambiguous scenarios each followed by three possible interpretations: positive, negative, and

Nader Amin; Edna B. Foa; Meredith E. Coles

1998-01-01

456

Social phobia and interpretation of social events  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that social phobia may be characterized by two interpretation biases. First, a tendency to interpret ambiguous social events in a negative fashion. Second, a tendency to interpret unambiguous but mildly negative social events in a catastrophic fashion. To assess this possibility, patients with generalized social phobia, equally anxious patients with another anxiety disorder, and non-patient controls

Lusia Stopa; David M Clark

2000-01-01

457

Guidelines for reporting statistics in journals published by the American Physiological Society: the sequel  

Microsoft Academic Search

WE SCIENTISTS rely on statistics. In part, this is because we use statistics to report our own science and to interpret the pub- lished science of others. For some of us, reporting and inter- preting statistics can be like reading an unfamiliar language: it is awkward to do, and it is easy to misinterpret meaning. To facilitate these tasks, in

Douglas Curran-Everett; Dale J. Benos

2007-01-01

458

Surveys Assessing Students' Attitudes toward Statistics: A Systematic Review of Validity and Reliability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students with positive attitudes toward statistics are likely to show strong academic performance in statistics courses. Multiple surveys measuring students' attitudes toward statistics exist; however, a comparison of the validity and reliability of interpretations based on their scores is needed. A systematic review of relevant electronic…

Nolan, Meaghan M.; Beran, Tanya; Hecker, Kent G.

2012-01-01

459

Surveys Assessing Students' Attitudes toward Statistics: A Systematic Review of Validity and Reliability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students with positive attitudes toward statistics are likely to show strong academic performance in statistics courses. Multiple surveys measuring students' attitudes toward statistics exist; however, a comparison of the validity and reliability of interpretations based on their scores is needed. A systematic review of relevant electronic…

Nolan, Meaghan M.; Beran, Tanya; Hecker, Kent G.

2012-01-01

460

The Power of Statistical Tests for Moderators in Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Calculation of the statistical power of statistical tests is important in planning and interpreting the results of research studies, including meta-analyses. It is particularly important in moderator analyses in meta-analysis, which are often used as sensitivity analyses to rule out moderator effects but also may have low statistical power. This…

Hedges, Larry V.; Pigott, Therese D.

2004-01-01

461

Trichlorophenyl formate: highly reactive and easily accessible crystalline CO surrogate for palladium-catalyzed carbonylation of aryl/alkenyl halides and triflates.  

PubMed

The high utility of 2,4,6-trichlorophenyl formate, a highly reactive and easily accessible crystalline CO surrogate, is demonstrated. The decarbonylation with NEt(3) to generate CO proceeded rapidly at rt, thereby allowing external-CO-free Pd-catalyzed carbonylation of aryl/alkenyl halides and triflates. The high reactivity of the CO surrogate enabled carbonylation at rt and significantly reduced the quantities of formate to near-stoichiometric levels. The obtained trichlorophenyl esters can be readily converted to a variety of carboxylic acid derivatives in high yields. PMID:23020164

Ueda, Tsuyoshi; Konishi, Hideyuki; Manabe, Kei

2012-09-28

462

UCLA Statistics Series  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of California Los Angeles Statistics Series presents a collection of more than 250 preprints covering a wide array of statistical topics, such as descriptive multivariate analysis, advanced linear models, survey construction and analysis, teaching statistics, and much more. The preprints are arranged by paper number only, hence users must browse the entire list to locate relevant items. Approximately half of the full-text preprints are accessible in HTML, .pdf, or postscript formats. To access preprints not available electronically, users must contact the authors of the papers; author addresses are provided.

463

Statistics and Probability Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial, created by Harvey Berman of Stat Trek, provides a basic introduction to many topics in statistics and probability. Topics include: sets and subsets, statistical experiments, counting, basic probability rules, Bayes' theorem, probability distributions, discrete versus continuous, binomial, negative binomial, hypergeometric, multinomial, Poisson, normal, sampling theory, central tendency, variability, sampling distributions, t-distribution, Chi-square distribution, F-distribution, estimation problems, hypothesis testing, power, survey sampling, simple random samples, stratified samples, cluster samples, sample size. This is a general overview of statistics and probability. It is geared towards a high school advanced placement level.

