Sample records for easily interpretable statistics

  1. Interpreting Accident Statistics

    E-print Network

    Ferreira, Joseph Jr.

    Accident statistics have often been used to support the argument that an abnormally small proportion of drivers account for a large proportion of the accidents. This paper compares statistics developed from six-year data ...

  2. An interpretation of cloud overlap statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompkins, Andrian; Di Giuseppe, Francesca

    2015-04-01

    {Previous studies using ground-based and satellite observations show that the total cloud cover of cloudy layers separated by clear sky is close to, but can statistically exceed that given by the random overlap assumption, suggesting a tendency towards minimum overlap. In addition, vertically continuous clouds which are maximally overlapped in adjacent layers, decorrelate as the separation distance increases, with the resulting decorrelation length-scale found to be sensitive to the horizontal scale of the cloud scenes used to conduct the analysis. No satisfactory explanation has been given for the minimal overlap and scene-scale sensitivity of the cloud statistics. Using simple heuristic arguments, it is suggested that both these phenomena can be expected due to the statistical truncation that results from the omission of overcast cloudy layers from the analysis, which occurs more frequently as the scene length falls progressively below the typical cloud system scale. We first validate this claim using a easily interpreted system of repeating cyclic clouds sampled at various lengthscales, which reproduces both of the above phenoma. This analysis is then repeated with realistic fractal clouds from a cloud generator, which demonstrates that the degree of minimal overlap diagnosed in previous studies for is continuous clouds would result from sampling randomly overlapped clouds at spatial scales that are 30% to 80% of the cloud system scale. Based on this, a simple filter is suggested for cloudy scenes which removes the diagnosis of minimal overlap for discontinuous clouds, and results in a scene-length invariant calculation of the cloud overlap decorrelation for continuous clouds. Using CloudSat-CALIPSO data for 6 months, a scale-invariant decorrelation lengthscale of 3.7km is found. Using this filter we analyse a special application. By processing more than eight million cloud scenes from CloudSat observation in conjunction with co-located ECMWF analysis data we identify an empirical relationship between cloud overlap and wind-shear that can be applied to global models with confidence. The analysis confirms that clouds separated by clear sky gaps are randomly overlapped while continuous cloud layers decorrelate from maximum towards random overlap as the separation distance increases. There is a clear and systematic impact of wind-shear on the decorrelation length-scale, with cloud decorrelating over smaller distances as wind shear increases, as expected. A simple empirical linear-fit parametrisation is suggested that is straightforward to add to existing radiation schemes.

  3. Statistical interpretation of texture for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houston, A. G.; Premkumar, Saganti B.; Pitts, David E.; Babaian, Richard J.

    1992-06-01

    Findings from transrectal ultrasound examinations of the prostate are usually based on the echogenicity observed by visual interpretation of the ultrasound image. Hypoechoic areas are typically suspected to be cancerous. Previous studies have indicated that a high percentage (as high as 96%) of cancerous lesions are hypoechoic, but only a moderate percentage (about 50%) of hypoechoic regions are cancerous. We have been investigating statistical measures of texture of digitized ultrasound images of the prostate to assess whether improved accuracies can be achieved for diagnosing prostate cancer and for identifying cancerous lesions. This paper presents our approach as well as results obtained for 17 patients, eight non-cancerous and nine cancerous. The results of a small `blind test,' based on seven subjects, are also presented. Recently, a pathological mount of a prostate cross-section from a prostatectomy was selected as a test case for applying texture analysis to detect prostatic adenocarcinoma. The approach and results are described. The results of both studies are encouraging, but must be considered exploratory due to the small data sets. The results do provide support to the idea that texture information in the prostate is related to a structural change in the gland when carcinoma occurs.

  4. Official Crime Statistics: Their Use and Interpretation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ziggy MacDonald

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we consider the data used by economists to estimate economic models of crime. We discuss the main sources of Official Crime Statistics in the United Kingdom, Europe and the United States, and raise questions about the reliability of these data for estimation and forecasting purposes. In particular, we focus on the disparity between crime rates suggested by

  5. Interpreting Assessment Data: Statistical Techniques You Can Use

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Edwin P. Christmann

    2008-11-01

    *Available late fall 2008* Are you properly evaluating the results of the tests you give to students? Can you explain the difference between classroom assessment and standardized assessment? Are you on solid ground with your grading system? Demystify--and even use--statistics to answer these important questions and more in this clear, easy-to-use text for preservice and classroom science teachers and methods professors. The text's practical approach helps teachers understand how to interpret student assessments statistically and how to measure and explain the validity and reliability of those assessments. Included are a global history of testing to its present state and valuable instructions for using graphing calculators for easy computing. This nonthreatening framework for measuring and interpreting assessment results is a must-have for your professional development library.

  6. Interpreting ECG data by integrating statistical and artificial intelligence tools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Tatara; A. Cinar

    2002-01-01

    The use of an automated system integrating data conditioning, statistical methods, and artificial intelligence tools to summarize and interpret high-frequency physiological data such as the electrocardiogram is investigated. The development of a methodology and its associated tools for real-time patient monitoring and diagnosis is accomplished by using the commercial programming environments MATLAB and G2, a real-time knowledge-based system (KBS) development

  7. Quantum statistics as geometry: Conflict, Mechanism, Interpretation, and Implication

    E-print Network

    Galehouse, Daniel C

    2015-01-01

    The conflict between the determinism of geometry in general relativity and the essential statistics of quantum mechanics blocks the development of a unified theory. Electromagnetic radiation is essential to both fields and supplies a common meeting ground. It is proposed that a suitable mechanism to resolve these differences can be based on the use of a time-symmetric treatment for the radiation. Advanced fields of the absorber can be interpreted to supply the random character of spontaneous emission. This allows the statistics of the Born rule to come from the spontaneous emission that occurs during a physical measurement. When the absorber is included, quantum mechanics is completely deterministic. It is suggested that the peculiar properties of kaons may be induced by the advanced effects of the neutrino field. Schr\\"odinger's cat loses its enigmatic personality and the identification of mental processes as an essential component of a measurement is no longer needed.

  8. Quantum statistics as geometry: Conflict, Mechanism, Interpretation, and Implication

    E-print Network

    Daniel C. Galehouse

    2015-01-29

    The conflict between the determinism of geometry in general relativity and the essential statistics of quantum mechanics blocks the development of a unified theory. Electromagnetic radiation is essential to both fields and supplies a common meeting ground. It is proposed that a suitable mechanism to resolve these differences can be based on the use of a time-symmetric treatment for the radiation. Advanced fields of the absorber can be interpreted to supply the random character of spontaneous emission. This allows the statistics of the Born rule to come from the spontaneous emission that occurs during a physical measurement. When the absorber is included, quantum mechanics is completely deterministic. It is suggested that the peculiar properties of kaons may be induced by the advanced effects of the neutrino field. Schr\\"odinger's cat loses its enigmatic personality and the identification of mental processes as an essential component of a measurement is no longer needed.

  9. Stat 586 Interpretation of Data I (Modern Applied Statistical Modeling and Computing)

    E-print Network

    Xie, Minge

    Stat 586 Interpretation of Data I (Modern Applied Statistical Modeling and Computing) Name Phone: This is a course on statistical methodologies of data analysis, with emphasis on morden applied statistical models and statistical computing. Topics include univariate statistics data visualization bootstrap linear models

  10. Statistical Methods for Automatic Interpretation of Digitally Scanned Fingerprints

    E-print Network

    Haase, Markus

    .J. Baczkowski, X. Feng, T.J. Hainsworth Department of Statistics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, U Scanned Fingerprints K.V. Mardia, A.J. Baczkowski, X. Feng, T.J. Hainsworth Department of Statistics

  11. Graph Interpretation Aspects of Statistical Literacy: A Japanese Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aoyama, Kazuhiro; Stephens, Max

    2003-01-01

    Many educators and researchers are trying to define statistical literacy for the 21st century. Kimura, a Japanese science educator, has suggested that a key task of statistical literacy is the ability to extract qualitative information from quantitative information, and/or to create new information from qualitative and quantitative information.…

  12. Combining semantic interpretation and statistical classification for improved explanation

    E-print Network

    Moore, Johanna D.

    processing in a tutorial dialogue system Myroslava O. Dzikovska, Elaine Farrow, and Johanna D. Moore School for context-specific feedback generation. We describe a system design that combines symbolic interpretation of Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom {m.dzikovska,elaine.farrow,j.moore

  13. Statistical Analysis and Interpretation of Discrete Compositional Data

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    Guttorp William F. Fagan NRCSET e c h n i c a l R e p o r t S e r i e s NRCSE-TRS No. 011 #12;Statistical Peter Guttorp University of Washington, Seattle William F. Fagan Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 6

  14. Confounded Statistical Analyses Hinder Interpretation of the NELP Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paris, Scott G.; Luo, Serena Wenshu

    2010-01-01

    The National Early Literacy Panel (2008) report identified early predictors of reading achievement as good targets for instruction, and many of those skills are related to decoding. In this article, the authors suggest that the developmental trajectories of rapidly developing skills pose problems for traditional statistical analyses. Rapidly…

  15. Statistical characteristics of MST radar echoes and its interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodman, Ronald F.

    1989-01-01

    Two concepts of fundamental importance are reviewed: the autocorrelation function and the frequency power spectrum. In addition, some turbulence concepts, the relationship between radar signals and atmospheric medium statistics, partial reflection, and the characteristics of noise and clutter interference are discussed.

  16. Interpretation of gamma-ray burst source count statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrosian, Vahe

    1993-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of gamma-ray bursts, the so-called log N-log S relation has been used for determination of their distances and distribution. This task has not been straightforward because of varying thresholds for the detection of bursts. Most of the current analyses of these data are couched in terms of ambiguous distributions, such as the distribution of Cp/Clim, the ratio of peak to threshold photon count rates, or the distribution of V/Vmax = (Cp/Clim) exp -3/2. It is shown that these distributions are not always a true reflection of the log N-log S relation. Some kind of deconvolution is required for obtaining the true log N-log S. Therefore, care is required in the interpretation of results of such analyses. A new method of analysis of these data is described, whereby the bivariate distribution of Cp and Clim is obtained directly from the data.

  17. A statistical model for interpreting computerized dynamic posturography data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Paloski, William H.

    2002-01-01

    Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) is widely used for assessment of altered balance control. CDP trials are quantified using the equilibrium score (ES), which ranges from zero to 100, as a decreasing function of peak sway angle. The problem of how best to model and analyze ESs from a controlled study is considered. The ES often exhibits a skewed distribution in repeated trials, which can lead to incorrect inference when applying standard regression or analysis of variance models. Furthermore, CDP trials are terminated when a patient loses balance. In these situations, the ES is not observable, but is assigned the lowest possible score--zero. As a result, the response variable has a mixed discrete-continuous distribution, further compromising inference obtained by standard statistical methods. Here, we develop alternative methodology for analyzing ESs under a stochastic model extending the ES to a continuous latent random variable that always exists, but is unobserved in the event of a fall. Loss of balance occurs conditionally, with probability depending on the realized latent ES. After fitting the model by a form of quasi-maximum-likelihood, one may perform statistical inference to assess the effects of explanatory variables. An example is provided, using data from the NIH/NIA Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging.

  18. An Identity of Chernoff Bounds with an Interpretation in Statistical Physics and Applications in Information Theory

    E-print Network

    Merhav, Neri

    in Information Theory Neri Merhav March 16, 2008 Department of Electrical Engineering Technion - Israel Institute interpretation. This results in several relationships between information theory and statistical physics, which Relationships between information theory and statistical physics have been extensively recognized over the last

  19. Facies control on sandstone composition (and influence of statistical methods on interpretations) in the John Henry Member, Straight Cliffs Formation,

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Cari

    Facies control on sandstone composition (and influence of statistical methods on interpretations and setting of the John Henry Member. Three statistical methods were utilized: univariate standard deviation facies using estimation of means. Both univariate statistical methods have some inherent problems

  20. A STATISTICAL INTERPRETATION OF TERM SPECIFICITY AND ITS APPLICATION IN RETRIEVAL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KAREN SPARCK JONES

    1972-01-01

    The exhaustivity of document descriptions and the specificity of index terms are usually regarded as independent. It is suggested that specificity should be interpreted statistically, as a function of term use rather than of term meaning. The effects on retrieval of variations in term specificity are examined, experiments with three test collections showing, in particular, that frequently-occurring terms are required

  1. A statistical interpretation of surface ocean temperature trends during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    E-print Network

    Haran, Murali

    ! "! A statistical interpretation of surface ocean temperature trends during the Paleocene 90 Myr (Tjalsma and Lohmann, 1983; Thomas, 1990). Organisms inhabiting the sea surface, including of single-specimen surface-dwelling foraminifera at Southern Ocean ODP Site 690. We use Monte Carlo samples

  2. A Novel Statistical Analysis and Interpretation of Flow Cytometry H.T. Banks, D. F. Kapraun, and W. Clayton Thompson

    E-print Network

    A Novel Statistical Analysis and Interpretation of Flow Cytometry Data H.T. Banks, D. F. Kapraun-stimulated CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells collected from two healthy donors. This novel mathematical and statistical

  3. Two Easily Made Astronomical Telescopes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, M.; Jacobs, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The directions and diagrams for making a reflecting telescope and a refracting telescope are presented. These telescopes can be made by students out of plumbing parts and easily obtainable, inexpensive, optical components. (KR)

  4. Does easily learned mean easily remembered?: it depends on your beliefs about intelligence.

    PubMed

    Miele, David B; Finn, Bridgid; Molden, Daniel C

    2011-03-01

    Because numerous studies have shown that feelings of encoding fluency are positively correlated with judgments of learning, a single dominant heuristic, easily learned = easily remembered (ELER), has been posited to explain how people interpret encoding fluency when assessing their own memory. However, the inferences people draw from feelings of encoding fluency may vary with their beliefs about why information is easy or effortful to encode. We conducted two experiments in which participants studied word lists and then predicted their future recall of those items. Results revealed that subjects who viewed intelligence as fixed, and who tended to interpret effortful encoding as indicating that they had reached the limits of their ability, used the ELER heuristic to make judgments of learning. However, subjects who viewed intelligence as malleable, and who tended to interpret effortful encoding as indicating greater engagement in learning, did not use the ELER heuristic and at times predicted greater memory for items that they found more effortful to learn. PMID:21289372

  5. Application of machine learning and expert systems to Statistical Process Control (SPC) chart interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shewhart, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Statistical Process Control (SPC) charts are one of several tools used in quality control. Other tools include flow charts, histograms, cause and effect diagrams, check sheets, Pareto diagrams, graphs, and scatter diagrams. A control chart is simply a graph which indicates process variation over time. The purpose of drawing a control chart is to detect any changes in the process signalled by abnormal points or patterns on the graph. The Artificial Intelligence Support Center (AISC) of the Acquisition Logistics Division has developed a hybrid machine learning expert system prototype which automates the process of constructing and interpreting control charts.

  6. Misuse of statistics in the interpretation of data on low-level radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1982-01-01

    Four misuses of statistics in the interpretation of data of low-level radiation are reviewed: (1) post-hoc analysis and aggregation of data leading to faulty conclusions in the reanalysis of genetic effects of the atomic bomb, and premature conclusions on the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard data; (2) inappropriate adjustment for age and ignoring differences between urban and rural areas leading to potentially spurious increase in incidence of cancer at Rocky Flats; (3) hazard of summary statistics based on ill-conditioned individual rates leading to spurious association between childhood leukemia and fallout in Utah; and (4) the danger of prematurely published preliminary work with inadequate consideration of epidemiological problems - censored data - leading to inappropriate conclusions, needless alarm at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, and diversion of scarce research funds.

  7. Soil VisNIR chemometric performance statistics should be interpreted as random variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, David J.; Gasch, Caley K.; Poggio, Matteo; Morgan, Cristine L. S.

    2015-04-01

    Chemometric models are normally evaluated using performance statistics such as the Standard Error of Prediction (SEP) or the Root Mean Squared Error of Prediction (RMSEP). These statistics are used to evaluate the quality of chemometric models relative to other published work on a specific soil property or to compare the results from different processing and modeling techniques (e.g. Partial Least Squares Regression or PLSR and random forest algorithms). Claims are commonly made about the overall success of an application or the relative performance of different modeling approaches assuming that these performance statistics are fixed population parameters. While most researchers would acknowledge that small differences in performance statistics are not important, rarely are performance statistics treated as random variables. Given that we are usually comparing modeling approaches for general application, and given that the intent of VisNIR soil spectroscopy is to apply chemometric calibrations to larger populations than are included in our soil-spectral datasets, it is more appropriate to think of performance statistics as random variables with variation introduced through the selection of samples for inclusion in a given study and through the division of samples into calibration and validation sets (including spiking approaches). Here we look at the variation in VisNIR performance statistics for the following soil-spectra datasets: (1) a diverse US Soil Survey soil-spectral library with 3768 samples from all 50 states and 36 different countries; (2) 389 surface and subsoil samples taken from US Geological Survey continental transects; (3) the Texas Soil Spectral Library (TSSL) with 3000 samples; (4) intact soil core scans of Texas soils with 700 samples; (5) approximately 400 in situ scans from the Pacific Northwest region; and (6) miscellaneous local datasets. We find the variation in performance statistics to be surprisingly large. This has important implications for the interpretation of soil VisNIR model results. Particularly for smaller datasets, the relative success of a given application or modeling approach may well be due in part to chance.

  8. Exploring Interpretation of Complexity and Typicality in Narratives and Statistical Images about the Social Determinants of Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen C. Lundell; Jeff Niederdeppe; Christopher E. Clarke

    2012-01-01

    This article explores public responses to narratives and statistical images, predominantly graphs and maps, designed to raise awareness of social determinants of health and health disparities. We focus particular attention on respondents' interpretation of the complexity of health causality and the typicality of the situations described. We conducted 24 focus groups with liberal and conservative adults (n?=?180 participants) living in

  9. Statistics for the time-dependent failure of Kevlar-49/epoxy composites: micromechanical modeling and data interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Phoenix, S.L.; Wu, E.M.

    1983-03-01

    This paper presents some new data on the strength and stress-rupture of Kevlar-49 fibers, fiber/epoxy strands and pressure vessels, and consolidated data obtained at LLNL over the past 10 years. This data are interpreted by using recent theoretical results from a micromechanical model of the statistical failure process, thereby gaining understanding of the roles of the epoxy matrix and ultraviolet radiation on long term lifetime.

  10. "What If" Analyses: Ways to Interpret Statistical Significance Test Results Using EXCEL or "R"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Elif

    2012-01-01

    The present paper aims to review two motivations to conduct "what if" analyses using Excel and "R" to understand the statistical significance tests through the sample size context. "What if" analyses can be used to teach students what statistical significance tests really do and in applied research either prospectively to estimate what sample size…

  11. A COMPREHENSIVE STATISTICALLY-BASED METHOD TO INTERPRET REAL-TIME FLOWING MEASUREMENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pinan Dawkrajai; Analis A. Romero; Ding Zhu; A. D. Hill; Larry W. Lake

    2004-01-01

    In this project, we are developing new methods for interpreting measurements in complex wells (horizontal, multilateral and multi-branching wells) to determine the profiles of oil, gas, and water entry. These methods are needed to take full advantage of ''smart'' well instrumentation, a technology that is rapidly evolving to provide the ability to continuously and permanently monitor downhole temperature, pressure, volumetric

  12. Boyle temperature as a point of ideal gas in gentile statistics and its economic interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslov, V. P.; Maslova, T. V.

    2014-07-01

    Boyle temperature is interpreted as the temperature at which the formation of dimers becomes impossible. To Irving Fisher's correspondence principle we assign two more quantities: the number of degrees of freedom, and credit. We determine the danger level of the mass of money M when the mutual trust between economic agents begins to fall.

  13. Statistical Approaches to Interpretation of Local, Regional, and National Highway-Runoff and Urban-Stormwater Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tasker, Gary D.; Granato, Gregory E.

    2000-01-01

    Decision makers need viable methods for the interpretation of local, regional, and national-highway runoff and urban-stormwater data including flows, concentrations and loads of chemical constituents and sediment, potential effects on receiving waters, and the potential effectiveness of various best management practices (BMPs). Valid (useful for intended purposes), current, and technically defensible stormwater-runoff models are needed to interpret data collected in field studies, to support existing highway and urban-runoffplanning processes, to meet National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) requirements, and to provide methods for computation of Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) systematically and economically. Historically, conceptual, simulation, empirical, and statistical models of varying levels of detail, complexity, and uncertainty have been used to meet various data-quality objectives in the decision-making processes necessary for the planning, design, construction, and maintenance of highways and for other land-use applications. Water-quality simulation models attempt a detailed representation of the physical processes and mechanisms at a given site. Empirical and statistical regional water-quality assessment models provide a more general picture of water quality or changes in water quality over a region. All these modeling techniques share one common aspect-their predictive ability is poor without suitable site-specific data for calibration. To properly apply the correct model, one must understand the classification of variables, the unique characteristics of water-resources data, and the concept of population structure and analysis. Classifying variables being used to analyze data may determine which statistical methods are appropriate for data analysis. An understanding of the characteristics of water-resources data is necessary to evaluate the applicability of different statistical methods, to interpret the results of these techniques, and to use tools and techniques that account for the unique nature of water-resources data sets. Populations of data on stormwater-runoff quantity and quality are often best modeled as logarithmic transformations. Therefore, these factors need to be considered to form valid, current, and technically defensible stormwater-runoff models. Regression analysis is an accepted method for interpretation of water-resources data and for prediction of current or future conditions at sites that fit the input data model. Regression analysis is designed to provide an estimate of the average response of a system as it relates to variation in one or more known variables. To produce valid models, however, regression analysis should include visual analysis of scatterplots, an examination of the regression equation, evaluation of the method design assumptions, and regression diagnostics. A number of statistical techniques are described in the text and in the appendixes to provide information necessary to interpret data by use of appropriate methods. Uncertainty is an important part of any decisionmaking process. In order to deal with uncertainty problems, the analyst needs to know the severity of the statistical uncertainty of the methods used to predict water quality. Statistical models need to be based on information that is meaningful, representative, complete, precise, accurate, and comparable to be deemed valid, up to date, and technically supportable. To assess uncertainty in the analytical tools, the modeling methods, and the underlying data set, all of these components need be documented and communicated in an accessible format within project publications.