Berman, Harvey

2009-08-06

464

Transportation Statistics Annual Report 1997  

SciTech Connect

This document is the fourth Transportation Statistics Annual Report (TSAR) prepared by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) for the President and Congress. As in previous years, it reports on the state of U.S. transportation system at two levels. First, in Part I, it provides a statistical and interpretive survey of the system—its physical characteristics, its economic attributes, aspects of its use and performance, and the scale and severity of unintended consequences of transportation, such as fatalities and injuries, oil import dependency, and environment impacts. Part I also explores the state of transportation statistics, and new needs of the rapidly changing world of transportation. Second, Part II of the report, as in prior years, explores in detail the performance of the U.S. transportation system from the perspective of desired social outcomes or strategic goals. This year, the performance aspect of transportation chosen for thematic treatment is “Mobility and Access,” which complements past TSAR theme sections on “The Economic Performance of Transportation” (1995) and “Transportation and the Environment” (1996). Mobility and access are at the heart of the transportation system’s performance from the user’s perspective. In what ways and to what extent does the geographic freedom provided by transportation enhance personal fulfillment of the nation’s residents and contribute to economic advancement of people and businesses? This broad question underlies many of the topics examined in Part II: What is the current level of personal mobility in the United States, and how does it vary by sex, age, income level, urban or rural location, and over time? What factors explain variations? Has transportation helped improve people’s access to work, shopping, recreational facilities, and medical services, and in what ways and in what locations? How have barriers, such as age, disabilities, or lack of an automobile, affected these accessibility patterns? How are commodity flows and transportation services responding to global competition, deregulation, economic restructuring, and new information technologies? How do U.S. patterns of personal mobility and freight movement compare with other advanced industrialized countries, formerly centrally planned economies, and major newly industrializing countries? Finally, how is the rapid adoption of new information technologies influencing the patterns of transportation demand and the supply of new transportation services? Indeed, how are information technologies affecting the nature and organization of transportation services used by individuals and firms?

Fenn, M.

1997-01-01

465

Interface problems: Structural constraints on interpretation?  

PubMed Central

Five experiments investigated the interpretation of quantified noun phrases in relation to discourse structure. They demonstrated, using questionnaire and on-line reading techniques, that readers in English prefer to give a quantified noun phrase in (VP-external) subject position a presuppositional interpretation, in which the noun phrase limits or restricts the interpretation of an already available set, rather than giving it a nonpresuppositional or existential interpretation, in which it introduces completely new entities into the discourse. Experiment 1 showed that readers prefer a presuppositional interpretation of three ships over the existential interpretation in Five ships appeared on the horizon. Three ships sank. Experiment 2 showed longer reading times in sentences that are disambiguated toward the existential interpretation than in sentences that permit the presuppositional interpretation. Experiment 3 suggested that the presuppositional preference is greater when the phrase three ships occurs outside the verb phrase than when it occurs inside the verb phrase. Experiment 4 showed that Korean subjects marked with a topic marker received more presuppositional interpretations than subjects marked with a nominative marker. Experiment 5 showed that German subjects in VP-external (but nontopic) position received more presuppositional interpretations than VP-internal subjects. The results suggest the syntactic position of a phrase is one determinant of its interpretation, as expected according to the mapping hypothesis of Diesing (1990).

Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles; Rayner, Keith; Deevy, Patricia; Koh, Sungryong; Bader, Markus

2006-01-01

466

Probability and Statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an introductory definition, we consider probability to be a collection of con- cepts, methods, and interpretations that facilitate the investigation of nondeter- ministic phenomena. While more mathematically precise definitions will appear in due course, this broadly inclusive description certainly captures the nonspe- cialist's meaning of probability, and it also aligns rather closely with the in- tuitive appreciation shared by

James Johnson

2008-01-01

467

Multivariate statistical analysis strategy for multiple misfire detection in internal combustion engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a multivariate statistical analysis approach to processing the instantaneous engine speed signal for the purpose of locating multiple misfire events in internal combustion engines. The state of each cylinder is described with a characteristic vector extracted from the instantaneous engine speed signal following a three-step procedure. These characteristic vectors are considered as the values of various procedure parameters of an engine cycle. Therefore, determination of occurrence of misfire events and identification of misfiring cylinders can be accomplished by a principal component analysis (PCA) based pattern recognition methodology. The proposed algorithm can be implemented easily in practice because the threshold can be defined adaptively without the information of operating conditions. Besides, the effect of torsional vibration on the engine speed waveform is interpreted as the presence of super powerful cylinder, which is also isolated by the algorithm. The misfiring cylinder and the super powerful cylinder are often adjacent in the firing sequence, thus missing detections and false alarms can be avoided effectively by checking the relationship between the cylinders.

Hu, Chongqing; Li, Aihua; Zhao, Xingyang

2011-02-01

468

STATISTICAL REVIEW AND EVALUATION  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... of the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel [CMH] test adjusted for the baseline NYHA class and using the mean score statistics with modified ridit scores. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

469

Statistical Resampling Plans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Statistical resampling plans can be thought of as procedures for 'recycling data.' They commonly involve computer-intensive methods for the interrogation of data through repeated inspection. The procedures detailed in this document free the data analyst f...

M. S. Taylor

1998-01-01

470

Statistics at Square One  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Statistics at Square One "was one of the best selling statistical text books in the UK," and it has been revised for this online edition. It was written from a medical statistics perspective, and hence many of the examples involve health related topics. Despite this recurring focus, no prior medical knowledge is required and the book can be used by anyone to learn the fundamentals of statistics. Basic concepts such as confidence intervals, correlation, and standard deviation are clearly defined and illustrated in the text. Each chapter concludes with a number of sample exercises; solutions to these problems are provided, but unfortunately there is little explanation accompanying the solutions. In most cases, however, the chapter's contents provide all the information necessary to complete the problems.

Swinscow, T. D. V. (Thomas Douglas Victor)

471

Plague Maps and Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... statement CDC Emergency Preparedness and Response Maps and Statistics Plague in the United States Plague was first ... Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Bacterial Diseases Branch Foothills Campus Fort Collins, CO 80521 ...

472

Data and Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... 31% indicated they had received a doctor's recommendation. Economic Cost The annual medical care and surgical costs ... Cereals with Folic Acid Data and Statistics Research Global Initiative Articles & Key Findings Recommendations Free Materials Links ...

473

Embedded Statistical Profiling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Embedded Statistical Profiling is an initiative to support both offensive and defensive computer network applications. The basis for the effort comprises the development of an environment framework known as Simplified Protocol Capture (SIMPCAP). The envir...

M. Corley

2007-01-01

474

Introduction to Weibull Statistics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes Weibull statistics with particular reference to the analysis of data obtained from mechanical tests on brittle materials. The basic equations are all derived from first principles and the construction and use of Weibull Probability G...

P. M. Braiden

1975-01-01

475

Introduction to Weibull Statistics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Weibull statistics are described with particular reference to the analysis of data obtained from mechanical tests on brittle materials. The basic equations are all derived from principles and the construction and use of Weibull Probability Graphs are desc...

P. M. Braiden

1975-01-01

476

Understanding Solar Flare Statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review is presented of work aimed at understanding solar flare statistics, with emphasis on the well known flare power-law size distribution. Although avalanche models are perhaps the favoured model to describe flare statistics, their physical basis is unclear, and they are divorced from developing ideas in large-scale reconnection theory. An alternative model, aimed at reconciling large-scale reconnection models with solar flare statistics, is revisited. The solar flare waiting-time distribution has also attracted recent attention. Observed waiting-time distributions are described, together with what they might tell us about the flare phenomenon. Finally, a practical application of flare statistics to flare prediction is described in detail, including the results of a year of automated (web-based) predictions from the method.

Wheatland, M. S.

2005-12-01

477

International petroleum statistics report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The International Petroleum Statistic Report, a monthly publication, presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The four sections of this April 1995 report are as follows: time series data on world oil production ...

1995-01-01

478

Relativistic Statistical Thermodynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The formalism of relativistic statistical mechanics, developed in previous papers, provides a very straightforward proof of the Lorentz invariance of the canonical equilibrium distribution function. This theorem automatically determines the Lorentz transf...

R. Balescu

1968-01-01

479

UNCTAD statistical pocketbook  

SciTech Connect

This book provides basic statistics on income, population, production and trade - including balance of payments, commodities and commodity markets - of the developing countries. Date is given up to 1982/83.