  14. Interpreting Assessment Data: Statistical Techniques You Can Use (e-book)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Edwin P. Christmann

    2009-06-13

    Are you properly evaluating the results of the tests you give to students? Can you explain the difference between classroom assessment and standardized assessment? Are you on solid ground with your grading system? Demystify--and even use--statistics to answ

  15. An easily reconfigurable, circuit switched connection network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deepak Rana; Charles C. Weems; Steven P. Levitan

    1988-01-01

    The design of an easily reconfigurable, centrally controlled circuit-switched connection network is described. It is used as the interconnection network of a highly parallel processor, which in turn forms the intermediate (IUA) prototype. For an N-input N -output system, all of the possible NN mappings of the inputs onto the outputs can be realized. Several interconnection patterns can be stored

  16. Easily adding animations to interfaces using constraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brad A. Myers; Robert C. Miller; Richard G. McDaniel; Alan S. Ferrency

    1996-01-01

    Adding animation to interfaces is a very difficult task w ith today's toolkits, even though there are many situations in which it would be useful and effective. The Amulet toolki t contains a new form of animation constraint that allows animations to be added to interfaces extremely easily w ith- out changing the logic of the application or the graphical

  17. The new interpretation of support vector machines on statistical learning theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chunhua Zhang; Yingjie Tian; Naiyang Deng

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the theoretical foundation of support vector machines (SVMs). The purpose is to develop further\\u000a an exact relationship between SVMs and the statistical learning theory (SLT). As a representative, the standard C-support vector classification (C-SVC) is considered here. More precisely, we show that the decision function obtained by C-SVC is just one of the decision functions

  18. A new interpretation of flux ratio exponents using statistical rate theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frances K. Skinner

    1999-01-01

    By viewing permeation as a three-step process (movements between the bulk intracellular medium and the channel, within the\\u000a channel, and between the channel and the extracellular bulk medium), and describing each step in the process with a statistical\\u000a rate theory (SRT) approach, we can envisage different permeation scenarios which consider whether movements across certain\\u000a interfaces can be approximated to be

  19. A statistical interpretation of the correlation between intermediate mass fragment multiplicity and transverse energy

    E-print Network

    L. Phair; L. Beaulieu; L. G. Moretto; G. J. Wozniak; D. R. Bowman; N. Carlin; L. Celano; N. Colonna; J. D. Dinius; A. Ferrero; C. K. Gelbke; T. Glasmacher; F. Gramegna; D. O. Handzy; W. C. Hsi; M. J. Huang; I. Iori; Y. D. Kim; M. A. Lisa; W. G. Lynch; G. V. Margagliotti; P. F. Mastinu; P. M. Milazzo; C. P. Montoya; A. Moroni; G. F. Peaslee; R. Rui; C. Schwarz; M. B. Tsang; K. Tso; G. Vannini; F. Zhu

    1999-09-09

    Multifragment emission following Xe+Au collisions at 30, 40, 50 and 60 AMeV has been studied with multidetector systems covering nearly 4-pi in solid angle. The correlations of both the intermediate mass fragment and light charged particle multiplicities with the transverse energy are explored. A comparison is made with results from a similar system, Xe+Bi at 28 AMeV. The experimental trends are compared to statistical model predictions.

  20. Statistical Model for the Interpretation of Evidence for Bio-Signatures Simulated in virtual Mars Samples.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Peter; Heuer, Markus; Hofmann, Beda A.; Milliken, Kitty L.; West, Julia M.

    This paper evaluates a mathematical model of bio-signature search processes on Mars samples returned to Earth and studied inside a Mars Sample Return Facility (MSRF). Asimple porosity model for a returned Mars sample, based on initial observations on Mars meteorites, has been stochastically simulated and the data analysed in a computer study. The resulting false positive, true negative and false negative values - as a typical output of the simulations - was statistically analysed. The results were used in Bayes’ statistics to correct the a-priori probability of presence of bio-signature and the resulting posteriori probability was used in turn to improve the initial assumption of the value of extra-terrestrial presence for life forms in Mars material. Such an iterative algorithm can lead to a better estimate of the positive predictive value for life on Mars and therefore, together with Poisson statistics for a null result, it should be possible to bound the probability for the presence of extra-terrestrial bio-signatures to an upper level.

  1. [Standard epicutaneous tests: interpretation of the statistical findings of the last five years].

    PubMed

    Kuhlwein, A; Hausen, B M

    1982-08-15

    The statistical evaluation of the epicutaneous tests performed between 1976-1980 in the Department of Dermatology at the University Hospital in Hamburg revealed 1320 positive reactions to different contact allergens in 5348 patients (25%). The most frequent responses were found with nickel sulfate. Sixty percent of all positive test reactions were covered by eight of the 30 used allergens ("hit list"). While allergy to tromantidine, arnica and colophony has increased, cases due to methyl salicylate, vioform and turpentine were less frequently seen. Comprehensively, the used standard series has proved to be a representative screening method. PMID:7136130

  2. A statistical approach to the interpretation of aliphatic hydrocarbon distributions in marine sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rapp, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Q-mode factor analysis was used to quantitate the distribution of the major aliphatic hydrocarbon (n-alkanes, pristane, phytane) systems in sediments from a variety of marine environments. The compositions of the pure end members of the systems were obtained from factor scores and the distribution of the systems within each sample was obtained from factor loadings. All the data, from the diverse environments sampled (estuarine (San Francisco Bay), fresh-water (San Francisco Peninsula), polar-marine (Antarctica) and geothermal-marine (Gorda Ridge) sediments), were reduced to three major systems: a terrestrial system (mostly high molecular weight aliphatics with odd-numbered-carbon predominance), a mature system (mostly low molecular weight aliphatics without predominance) and a system containing mostly high molecular weight aliphatics with even-numbered-carbon predominance. With this statistical approach, it is possible to assign the percentage contribution from various sources to the observed distribution of aliphatic hydrocarbons in each sediment sample. ?? 1991.

  3. QC metrics from CPTAC raw LC-MS/MS data interpreted through multivariate statistics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Chambers, Matthew C; Vega-Montoto, Lorenzo J; Bunk, David M; Stein, Stephen E; Tabb, David L

    2014-03-01

    Shotgun proteomics experiments integrate a complex sequence of processes, any of which can introduce variability. Quality metrics computed from LC-MS/MS data have relied upon identifying MS/MS scans, but a new mode for the QuaMeter software produces metrics that are independent of identifications. Rather than evaluating each metric independently, we have created a robust multivariate statistical toolkit that accommodates the correlation structure of these metrics and allows for hierarchical relationships among data sets. The framework enables visualization and structural assessment of variability. Study 1 for the Clinical Proteomics Technology Assessment for Cancer (CPTAC), which analyzed three replicates of two common samples at each of two time points among 23 mass spectrometers in nine laboratories, provided the data to demonstrate this framework, and CPTAC Study 5 provided data from complex lysates under Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) to complement these findings. Identification-independent quality metrics enabled the differentiation of sites and run-times through robust principal components analysis and subsequent factor analysis. Dissimilarity metrics revealed outliers in performance, and a nested ANOVA model revealed the extent to which all metrics or individual metrics were impacted by mass spectrometer and run time. Study 5 data revealed that even when SOPs have been applied, instrument-dependent variability remains prominent, although it may be reduced, while within-site variability is reduced significantly. Finally, identification-independent quality metrics were shown to be predictive of identification sensitivity in these data sets. QuaMeter and the associated multivariate framework are available from http://fenchurch.mc.vanderbilt.edu and http://homepages.uc.edu/~wang2x7/ , respectively. PMID:24494671

  4. Salinization of groundwater around underground LPG storage caverns, Korea : statistical interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Chang, H.

    2001-12-01

    In this research, we investigate the reciprocal influence between groundwater flow and its salinization occurred in two underground cavern sites, using major ion chemistry, PCA for chemical analysis data, and cross-correlation for various hydraulic data. The study areas are two underground LPG storage facilities constructed in South Sea coast, Yosu, and West Sea coastal regions, Pyeongtaek, Korea. Considerably high concentration of major cations and anions of groundwaters at both sites showed brackish or saline water types. In Yosu site, some great chemical difference of groundwater samples between rainy and dry season was caused by temporal intrusion of high-saline water into propane and butane cavern zone, but not in Pyeongtaek site. Cl/Br ratios and ? 18O- ? D distribution for tracing of salinization source water in both sites revealed that two kind of saline water (seawater and halite-dissolved solution) could influence the groundwater salinization in Yosu site, whereas only seawater intrusion could affect the groundwater chemistry of the observation wells in Pyeongtaek site. PCA performed by 8 and 10 chemical ions as statistical variables in both sites showed that intensive intrusion of seawater through butane cavern was occurred at Yosu site while seawater-groundwater mixing was observed at some observation wells located in the marginal part of Pyeongtaek site. Cross-correlation results revealed that the positive relationship between hydraulic head and cavern operating pressure was far more conspicuous at propane cavern zone in both sites (65 ~90% of correlation coefficients). According to the cross-correlation results of Yosu site, small change of head could provoke massive influx of halite-dissolved solution from surface through vertically developed fracture networks. However in Pyeongtaek site, the pressure-sensitive observation wells are not completely consistent with seawater-mixed wells, and the hydraulic change of heads at these wells related to the operating pressure is highly associated with horizontal fault developed along the east-west line of propane cavern zone.

  5. Easily available enzymes as natural retting agents.

    PubMed

    Antonov, Viktor; Marek, Jan; Bjelkova, Marie; Smirous, Prokop; Fischer, Holger

    2007-03-01

    Easily available commercial enzymes currently have great potential in bast fibre processing and can be modified for different end uses. There are several new technologies using enzymes that are able to modify fibre parameters, achieve requested properties, improve processing results and are more beneficial to the ecology in the area of bast fibre processing and fabrics finishing. Enzymatic methods for retting of flax, "cottonisation" of bast fibres, hemp separation, and processing of flax rovings before wet spinning, etc., fall into this group of new technologies. Such enzymatic biotechnologies can provide benefits in textile, composite, reinforced plastic and other technical applications. Laboratory, pilot and industrial scale results and experiences have demonstrated the ability of selected enzymes to decompose interfibre-bonding layers based on pectin, lignin and hemicelluloses. Texazym SER spray is able to increase flax long fibre yields by more than 40%. Other enzymes in combination with mild mechanical treatment can replace aggressive and energy-intensive processing like Laroche "cottonisation". Texazym SCW and DLG pretreatments of flax rovings are presented. PMID:17309044

  6. Periodontal Research: Basics and beyond – Part III (Data presentation, statistical testing, interpretation and writing of a report)

    PubMed Central

    Avula, Haritha

    2013-01-01

    Statistical analysis is the backbone of research and however befuddling it is to a clinician, it is crucial for a researcher to understand the various assumptions underlying the statistical methods. This paper aims at simplifying the various statistical methods that are routinely used in periodontal research. Data presentation, the relevance of clinical as against statistical significance and writing of a report are also discussed. PMID:24174748

  7. Designing easily manufactured lenses using a global method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, James P., Jr.

    2006-06-01

    Easily manufactured lenses can be designed using global optimization with the results sorted based on their predicted asbuilt performance. The most easily manufactured lens depends critically on the performance goals.

  8. A Note on the Calculation and Interpretation of the Delta-p Statistic for Categorical Independent Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruce, Ty M.

    2009-01-01

    This methodological note illustrates how a commonly used calculation of the Delta-p statistic is inappropriate for categorical independent variables, and this note provides users of logistic regression with a revised calculation of the Delta-p statistic that is more meaningful when studying the differences in the predicted probability of an…

  9. On Item Mappings and Statistical Rules for Selecting Binary Items for Criterion-Referenced Interpretation and Bookmark Standard Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huyhn, Huynh

    Item mappings are widely used in educational assessment for applications such as test administration (through test form assembly and computer assisted testing) and for criterion-referenced (CR) interpretation of test scores or scale anchoring. Item mappings are also used to construct ordered item booklets in the CTB/McGraw Hill Bookmark standard…

  10. Statistical factor analysis technique for characterizing basalt through interpreting nuclear and electrical well logging data (case study from Southern Syria).

    PubMed

    Asfahani, Jamal

    2014-02-01

    Factor analysis technique is proposed in this research for interpreting the combination of nuclear well logging, including natural gamma ray, density and neutron-porosity, and the electrical well logging of long and short normal, in order to characterize the large extended basaltic areas in southern Syria. Kodana well logging data are used for testing and applying the proposed technique. The four resulting score logs enable to establish the lithological score cross-section of the studied well. The established cross-section clearly shows the distribution and the identification of four kinds of basalt which are hard massive basalt, hard basalt, pyroclastic basalt and the alteration basalt products, clay. The factor analysis technique is successfully applied on the Kodana well logging data in southern Syria, and can be used efficiently when several wells and huge well logging data with high number of variables are required to be interpreted. PMID:24296157

  11. A flexible computational framework for detecting, characterizing, and interpreting statistical patterns of epistasis in genetic studies of human disease susceptibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason H. Moore; Joshua C. Gilbert; Chia-Ti Tsai; Fu-Tien Chiang; Todd Holden; Nate Barney; Bill C. White

    2006-01-01

    Detecting, characterizing, and interpreting gene–gene interactions or epistasis in studies of human disease susceptibility is both a mathematical and a computational challenge. To address this problem, we have previously developed a multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method for collapsing high-dimensional genetic data into a single dimension (i.e. constructive induction) thus permitting interactions to be detected in relatively small sample sizes. In

  12. Interpreting and Comparing Clustering Experiments Through Graph Visualization and Ontology Statistical Enrichment with the ClutrFree Package

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ghislain Bidaut

    \\u000a In large-scale transcriptome analysis with DNA microarrays, experimentalists are typically using clustering or pattern recognition\\u000a algorithms that group genes with similar expression profiles into clusters of biological significance, which aid in interpreting\\u000a the data. The choice of clustering algorithm and their parameters is essential, since they have a large impact on the final\\u000a results. However, no standards have been established

  13. STATISTICAL BASIS FOR THE DESIGN AND INTERPRETATION OF THE NATIONAL SURFACE WATER SURVEY. PHASE 1. LAKES AND STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objectives of Phase I of the National Surface Water Survey were to determine the number of acidic or potentially acidic lakes and streams, their location, and their physical and chemical characteristics. To meet these objectives, a statistically designed survey was im...

  14. STATISTICAL LITERACY: THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT STATISTICS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milo Schield

    Statistical literacy is the ability to read and interpret data: the ability to use statistics as evidence in arg u- ments. Statistical literacy is a competency: the ability to think critically about statistics. This introduction defines statistical literacy as a science of method, com- pares statistical literacy with traditional statistics and reviews some of the elements in reading and interpret-

  15. Chemometric approach to visualize and easily interpret data from sequential extraction procedures applied to sediment samples.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Mónica B; Quintas, Pamela Y; Domini, Claudia E; Garrido, Mariano; Fernández Band, Beatriz S

    2014-06-15

    The aim of this study was to assess metal mobility/availability in coastal surface (oxic) sediment samples from the Bahía Blanca estuary. Particularly, two sequential extraction procedures able to discriminate metals associated to amorphous Fe and Mn oxides and those associated with crystalline oxides of Fe were applied. Sequential procedures differ in the number of steps, type of reagents used, and in the order in which metals associated to organic matter are extracted. The studied metals were Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn because of their hazardous potential and relative abundance in the estuary. Tucker4 model with three factors describes appropriately the data sets (explained variance of 64.05%). This model made it possible to visualize and explain the information underlying in the data set. From the multivariate analysis, it was possible to evaluate the metal behaviour and their availability. In this way, Cd and Zn are associated to the more available fractions whereas Ni, Cr, Cu and Pb are mainly associated to the unavailable fractions. On the other hand, Zn and Cu are associated to organic matter fraction. Despite the fact that the two-fractionation schemes are quite different, the results obtained with both schemes are comparable. PMID:24813665

  16. Proper interpretation of chronic toxicity studies and their statistics: A critique of "Which level of evidence does the US National Toxicology Program provide? Statistical considerations using the Technical Report 578 on Ginkgo biloba as an example".

    PubMed

    Kissling, Grace E; Haseman, Joseph K; Zeiger, Errol

    2015-09-01

    A recent article by Gaus (2014) demonstrates a serious misunderstanding of the NTP's statistical analysis and interpretation of rodent carcinogenicity data as reported in Technical Report 578 (Ginkgo biloba) (NTP, 2013), as well as a failure to acknowledge the abundant literature on false positive rates in rodent carcinogenicity studies. The NTP reported Ginkgo biloba extract to be carcinogenic in mice and rats. Gaus claims that, in this study, 4800 statistical comparisons were possible, and that 209 of them were statistically significant (p<0.05) compared with 240 (4800×0.05) expected by chance alone; thus, the carcinogenicity of Ginkgo biloba extract cannot be definitively established. However, his assumptions and calculations are flawed since he incorrectly assumes that the NTP uses no correction for multiple comparisons, and that significance tests for discrete data operate at exactly the nominal level. He also misrepresents the NTP's decision making process, overstates the number of statistical comparisons made, and ignores the fact that the mouse liver tumor effects were so striking (e.g., p<0.0000000000001) that it is virtually impossible that they could be false positive outcomes. Gaus' conclusion that such obvious responses merely "generate a hypothesis" rather than demonstrate a real carcinogenic effect has no scientific credibility. Moreover, his claims regarding the high frequency of false positive outcomes in carcinogenicity studies are misleading because of his methodological misconceptions and errors. PMID:25261588

  17. Description of the Experimental Avionics Systems Integration Laboratory (EASILY)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Outlaw, Bruce K. E.

    1994-01-01

    The Experimental Avionics Systems Integration Laboratory (EASILY) is a comprehensive facility used for development, integration, and preflight validation of hardware and software systems for the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Program's Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) experimental transport aircraft. This report describes the history, capabilities, and subsystems of EASILY. A functional description of the many subsystems is provided to give potential users the necessary knowledge of the capabilities of this facility.

  18. Chemical data and statistical interpretations for rocks and ores from the Ranger uranium mine, Northern Territory, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas; Frishman, David

    1983-01-01

    Analytical results for 61 elements in 370 samples from the Ranger Mine area are reported. Most of the rocks come from drill core in the Ranger No. 1 and Ranger No. 3 deposits, but 20 samples are from unmineralized drill core more than 1 km from ore. Statistical tests show that the elements Mg, Fe, F, Be, Co, Li, Ni, Pb, Sc, Th, Ti, V, CI, As, Br, Au, Ce, Dy, La Sc, Eu, Tb, Yb, and Tb have positive association with uranium, and Si, Ca, Na, K, Sr, Ba, Ce, and Cs have negative association. For most lithologic subsets Mg, Fe, Li, Cr, Ni, Pb, V, Y, Sm, Sc, Eu, and Yb are significantly enriched in ore-bearing rocks, whereas Ca, Na, K, Sr, Ba, Mn, Ce, and Cs are significantly depleted. These results are consistent with petrographic observations on altered rocks. Lithogeochemistry can aid exploration, but for these rocks requires methods that are expensive and not amenable to routine use.

  19. Illustration of constrained composition statistical methods in the interpretation of radionuclide concentrations in the moss Pleurozium schreberi.

    PubMed

    Ziembik, Zbigniew; Do?ha?czuk-?ródka, Agnieszka; Majcherczyk, Tadeusz; Wac?awek, Maria

    2013-03-01

    In this work we have used moss Pleurozium schreberi as a bioindicator of radioactive materials in environment. The following radionuclides were determined in moss samples: (137)Cs, (40)K, (210)Pb, (212)Pb, (214)Pb, (214)Bi, (231)Th, (235)U and (228)Ac, but not all of them in each sample. The highest activity concentrations were found for naturally occurring (210)Pb, (40)K and the artificial isotope (137)Cs. Activities of radioisotopes were recalculated into mass concentrations and the statistical methods intended for constrained data processing were used. Analysis of our results showed at most a weak relationship between radioisotope mass concentrations in moss. It was supposed that concentrations of some elements depended on the same, currently unknown, factors. PMID:22673224

  20. The Role of Experimental and Statistical Uncertainty in Interpretation of Immersion Freezing: A Case for Classical Nucleation Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, P. A.; Knopf, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Ice nucleation is the initial step in forming mixed-phase and cirrus clouds, and is well established as an important influence on global climate. Laboratory studies investigate at which cloud relevant conditions of temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) ice nucleation occurs and as a result, numerous fundamentally different ice nucleation descriptions have been proposed for implementation in cloud and climate models. We introduce a new immersion freezing model based on first principles of statistics to simulate individual droplet freezing requiring only three experimental parameters, which are the total number of droplets, the uncertainty of applied surface area per droplet, and the heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficient, Jhet, as a function as a function of T and water activity (aw), where in equilibrium RH=aw. Previous studies reporting frozen fractions (f) or Jhet for a droplet population are described by our model for mineral, inorganic, organic, and biological ice nuclei and different techniques including cold stage, oil-immersion, continuous flow diffusion chamber, flow tube, cloud chamber, acoustic levitation and wind levitation experiments. Taking advantage of the physically based parameterization of Jhet by Knopf and Alpert (Faraday Discuss., 165, 513-534, 2013), our model can predict immersion freezing for the entire atmospherically relevant range of T, RH, particle surface area, and time scales, even for conditions unattainable in a laboratory setting. Lastly, we present a rigorous experimental uncertainty analysis using a Monte Carlo method of laboratory derived Jhet and f. These results imply that classical nucleation theory is universal for immersion freezing. In combination with a aw based description of Jhet, this approach allows for a physically based and computational little demanding implementation in climate and cloud models.

  1. Easily disassembled electrical connector for high voltage, high frequency connections

    DOEpatents

    Milner, Joseph R. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    An easily accessible electrical connector capable of rapid assembly and disassembly wherein a wide metal conductor sheet may be evenly contacted over the entire width of the conductor sheet by opposing surfaces on the connector which provide an even clamping pressure against opposite surfaces of the metal conductor sheet using a single threaded actuating screw.

  2. Modular thermoelectric cell is easily packaged in various arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, J.

    1965-01-01

    Modular thermoelectric cells are easily packaged in various arrays to form power supplies and have desirable voltage and current output characteristics. The cells employ two pairs of thermoelectric elements, each pair being connected in parallel between two sets of aluminum plates. They can be used as solar energy conversion devices.

  3. Novel Cyclic Sugar Imines: Carbohydrate Mimics and Easily

    E-print Network

    Davis, Ben G.

    Novel Cyclic Sugar Imines: Carbohydrate Mimics and Easily Elaborated Scaffolds for Aza (e.g., DNJ) imines not only are potential carbohydrate- processing enzyme inhibitors that may for a nitrogen atom.1 The often potent inhibitory activity of many of these compounds toward carbohydrate

  4. Self-sealing, easily purged quick-disconnect hose coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leyerle, R. B.

    1970-01-01

    Coupling for pressurized hoses handles gas or liquid, is easily purged, and automatically seals the hose when disconnected. Volatile or toxic materials can be isolated before the connection is broken. This device may interest food processors and manufacturers of fluid delivery systems.

  5. Between Teacher & Parent: Helping the Child Who Cries Easily

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodkin, Adele M.

    2004-01-01

    Parents need to remember that crying is the first method of communication for children younger than 5 or 6. It is their way of getting attention. While it isn't easy for new parents to interpret their baby's cries, most learn to distinguish the "I am hungry--feed me" cry from the "My tummy hurts" or the "I am just fussy and bored" cry. This…

  6. Plasmonic Films Can Easily Be Better: Rules and Recipes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    High-quality materials are critical for advances in plasmonics, especially as researchers now investigate quantum effects at the limit of single surface plasmons or exploit ultraviolet- or CMOS-compatible metals such as aluminum or copper. Unfortunately, due to inexperience with deposition methods, many plasmonics researchers deposit metals under the wrong conditions, severely limiting performance unnecessarily. This is then compounded as others follow their published procedures. In this perspective, we describe simple rules collected from the surface-science literature that allow high-quality plasmonic films of aluminum, copper, gold, and silver to be easily deposited with commonly available equipment (a thermal evaporator). Recipes are also provided so that films with optimal optical properties can be routinely obtained. PMID:25950012

  7. Design of easily testable and reconfigurable systolic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Systolic arrays are considered to be preferred architectures for executing linear algebraic operations. In this thesis, easily testable and reconfigurable (ETAR) systolic arrays are studied to achieve the yield enhancement. New 2-D systolic arrays that lend themselves to easy reconfiguration as well as efficient implementations of algorithms are proposed. The 2-D bidirectional and unidirectional systolic arrays proposed are often better architectures than the rectangular and hexagonal systolic arrays proposed earlier, if one considers area, time and reconfigurability. Methods to design linear and 2-D ETAR systolic arrays are proposed. Procedures to design linear and 2-D unidirectional and bidirectional systolic arrays are given. The main feature of the proposed designs is that the COMUs of the PEs in the linear array can all be tested simultaneously. Another feature is that the throughputs of the reconfigured linear unidirectional as well as bidirectional arrays can remain to be equal to those of the fault-free linear arrays. A reconfiguration algorithm for 2-D systolic arrays is also proposed.

  8. Metview and VAPOR: Exploring ECMWF forecasts easily in four dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemen, Stephan; Kertesz, Sandor; Carver, Glenn

    2014-05-01

    The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) is an international organisation providing its member states and co-operating states with forecasts in the medium time range of up to 15 days as well as other forcasts and analysis. As part of its mission, ECMWF generates an increasing number of forecast data products for its users. To support the work of forecasters and researchers and to let them make best use of ECMWF forecasts, the Centre also provides tools and interfaces to visualise their products. This allows users to make use of and explore forecasts without having to transfer large amounts of raw data. This is especially true for products based on ECMWF's 50 member ensemble forecast. Users can choose to explore ECMWF's forecasts from the web or through visualisation tools installed locally or at ECMWF. ECMWF also develops in co-operation with INPE, Brazil, the Metview meteorological workstation and batch system. Metview enables users to easily analyse and visualise forecasts, and is routinely used by scientists and forecasters at ECMWF and other institutions. While Metview offers high quality visualisation in two-dimensional plots and animations, it uses external tools to visualise data in four dimensions. VAPOR is the Visualization and Analysis Platform for Ocean, Atmosphere, and Solar Researchers. VAPOR provides an interactive 3D visualisation environment that runs on most UNIX and Windows systems equipped with modern 3D graphics cards. VAPOR development is led by the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Scientific Computing Division in collaboration with U.C. Davis and Ohio State University. In this paper we will give an overview of how users, with Metview and access to ECMWF's archive, can visualise forecast data in four dimensions within VAPOR. The process of preparing the data in Metview is the key step and described in detail. The benefits to researchers are highlighted with a case study analysing a given weather scenario.

  9. Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Statistics Request Permissions Print to PDF Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 04/ ... nodes or distant parts of the body. Survival statistics should be interpreted with caution. These estimates are ...

  10. Making large amounts of meteorological plots easily accessible to users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy-Thepaut, Sylvie; Siemen, Stephan; Sahin, Cihan; Raoult, Baudouin

    2015-04-01

    The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) is an international organisation providing its member organisations with forecasts in the medium time range of 3 to 15 days, and some longer-range forecasts for up to a year ahead, with varying degrees of detail. As part of its mission, ECMWF generates an increasing number of forecast data products for its users. To support the work of forecasters and researchers and to let them make best use of ECMWF forecasts, the Centre also provides tools and interfaces to visualise their products. This allows users to make use of and explore forecasts without having to transfer large amounts of raw data. This is especially true for products based on ECMWF's 50 member ensemble forecast, where some specific processing and visualisation are applied to extract information. Every day, thousands of raw data are being pushed to the ECMWF's interactive web charts application called ecCharts, and thousands of products are processed and pushed to ECMWF's institutional web site ecCharts provides a highly interactive application to display and manipulate recent numerical forecasts to forecasters in national weather services and ECMWF's commercial customers. With ecCharts forecasters are able to explore ECMWF's medium-range forecasts in far greater detail than has previously been possible on the web, and this as soon as the forecast becomes available. All ecCharts's products are also available through a machine-to-machine web map service based on the OGC Web Map Service (WMS) standard. ECMWF institutional web site provides access to a large number of graphical products. It was entirely redesigned last year. It now shares the same infrastructure as ECMWF's ecCharts, and can benefit of some ecCharts functionalities, for example the dashboard. The dashboard initially developed for ecCharts allows users to organise their own collection of products depending on their work flow, and is being further developed. In its first implementation, It presents the user's products in a single interface with fast access to the original product, and possibilities of synchronous animations between them. But its functionalities are being extended to give users the freedom to collect not only ecCharts's 2D maps and graphs, but also other ECMWF Web products such as monthly and seasonal products, scores, and observation monitoring. The dashboard will play a key role to help the user to interpret the large amount of information that ECMWF is providing. This talk will present examples of how the new user interface can organise complex meteorological maps and graphs and show the new possibilities users have gained by using the web as a medium.

  11. STATISTICAL EVALUATION AND BIOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF NONRANDOM ABUNDANCE IN THE E-COLI-K-12 GENOME OF TETRANUCLEOTIDE AND PENTANUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCES RELATED TO VSP DNA MISMATCH REPAIR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer Merkl; M. Kroger; Peter Rice; Hans-Joachim Fritz

    1992-01-01

    The abundance of all tetra- and pentanucleotide sequences is calculated for a set of DNA sequence data comprising 767,393 nucleotides of the E. coli K-12 genome. Observed frequencies are compared to those expected from a Markov chain prediction algorithm. Systematic and extreme non-random representations are found for speciaL sets of sequences. These are interpreted as arising from incorporation of a

  12. THE PROBLEM OF CLASSIFYING MEMBERS OF A POPULATION ON A CONTINUOUS SCALE--STATISTICAL MODELS FOR THE EVALUATIONS AND INTERPRETATION OF EDUCATIONAL CRITERIA, PART 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BARNETT, F.C.; SAW, J.G.

    A WORKING MODEL CAPABLE OF RANKING INDIVIDUALS IN A RANDOM SAMPLE FROM A MULTIVARIATE POPULATION BY SOME CRITERION OF INTEREST WAS DEVELOPED. THE MULTIPLE CORRELATION COEFFICIENT OF RANKS WITH MEASURED VARIATES AS A STATISTIC IN TESTING WHETHER RANKS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH MEASUREMENTS WAS EMPLOYED AND DUBBED "QUASI-RANK MULTIPLE CORRELATION…

  13. Technical Basis Document: A Statistical Basis for Interpreting Urinary Excretion of Plutonium Based on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) for Selected Atoll Populations in the Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K; Hamilton, T F; Brown, T A; Martinelli, R E; Marchetti, A A; Kehl, S R; Langston, R G

    2007-05-01

    We have developed refined statistical and modeling techniques to assess low-level uptake and urinary excretion of plutonium from different population group in the northern Marshall Islands. Urinary excretion rates of plutonium from the resident population on Enewetak Atoll and from resettlement workers living on Rongelap Atoll range from <1 to 8 {micro}Bq per day and are well below action levels established under the latest Department regulation 10 CFR 835 in the United States for in vitro bioassay monitoring of {sup 239}Pu. However, our statistical analyses show that urinary excretion of plutonium-239 ({sup 239}Pu) from both cohort groups is significantly positively associated with volunteer age, especially for the resident population living on Enewetak Atoll. Urinary excretion of {sup 239}Pu from the Enewetak cohort was also found to be positively associated with estimates of cumulative exposure to worldwide fallout. Consequently, the age-related trends in urinary excretion of plutonium from Marshallese populations can be described by either a long-term component from residual systemic burdens acquired from previous exposures to worldwide fallout or a prompt (and eventual long-term) component acquired from low-level systemic intakes of plutonium associated with resettlement of the northern Marshall Islands, or some combination of both.

  14. Pitfalls in the statistical examination and interpretation of the correspondence between physician and patient satisfaction ratings and their relevance for shared decision making research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The correspondence of satisfaction ratings between physicians and patients can be assessed on different dimensions. One may examine whether they differ between the two groups or focus on measures of association or agreement. The aim of our study was to evaluate methodological difficulties in calculating the correspondence between patient and physician satisfaction ratings and to show the relevance for shared decision making research. Methods We utilised a structured tool for cardiovascular prevention (arriba™) in a pragmatic cluster-randomised controlled trial. Correspondence between patient and physician satisfaction ratings after individual primary care consultations was assessed using the Patient Participation Scale (PPS). We used the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, the marginal homogeneity test, Kendall's tau-b, weighted kappa, percentage of agreement, and the Bland-Altman method to measure differences, associations, and agreement between physicians and patients. Results Statistical measures signal large differences between patient and physician satisfaction ratings with more favourable ratings provided by patients and a low correspondence regardless of group allocation. Closer examination of the raw data revealed a high ceiling effect of satisfaction ratings and only slight disagreement regarding the distributions of differences between physicians' and patients' ratings. Conclusions Traditional statistical measures of association and agreement are not able to capture a clinically relevant appreciation of the physician-patient relationship by both parties in skewed satisfaction ratings. Only the Bland-Altman method for assessing agreement augmented by bar charts of differences was able to indicate this. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCT71348772 PMID:21592337

  15. Interpreting Metonymy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankhurst, Anne

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines some of the problems associated with interpreting metonymy, a figure of speech in which an attribute or commonly associated feature is used to name or designate something. After defining metonymy and outlining the principles of metonymy, the paper explains the differences between metonymy, synecdoche, and metaphor. It is…

  16. Statistical treatment and preliminary interpretation of chemical data from a uranium deposit in the northeast part of the Church Rock area, Gallup mining district, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spirakis, C.S.; Pierson, C.T.; Santos, E.S.; Fishman, N.S.

    1983-01-01

    Statistical treatment of analytical data from 106 samples of uranium-mineralized and unmineralized or weakly mineralized rocks of the Morrison Formation from the northeastern part of the Church Rock area of the Grants uranium region indicates that along with uranium, the deposits in the northeast Church Rock area are enriched in barium, sulfur, sodium, vanadium and equivalent uranium. Selenium and molybdenum are sporadically enriched in the deposits and calcium, manganese, strontium, and yttrium are depleted. Unlike the primary deposits of the San Juan Basin, the deposits in the northeast part of the Church Rock area contain little organic carbon and several elements that are characteristically enriched in the primary deposits are not enriched or are enriched to a much lesser degree in the Church Rock deposits. The suite of elements associated with the deposits in the northeast part of the Church Rock area is also different from the suite of elements associated with the redistributed deposits in the Ambrosia Lake district. This suggests that the genesis of the Church Rock deposits is different, at least in part, from the genesis of the primary deposits of the San Juan Basin or the redistributed deposits at Ambrosia Lake.

  17. Quantum Interpretations

    E-print Network

    A. R. P. Rau

    2006-06-03

    Difficulties and discomfort with the interpretation of quantum mechanics are due to differences in language between it and classical physics. Analogies to The Special Theory of Relativity, which also required changes in the basic worldview and language of non-relativistic classical mechanics, may help in absorbing the changes called for by quantum physics. There is no need to invoke extravagances such as the many worlds interpretation or specify a central role for consciousness or neural microstructures. The simple, but basic, acceptance that what is meant by the state of a physical system is different in quantum physics from what it is in classical physics goes a long way in explaining its seeming peculiarities.

  18. Statistics Clinic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Foy, Millennia; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fiedler, James

    2014-01-01

    Do you have elevated p-values? Is the data analysis process getting you down? Do you experience anxiety when you need to respond to criticism of statistical methods in your manuscript? You may be suffering from Insufficient Statistical Support Syndrome (ISSS). For symptomatic relief of ISSS, come for a free consultation with JSC biostatisticians at our help desk during the poster sessions at the HRP Investigators Workshop. Get answers to common questions about sample size, missing data, multiple testing, when to trust the results of your analyses and more. Side effects may include sudden loss of statistics anxiety, improved interpretation of your data, and increased confidence in your results.

  19. Combining the ApEn statistic with surrogate data analysis for the detection of nonlinear dynamics in time series

    E-print Network

    Randall A. LaViolette; Charles R. Tolle; Timothy R. McJunkin; Daphne L. Stoner

    2004-02-05

    We tested the natural combination of surrogate data analysis with the ApEn regularity statistic developed by Pincus [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88 (1991) 2297] by applying it to some popular models of nonlinear dynamics and publicly available experimental time series. We found that this easily implemented combination provided a useful method for discriminating signals governed by nonlinear dynamics from those governed by linear dynamics and noise. An apparently novel physical interpretation of ApEn also is supplied.

  20. Automatic interpretation of digital maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Volker; Luo, Fen

    In the past, the availability and/or the acquisition of spatial data were often the main problems of the realization of spatial applications. Meanwhile this situation has changed: on one hand, comprehensive spatial datasets already exist and on the other hand, new sensor technologies have the ability to capture fast and with high quality large amounts of spatial data. More and more responsible for the increasing accessibility of spatial data are also collaborative mapping techniques which enable users to create maps by themselves and to make them available in the internet. However, the potential of this diversity of spatial data can only hardly be utilized. Especially maps in the internet are represented very often only with graphical elements and no explicit information about the map's scale, extension and content is available. Nevertheless, humans are able to extract this information and to interpret maps. For example, it is possible for a human to distinguish between rural and industrial areas only by looking at the objects' geometries. Furthermore, a human can easily identify and group map objects that belong together. Also the type, scale and extension of a map can be identified under certain conditions only by looking at the objects' geometries. All these examples can be subsumed under the term "map interpretation". In this paper it is discussed how map interpretation can be automated and how automatic map interpretation can be used in order to support other processes. The different kinds of automatic map interpretation are discussed and two approaches are shown in detail.

  1. STATISTICAL METHODS STATISTICAL METHODS

    E-print Network

    Delorme, Arnaud

    STATISTICAL METHODS 1 STATISTICAL METHODS Arnaud Delorme, Swartz Center for Computational@salk.edu. Keywords: statistical methods, inference, models, clinical, software, bootstrap, resampling, PCA, ICA Abstract: Statistics represents that body of methods by which characteristics of a population are inferred

  2. Summary and interpretive synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This chapter summarizes the major advances made through our integrated geological studies of the Lisburne Group in northern Alaska. The depositional history of the Lisburne Group is discussed in a framework of depositional sequence stratigraphy. Although individual parasequences (small-scale carbonate cycles) of the Wahoo Limestone cannot be correlated with certainty, parasequence sets can be interpreted as different systems tracts within the large-scale depositional sequences, providing insights on the paleoenvironments, paleogeography and platform geometry. Conodont biostratigraphy precisely established the position of the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary within an important reference section, where established foraminiferal biostratigraphy is inconsistent with respect to conodont-based time-rock boundaries. However, existing Carboniferous conodont zonations are not readily applicable because most zonal indicators are absent, so a local zonation scheme was developed. Diagenetic studies of the Lisburne Group recognized nineteen subaerial exposure surfaces and developed a cement stratigraphy that includes: early cements associated with subaerial exposure surfaces in the Lisburne Group; cements associated with the sub-Permian unconformity; and later burial cements. Subaerial exposure surfaces in the Alapah Limestone are easily explained, being associated with peritidal environments at the boundaries of Sequence A. The Lisburne exposed in ANWR is generally tightly cemented and supermature, but could still be a good reservoir target in the adjacent subsurface of ANWR given the appropriate diagenetic, deformational and thermal history. Our ongoing research on the Lisburne Group will hopefully provide additional insights in future publications.

  3. Transforming basic robotic platforms into easily deployable and Web remotely controllable robots

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Transforming basic robotic platforms into easily deployable and Web remotely controllable robots basic robotic platforms into Web remotely controllable robots. Our goal is to achieve robot deploymentG), the robot can be deployed and Web- controlled. The distant user can send commands to the robot

  4. Making On-Line Science Course Materials Easily Translatable and Accessible Worldwide: Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Wendy K.; Alhadlaq, Hisham; Malley, Christopher V.; Perkins, Katherine K.; Olson, Jonathan; Alshaya, Fahad; Alabdulkareem, Saleh; Wieman, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    The PhET Interactive Simulations Project partnered with the Excellence Research Center of Science and Mathematics Education at King Saud University with the joint goal of making simulations useable worldwide. One of the main challenges of this partnership is to make PhET simulations and the website easily translatable into any language. The PhET…

  5. A synthesis and optimization procedure for fully and easily testable sequential machines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Srinivas Devadas; Hi-keung Tony Ma; A. Richard Newton; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-vincentelli

    1989-01-01

    The authors outline a synthesis procedure which beginning from a state transition graph (STG) description of a sequential machine produces an optimized fully and easily testable logic implementation. This logic-level implementation is guaranteed to be testable for all single stuck-at faults in the combinational logic and the test sequences for these faults can be obtained using combinational test generation techniques

  6. As sustainability becomes integrated into public policy decision making,comprehensive and easily accessible sustainability

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    As sustainability becomes integrated into public policy decision making,comprehensive and easily accessible sustainability information will be needed to assist policy analysis.As visual analytics emerges as a major tool of policy analysis,sustainability information,particularly sustainability indicators

  7. Electrochromic Polymers for Easily Processed Devices John R. Reynolds,* Avni A. Argun, Irina Schwendeman,

    E-print Network

    Tanner, David B.