Not Available

1984-01-01

480

National Statistics Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Perhaps you have a burning desire to find detailed statistical information about agriculture in Wales, or even about poverty in London's East End. All of this information can be found on the very thorough and usable National Statistics homepage, which provides information on Britain's economy, population, and society. Given the amount of information on the site, visitors would do well to look through the UK at a Glance area. Here they will find basic information on the gross domestic product, consumer spending, unemployment, and population estimates. Along with these aggregate figures for the entire nation, visitors can visit the neighborhood statistics section, where they can retrieve summary statistics for different locales around England and Wales. A number of fine reports based on the 2001 Census are also available for the general public's consideration, and they include considerations of the state of children's dental health to the provisioning of programs for the elderly.

481

Alaska Commercial Fisheries Statistics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following statistical reports and booklets were compiled, published, and distributed: (1) 1973 Alaska commercial fishing vessel register; (2) Weekly Alaska Salmon casepack reports; (3) Monthly Alaska shellfish reports; (4) Alaska tables for the INPFC ...

J. F. Jewell

1974-01-01

482

Probability and Statistical Inference  

Microsoft Academic Search

These lectures introduce key concepts in probability and statistical inference at a level suitable for graduate students in particle physics. Our goal is to paint as vivid a picture as possible of the concepts covered.

Harrison B. Prosper

2006-01-01

483

Agricultural Statistics 1994  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) has made full text of "Agricultural Statistics 1994" available via its Web site. Agricultural Statistics is an annual compendium of data (and selected charts) relating to all aspects of the U.S. agricultural economy. Subject coverage includes all major crop and livestock sectors, farm income and credit, stabilization and price support, agricultural conservation and forestry statistics, and fertilizers and pesticides, among others. Tables include both state and national breakdowns, and most national tables include between two and ten year time series. The book is available as one large Adobe Acrobat .PDF file (about 5 megabytes), so you'll need a fast connection to get it. You'll also need a free Acrobat Reader, which can be obtained at the same page. Acrobat allows selective searching for specific tables, as well as selective printing of those tables. (See Network Tools, below.)

1994-01-01

484

Statistics of Mass Production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper summarizes the statistical quality control methods and procedures that can be employed in mass producing electronic parts (integrated circuits, buffers, capacitors, connectors) to reduce variability and ensure performance to specified radiation...

R. L. Williams W. Y. Gateley

1993-01-01

485

Statistical MIMO Radar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Inspired by recent advances in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communications, we introduce the statistical MIMO radar concept. Unlike beamforming, array radar, or STAP, which presuppose a high correlation between signals either transmitted or recei...

A. Haimovich E. Fishler R. Blum D. Chizhik R. Valenzuela

2004-01-01

486

Cooperative Learning in Statistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Formal use of cooperative learning techniques proved effective in improving student performance and retention in a freshman level statistics course. Lectures interspersed with group activities proved effective in increasing conceptual understanding and overall class performance. (11 references) (Author)

Keeler, Carolyn M.; And Others

1994-01-01

487

Titanic: A Statistical Exploration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Uses the available data about the Titanic's passengers to interest students in exploring categorical data and the chi-square distribution. Describes activities incorporated into a statistics class and gives additional resources for collecting information about the Titanic. (ASK)|

Takis, Sandra L.

1999-01-01

488

Epilepsy and Seizure Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... Facebook MySpace Delicous Stumble Digg More... Epilepsy and Seizure Statistics Epilepsy and seizures affect nearly 3 million ... seizures and epilepsy in the United States: Incidence -- Seizures: 300,000 people have a first convulsion each ...

489

Probability Gate Statistics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A probability gate presents a fixed but controllable transmission probability p to pulses arriving at its input. This report describes some statistical properties of the transformation imposed by a gate on the input distribution of interpulse intervals. T...

J. N. Cronholm

1970-01-01

490

Statistical mechanics of viscoelasticity  

SciTech Connect

A unified treatment of viscoelasticity is developed in the framework of nonequilibrium classical statistical mechanics. An exact correspondence between Mori's continued-fractions formalism and rheological circuits is shown.

Bavaud, F.