    Electrochromic Polymers for Easily Processed Devices John R. Reynolds,* Avni A. Argun, Irina for electrochromic applications. These polymers exhibit ease of processability and useful mechanical properties (e.g. flexibility). However, the major strength of these organic-based materials is that their electrochromic

  8. On a realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics

    E-print Network

    Neumaier, Arnold

    On a realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics Arnold Neumaier Institut fur Mathematik respecting the indeter- ministic nature of quantum mechanics, allows to speak of de#12;nite values for all], there are at least two levels of inter- preting quantum mechanics: the statistical interpretation in the narrower

  9. A Graphical Interpretation of Probit Coefficients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, William E.; Waldman, Donald M.

    1989-01-01

    Contends that, when discrete choice models are taught, particularly the probit model, it is the method rather than the interpretation of the results that is emphasized. This article provides a graphical technique for interpretation of an estimated probit coefficient that will be useful in statistics and econometrics courses. (GG)

  10. Statistical Inference: The Big Picture

    PubMed Central

    Kass, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Statistics has moved beyond the frequentist-Bayesian controversies of the past. Where does this leave our ability to interpret results? I suggest that a philosophy compatible with statistical practice, labelled here statistical pragmatism, serves as a foundation for inference. Statistical pragmatism is inclusive and emphasizes the assumptions that connect statistical models with observed data. I argue that introductory courses often mis-characterize the process of statistical inference and I propose an alternative “big picture” depiction. PMID:21841892

  11. Easily-accessible digital palaeontological databases-a new perspective for the storage of palaeontological information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolniewicz, Pawe?

    2009-12-01

    Techniques that allow to render diverse types of palaeontological data as publicly available internet resources are described. In order to develop an easily accessible digital palaeontological database, three steps should be followed: (1) digitization of the studied specimens, (2) acquisition of morphometric data, and (3) contribution of the data to open and searchable geoinformatic (palaeontological) databases. Digital data should be submitted to internet databases that allow a user to fetch various types of information from dispersed sources (semantic web services).

  12. Statistical Process Control

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Devine, Craig

    Statistical Process Control is a lesson plan which provides an overview of Statistical Process Control, showing the value of collecting and analyzing data that enables people to systematically analyze and improve a process. After completing this module, students should be able to construct and interpret different statistical charts in order to evaluate a process. Note: This module is part of a modularized manufacturing technology curriculum created by the PSCME, found at www.pscme.org/educators.html.

  13. Easily accessible and highly tunable bisphosphine ligands for asymmetric hydroformylation of terminal and internal alkenes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kun; Zheng, Xin; Wang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xumu

    2014-04-01

    An efficient methodology for synthesizing a small library of easily tunable and sterically bulky ligands for asymmetric hydroformylation (AHF) has been reported. Five groups of alkene substrates have been tested with excellent conversions, moderate-to-excellent regio- and enantioselectivities. Among the best result of the reported literature, application of ligand 1?c in the highly selective AHF of the challenging substrate 2,5-dihydrofuran yielded almost one isomer in up to 99?% conversion along with enantiomeric excesses (ee) of up to 92?%. Highly enantioselective AHF of dihydropyrrole substrates is achieved using the same ligand, with up to 95?%?ee and up to >1:50 ?-isomer/?-isomer ratio. PMID:24573699

  14. Statistical Reform in School Psychology Research: A Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaminathan, Hariharan; Rogers, H. Jane

    2007-01-01

    Statistical reform in school psychology research is discussed in terms of research designs, measurement issues, statistical modeling and analysis procedures, interpretation and reporting of statistical results, and finally statistics education.

  15. Making On-line Science Course Materials Easily Translatable and Accessible Worldwide: Challenges and Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Wendy K.; Alhadlaq, Hisham; Malley, Christopher V.; Perkins, Katherine K.; Olson, Jonathan; Alshaya, Fahad; Alabdulkareem, Saleh; Wieman, Carl E.

    2012-02-01

    The PhET Interactive Simulations Project partnered with the Excellence Research Center of Science and Mathematics Education at King Saud University with the joint goal of making simulations useable worldwide. One of the main challenges of this partnership is to make PhET simulations and the website easily translatable into any language. The PhET project team overcame this challenge by creating the Translation Utility. This tool allows a person fluent in both English and another language to easily translate any of the PhET simulations and requires minimal computer expertise. In this paper we discuss the technical issues involved in this software solution, as well as the issues involved in obtaining accurate translations. We share our solutions to many of the unexpected problems we encountered that would apply generally to making on-line scientific course materials available in many different languages, including working with: languages written right-to-left, different character sets, and different conventions for expressing equations, variables, units and scientific notation.

  16. Safe, Effective and Easily Reproducible Fusion Technique for CV Junction Instability

    PubMed Central

    Sannegowda, Raghavendra Bakki

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The Craniovertebral junction (CVJ) refers to a bony enclosure where the occipital bone surrounds the foramen magnum, the atlas and the axis vertebrae. Because of the complexity of structures, CVJ instability is associated with diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Posterior CV fusion procedures have evolved a lot over the last couple of decades. There has been a lookout for one such surgical procedure which is inherently safe, simple, easily reproducible and biomechanically sound. In our study, we present the initial experience the cases of CV junction instrumentation using O-C1-C2 screw & rod construct operated by the author. Aims and Objectives: The current study is a descriptive analysis of the cases of CVJ instability treated by us with instrumentation using O-C1-C2 screw and rod construct fusion technique. Materials and Methods: It is a retrospective, analytical study in which cases of CV junction instability operated by the author between January 2010 to March 2014 were analysed using various clinical, radiological and outcome parameters. Conclusion: CV junction instrumentation using O-C1-C2 screw and rod construct fusion technique proved to be safe, effective, easily reproducible and biomechanically sound technique which can be adopted by all surgeons who may be at any stage of their learning curve. PMID:25954660

  17. Enhancing Table Interpretation Skills via Training in Table Creation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karazsia, Bryan T.

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative and statistical literacy are core domains in the undergraduate psychology curriculum. An important component of such literacy includes interpretation of visual aids, such as tables containing results from statistical analyses. This article presents a new technique for enhancing student interpretation of American Psychological…

  18. Statistical Applets: Statistical Significance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Duckworth, William

    Created by authors Duckworth, McCabe, Moore and Sclove for W.H. Freeman of Co., this applet is designed to help students visualize the rejection region of a statistical test by allowing them to set null and alternate hypotheses, population parameters, sample statistics, and significance level. It accompanies "Â?Â?Practice of Business Statistics," but can be used without this text. Even though brief, this is a nice interactive resource for an introductory statistics course.

  19. GoCxx: a tool to easily leverage C++ legacy code for multicore-friendly Go libraries and frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binet, Sébastien

    2012-12-01

    Current HENP libraries and frameworks were written before multicore systems became widely deployed and used. From this environment, a ‘single-thread’ processing model naturally emerged but the implicit assumptions it encouraged are greatly impairing our abilities to scale in a multicore/manycore world. Writing scalable code in C++ for multicore architectures, while doable, is no panacea. Sure, C++11 will improve on the current situation (by standardizing on std::thread, introducing lambda functions and defining a memory model) but it will do so at the price of complicating further an already quite sophisticated language. This level of sophistication has probably already strongly motivated analysis groups to migrate to CPython, hoping for its current limitations with respect to multicore scalability to be either lifted (Grand Interpreter Lock removal) or for the advent of a new Python VM better tailored for this kind of environment (PyPy, Jython, …) Could HENP migrate to a language with none of the deficiencies of C++ (build time, deployment, low level tools for concurrency) and with the fast turn-around time, simplicity and ease of coding of Python? This paper will try to make the case for Go - a young open source language with built-in facilities to easily express and expose concurrency - being such a language. We introduce GoCxx, a tool leveraging gcc-xml's output to automatize the tedious work of creating Go wrappers for foreign languages, a critical task for any language wishing to leverage legacy and field-tested code. We will conclude with the first results of applying GoCxx to real C++ code.

  20. Interpreting 12th-Graders' NAEP-Scaled Mathematics Performance Using High School Predictors and Postsecondary Outcomes from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88). Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2007-328

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Leslie A.; Ingels, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    The search for an understandable reporting format has led the National Assessment Governing Board to explore the possibility of measuring and interpreting student performance on the 12th-grade National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), the Nation's Report Card, in terms of readiness for college, the workplace, and the military. This…

  1. Translation and Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Nancy Schweda

    1995-01-01

    Examines recent trends in the fields of translation and interpretation, focusing on translation and interpretation theory and practice, language-specific challenges, computer-assisted translation, machine translation, subtitling, and translator and interpreter training. An annotated bibliography discusses seven important works in the field. (112…

  2. Interpreting. NETAC Teacher Tipsheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darroch, Kathy; Marshall, Liza

    This tipsheet explains that an interpreter's role is to facilitate communication and convey all auditory and signed information so that individuals with and without hearing may fully interact. It outlines the common types of services provided by interpreters, and discusses principles guiding the professional behaviors of interpreters. When working…

  3. Delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy after more than 6 weeks on easily controlled cholecystitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jungnam

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims There is debate on the timing of cholecystectomy in acute cholecystitis. Although there is a recent trend toward early laparoscopic cholecystectomy (eLC), that is, within 72 hours of symptom onset, some surgeons still prefer delayed operations, or operations after several weeks, expecting subsidence of the inflammation and therefore a higher chance of avoiding open conversion and minimizing complications. Our experience of LC for 10 years was reviewed retrospectively for the timing of the operation and perioperative outcomes, focusing on evaluating the feasibility of delayed LC (dLC). Methods The severity of the acute cholecystitis was classified into three grades: easily responding to antibiotics and mostly symptom-free (mild, grade I), symptoms persisting during the treatment (moderate, grade II), and worsening into a septic state (severe, grade III). Results Among 353 cholecystectomy patients, grade I (N=224) patients had eLC in 152 cases and dLC in 72 cases. Grade II (N=117) patients had eLC in 103 cases and 12 had dLC. All grade III patients (N=12) underwent open cholecystectomy. In Grade I patients, when the operation was delayed, there were fewer open conversion cases compared to eLC patients (20.45% vs 7.69%) (p<0.05), and complications also were decreased (p>0.05). Grade II patients' rate of open conversions (58.3% vs 44.2%) and complications (25.0% vs 19.5%) increased when the operations were delayed compared with eLC patients (p<0.05). In grade I and II patients, the most common reason for open conversion was bleeding, and the most common complication was also bleeding. Conclusions For patients with cholecystits that easily responds to antibiotics (grade I), dLC showed a higher laparoscopic success rate than eLC at the expense of prolonged treatment time and examinations, With moderate to severe cholecystitis (grade II, III), however, there was no room for delayed operations.

  4. Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore

    2001-01-01

    We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.

  5. Injury Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Data Consumer Opinion Surveys Home / Research & Statistics Injury Statistics This is the statistic reports page for scientific ... Home Appliances, Maintenance and Construction Injury Statistics Injury Statistics September 30, 2012 Submersions Related to Non-Pool ...

  6. Easily regenerable solid adsorbents based on polyamines for carbon dioxide capture from the air.

    PubMed

    Goeppert, Alain; Zhang, Hang; Czaun, Miklos; May, Robert B; Prakash, G K Surya; Olah, George A; Narayanan, S R

    2014-05-01

    Adsorbents prepared easily by impregnation of fumed silica with polyethylenimine (PEI) are promising candidates for the capture of CO2 directly from the air. These inexpensive adsorbents have high CO2 adsorption capacity at ambient temperature and can be regenerated in repeated cycles under mild conditions. Despite the very low CO2 concentration, they are able to scrub efficiently all CO2 out of the air in the initial hours of the experiments. The influence of parameters such as PEI loading, adsorption and desorption temperature, particle size, and PEI molecular weight on the adsorption behavior were investigated. The mild regeneration temperatures required could allow the use of waste heat available in many industrial processes as well as solar heat. CO2 adsorption from the air has a number of applications. Removal of CO2 from a closed environment, such as a submarine or space vehicles, is essential for life support. The supply of CO2-free air is also critical for alkaline fuel cells and batteries. Direct air capture of CO2 could also help mitigate the rising concerns about atmospheric CO2 concentration and associated climatic changes, while, at the same time, provide the first step for an anthropogenic carbon cycle. PMID:24644023

  7. Ectopic spleen: An easily identifiable but commonly undiagnosed entity until manifestation of complications

    PubMed Central

    Blouhos, Konstantinos; Boulas, Konstantinos A.; Salpigktidis, Ilias; Barettas, Nikolaos; Hatzigeorgiadis, Anestis

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Ectopic spleen is an uncommon clinical entity as splenectomy for treatment of ectopic spleens accounts for less than 0.25% of splenectomies. The most common age of presentation is childhood especially under 1 year of age followed by the third decade of life. PRESENTATION OF CASE The present report refers to a patient with torsion of a pelvic spleen treated with splenectomy. The patient exhibited a period of vague intermittent lower abdominal pain lasted 65 days followed by a period of constant left lower quadrant pain of increasing severity lasted 6 days. On the first 65 days, vague pain was attributed to progressive torsion of the spleen which resulted in venous congestion. On the last 6 days, exacerbation of pain was attributed to irreducible torsion, infraction of the arterial supply, acute ischemia, strangulation and rupture of the gangrenous spleen. Diagnosis was made by CT which revealed absence of the spleen in its normal position, a homogeneous pelvic mass with no contrast enhancement, free blood in the peritoneal cavity, and confirmed by laparotomy. DISCUSSION Clinical manifestations of ectopic spleen vary from asymptomatic to abdominal emergency. Symptoms are most commonly attributed to complications related to torsion. Operative management, including splenopexy or splenectomy, is the treatment of choice in uncomplicated and complicated cases because conservative treatment of an asymptomatic ectopic spleen is associated with a complication rate of 65%. CONCLUSION Although an ectopic spleen can be easily identified on clinical examination, it is commonly misdiagnosed until the manifestation of complications in adulthood. PMID:24973525

  8. Efficient transformation of grease to biodiesel using highly active and easily recyclable magnetic nanobiocatalyst aggregates.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Thao P N; Li, Aitao; Tiew, Kang W; Li, Zhi

    2013-10-01

    Green and efficient production of biodiesel (FAME) from waste grease containing high amount of free fatty acid (FFA) was achieved by using novel magnetic nanobiocatalyst aggregates (MNA). Thermomyces lanuginosus Lipase (TLL) and Candida antarctica Lipase B (CALB) were covalently immobilized on core-shell structured iron oxide magnetic nanoparticle (80 nm), respectively, followed by freeze-dry to give MNA (13-17 ?m) with high yield (80-89%) and high enzyme loading (61 mg TLL or 22 mg CALB per gram MNA). MNA TL showed the best performance among immobilized enzymes known thus for the production of FAME from grease (17 wt.% FFA) with methanol, giving 99% yield in 12 h (3.3 wt.% catalyst). MNA TL was easily separated under magnetic field and reused, retaining 88% productivity in 11th cycle. MNA CA converted >97% FFA in grease (17 wt.% FFA) to FAME in 12 h (0.45 wt.% catalyst), being useful in two-step transformation of grease to biodiesel. PMID:23298767

  9. Interpretation biases in paranoia.

    PubMed

    Savulich, George; Freeman, Daniel; Shergill, Sukhi; Yiend, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Information in the environment is frequently ambiguous in meaning. Emotional ambiguity, such as the stare of a stranger, or the scream of a child, encompasses possible good or bad emotional consequences. Those with elevated vulnerability to affective disorders tend to interpret such material more negatively than those without, a phenomenon known as "negative interpretation bias." In this study we examined the relationship between vulnerability to psychosis, measured by trait paranoia, and interpretation bias. One set of material permitted broadly positive/negative (valenced) interpretations, while another allowed more or less paranoid interpretations, allowing us to also investigate the content specificity of interpretation biases associated with paranoia. Regression analyses (n=70) revealed that trait paranoia, trait anxiety, and cognitive inflexibility predicted paranoid interpretation bias, whereas trait anxiety and cognitive inflexibility predicted negative interpretation bias. In a group comparison those with high levels of trait paranoia were negatively biased in their interpretations of ambiguous information relative to those with low trait paranoia, and this effect was most pronounced for material directly related to paranoid concerns. Together these data suggest that a negative interpretation bias occurs in those with elevated vulnerability to paranoia, and that this bias may be strongest for material matching paranoid beliefs. We conclude that content-specific biases may be important in the cause and maintenance of paranoid symptoms. PMID:25526839

  10. Integrated 3-D quality control of geological interpretation through the use of simple methods and programs

    SciTech Connect

    Chatellier, J.Y.; Gustavo, F.; Magaly, Q. (Intevep, Caracas (Venezuela))

    1996-01-01

    Integrating different petroleum geology disciplines gives insight and help in analyzing data and in checking the quality of different interpretations. Simple approaches and affordable programs allow rapid visualization of data in 3-D. Displaying geological data from stratigraphy, diagenesis, and structural geology together, allows identification of anomalies (i.e. development targets) and often gives clues of the controlling processes. Four case studies from world class fields are used to illustrate the vital need to integrate quality control of interpretation across disciplines. Distribution of diagenetic alterations is revealed by visualizing diagenetic and petrographic data against faults in a 3-D statistical program. Faults are transferred from 3-D seismic into such a program and then analyzed against other data. Fault intersections wrongly correlated are also easily picked. Other powerful tools include a modified use of the Bischke Plots that allow the identification of missing sections previously identified as fault cut-outs. The quality of interpretation has sometimes been assessed from the presence of stacked anomalies of various expression. In other cases repeated unexpected isopach trends revealed subtle faults such as riedels sealing and compartmentizing the reservoirs. Occasionally the timing of fault reactivation was assessed precisely whereas all other techniques failed even to identify these hidden features. Unrecognized porosity-depth trends were identified after filtering data for stratigraphy or sedimentology and studying it in its geographical and tectonic context. Three dimensional visualization was needed in cases of quartz overgrowth where grain size, depth, stratigraphy and location with respect to faults were all important.

  11. Integrated 3-D quality control of geological interpretation through the use of simple methods and programs

    SciTech Connect

    Chatellier, J.Y.; Gustavo, F.; Magaly, Q. [Intevep, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1996-12-31

    Integrating different petroleum geology disciplines gives insight and help in analyzing data and in checking the quality of different interpretations. Simple approaches and affordable programs allow rapid visualization of data in 3-D. Displaying geological data from stratigraphy, diagenesis, and structural geology together, allows identification of anomalies (i.e. development targets) and often gives clues of the controlling processes. Four case studies from world class fields are used to illustrate the vital need to integrate quality control of interpretation across disciplines. Distribution of diagenetic alterations is revealed by visualizing diagenetic and petrographic data against faults in a 3-D statistical program. Faults are transferred from 3-D seismic into such a program and then analyzed against other data. Fault intersections wrongly correlated are also easily picked. Other powerful tools include a modified use of the Bischke Plots that allow the identification of missing sections previously identified as fault cut-outs. The quality of interpretation has sometimes been assessed from the presence of stacked anomalies of various expression. In other cases repeated unexpected isopach trends revealed subtle faults such as riedels sealing and compartmentizing the reservoirs. Occasionally the timing of fault reactivation was assessed precisely whereas all other techniques failed even to identify these hidden features. Unrecognized porosity-depth trends were identified after filtering data for stratigraphy or sedimentology and studying it in its geographical and tectonic context. Three dimensional visualization was needed in cases of quartz overgrowth where grain size, depth, stratigraphy and location with respect to faults were all important.

  12. Synchronized Drumming Enhances Activity in the Caudate and Facilitates Prosocial Commitment - If the Rhythm Comes Easily

    PubMed Central

    Kokal, Idil; Engel, Annerose; Kirschner, Sebastian; Keysers, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Why does chanting, drumming or dancing together make people feel united? Here we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying interpersonal synchrony and its subsequent effects on prosocial behavior among synchronized individuals. We hypothesized that areas of the brain associated with the processing of reward would be active when individuals experience synchrony during drumming, and that these reward signals would increase prosocial behavior toward this synchronous drum partner. 18 female non-musicians were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they drummed a rhythm, in alternating blocks, with two different experimenters: one drumming in-synchrony and the other out-of-synchrony relative to the participant. In the last scanning part, which served as the experimental manipulation for the following prosocial behavioral test, one of the experimenters drummed with one half of the participants in-synchrony and with the other out-of-synchrony. After scanning, this experimenter “accidentally” dropped eight pencils, and the number of pencils collected by the participants was used as a measure of prosocial commitment. Results revealed that participants who mastered the novel rhythm easily before scanning showed increased activity in the caudate during synchronous drumming. The same area also responded to monetary reward in a localizer task with the same participants. The activity in the caudate during experiencing synchronous drumming also predicted the number of pencils the participants later collected to help the synchronous experimenter of the manipulation run. In addition, participants collected more pencils to help the experimenter when she had drummed in-synchrony than out-of-synchrony during the manipulation run. By showing an overlap in activated areas during synchronized drumming and monetary reward, our findings suggest that interpersonal synchrony is related to the brain's reward system. PMID:22110623

  13. Superomniphobic and easily repairable coatings on copper substrates based on simple immersion or spray processes.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Thomaz C; Michels, Alexandre F; Horowitz, Flávio; Weibel, Daniel E

    2015-03-24

    Textures that resemble typical fern or bracken plant species (dendrite structures) were fabricated for liquid repellency by dipping copper substrates in a single-step process in solutions containing AgNO3 or by a simple spray liquid application. Superhydrophobic surfaces were produced using a solution containing AgNO3 and trimethoxypropylsilane (TMPSi), and superomniphobic surfaces were produced by a two-step procedure, immersing the copper substrate in a AgNO3 solution and, after that, in a solution containing 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane (PFDTES). The simple functionalization processes can also be used when the superomniphobic surfaces were destroyed by mechanical stress. By immersion of the wrecked surfaces in the above solutions or by the spray method and soft heating, the copper substrates could be easily repaired, regenerating the surfaces' superrepellency to liquids. The micro- and nanoroughness structures generated on copper surfaces by the deposition of silver dendrites functionalized with TMPSi presented apparent contact angles greater than 150° with a contact angle hysteresis lower than 10° when water was used as the test liquid. To avoid total wettability with very low surface tension liquids, such as rapeseed oil and hexadecane, a thin perfluorinated coating of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE), produced by physical vapor deposition, was used. A more efficient perfluorinated coating was obtained when PFDTES was used. The superomniphobic surfaces produced apparent contact angles above 150° with all of the tested liquids, including hexadecane, although the contact angle hysteresis with this liquid was above 10°. The coupling of dendritic structures with TMPSi/PTFE or directly by PFDTES coatings was responsible for the superrepellency of the as-prepared surfaces. These simple, fast, and reliable procedures allow the large area, and cost-effective scale fabrication of superrepellent surfaces on copper substrates for various industrial applications with the advantage of easy recovery of the surface repellency after damage. PMID:25714008

  14. Riemannian Elasticity: A Statistical Regularization Framework

    E-print Network

    Ayache, Nicholas

    -linear transformations. These statistics are then used as parameters in a Mahalanobis distance to measure the statistical is to interpret the elastic energy as a distance in the space of positive definite symmetric matrices (tensors

  15. Customizable tool for ecological data entry, assessment, monitoring, and interpretation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Database for Inventory, Monitoring and Assessment (DIMA) is a highly customizable tool for data entry, assessment, monitoring, and interpretation. DIMA is a Microsoft Access database that can easily be used without Access knowledge and is available at no cost. Data can be entered for common, nat...

  16. Interpretable Dimension Reduction HUGH A. CHIPMAN

    E-print Network

    Gu, Hong

    Interpretable Dimension Reduction HUGH A. CHIPMANÃ & HONG GUÃÃ Ã Department of Mathematics Correspondence Address: Hugh Chipman, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS, B4P 2R6, Canada. Email: hugh.chipman@acadiau.ca 0266-4763 Print=1360-0532 Online=05=090969­19 # 2005

  17. Parametric trial-by-trial prediction of pain by easily available physiological measures.

    PubMed

    Geuter, Stephan; Gamer, Matthias; Onat, Selim; Büchel, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Pain is commonly assessed by subjective reports on rating scales. However, in many experimental and clinical settings, an additional, objective indicator of pain is desirable. In order to identify an objective, parametric signature of pain intensity that is predictive at the individual stimulus level across subjects, we recorded skin conductance and pupil diameter responses to heat pain stimuli of different durations and temperatures in 34 healthy subjects. The temporal profiles of trial-wise physiological responses were characterized by component scores obtained from principal component analysis. These component scores were then used as predictors in a linear regression analysis, resulting in accurate pain predictions for individual trials. Using the temporal information encoded in the principal component scores explained the data better than prediction by a single summary statistic (i.e., maximum amplitude). These results indicate that perceived pain is best reflected by the temporal dynamics of autonomic responses. Application of the regression model to an independent data set of 20 subjects resulted in a very good prediction of the pain ratings demonstrating the generalizability of the identified temporal pattern. Utilizing the readily available temporal information from skin conductance and pupil diameter responses thus allows parametric prediction of pain in human subjects. PMID:24525275

  18. Theory Interpretations in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan; Butler, Ricky W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this task was to provide a mechanism for theory interpretations in a prototype verification system (PVS) so that it is possible to demonstrate the consistency of a theory by exhibiting an interpretation that validates the axioms. The mechanization makes it possible to show that one collection of theories is correctly interpreted by another collection of theories under a user-specified interpretation for the uninterpreted types and constants. A theory instance is generated and imported, while the axiom instances are generated as proof obligations to ensure that the interpretation is valid. Interpretations can be used to show that an implementation is a correct refinement of a specification, that an axiomatically defined specification is consistent, or that a axiomatically defined specification captures its intended models. In addition, the theory parameter mechanism has been extended with a notion of theory as parameter so that a theory instance can be given as an actual parameter to an imported theory. Theory interpretations can thus be used to refine an abstract specification or to demonstrate the consistency of an axiomatic theory. In this report we describe the mechanism in detail. This extension is a part of PVS version 3.0, which will be publicly released in mid-2001.

  19. Statistical Laboratory & Department of Statistics

    E-print Network

    Statistical Laboratory & Department of Statistics Annual Report July 1, 2005 to December 31, 2006...............................................33 Statistical Computing Section ......................................34 CSSM and statistical methodology in the nutritional sciences. We were also very pleased to secure a permanent lecturer

  20. Motivating Play Using Statistical Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross Francis, Dionne I.; Hudson, Rick A.; Lee, Mi Yeon; Rapacki, Lauren; Vesperman, Crystal Marie

    2014-01-01

    Statistical literacy is essential in everyone's personal lives as consumers, citizens, and professionals. To make informed life and professional decisions, students are required to read, understand, and interpret vast amounts of information, much of which is quantitative. To develop statistical literacy so students are able to make sense of…

  1. Programs for Training Interpreters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Annals of the Deaf, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This listing provides directory information on U.S. programs for training interpreters for individuals with deafness. Schools are listed by state and include director and degree information. (Author/CR)

  2. BIOMONITORING: INTERPRETATION AND USES

    EPA Science Inventory

    With advanced technologies, it is now possible to measure very low levels of many chemicals in biological fluids. However, the appropriate use and interpretation of biomarkers will depend upon many factors associated with the exposure, adsorption, deposition, metabolism, and eli...

  3. Using OMNITAB to Teach Applied Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, James M.; And Others

    Developed by the National Bureau of Standards, OMNITAB is a simplified computer language designed to permit the novice user to solve basic statistical functions after less than an hour of instruction. It was hoped that by providing students in introductory statistics courses with an easily understood computer language, fears of number operations…

  4. Important Information about Your Online DirectoryImportant Information about Your Online Directory This online directory was developed to help members easily find participating physicians,This online directory was developed to help members easily find par

    E-print Network

    Important Information about Your Online DirectoryImportant Information about Your Online Directory This online directory was developed to help members easily find participating physicians,This online directory contained in this directory may change as participatingWhile we try to provide you with accurate data

  5. BCSC Performance Benchmarks: Benchmarks for Abnormal Diagnostic Mammography Interpretations (2009 Data)

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Home   |   Data   |   Statistics   |   Tools   |   Collaborations   |   Work with Us   |   Publications   |   About   |   Links Benchmarks for Abnormal Diagnostic Mammography Interpretations from 2004 - 2008 -- based on BCSC data

  6. BCSC Screening Performance Benchmarks: Benchmarks for Abnormal Screening Mammography Interpretations (2007 Data)

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Home   |   Data   |   Statistics   |   Tools   |   Collaborations   |   Work with Us   |   Publications   |   About   |   Links Benchmarks for Abnormal Screening Mammography Interpretations from 1996 - 2005 --- based on BCSC data

  7. BCSC Screening Performance Benchmarks: Benchmarks for Abnormal Screening Mammography Interpretations (2009 Data)

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Home   |   Data   |   Statistics   |   Tools   |   Collaborations   |   Work with Us   |   Publications   |   About   |   Links Benchmarks for Abnormal Screening Mammography Interpretations from 2004 - 2008 -- based on BCSC data

  8. Adoption Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is not valid, please reenter the captcha code Statistics All statistics correspond with the U.S. Government fiscal year, which ... and ends on September 30. For example, adoption statistics for FY2014 show the period from October 1, ...

  9. Tale of a Sleeping Beauty: A New and Easily Cultured Model Organism for Experimental Studies on Bdelloid Rotifers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hendrik Segers; Russell J. Shiel

    2005-01-01

    We present the description of a new species of bdelloid rotifer, Adineta ricciae n. sp., which emerged from dry mud of Ryan’s billabong, Victoria, Australia. Its conspicuous frontal eyes easily diagnose the species; it differs from A. oculata (Milne) by the position of the eyes and its general habitus. The animal came to our attention because it is exceptionally easy

  10. Why is my Voice so Easily Recognized in Identity Parades? Influence of First Impressions on Voice Identification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Axelle C. Philippon; Julie Cherryman; Aldert Vrij; Ray Bull

    2008-01-01

    This study examines people's first impressions of voices of various ethnic origin and recognizability from identification line-ups. It was hypothesized that voices that were easily recognized would be perceived more negatively than less recognizable ones, fitting the “bad guy” stereotype. Forty English native speakers rated the voices of 12 male speakers for attractiveness, extraversion, dominance, kindness, intelligence, success, goodness, as

  11. Double copper sheath multiconductor instrumentation cable is durable and easily installed in high thermal or nuclear radiation area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Crae, A. W., Jr.

    1967-01-01

    Multiconductor instrumentation cable in which the conducting wires are routed through two concentric copper tube sheaths, employing a compressed insulator between the conductors and between the inner and outer sheaths, is durable and easily installed in high thermal or nuclear radiation area. The double sheath is a barrier against moisture, abrasion, and vibration.

  12. Summary Plant tissues shrink and swell in response to changes in water pressure. These strains can be easily mea-

    E-print Network

    Podgornik, Rudolf

    Summary Plant tissues shrink and swell in response to changes in water pressure. These strains can be easily mea- sured, e.g., at the surface of tree stems, to obtain indirect infor- mation about plant water factor. Introduction Water inside terrestrial plants is generally in a state of tension, i.e., negative

  13. Smartphones for post-event analysis: a low-cost and easily accessible approach for mapping natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarolli, Paolo; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Sofia, Giulia; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo

    2015-04-01

    A real opportunity and challenge for the hazard mapping is offered by the use of smartphones and low-cost and flexible photogrammetric technique (i.e. 'Structure-from-Motion'-SfM-). Differently from the other traditional photogrammetric methods, the SfM allows to reconstitute three-dimensional geometries (Digital Surface Models, DSMs) from randomly acquired images. The images can be acquired by standalone digital cameras (compact or reflex), or even by smartphones built-in cameras. This represents a "revolutionary" advance compared with more expensive technologies and applications (e.g. Terrestrial Laser Scanner TLS, airborne lidar) (Tarolli, 2014). Through fast, simple and consecutive field surveys, anyone with a smartphone can take a lot of pictures of the same study area. This way, high-resolution and multi-temporal DSMs may be obtained and used to better monitor and understand erosion and deposition processes. Furthermore, these topographic data can also facilitate to quantify volumes of eroded materials due to landslides and recognize the major critical issues that usually occur during a natural hazard (e.g. river bank erosion and/or collapse due to floods). In this work we considered different case studies located in different environmental contexts of Italy, where extensive photosets were obtained using smartphones. TLS data were also considered in the analysis as benchmark to compare with SfM data. Digital Surface Models (DSMs) derived from SfM at centimeter grid-cell resolution revealed to be effective to automatically recognize areas subject to surface instabilities, and estimate quantitatively erosion and deposition volumes, for example. Morphometric indexes such as landform curvature and surface roughness, and statistical thresholds (e.g. standard deviation) of these indices, served as the basis for the proposed analyses. The results indicate that SfM technique through smartphones really offers a fast, simple and affordable alternative to lidar technology. Anyone (included farmers, technicians or who work at Civil Protection) who has a good smartphone can take photographs and, from these photographs, they can easily obtain high-resolution DSMs. Therefore, SfM technique accomplished with smartphones can be a very strategic tool for post-event field surveys, to increase the existing knowledge on such events, and to provide fast technical solutions for risk mitigation (e.g. landslide and flood risk management). The future challenge consists of using only a smartphone for local scale post-event analyses. This can be even enhanced by the development of specific apps that are able to build quickly a 3D view of the case study and arrange a preliminary quantitative analysis of the process involved, ready to be sent to Civil Protection for further elaborations. Tarolli, P. (2014). High-resolution topography for understanding Earth surface processes: opportunities and challenges. Geomorphology, 216, 295-312, doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2014.03.008.

  14. 32. Statistics 1 32. STATISTICS

    E-print Network

    Masci, Frank

    32. Statistics 1 32. STATISTICS Revised September 2007 by G. Cowan (RHUL). This chapter gives an overview of statistical methods used in High Energy Physics. In statistics, we are interested in using's validity or to determine the values of its parameters. There are two main approaches to statistical

  15. Department of Statistics STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM

    E-print Network

    Department of Statistics STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM ERIC KOLACZYK Department of Statistics Boston University Statistical Analysis of Network Data: (Re)visiting the Foundations MONDAY, October 13, 2014, at 4, statistical methods and modeling have been central to these efforts. But how well do we truly understand

  16. Translation and Interpretation Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trahan, Elizabeth Welt

    1978-01-01

    Three techniques used in the training of translators and interpreters at the Monterey Institute which may be suitable for advanced language study are conceptualization, stylistic transposition, and sight translation. Language students may acquire the cultural and social ambiance of the target language through such training. (SW)

  17. Political Cartoon Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzmann, William Ray

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the uses of political cartoons in the classroom, and presents a list of skills which must be acquired by students to allow them to master cartoon interpretation. Illustrates how to recognize the use of caricature and identify symbolism and includes a bibliography of political cartoon sources and uses. (GEA)

  18. Interpretation Intelligent Systems Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Ward, Koren

    1 TENS Text Interpretation Intelligent Systems Laboratory University of Wollongong TENS Text and delivering the text data to the user by electrically stimulating the fingers. Intelligent Systems Laboratory ­ University of Wollongong #12;2 The TENS Unit Intelligent Systems Laboratory ­ University of Wollongong

  19. Abstract Interpreters for Free

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Might, Matthew

    In small-step abstract interpretations, the concrete and abstract semantics bear an uncanny resemblance. In this work, we present an analysis-design methodology that both explains and exploits that resemblance. Specifically, we present a two-step method to convert a small-step concrete semantics into a family of sound, computable abstract interpretations. The first step re-factors the concrete state-space to eliminate recursive structure; this refactoring of the state-space simultaneously determines a store-passing-style transformation on the underlying concrete semantics. The second step uses inference rules to generate an abstract state-space and a Galois connection simultaneously. The Galois connection allows the calculation of the "optimal" abstract interpretation. The two-step process is unambiguous, but nondeterministic: at each step, analysis designers face choices. Some of these choices ultimately influence properties such as flow-, field- and context-sensitivity. Thus, under the method, we can give the emergence of these properties a graph-theoretic characterization. To illustrate the method, we systematically abstract the continuation-passing style lambda calculus to arrive at two distinct families of analyses. The first is the well-known k-CFA family of analyses. The second consists of novel "environment-centric" abstract interpretations, none of which appear in the literature on static analysis of higher-order programs.

  20. Interpretable and flexible technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Bøgh Andersen; Frederik Bajers

    in recent years, dynamic properties of technical systems have attracted attention. A changing environment requires technical systems that can be adapted to new conditions. With an in- creased rate of change comes a demand for interpretability of technical systems in terms of business processes, since one cannot change what one does not understand. The paper presents a theory that emphasize

  1. Interpretation of quantum mechanics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland Omnès

    1987-01-01

    New axioms are proposed for the interpretation of quantum mechanics. They rest on a kind of calculus allowing to select meaningful physical statements and giving rules to check a given physical reasoning containing implications. Measurement theory is reformulated. Laboratoire associé au Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.

  2. Listening and Message Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Renee

    2011-01-01

    Message interpretation, the notion that individuals assign meaning to stimuli, is related to listening presage, listening process, and listening product. As a central notion of communication, meaning includes (a) denotation and connotation, and (b) content and relational meanings, which can vary in ambiguity and vagueness. Past research on message…

  3. Interpreting the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, William J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

  4. Interpreting & Biomechanics. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEPNet-Northeast, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) refers to a collection of disorders associated with nerves, muscles, tendons, bones, and the neurovascular (nerves and related blood vessels) system. CTD symptoms may involve the neck, back, shoulders, arms, wrists, or hands. Interpreters with CTD may experience a variety of symptoms including: pain, joint…

  5. STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM MONDAY, MARCH 24, 2014

    E-print Network

    Schrag, Daniel

    STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM MONDAY, MARCH 24, 2014 TALK: 4:15 PM -- SCIENCE CENTER RM. 705 RECEPTION: 3 Department of Statistics University of California, Berkeley ABSTRACT In a 2009 PNAS article, based on work at appropriate speeds. We discuss these results and argue that while they are hard to interpret statistically

  6. Working memory and verbal fluency in simultaneous interpreters.

    PubMed

    Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Megari, Kalliopi; Kosmidis, Mary H; Apostolidou, Maria; Takou, Eleni

    2012-01-01

    We investigated working memory and verbal fluency in simultaneous interpreters, expecting to find enhanced working memory and semantic processing in interpreters relative to others fluent in a second language. The interpreters (n = 15) outperformed the control group (n = 35) on semantic fluency and most measures of working memory; their advantage over teachers of a foreign language (n = 15) approached, but did not reach, statistical significance. Our findings suggest that, while proficiency in a foreign language may enhance fluency and working memory skills, simultaneous interpreters have semantic processing and working memory capacities greater than those expected from mere proficiency in a foreign language. PMID:22436006

  7. Modification of codes NUALGAM and BREMRAD. Volume 3: Statistical considerations of the Monte Carlo method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firstenberg, H.

    1971-01-01

    The statistics are considered of the Monte Carlo method relative to the interpretation of the NUGAM2 and NUGAM3 computer code results. A numerical experiment using the NUGAM2 code is presented and the results are statistically interpreted.

  8. Algorithms and statistics for advanced DNA analysis For the first time in history, humankind has the ability to easily read and write DNA sequence, a code

    E-print Network

    University of Technology, Sydney

    in hospitals and agriculture has led to widespread development of antibiotic resistant bacteria. The number will contribute to the development of a next-generation surveillance system for antibiotic resistant bacteria of deaths caused by infection with resistant bacteria is quickly approaching that of major illnesses like

  9. An easily diagnosable PLA 

    E-print Network

    Kao, Chung Min

    1989-01-01

    -type bridging faults. Thus, all bridged lines will be logically low (0) if anyone of them is 0. otherwise all will be high (1). A bridging fault is assunied not to produce any feedback effect such as creation of a. sequential cell on the P LA. Definition 5... sliifted in during phase Fq to the corresponding basic cells S, (1 & i ( p), under synchronized actions of o, and 6r. They impose logic to the product line. WVhen SC becomes 0, tire basic cell enters F2 and the internal status of a product line...

  10. Large, Easily Deployable Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agan, W. E.

    1983-01-01

    Study of concepts for large space structures will interest those designing scaffolding, radio towers, rescue equipment, and prefabricated shelters. Double-fold, double-cell module was selected for further design and for zero gravity testing. Concept is viable for deployment by humans outside space vehicle as well as by remotely operated manipulator.

  11. Easily repairable networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a simple class of distribution networks which withstand damage by being repairable instead of redundant. Instead of asking how hard it is to disconnect nodes through damage, we ask how easy it is to reconnect nodes after damage. We prove that optimal networks on regular lattices have an expected cost of reconnection proportional to the lattice length, and that such networks have exactly three levels of structural hierarchy. We extend our results to networks subject to repeated attacks, in which the repairs themselves must be repairable. We find that, in exchange for a modest increase in repair cost, such networks are able to withstand any number of attacks. We acknowledge support from the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, BCG and EU FP7 (Growthcom).

  12. Statistics in Support of Legislation for Libraries, USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Eileen D.

    Statistics are basic to the legislative process and must be available in a form quickly and easily perceived to support library legislation. There should be a sound statistical base, fleshed out with practical examples, to impress legislators and lay persons. Communication of statistical data to decision makers requires a sound public information…

  13. Gille-SIO 221C 1 Objective Mapping: Anisotropic Statistics

    E-print Network

    Gille, Sarah T.

    Gille-SIO 221C 1 Objective Mapping: Anisotropic Statistics Objective mapping discussions often assume that covariance statistics are isotropic and homogeneous. However, in the ocean and atmosphere. The equations used to carry out objective mapping are easily modified to allow for anisotropic statistics

  14. Statistics as a dynamical attractor

    E-print Network

    Michail Zak

    2012-08-30

    It is demonstrated that any statistics can be represented by an attractor of the solution to a corresponding systen of ODE coupled with its Liouville equation. Such a non-Newtonian representation allows one to reduce foundations of statistics to better established foundations of ODE. In addition to that, evolution to the attractor reveals possible micro-mechanisms driving random events to the final distribution of the corresponding statistical law. Special attention is concentrated upon the power law and its dynamical interpretation: it is demonstrated that the underlying dynamics supports a " violent reputation" of the power law statistics.