1987-02-01

491

Metropolitan Statistical Areas, 1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

All metropolitan area definitions were reconsidered in the course of this revision process (which takes place every ten years), and certain terminology changes were also made. The previous term Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area is being shortened to ...

1983-01-01

492

203985 Everolimus Statistical BPCA  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... from current submission showed that there is a statistically significant difference in the overall SEGA response rate as per central radiology review. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess

493

Statistical Geneticist: Janet Sinsheimer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a PDF interview, PowerPoint slide set, and webpage biography of a statistical geneticist, detailing the importance of scientists fluent in the analysis of numbers to organize data and design studies.

2012-05-02

494

Statistics for anthropologists  

Microsoft Academic Search

David Hurst Thomas. Figuring Anthropology: First Principles of Probability and Statistics. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1976. xi + 532 pp. Tables, figures, appendix, exercises, references, and index. $13.50.

Michael C. Robbins

1976-01-01

495

MAGPHYS: a publicly available tool to interpret observed galaxy SEDs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a simple, physically-motivated model to interpret consistently the emission from galaxies at ultraviolet, optical and infrared wavelengths. We combine this model with a Bayesian method to obtain robust statistical constraints on key parameters describing the stellar content, star formation activity and dust content of galaxies. Our model is now publicly available via a user-friendly code package, MAGPHYS at www.iap.fr/magphys. We present an application of this model to interpret a sample of ~1400 local (z<0.5) galaxies from the H-ATLAS survey. We find that, for these galaxies, the diffuse interstellar medium, powered mainly by stars older than 10 Myr, accounts for about half the total infrared luminosity. We discuss the implications of this result to the use of star formation rate indicators based on total infrared luminosity.

da Cunha, Elisabete; Charlot, Stéphane; Dunne, Loretta; Smith, Dan; Rowlands, Kate

2012-08-01

496

[How to fit and interpret multilevel models using SPSS].  

PubMed

Hierarchic or multilevel models are used to analyse data when cases belong to known groups and sample units are selected both from the individual level and from the group level. In this work, the multilevel models most commonly discussed in the statistic literature are described, explaining how to fit these models using the SPSS program (any version as of the 11 th ) and how to interpret the outcomes of the analysis. Five particular models are described, fitted, and interpreted: (1) one-way analysis of variance with random effects, (2) regression analysis with means-as-outcomes, (3) one-way analysis of covariance with random effects, (4) regression analysis with random coefficients, and (5) regression analysis with means- and slopes-as-outcomes. All models are explained, trying to make them understandable to researchers in health and behaviour sciences. PMID:17425904

Pardo, Antonio; Ruiz, Miguel A; San Martín, Rafael

2007-05-01

497

United Nations Global Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This UN directory site allows users to quickly access national statistics through the official outlets of UN-member states and international statistics through dozens of UN programs and agencies as well as autonomous organizations such as the World Trade Organization and Eurostat. Data covered include, but are not limited to, health care, economics, politics, environment, and social demographics. The site offers a simple search engine with Boolean capabilities and is updated on a biweekly basis.

Division., United N.

498

A Statistic on Involutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define a statistic, called weight, on involutions and consider two applications in which this statistic arises. Let I(n) denote the set of all involutions on [n](={1,2,..., n}) and let F(2n) denote the set of all fixed point free involutions on [2n]. For an involution ?, let |?| denote the number of 2-cycles in ?. Let[ n]q=1+q+?+qn-1 and let \\u000a

Rajendra S. Deodhar; Murali K. Srinivasan

2001-01-01

499

Environmental Quality Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ), this site contains updated monthly tables with statistics about United States environmental quality. The major topics covered in these tables are population, economy and the environment, public lands, ecosystems, air quality, aquatic resources, terrestrial resources, pollution prevention, energy, transportation, and the global environment. The tables indicate data sources, and an archive of statistics for earlier years is provided.

500

Statistical Data Sets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of datasets from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst is categorized by topic. Each dataset and its description are in text format. Topics include: analysis of variance, analysis of covariance, cluster analysis, contingency table analysis, correlation analysis, descriptive statistics, discriminant analysis, factor analysis, nonparametric analysis, multiple regression, nonlinear regression, logistic regression, survival analysis, and time series analysis. This is a large collection of data and software which can be implemented into different aspects of statistical study.

2009-01-23