  15. Formalism and Interpretation in Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilce, Alexander

    2010-04-01

    Quantum Mechanics can be viewed as a linear dynamical theory having a familiar mathematical framework but a mysterious probabilistic interpretation, or as a probabilistic theory having a familiar interpretation but a mysterious formal framework. These points of view are usually taken to be somewhat in tension with one another. The first has generated a vast literature aiming at a “realistic” and “collapse-free” interpretation of quantum mechanics that will account for its statistical predictions. The second has generated an at least equally large literature aiming to derive, or at any rate motivate, the formal structure of quantum theory in probabilistically intelligible terms. In this paper I explore, in a preliminary way, the possibility that these two programmes have something to offer one another. In particular, I show that a version of the measurement problem occurs in essentially any non-classical probabilistic theory, and ask to what extent various interpretations of quantum mechanics continue to make sense in such a general setting. I make a start on answering this question in the case of a rudimentary version of the Everett interpretation.

  16. Autoadaptivity and optimization in distributed ECG interpretation.

    PubMed

    Augustyniak, Piotr

    2010-03-01

    This paper addresses principal issues of the ECG interpretation adaptivity in a distributed surveillance network. In the age of pervasive access to wireless digital communication, distributed biosignal interpretation networks may not only optimally solve difficult medical cases, but also adapt the data acquisition, interpretation, and transmission to the variable patient's status and availability of technical resources. The background of such adaptivity is the innovative use of results from the automatic ECG analysis to the seamless remote modification of the interpreting software. Since the medical relevance of issued diagnostic data depends on the patient's status, the interpretation adaptivity implies the flexibility of report content and frequency. Proposed solutions are based on the research on human experts behavior, procedures reliability, and usage statistics. Despite the limited scale of our prototype client-server application, the tests yielded very promising results: the transmission channel occupation was reduced by 2.6 to 5.6 times comparing to the rigid reporting mode and the improvement of the remotely computed diagnostic outcome was achieved in case of over 80% of software adaptation attempts. PMID:20064764

  17. National Association for Interpretation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NAI promotes the advancement of the profession of interpretation, a communication process used in on-site informal education programs at parks, zoos, nature centers, historic sites, museums, and aquaria. This site announces national and regional NAI conferences, workshops on diverse topics, skill certification programs, networking opportunities and job listing service. Includes membership information and application; can order newsletters, professional journals and books. Membership, program and publication fees apply.

  18. Interpreting Geologic Sections

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Paul Morris

    Athro, Limited is a for-profit corporation that publishes high school and college level biology, earth science, and geology course supplements and independent learning materials on the Web. This site provides instruction in interpreting the order of events in three hypothetical and one real geological section. For each section there is a list of events and an animation of the history of the section once the student has decided on the order of events.

  19. Interpreting Deer Harvest Records.

    E-print Network

    Guynn, Dwight E.

    1984-01-01

    I Texas A&M versity System Agricultural Extension Service Zerle L. Carpenter. Director College Station B-1486 People Helping People Interpreting Deer Harvest Records LIB ARY Dwight f. Guynn* JUN 11 1985 Deer harvest records... are extremely important to proper deer herd man- agement. Because deer are difficult to observe and cannot be handled regularly like livestock, records are one of the few means available to determine deer herd . health, nutrition levels, trends...

  20. On statistical aspects of Qjets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Stephen D.; Hornig, Andrew; Krohn, David; Roy, Tuhin S.

    2015-01-01

    The process by which jet algorithms construct jets and subjets is inherently ambiguous and equally well motivated algorithms often return very different answers. The Qjets procedure was introduced by the authors to account for this ambiguity by considering many reconstructions of a jet at once, allowing one to assign a weight to each interpretation of the jet. Employing these weighted interpretations leads to an improvement in the statistical stability of many measurements. Here we explore in detail the statistical properties of these sets of weighted measurements and demonstrate how they can be used to improve the reach of jet-based studies.

  1. Caregiving Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    Statistics on Family Caregivers and Family Caregiving Caregiving Population Economics of Caregiving Impact on Family Caregiver's Health ... Identified Family Caregivers, 2001. Top State by State Statistics The economic value of family caregiving is detailed ...

  2. Histoplasmosis Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About CDC.gov . Fungal Diseases Share Compartir Histoplasmosis Statistics How common is histoplasmosis? In the United States, ... Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & Testing Treatment Health Professionals Statistics More Resources Blastomycosis Definition Symptoms People at Risk & ...

  3. Cancer Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... success of efforts to control and manage cancer. Statistics at a Glance: The Burden of Cancer in ... 2010 and could reach $156 billion in 2020. Statistics at a Glance: The Burden of Cancer Worldwide ...

  4. Usage Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/usestatistics.html MedlinePlus Statistics To use the sharing features on this page, ... By Quarter View image full size Quarterly User Statistics Quarter Page Views Unique Visitors Oct-Dec-98 ...

  5. Sorting chromatic sextupoles for easily and effectively correcting second order chromaticity in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Luo,Y.; Tepikian, S.; Fischer, W.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Trbojevic, D.

    2009-01-02

    Based on the contributions of the chromatic sextupole families to the half-integer resonance driving terms, we discuss how to sort the chromatic sextupoles in the arcs of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to easily and effectively correct the second order chromaticities. We propose a method with 4 knobs corresponding to 4 pairs of chromatic sextupole families to online correct the second order chromaticities. Numerical simulation justifies this method, showing that this method reduces the unbalance in the correction strengths of sextupole families and avoids the reversal of sextupole polarities. Therefore, this method yields larger dynamic apertures for the proposed RHIC 2009 100GeV polarized proton run lattices.

  6. Synthesis, characterization and application of water-soluble and easily removable cationic pressure-sensitive adhesives. Quarterly technical report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1999-09-30

    The Institute studied the adsorption of cationic pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) on wood fiber, and the buildup of PSA in a closed water system during paper recycling; the results are presented. Georgia Tech worked to develop an environmentally friendly polymerization process to synthesize a novel re-dispersible PSA by co-polymerizing an oil-soluble monomer (butyl acrylate) and a cationic monomer MAEPTAC; results are presented. At the University of Georgia at Athens the project focused on the synthesis of water-soluble and easily removable cationic polymer PSAs.

  7. Statistically based multiwavelet denoising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacchelli, S.; Papi, S.

    2007-12-01

    In this work, we consider a statistically based multiwavelet thresholding method which acts on the empirical wavelet coefficients in groups, rather than individually, in order to obtain an edge-preserving image denoising technique. Our strategy allows us to exploit the dependencies between neighboring coefficients to make a simultaneous thresholding decision, so that estimation accuracy is increased. By interpreting the multiwavelet analysis in a statistical context, we propose a new weighted multiwavelet matrix thresholding rule, based on the statistical modeling of empirical coefficients. This allows the thresholding decision to be adapted to the local structure of the underlying image, hence producing edge-preserving denoising. Extensive numerical results are presented showing the performance of our denoising procedure.

  8. Statistical Diversions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petocz, Peter; Sowey, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The term "data snooping" refers to the practice of choosing which statistical analyses to apply to a set of data after having first looked at those data. Data snooping contradicts a fundamental precept of applied statistics, that the scheme of analysis is to be planned in advance. In this column, the authors shall elucidate the statistical

  9. The Statistical Literacy Needed to Interpret School Assessment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chick, Helen; Pierce, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    State-wide and national testing in areas such as literacy and numeracy produces reports containing graphs and tables illustrating school and individual performance. These are intended to inform teachers, principals, and education organisations about student and school outcomes, to guide change and improvement. Given the complexity of the…

  10. My Favorite Interpretation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maximilian Schlosshauer

    \\u000a IT IS NO SECRET that a shut-up-and-calculate mentality pervades classrooms everywhere. How many physics students will ever\\u000a hear their professor mention that there’s such a queer thing as different interpretations of the very theory they’re learning\\u000a about? I have no representative data to answer this question, but I suspect the percentage of such students would hardly exceed\\u000a the single-digit range.

  11. Gonioscopy: evaluation and interpretation.

    PubMed

    Terry, J E

    1977-11-01

    Gonioscopy is the ocular health examination technique which offers to the practitioner the means to directly study the anterior chamber angle. Its uses are numerous and include glaucoma classification, predilation angle evaluation, and the presence of iris tumors, foreign bodies and anterior synechiae. Since a meaningful gonioscopic examination depends upon the examiner's recognition of the chamber landmarks, a detailed analysis of each structural element is presented. In addition, the techniques for performing gonioscopy with the popular lens types are viewed as is the system for interpretation and recording. PMID:925300

  12. Term statistics Zipf's law text statistics

    E-print Network

    Lu, Jianguo

    Term statistics Zipf's law text statistics October 20, 2014 text statistics 1 / 19 #12;Term statistics Zipf's law Overview 1 Term statistics 2 Zipf's law text statistics 2 / 19 #12;Term statistics Zipf's law Outline 1 Term statistics 2 Zipf's law text statistics 3 / 19 #12;Term statistics Zipf's law Model

  13. SOCR: Statistics Online Computational Resource

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivo D. Dinov

    2006-01-01

    The need for hands-on computer laboratory experience in undergraduate and graduate statistics education has been firmly established in the past decade. As a result a number of attempts have been undertaken to develop novel approaches for problem-driven statistical thinking, data analysis and result interpretation. In this paper we describe an integrated educational web-based framework for: interactive distribution modeling, virtual online

  14. Hydrophobic-polymer-grafted graphene oxide nanosheets as an easily separable adsorbent for the removal of tetrabromobisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xubo; Liu, Peng

    2014-11-18

    Hydrophobic polymer brushes have been grafted from graphene oxide nanosheets (GO) via the facile surface-initiated redox radical polymerization of tert-butyl acrylate (tBA) from the GO with cerium ammonium nitrate (CAN) as an oxidant. After the hydrophobic surface modification, the poly(tert-butyl acrylate) (PtBA)-grafted graphene oxide nanosheets (GO-PtBA) could still be dispersed in water because of the remaining oxygen-containing groups but deposited within 40 min. The feature makes it an easily separable adsorbent for environmental pollutants. For example, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) could be removed from aqueous solution via hydrogen bonds (between hydroxyl groups of TBBPA and hydroxyl and carboxyl groups of GO) and ?-? interactions (between the benzene ring of TBBPA and GO), with an adsorption capacity of 22.2 mg g(-1) at pH 7.0. The TBBPA-adsorbed GO-PtBA could be deposited completely within 30 min, and the adsorbed TBBPA could be easily desorbed with ethanol, demonstrating its good recyclability. PMID:25335692

  15. Development and validation of a quick easily used biochemical assay for evaluating the viability of small immobile arthropods.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Craig B; Iline, Ilia I; Richards, Nicola K; Novoselov, Max; McNeill, Mark R

    2013-10-01

    Quickly, accurately, and easily assessing the efficacy of treatments to control sessile arthropods (e.g., scale insects) and stationary immature life stages (e.g., eggs and pupae) is problematic because it is difficult to tell whether treated organisms are alive or dead. Current approaches usually involve either maintaining organisms in the laboratory to observe them for development, gauging their response to physical stimulation, or assessing morphological characters such as turgidity and color. These can be slow, technically difficult, or subjective, and the validity of methods other than laboratory rearing has seldom been tested. Here, we describe development and validation of a quick easily used biochemical colorimetric assay for measuring the viability of arthropods that is sufficiently sensitive to test even very small organisms such as white fly eggs. The assay was adapted from a technique for staining the enzyme hexokinase to signal the presence of adenosine triphosphate in viable specimens by reducing a tetrazolium salt to formazan. Basic laboratory facilities and skills are required for production of the stain, but no specialist equipment, expertise, or facilities are needed for its use. PMID:24224241

  16. Reading and Interpreting Tables and Graphs Involving Rates and Percentages

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Schield, Milo

    This survey, created by Milo Schield of Augsburg College, assesses statistical literacy. The survey focuses on the general use of informal statistics in everyday situations: reading and interpreting tables and graphs involving rates and percentages. The survey itself takes between thirty and forty minutes. The author does apologize for the length, but insists that it is due to how comprehensive the survey is. Sixty-nine questions in length, almost every topic concerning statistics is covered. The survey was funded by the W.M. Keck Statistical Literacy Project.

  17. An introduction to the Statistical Hadronization Model

    E-print Network

    F. Becattini

    2009-01-23

    In these lectures I review the foundations and the applications of the statistical hadronization model to elementary and relativistic heavy ion collisions. The role of strangeness production and the general interpretation of results is addressed.

  18. Quantifying the power of multiple event interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Yang-Ting; Farhi, David; Krohn, David; Marantan, Andrew; Mateos, David Lopez; Schwartz, Matthew

    2014-12-01

    A number of methods have been proposed recently which exploit multiple highly-correlated interpretations of events, or of jets within an event. For example, Qjets reclusters a jet multiple times and telescoping jets uses multiple cone sizes. Previous work has employed these methods in pseudo-experimental analyses and found that, with a simplified statistical treatment, they give sizable improvements over traditional methods. In this paper, the improvement gain from multiple event interpretations is explored with methods much closer to those used in real experiments. To this end, we derive and study a generalized extended maximum likelihood procedure, and find that using multiple jet radii can provide substantial benefit over a single radius in fitting procedures. Another major concern we address is that multiple event interpretations might be exploiting similar information to that already present in the standard kinematic variables. We perform multivariate analyses (boosted decision trees) on a set of standard kinematic variables, a single observable computed with several different cone sizes, and both sets combined. We find that using multiple radii is still helpful even on top of standard kinematic variables (providing a 12% improvement at low p T and 20% at high p T ). These results suggest that including multiple event interpretations in a realistic search for Higgs to would give additional sensitivity over traditional approaches.

  19. Quantifying the power of multiple event interpretations

    E-print Network

    Yang-Ting Chien; David Farhi; David Krohn; Andrew Marantan; David Lopez Mateos; Matthew Schwartz

    2014-07-10

    A number of methods have been proposed recently which exploit multiple highly-correlated interpretations of events, or of jets within an event. For example, Qjets reclusters a jet multiple times and telescoping jets uses multiple cone sizes. Previous work has employed these methods in pseudo-experimental analyses and found that, with a simplified statistical treatment, they give sizable improvements over traditional methods. In this paper, the improvement gain from multiple event interpretations is explored with methods much closer to those used in real experiments. To this end, we derive a generalized extended maximum likelihood procedure. We study the significance improvement in Higgs to bb with both this method and the simplified method from previous analysis. With either method, we find that using multiple jet radii can provide substantial benefit over a single radius. Another concern we address is that multiple event interpretations might be exploiting similar information to that already present in the standard kinematic variables. By examining correlations between kinematic variables commonly used in LHC analyses and invariant masses obtained with multiple jet reconstructions, we find that using multiple radii is still helpful even on top of standard kinematic variables when combined with boosted decision trees. These results suggest that including multiple event interpretations in a realistic search for Higgs to bb would give additional sensitivity over traditional approaches.

  20. Lexical Knowledge and Interpreter Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaaden, Hanne

    1999-01-01

    Examines the performance of six student interpreters attending a training course at the University of Oslo. Data are drawn from video recordings in which the students interpret dialogs in two test situations. Students use consecutive interpreting with short speaker intervals and perform in Norwegian/Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian. Compares students'…

  1. Interpretation of Helioseismic Traveltimes

    E-print Network

    Burston, Raymond; Birch, Aaron C

    2015-01-01

    Time-distance helioseismology uses cross-covariances of wave motions on the solar surface to determine the travel times of wave packets moving from one surface location to another. We review the methodology to interpret travel-time measurements in terms of small, localized perturbations to a horizontally homogeneous reference solar model. Using the first Born approximation, we derive and compute 3D travel-time sensitivity (Fr\\'echet) kernels for perturbations in sound-speed, density, pressure, and vector flows. While kernels for sound speed and flows had been computed previously, here we extend the calculation to kernels for density and pressure, hence providing a complete description of the effects of solar dynamics and structure on travel times. We treat three thermodynamic quantities as independent and do not assume hydrostatic equilibrium. We present a convenient approach to computing damped Green's functions using a normal-mode summation. The Green's function must be computed on a wavenumber grid that ha...

  2. Improve MWD data interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Santley, D.J.; Ardrey, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    This article reports that measurement-while-drilling (MWD) technology is being used today in a broad range of real-time drilling applications. In its infancy, MWD was limited to providing directional survey and steering information. Today, the addition of formation sensors (resistivity, gamma) and drilling efficiency sensors (WOB, torque) has made MWD a much more useful drilling decision tool. In the process, the desirability of combining downhole MWD data with powerful analytical software and interpretive techniques has been recognized by both operators and service companies. However, the usual form in which MWD and wellsite analytical capabilities are combined leaves much to be desired. The most common approach is to incorporate MWD with large-scale computerized mud logging (CML) systems. Essentially, MWD decoding and display equipment is added to existing full-blown CML surface units.

  3. Psychological Statistics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Plonsky, Mark

    This site contains materials for a college level undergraduate statistics course. The approach places emphasis on practical application. Examples are shown with hand computations and with the Minitab statistical program (V13.1). There are a couple of spreadsheets as well. Topics include: frequency distributions, graphing techniques, central tendency, variability, relative standing, correlation, dichotomous variables, continuous variables (1 and 2 sample), ANOVA: one way and two way, and nonparametric statistics.

  4. Statistical Significance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This article may help the user understand the concept of statistical significance and the meaning of the numbers produced by The Survey System. This article is presented in two parts. The first part simplifies the concept of statistical significance as much as possible; so that non-technical readers can use the concept to help make decisions based on their data. The second part provides more technical readers with a fuller discussion of the exact meaning of statistical significance numbers.

  5. Fit Indices Versus Test Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Ke-Hai

    2005-01-01

    Model evaluation is one of the most important aspects of structural equation modeling (SEM). Many model fit indices have been developed. It is not an exaggeration to say that nearly every publication using the SEM methodology has reported at least one fit index. Most fit indices are defined through test statistics. Studies and interpretation of…

  6. Statistics Poster Challenge for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Brad; Freeman, Jenny; Stillman, Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    The analysis and interpretation of data are important life skills. A poster challenge for schoolchildren provides an innovative outlet for these skills and demonstrates their relevance to daily life. We discuss our Statistics Poster Challenge and the lessons we have learned.

  7. Video National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale criteria survey results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Darrell; Yen, James; Petitti, Fred; Bakir, Tariq; Brennan, Michelle; Butto, Robert, Jr.

    2009-05-01

    The Video National Imagery Interpretability Rating Standard (V-NIIRS) consists of a ranked set of subjective criteria to assist analysts in assigning an interpretability quality level to a motion imagery clip. The V-NIIRS rating standard is needed to support the tasking, retrieval, and exploitation of motion imagery. A criteria survey was conducted to yield individual pair-wise criteria rankings and scores. Statistical analysis shows good agreement with expectations across the 9-levels of interpretability, for each of the 7 content domains.

  8. Model averaging methods to merge operational statistical and dynamic seasonal streamflow forecasts in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepen, Andrew; Wang, Q. J.

    2015-03-01

    The Australian Bureau of Meteorology produces statistical and dynamic seasonal streamflow forecasts. The statistical and dynamic forecasts are similarly reliable in ensemble spread; however, skill varies by catchment and season. Therefore, it may be possible to optimize forecasting skill by weighting and merging statistical and dynamic forecasts. Two model averaging methods are evaluated for merging forecasts for 12 locations. The first method, Bayesian model averaging (BMA), applies averaging to forecast probability densities (and thus cumulative probabilities) for a given forecast variable value. The second method, quantile model averaging (QMA), applies averaging to forecast variable values (quantiles) for a given cumulative probability (quantile fraction). BMA and QMA are found to perform similarly in terms of overall skill scores and reliability in ensemble spread. Both methods improve forecast skill across catchments and seasons. However, when both the statistical and dynamical forecasting approaches are skillful but produce, on special occasions, very different event forecasts, the BMA merged forecasts for these events can have unusually wide and bimodal distributions. In contrast, the distributions of the QMA merged forecasts for these events are narrower, unimodal and generally more smoothly shaped, and are potentially more easily communicated to and interpreted by the forecast users. Such special occasions are found to be rare. However, every forecast counts in an operational service, and therefore the occasional contrast in merged forecasts between the two methods may be more significant than the indifference shown by the overall skill and reliability performance.

  9. Impact of Statistical Learning Methods on the Predictive Power of Multivariate Normal Tissue Complication Probability Models

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Chengjian, E-mail: c.j.xu@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Schaaf, Arjen van der; Schilstra, Cornelis; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Veld, Aart A. van't [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To study the impact of different statistical learning methods on the prediction performance of multivariate normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models. Methods and Materials: In this study, three learning methods, stepwise selection, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), and Bayesian model averaging (BMA), were used to build NTCP models of xerostomia following radiotherapy treatment for head and neck cancer. Performance of each learning method was evaluated by a repeated cross-validation scheme in order to obtain a fair comparison among methods. Results: It was found that the LASSO and BMA methods produced models with significantly better predictive power than that of the stepwise selection method. Furthermore, the LASSO method yields an easily interpretable model as the stepwise method does, in contrast to the less intuitive BMA method. Conclusions: The commonly used stepwise selection method, which is simple to execute, may be insufficient for NTCP modeling. The LASSO method is recommended.

  10. IE 361 Module 19 "Statistical" (Probabilistic) Tolerancing

    E-print Network

    Vardeman, Stephen B.

    to pack 4 units of product in a carton and was experiencing di¢ culty in packaging. The linear size of the carton interior (Y ) and exterior linear sizes of four packages (X's), together with the carton "head and the above), and simple probabilistic simulations, easily done in any decent statistical package (or, heaven

  11. INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICAL DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICAL DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS An IMS Associates Program Short Course October 16 how to analyze the results both analytically and graphically. We will also consider using experiments sequentially so that prior experiments can be easily combined with current results. How to handle hard

  12. Descriptive Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weed, Harrison D., Jr.

    This brief text was written to provide more extensive treatment of descriptive statistics than is ordinarily available in modern statistics textbooks. It is intended for use in conjunction with any college level text. The booklet consists of an introduction, three content oriented chapters, and four appendices devoted to computer programming…

  13. Statistics Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Arlene; And Others

    This guide outlines an Option Y course, which has seven learner objectives geared to providing students with an introduction to the concerns and methods of statistics and equipping pupils to deal with the many statistical matters of importance in society. Topics included in the course are graphs and charts, collection and organization of data,…

  14. Statistical Diversions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petocz, Peter; Sowey, Eric

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors focus on hypothesis testing--that peculiarly statistical way of deciding things. Statistical methods for testing hypotheses were developed in the 1920s and 1930s by some of the most famous statisticians, in particular Ronald Fisher, Jerzy Neyman and Egon Pearson, who laid the foundations of almost all modern methods of…

  15. A First-order Conditional Logic with Qualitative Statistical Semantics

    E-print Network

    Brafman, Ronen

    A First-order Conditional Logic with Qualitative Statistical Semantics RONEN I. BRAFMAN, Computer 'statistical' interpretation is achieved by imposing additional structure on the domain of a single first-order@cs.ubc.ca Abstract We define a first-order conditional logic in which conditionals, such as a --· 0, are interpreted

  16. Screencast Tutorials Enhance Student Learning of Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Steven A.; Robertson, Chuck L.

    2012-01-01

    Although the use of computer-assisted instruction has rapidly increased, there is little empirical research evaluating these technologies, specifically within the context of teaching statistics. The authors assessed the effect of screencast tutorials on learning outcomes, including statistical knowledge, application, and interpretation. Students…

  17. Global Warming Statistics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson, students research real-time and historic temperature data of United States and world locations, and analyze the data using mean, median, and mode averages. Students graph the data and draw conclusions from analysis. Resources include websites with real-time and archived data, temperature-sensitive computer graphics, meteorology, government agencies, and Earth Day information. Students use a calculator or electronic spreadsheet to compile their statistics, graph the data, and explore reasons for extreme temperature changes. The Internet is used as a tool to identify, gather, calculate, graph, and interpret data, showing how statistics can be skewed using different scales. The site provides an overview of the lesson, detailed procedures for the teacher, including a list of research sites, and organizational tips for the students.

  18. Easily implementable field programmable gate array-based adaptive optics system with state-space multichannel control.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Yuan; Ke, Bo-Ting; Su, Hung-Wei; Yen, Wei-Chung; Chen, Shean-Jen

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, an easily implementable adaptive optics system (AOS) based on a real-time field programmable gate array (FPGA) platform with state-space multichannel control programmed by LabVIEW has been developed, and also integrated into a laser focusing system successfully. To meet the requirements of simple programming configuration and easy integration with other devices, the FPGA-based AOS introduces a standard operation procedure including AOS identification, computation, and operation. The overall system with a 32-channel driving signal for a deformable mirror (DM) as input and a Zernike polynomial via a lab-made Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) as output is optimally identified to construct a multichannel state-space model off-line. In real-time operation, the FPGA platform first calculates the Zernike polynomial of the optical wavefront measured from the SHWS as the feedback signal. Then, a state-space multichannel controller according to the feedback signal and the identified model is designed and implemented in the FPGA to drive the DM for phase distortion compensation. The current FPGA-based AOS is capable of suppressing low-frequency thermal disturbances with a steady-state phase error of less than 0.1 ? within less than 10 time steps when the control loop is operated at a frequency of 30 Hz. PMID:24089871

  19. Easily implementable field programmable gate array-based adaptive optics system with state-space multichannel control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chia-Yuan; Ke, Bo-Ting; Su, Hung-Wei; Yen, Wei-Chung; Chen, Shean-Jen

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, an easily implementable adaptive optics system (AOS) based on a real-time field programmable gate array (FPGA) platform with state-space multichannel control programmed by LabVIEW has been developed, and also integrated into a laser focusing system successfully. To meet the requirements of simple programming configuration and easy integration with other devices, the FPGA-based AOS introduces a standard operation procedure including AOS identification, computation, and operation. The overall system with a 32-channel driving signal for a deformable mirror (DM) as input and a Zernike polynomial via a lab-made Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) as output is optimally identified to construct a multichannel state-space model off-line. In real-time operation, the FPGA platform first calculates the Zernike polynomial of the optical wavefront measured from the SHWS as the feedback signal. Then, a state-space multichannel controller according to the feedback signal and the identified model is designed and implemented in the FPGA to drive the DM for phase distortion compensation. The current FPGA-based AOS is capable of suppressing low-frequency thermal disturbances with a steady-state phase error of less than 0.1 ? within less than 10 time steps when the control loop is operated at a frequency of 30 Hz.

  20. Engineering Statistics From "Engineering Statistics" , Top &

    E-print Network

    Kovintavewat, Piya

    Engineering Statistics From "Engineering Statistics" , Top & Wiley, Prapaisri & Pongchanun 2 From "Engineering Statistics" , Top & Wiley, Prapaisri & Pongchanun 3 " "(Sample) (Sampling) ""(Population) " "(Statistics) ""(Parameter) From "Engineering Statistics" , Top & Wiley, Prapaisri

  1. Natural language queries: an interpreter for the Italian Language: Unversita di Torino, Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonardo Lesmo; Piere Torasso

    1982-01-01

    In the past two years a system has been implemented which accepts as input a query in Italian and produces a representation of the query which is easily interpretable as a sequence of algebraic operations on a relational data base \\/1\\/. The main features of the system can be summarized as:

  2. Question Driven Semantics Interpretation for Collaborative Knowledge Engineering and Ontology Reuse

    E-print Network

    Question Driven Semantics Interpretation for Collaborative Knowledge Engineering and Ontology Reuse}@ifs.tuwien.ac.at Abstract Ontology integration, alignment, and reuse are at the heart of Semantic Web vision. The alignment between two ontologies can be achieved easily provided both share the same axiomatic space. This in turn

  3. Students' Interpretation of a Function Associated with a Real-Life Problem from Its Graph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahir, Nevin

    2010-01-01

    The properties of a function such as limit, continuity, derivative, growth, or concavity can be determined more easily from its graph than by doing any algebraic operation. For this reason, it is important for students of mathematics to interpret some of the properties of a function from its graph. In this study, we investigated the competence of…

  4. Rainbow statistics

    E-print Network

    Michele Arzano; Dario Benedetti

    2008-09-04

    Non-commutative quantum field theories and their global quantum group symmetries provide an intriguing attempt to go beyond the realm of standard local quantum field theory. A common feature of these models is that the quantum group symmetry of their Hilbert spaces induces additional structure in the multiparticle states which reflects a non-trivial momentum-dependent statistics. We investigate the properties of this "rainbow statistics" in the particular context of $\\kappa$-quantum fields and discuss the analogies/differences with models with twisted statistics.

  5. SOCR: Statistics Online Computational Resource

    PubMed Central

    Dinov, Ivo D.

    2011-01-01

    The need for hands-on computer laboratory experience in undergraduate and graduate statistics education has been firmly established in the past decade. As a result a number of attempts have been undertaken to develop novel approaches for problem-driven statistical thinking, data analysis and result interpretation. In this paper we describe an integrated educational web-based framework for: interactive distribution modeling, virtual online probability experimentation, statistical data analysis, visualization and integration. Following years of experience in statistical teaching at all college levels using established licensed statistical software packages, like STATA, S-PLUS, R, SPSS, SAS, Systat, etc., we have attempted to engineer a new statistics education environment, the Statistics Online Computational Resource (SOCR). This resource performs many of the standard types of statistical analysis, much like other classical tools. In addition, it is designed in a plug-in object-oriented architecture and is completely platform independent, web-based, interactive, extensible and secure. Over the past 4 years we have tested, fine-tuned and reanalyzed the SOCR framework in many of our undergraduate and graduate probability and statistics courses and have evidence that SOCR resources build student’s intuition and enhance their learning. PMID:21451741

  6. River Pollution Data Interpreted by Means of Chemometric Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jürgen W. Einax; Dirk Truckenbrodt; Olaf Kampe

    1998-01-01

    Environmental data, including river pollution data, are characterized by high variability. Much information is lost by using only univariate graphical or statistical methods for data evaluation and interpretation. Chemometric methods, in particular methods of multivariate data analysis, help to extract the latent information in such data. The combination of cluster analysis as the first step and multivariate analysis of variance

  7. ADHD Rating Scale-IV: Checklists, Norms, and Clinical Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Danielle

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the "ADHD Rating Scale-IV: Checklist, norms, and clinical interpretation," is a norm-referenced checklist that measures the symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) according to the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association,…

  8. Interpreting simple STR mixtures using allele peak areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Gill; R. Sparkes; R. Pinchin; T. Clayton; J. Whitaker; J. Buckleton

    1998-01-01

    Although existing statistical models can interpret mixtures qualitatively based upon the alleles present, the use of automated sequencers opens the opportunity to take account of quantitative aspects embodied by the peak area. One step in understanding simple mixtures consisting of just two donors is to estimate the mixture ratio. This is relatively easy to do when four-allele mixtures are evident

  9. Linking numbers, spin, and statistics of solitons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilczek, F.; Zee, A.

    1983-01-01

    The spin and statistics of solitons in the (2 + 1)- and (3 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear sigma models is considered. For the (2 + 1)-dimensional case, there is the possibility of fractional spin and exotic statistics; for 3 + 1 dimensions, the usual spin-statistics relation is demonstrated. The linking-number interpretation of the Hopf invariant and the use of suspension considerably simplify the analysis.

  10. Teaching Teachers to Teach Statistical Investigations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katie Makar; Jill Fielding-Wells

    \\u000a Despite its importance for the discipline, the statistical investigation cycle is given little attention in schools. Teachers\\u000a face unique challenges in teaching statistical inquiry, with elements unfamiliar to many mathematics classrooms: Coping with\\u000a uncertainty, encouraging debate and competing interpretations, and supporting student collaboration. This chapter highlights\\u000a ways for teacher educators to support teachers’ learning to teach statistical inquiry. Results of

  11. Philosophical perspectives on quantum chaos: Models and interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokulich, Alisa Nicole

    2001-09-01

    The problem of quantum chaos is a special case of the larger problem of understanding how the classical world emerges from quantum mechanics. While we have learned that chaos is pervasive in classical systems, it appears to be almost entirely absent in quantum systems. The aim of this dissertation is to determine what implications the interpretation of quantum mechanics has for attempts to explain the emergence of classical chaos. There are three interpretations of quantum mechanics that have set out programs for solving the problem of quantum chaos: the standard interpretation, the statistical interpretation, and the deBroglie-Bohm causal interpretation. One of the main conclusions of this dissertation is that an interpretation alone is insufficient for solving the problem of quantum chaos and that the phenomenon of decoherence must be taken into account. Although a completely satisfactory solution of the problem of quantum chaos is still outstanding, I argue that the deBroglie-Bohm interpretation with the help of decoherence outlines the most promising research program to pursue. In addition to making a contribution to the debate in the philosophy of physics concerning the interpretation of quantum mechanics, this dissertation reveals two important methodological lessons for the philosophy of science. First, issues of reductionism and intertheoretic relations cannot be divorced from questions concerning the interpretation of the theories involved. Not only is the exploration of intertheoretic relations a central part of the articulation and interpretation of an individual theory, but the very terms used to discuss intertheoretic relations, such as `state' and `classical limit', are themselves defined by particular interpretations of the theory. The second lesson that emerges is that, when it comes to characterizing the relationship between classical chaos and quantum mechanics, the traditional approaches to intertheoretic relations, namely reductionism and theoretical pluralism, are inadequate. The fruitful ways in which models have been used in quantum chaos research point to the need for a new framework for addressing intertheoretic relations that focuses on models rather than laws.

  12. Statistics Indonesia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Started in 1997, the Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS-Statistics Indonesia) is a non-departmental Indonesian government institution directly responsible to the Indonesian president. As the law that created this valuable institution stipulates, the BPS is intended to provide data to the government and the public, along cooperating with other international statistical institutions. Visitors looking for statistics on any number of topics will not be disappointed, as the areas covered include agriculture, consumer price indices, employment, energy, foreign trade, mining, population, public finance, tourism, and social welfare. Additionally, there are monthly macro-economic statistical reports for the years from 1998 to 2001 that can be downloaded and viewed as well. The site is rounded out by a collection of some 21 papers from the past four years that analyze various economic data from the country, such as earning data and manufacturing production.

  13. Mathematical Statistics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dudley, Richard

    Created by Richard Dudley of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, this lesson, Mathematical Statistics, is a graduate-level course featuring book chapters and sections presented as lecture notes, problem sets, exams, and a description for an optional term-paper. The course covers: decision theory, estimation, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, asymptotic efficiency of estimates, exponential families, sequential analysis, and large sample theory. This is a comprehensive overview of this upper level statistics course.

  14. Statistical Mechanics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Jaksi ´; C.-A. Pillet

    1937-01-01

    We review and further develop a mathematical framework for non-equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics recently proposed in (JP4, JP5, JP6, Ru3, Ru4, Ru5, Ru6). In the alge- braic formalism of quantum statistical mechanics we introduce notions of non-equilibrium steady states, entropy production and heat fluxes, and study their properties. Our basic paradigm is a model of a small (finite) quantum system

  15. Rapid quantitative analysis of microcystins in raw surface waters with MALDI MS utilizing easily synthesized internal standards.

    PubMed

    Roegner, Amber F; Schirmer, Macarena Pírez; Puschner, Birgit; Brena, Beatriz; Gonzalez-Sapienza, Gualberto

    2014-02-01

    The freshwater cyanotoxins, microcystins (MCs), pose a global public health threat as potent hepatotoxins in cyanobacterial blooms; their persistence in drinking and recreational water has been associated with potential chronic effects in addition to acute intoxications. Rapid and accurate detection of the over 80 structural congeners is challenged by the rigorous and time consuming clean up required to overcome interference found in raw water samples. MALDI-MS has shown promise for rapid quantification of individual congeners in raw water samples, with very low operative cost, but so far limited sensitivity and lack of available and versatile internal standards (ISs) has limited its use. Two easily synthesized S-hydroxyethyl-Cys(7)-MC-LR and -RR ISs were used to generate linear standard curves in a reflectron MALDI instrument, reproducible across several orders of magnitude for MC-LR, -RR and -YR. Minimum quantification limits in direct water samples with no clean up or concentration step involved were consistently below 7 ?g/L, with recoveries from spiked samples between 80 and 119%. This method improves sensitivity by 30 fold over previous reports of quantitative MALDI-TOF applications to MCs and provides a salient option for rapid throughput analysis for multiple MC congeners in untreated raw surface water blooms as a means to identify source public health threats and target intervention strategies within a watershed. As demonstrated by analysis of a set of samples from Uruguay, utilizing the reaction of different MC congeners with alternate sulfhydryl compounds, the m/z of the IS can be customized to avoid overlap with interfering compounds in local surface water samples. PMID:24388801

  16. Input of easily available organic C and N stimulates microbial decomposition of soil organic matter in arctic permafrost soil

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Jörg; Alves, Ricardo J. Eloy; Barsukov, Pavel; Bárta, Ji?í; ?apek, Petr; Gentsch, Norman; Gittel, Antje; Guggenberger, Georg; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Mikutta, Robert; Rusalimova, Olga; Šantr??ková, Hana; Shibistova, Olga; Urich, Tim; Watzka, Margarete; Zrazhevskaya, Galina; Richter, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Rising temperatures in the Arctic can affect soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition directly and indirectly, by increasing plant primary production and thus the allocation of plant-derived organic compounds into the soil. Such compounds, for example root exudates or decaying fine roots, are easily available for microorganisms, and can alter the decomposition of older SOM (“priming effect”). We here report on a SOM priming experiment in the active layer of a permafrost soil from the central Siberian Arctic, comparing responses of organic topsoil, mineral subsoil, and cryoturbated subsoil material (i.e., poorly decomposed topsoil material subducted into the subsoil by freeze–thaw processes) to additions of 13C-labeled glucose, cellulose, a mixture of amino acids, and protein (added at levels corresponding to approximately 1% of soil organic carbon). SOM decomposition in the topsoil was barely affected by higher availability of organic compounds, whereas SOM decomposition in both subsoil horizons responded strongly. In the mineral subsoil, SOM decomposition increased by a factor of two to three after any substrate addition (glucose, cellulose, amino acids, protein), suggesting that the microbial decomposer community was limited in energy to break down more complex components of SOM. In the cryoturbated horizon, SOM decomposition increased by a factor of two after addition of amino acids or protein, but was not significantly affected by glucose or cellulose, indicating nitrogen rather than energy limitation. Since the stimulation of SOM decomposition in cryoturbated material was not connected to microbial growth or to a change in microbial community composition, the additional nitrogen was likely invested in the production of extracellular enzymes required for SOM decomposition. Our findings provide a first mechanistic understanding of priming in permafrost soils and suggest that an increase in the availability of organic carbon or nitrogen, e.g., by increased plant productivity, can change the decomposition of SOM stored in deeper layers of permafrost soils, with possible repercussions on the global climate. PMID:25089062

  17. INTERPRETIVE HEATBUGS: DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. S. MELLARKOD; D. L. SALLACH

    Agent-based modeling has been proven to be an effective strategy for expressing social behavior. In order to extend the veracity of social models and capture related phenomena, we introduce the concept of interpretive mechanisms in social agents. The central concept is to allow an agent to view others and the environment through his own interpretation of events and situations. There

  18. Basic Interpreting Strategies for Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    Some deaf interpreting strategies are offered to parents of children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Parents are urged to utilize space in their interpreting, use name signs, utilize sight lines to distinguish characters in stories, use exaggerated signs to translate nursery rhymes, place themselves carefully at a public performance, and learn…

  19. These are ``how to do it'' papers. They should be written and illustrated so that the reader may easily follow whatever instruction or advice is being given.

    E-print Network

    Lee, Jong Duk

    that the reader may easily follow whatever instruction or advice is being given. Photolithographic patterning operating at low volt- age, below 500 V, require small phosphor particles due to the high resolution

  20. Magnetic observatories generate a huge amount of data far too much for anyone to digest easily. To help scientists take a quick measure of

    E-print Network

    3E Magnetic observatories generate a huge amount of data ­ far too much for anyone to digest easily. To help scientists take a quick measure of Earth's magnetic storminess, they invented the `Planetary

  1. Statistical ecology comes of age.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, Olivier; Buckland, Stephen T; Morgan, Byron J T; Bez, Nicolas; Bertrand, Sophie; Choquet, Rémi; Dray, Stéphane; Etienne, Marie-Pierre; Fewster, Rachel; Gosselin, Frédéric; Mérigot, Bastien; Monestiez, Pascal; Morales, Juan M; Mortier, Frédéric; Munoz, François; Ovaskainen, Otso; Pavoine, Sandrine; Pradel, Roger; Schurr, Frank M; Thomas, Len; Thuiller, Wilfried; Trenkel, Verena; de Valpine, Perry; Rexstad, Eric

    2014-12-01

    The desire to predict the consequences of global environmental change has been the driver towards more realistic models embracing the variability and uncertainties inherent in ecology. Statistical ecology has gelled over the past decade as a discipline that moves away from describing patterns towards modelling the ecological processes that generate these patterns. Following the fourth International Statistical Ecology Conference (1-4 July 2014) in Montpellier, France, we analyse current trends in statistical ecology. Important advances in the analysis of individual movement, and in the modelling of population dynamics and species distributions, are made possible by the increasing use of hierarchical and hidden process models. Exciting research perspectives include the development of methods to interpret citizen science data and of efficient, flexible computational algorithms for model fitting. Statistical ecology has come of age: it now provides a general and mathematically rigorous framework linking ecological theory and empirical data. PMID:25540151

  2. The statistical origins of quantum mechanics

    E-print Network

    U. Klein

    2011-03-08

    It is shown that Schroedinger's equation may be derived from three postulates. The first is a kind of statistical metamorphosis of classical mechanics, a set of two relations which are obtained from the canonical equations of particle mechanics by replacing all observables by statistical averages. The second is a local conservation law of probability with a probability current which takes the form of a gradient. The third is a principle of maximal disorder as realized by the requirement of minimal Fisher information. The rule for calculating expectation values is obtained from a fourth postulate, the requirement of energy conservation in the mean. The fact that all these basic relations of quantum theory may be derived from premises which are statistical in character is interpreted as a strong argument in favor of the statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics. The structures of quantum theory and classical statistical theories are compared and some fundamental differences are identified.

  3. Chi-Square Statistics, Tests of Hypothesis and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochowicz, John A.

    The use of technology such as computers and programmable calculators enables students to find p-values and conduct tests of hypotheses in many different ways. Comprehension and interpretation of a research problem become the focus for statistical analysis. This paper describes how to calculate chisquare statistics and p-values for statistical

  4. Pornography and rape: theory and practice? Evidence from crime data in four countries where pornography is easily available.

    PubMed

    Kutchinsky, B

    1991-01-01

    We have looked at the empirical evidence of the well-known feminist dictum: "pornography is the theory--rape is the practice" (Morgan, 1980). While earlier research, notably that generated by the U.S. Commission on Obscenity and Pornography (1970) had found no evidence of a causal link between pornography and rape, a new generation of behavioral scientists have, for more than a decade, made considerable effort to prove such a connection, especially as far as "aggressive pornography" is concerned. The first part of the article examines and discusses the findings of this new research. A number of laboratory experiments have been conducted, much akin to the types of experiments developed by researchers of the effects of nonsexual media violence. As in the latter, a certain degree of increased "aggressiveness" has been found under certain circumstances, but to extrapolate from such laboratory effects to the commission of rape in real life is dubious. Studies of rapists' and nonrapists' immediate sexual reactions to presentations of pornography showed generally greater arousal to non-violent scenes, and no difference can be found in this regard between convicted rapists, nonsexual criminals and noncriminal males. In the second part of the paper an attempt was made to study the necessary precondition for a substantial causal relationship between the availability of pornography, including aggressive pornography, and rape--namely, that obviously increased availability of such material was followed by an increase in cases of reported rape. The development of rape and attempted rape during the period 1964-1984 was studied in four countries: the U.S.A., Denmark, Sweden and West Germany. In all four countries there is clear and undisputed evidence that during this period the availability of various forms of pictorial pornography including violent/dominant varieties (in the form of picture magazines, and films/videos used at home or shown in arcades or cinemas) has developed from extreme scarcity to relative abundance. If (violent) pornography causes rape, this exceptional development in the availability of (violent) pornography should definitely somehow influence the rape statistics. Since, however, the rape figures could not simply be expected to remain steady during the period in question (when it is well known that most other crimes increased considerably), the development of rape rates was compared with that of non-sexual violent offences and nonviolent sexual offences (in so far as available statistics permitted). The results showed that in none of the countries did rape increase more than nonsexual violent crimes. This finding in itself would seem sufficient to discard the hypothesis that pornography causes rape.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2032762

  5. Appendix A. A discussion of interpreting odds ratios of the extended continuation ratio The effects of the variables in a probability model, such as the extended continuation

    E-print Network

    Appendices Appendix A. A discussion of interpreting odds ratios of the extended continuation ratio) model (Eq. 1), are most easily interpreted using odds ratios (Armstrong and Sloan 1989, Fahrmeir constant, we can derive the odds ratio i: i = odds{Y = j|Y j, X1, X2, . . . , Xi + di, . . . , Xn} odds

  6. Statistical Engineering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Annis, Charles

    A good resource for problems in statistics in engineering. Contains some applets, and good textual examples related to engineering. Some topics include Monte Carlo method, Central Limit Theorem, Risk, Logistic Regression, Generalized Linear Models, and Confidence. Overall, this is a well presented and good site for anyone interested in engineering or mathematics.

  7. Statistical Information

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, Tom

    , or a set of cdf's for a statistical problem based on data. Inference: Making predictions, computing of x that can be used for reasoning, decision making, predicting, communicating, etc. Task is often #12; Inference vs. Learning Estimation/Learning: Selecting parameters, a distribution over parameters

  8. Statistical Java

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anderson-Cook, C.

    This is a collection of applets regarding various topics in statistics. Topics include central limit theorem, probability distributions, hypothesis testing, power, confidence intervals, correlation, control charts, experimental design, data analysis, and regression. Each topic has a description page and links to one or more applets.

  9. Bayesian Interpretation of Test Reliability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, W. Paul

    1991-01-01

    A Bayesian alternative to interpretations based on classical reliability theory is presented. Procedures are detailed for calculation of a posterior score and credible interval with joint consideration of item sample and occasion error. (Author/SLD)

  10. Map Interpretation with Google Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Resources in this collection A highly effective, non-traditional approach for using Google Earth to teach strike, dip, and geologic map interpretation, with assignments and activities (Barbara Tewksbury, Hamilton ...

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION CENTER (EPIC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) in the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) of the Office of Research and Development provides remote sensing technical support including aerial photograph acquisition and interpretation to the EPA Program Offices, ORD Laboratorie...

  12. Interpretive Techniques for Adventure Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Interpretive techniques for encouraging participants to experience a deeper level of environmental growth during outdoor activities include group discussions, creative writing, artistic expression, visualization, sensitization, group activities introducing participants to various aspects of the environment, reflective thinking, the use of…

  13. Security bugs in embedded interpreters

    E-print Network

    Chen, Haogang

    Because embedded interpreters offer flexibility and performance, they are becoming more prevalent, and can be found at nearly every level of the software stack. As one example, the Linux kernel defines languages to describe ...

  14. Four Faculty Positions Applied Statistics & Computational Statistics

    E-print Network

    Shepp, Larry

    Four Faculty Positions Applied Statistics & Computational Statistics The Department of Statistics at the Assistant Professor rank. Two positions are open in the area of Applied Statistics, with a focus on the development of statistical methodology and statistical consulting. The other two positions are open

  15. Calibrated Peer Review for Interpreting Linear Regression Parameters: Results from a Graduate Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enders, Felicity B.; Jenkins, Sarah; Hoverman, Verna

    2010-01-01

    Biostatistics is traditionally a difficult subject for students to learn. While the mathematical aspects are challenging, it can also be demanding for students to learn the exact language to use to correctly interpret statistical results. In particular, correctly interpreting the parameters from linear regression is both a vital tool and a…

  16. X-Bar and R Control Chart Interpretation Using Neural Computing Alice E. Smith

    E-print Network

    Smith, Alice E.

    X-Bar and R Control Chart Interpretation Using Neural Computing Alice E. Smith Assistant Professor) control charts for diagnosis and interpretation by artificial neural networks. Neural networks are trained and disadvantages of neural control charts compared to traditional statistical process control are discussed

  17. Intelligent Collection Environment for an Interpretation System

    SciTech Connect

    Maurer, W J

    2001-07-19

    An Intelligent Collection Environment for a data interpretation system is described. The environment accepts two inputs: A data model and a number between 0.0 and 1.0. The data model is as simple as a single word or as complex as a multi-level/multidimensional model. The number between 0.0 and 1.0 is a control knob to indicate the user's desire to allow loose matching of the data (things are ambiguous and unknown) versus strict matching of the data (things are precise and known). The environment produces a set of possible interpretations, a set of requirements to further strengthen or to differentiate a particular subset of the possible interpretation from the others, a set of inconsistencies, and a logic map that graphically shows the lines of reasoning used to derive the above output. The environment is comprised of a knowledge editor, model explorer, expertise server, and the World Wide Web. The Knowledge Editor is used by a subject matter expert to define Linguistic Types, Term Sets, detailed explanations, and dynamically created URI's, and to create rule bases using a straight forward hyper matrix representation. The Model Explorer allows rapid construction and browsing of multi-level models. A multi-level model is a model whose elements may also be models themselves. The Expertise Server is an inference engine used to interpret the data submitted. It incorporates a semantic network knowledge representation, an assumption based truth maintenance system, and a fuzzy logic calculus. It can be extended by employing any classifier (e.g. statistical/neural networks) of complex data types. The World Wide Web is an unstructured data space accessed by the URI's supplied as part of the output of the environment. By recognizing the input data model as a query, the environment serves as a deductive search engine. Applications include (but are not limited to) interpretation of geophysical phenomena, a navigation aid for very large web sites, monitoring of computer or sensor networks, customer support, trouble shooting, and searching complex digital libraries (e.g. genome libraries).

  18. Learning Statistics By Doing Statistics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Smith, Gary

    This article, created by Gary Smith of Pomona College, discusses a project-based approach to teaching statistics. The article focuses on the team aspect of learning, it introduces concepts such as: working with data, learning by doing, learning by writing, learning by speaking, and authentic assessment of material. An appendix contains a list of twenty projects that have been successfully assigned.

  19. An Interpretation of Banded Magnetospheric Radio Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Robert F.; Osherovich, V. A.; Fainberg, J.; Vinas, A. F.; Ruppert, D. R.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Recently-published Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorer/Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (AMPTE/IRM) banded magnetospheric emissions, commonly referred to as '(n + 1/2)f(sub ce)' emissions where f(sub ce) is the electron gyrofrequency, are analyzed by treating them as analogous to sounder-stimulated ionospheric emissions. We show that both individual AMPTE/IRM spectra of magnetospheric banded emissions, and a statistically-derived spectra observed over the two-year lifetime of the mission, can be interpreted in a self-consistent manner. The analysis, which predicts all spectral peaks within 4% of the observed peaks, interprets the higher-frequency emissions as due to low group-velocity Bernstein-mode waves and the lower-frequency emissions as eigen modes of cylindrical-electromagnetic-plasma-oscillations. The demarcation between these two classes of emissions is the electron plasma frequency f(sub pe), where an emission is often observed. This f(sub pe), emission is not necessarily the strongest. None of the observed banded emissions were attributed to the upper-hybrid frequency. We present Alouette-2 and ISIS-1 plasma-resonance data, and model electron temperature (T(sub e)) values, to support the argument that the frequency-spectrum of ionospheric sounder-stimulated emissions is not strongly temperature dependent and thus that the interpretation of these emissions in the ionosphere is relevant to other plasmas (such as the magnetosphere) where N(sub e) and T(sub e) can be quite different but where the ratio f(sub pe)/f(sub ce) is identical.

  20. Singular statistics

    E-print Network

    E. Bogomolny; U. Gerland; C. Schmit

    2000-12-04

    We consider the statistical distribution of zeros of random meromorphic functions whose poles are independent random variables. It is demonstrated that correlation functions of these zeros can be computed analytically and explicit calculations are performed for the 2-point correlation function. This problem naturally appears in e.g. rank-one perturbation of an integrable Hamiltonian and, in particular, when a $\\delta$-function potential is added to an integrable billiard.

  1. Statistics I

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-06-21

    Students will encounter the concept of a distribution, along with parameters that describe a distribution's "typical" values (average) and a distribution's spread (variance). To understand simple distributions and uncertainty propagation in the coming sections, it is necessary to be familiar with the concept of statistical independence. When two variables fluctuate independently, their covariance vanishes, and the variance of their sum is the sum of their variances.

  2. BCSC Statistics

    Cancer.gov

    This section of the BCSC web site details the information collected and used in research by the BCSC. Statistics includes charts and tables that provide an overview of the data collected. These data are used in a wide range of studies that evaluate the performance of mammography in community settings. Some studies analyze data collected from individual sites; others examine data pooled from two or more sites.

  3. Differences in university students' attitudes and anxiety about statistics.

    PubMed

    Mji, Andile

    2009-06-01

    The Statistics Anxiety Rating Scale and the Attitudes Toward Statistics questionnaire were administered to 226 university of technology students. The former scale measures anxiety about learning statistics in terms of Worth of Statistics, Interpretation Anxiety, Test and Class Anxiety, Computational Self-concept, Fear of Asking for Help, and Fear of Statistics Teachers. The latter measures attitudes toward use of statistics and statistics course for which a student was registered. These African students were enrolled in Taxation, Marketing, or Accounting. Participants took a required course in statistics intended to improve statistical skills. There were 150 women and 57 men, chosen because they had no previous mathematics learning. Students' ages ranged between 16 and 26 years (M = 20.1, SD = 2.0). There were no statistically significant sex differences on attitudes and anxiety toward statistics, but there were significant differences among areas of study programs. PMID:19708400

  4. Default Sarcastic Interpretations: On the Priority of Nonsalient Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giora, Rachel; Drucker, Ari; Fein, Ofer; Mendelson, Itamar

    2015-01-01

    Findings from five experiments support the view that negation generates sarcastic utterance-interpretations by default. When presented in isolation, novel negative constructions ("Punctuality is not his forte," "Thoroughness is not her most distinctive feature"), free of semantic anomaly or internal incongruity, were…

  5. The Interpretive Approach to Religious Education: Challenging Thompson's Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In a recent book chapter, Matthew Thompson makes some criticisms of my work, including the interpretive approach to religious education and the research and activity of Warwick Religions and Education Research Unit. Against the background of a discussion of religious education in the public sphere, my response challenges Thompson's account,…

  6. R. Budiu Interpretation-Based Processing 1 Running Head: INTERPRETATION-BASED PROCESSING

    E-print Network

    , ACT-R #12;R. Budiu Interpretation-Based Processing 2 Abstract We present interpretation implemented in ACT-R (Anderson & Lebiere, 1998). #12;R. Budiu Interpretation-Based Processing 3 Interpretation

  7. Spike statistics

    E-print Network

    J. Mark Heinzle; Claes Uggla

    2012-12-21

    In this paper we explore stochastical and statistical properties of so-called recurring spike induced Kasner sequences. Such sequences arise in recurring spike formation, which is needed together with the more familiar BKL scenario to yield a complete description of generic spacelike singularities. In particular we derive a probability distribution for recurring spike induced Kasner sequences, complementing similar available BKL results, which makes comparisons possible. As examples of applications, we derive results for so-called large and small curvature phases and the Hubble-normalized Weyl scalar.

  8. EIA publications manual: Statistical graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    Statistical graphs both illustrate a set of data and provide an analytical perspective. The distinction between these two functions is one of emphasis. Where the purpose of a graph is to dramatize or highlight a set of data, its primary function is illustration. Where the purpose of a graph is to explore, measure, calculate, and derive relationships, the primary function of the graph is analytical. In general practice, these two functions can be so interdependent as to be indistinguishable. The following guidelines are intended to aid in resolving problems common to the presentation of data in statistical graphs. The variety and complexity of data to be presented call for a flexible approach; therefore, the following examples are intended not as inflexible specifications but rather as guides to the design of graphs that are attractive and easily understood. All the types of graphs discussed here have appeared in EIA publications. A list of references that provides further examples is included. Also included is a glossary of statistical terms used in discussing the statistical properties of different types of graphs. 11 refs., 24 figs.

  9. Spin, Statistics, and Reflections, II. Lorentz Invariance

    E-print Network

    Bernd Kuckert; Reinhard Lorenzen

    2005-12-21

    The analysis of the relation between modular P$_1$CT-symmetry -- a consequence of the Unruh effect -- and Pauli's spin-statistics relation is continued. The result in the predecessor to this article is extended to the Lorentz symmetric situation. A model $\\G_L$ of the universal covering $\\widetilde{L_+^\\uparrow}\\cong SL(2,\\complex)$ of the restricted Lorentz group $L_+^\\uparrow$ is modelled as a reflection group at the classical level. Based on this picture, a representation of $\\G_L$ is constructed from pairs of modular P$_1$CT-conjugations, and this representation can easily be verified to satisfy the spin-statistics relation.

  10. Interpreting Sky-Averaged 21-cm Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirocha, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Within the first ~billion years after the Big Bang, the intergalactic medium (IGM) underwent a remarkable transformation, from a uniform sea of cold neutral hydrogen gas to a fully ionized, metal-enriched plasma. Three milestones during this epoch of reionization -- the emergence of the first stars, black holes (BHs), and full-fledged galaxies -- are expected to manifest themselves as extrema in sky-averaged ("global") measurements of the redshifted 21-cm background. However, interpreting these measurements will be complicated by the presence of strong foregrounds and non-trivialities in the radiative transfer (RT) modeling required to make robust predictions.I have developed numerical models that efficiently solve the frequency-dependent radiative transfer equation, which has led to two advances in studies of the global 21-cm signal. First, frequency-dependent solutions facilitate studies of how the global 21-cm signal may be used to constrain the detailed spectral properties of the first stars, BHs, and galaxies, rather than just the timing of their formation. And second, the speed of these calculations allows one to search vast expanses of a currently unconstrained parameter space, while simultaneously characterizing the degeneracies between parameters of interest. I find principally that (1) physical properties of the IGM, such as its temperature and ionization state, can be constrained robustly from observations of the global 21-cm signal without invoking models for the astrophysical sources themselves, (2) translating IGM properties to galaxy properties is challenging, in large part due to frequency-dependent effects. For instance, evolution in the characteristic spectrum of accreting BHs can modify the 21-cm absorption signal at levels accessible to first generation instruments, but could easily be confused with evolution in the X-ray luminosity star-formation rate relation. Finally, (3) the independent constraints most likely to aide in the interpretation of global 21-cm signal measurements are detections of Lyman Alpha Emitters at high redshifts and constraints on the midpoint of reionization, both of which are among the primary science objectives of ongoing or near-future experiments.

  11. Physicochemical/Thermodynamic Framework for the Interpretation of Peptide Tandem Mass Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, William R.; Rawlins, Mitchell M.

    2010-04-01

    The interpretation of tandem mass spectra of peptides from collision-induced dissociation is discussed from the perspective of a multinomial data analysis problem and from the perspective of statistical mechanics. Both approaches use the same statistical likelihood function, and it is shown that this statistical likelihood is equivalent to an information theory entropy when scaled appropriately. The likelihood function provides a physically and chemically principled way to incorporate intensity information into the interpretation of tandem mass spectra and enables the use of predictive modeling and simulation to inform the peptide identification process.

  12. An easily installable groundwater lysimeter to determine water balance components and hydraulic properties of peat soils Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(1), 2332 (2003) EGU

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    2003-01-01

    properties of peat soils 23 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(1), 23­32 (2003) © EGU An easily installable groundwater lysimeter to determine water balance components and hydraulic properties of peat soils.Schwaerzel@TU-Berlin.de Abstract A simple method for the installation of groundwater lysimeters in peat soils was developed which

  13. Exact global fault collapsing can be easily applied locally at the logic gates, however, it is often ignored for large cir-

    E-print Network

    Al-Asaad, Hussain

    1 ABSTRACT Exact global fault collapsing can be easily applied locally at the logic gates, however, we present AGFC, an approximate global fault collapsing tool for combinational circuits. Experimental results show that (i) AGFC reduces the num- ber of faults drastically with feasible resources and (ii

  14. Use of stirred tanks for studying matrix effects caused by inorganic acids, easily ionized elements and organic solvents in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo Paredes; Salvador E. Maestre; José L. Todolí

    2006-01-01

    A stirred tank was used for the first time to elucidate the mechanism responsible for inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) matrix effects caused by inorganic, acids and easily ionized elements (EIEs), as well as organic, ethanol and acetic acid, compounds. In order to gradually increase the matrix concentration, a matrix solution was introduced inside a stirred container (tank)

  15. Command Language Interpreters February 1993

    E-print Network

    California at San Diego, University of

    not be construed as a commitment by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. MIT assumes no responsibility.S.A. The following are trademarks of Digitial Equipment Corporation: CDD DECnet VAX DATATRIEVE DECUS VAXcluster DEC Society. #12;#12;1 Introduction Several MDS utilities are based on the same command line interpreter. Many

  16. Miscommunication in Interpreted Classroom Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kristen

    1991-01-01

    Presents a consumer's viewpoint of problems inherent in the use of interpretation to get deaf class members into the stream of vocally expressed communication, focusing on the kinds of misunderstandings that can arise when one language is expressed in the three dimensions of space and the other has only the dimensions of speech. (38 references)…

  17. Causal Interpretation of Graphical Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn Shafer

    How do we combine probability with causality? What does it mean for a graphical probability model to be causal? I can hardly review here the many ways statisticians (even those participating in this session) have addressed these questions over the past decade. I will, however,hazard one generalization: In order to answer these questions clearly,you must first adopt some interpretation of

  18. Use and Interpretation of Radar

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Nielsen-Gammon

    1996-01-01

    This undergraduate meteorology tutorial from Texas A&M University discusses the basic principles of operation of weather radars, describes how to interpret radar mosaics, and discusses the use of radar in weather forecasting. Students learn the relationship between range and elevation and how to use radar images and mosaics in short-range forecasting.

  19. IT1: An Interpretive Tutor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, T. R.

    A computer-assisted instruction system, called IT1 (Interpretive Tutor), is described which is intended to assist a student's efforts to learn the content of textual material and to evaluate his efforts toward that goal. The text is represented internally in the form of semantic networks with auxiliary structures which relate network nodes to…

  20. Partial discharge measurement and interpretation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Nattrass

    1988-01-01

    An overview is given of partial discharge patterns, their evaluation, and determination of their origin. Some brief comparisons of test equipment considered to be of general interest are made. The intent is to assist practitioners in the interpretation of results as well as in the accurate discrimination between true partial discharges within an insulating structure and other unwanted conduction or

  1. Interpreting Electromagnetic Reflections In Glaciology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Eisen; U. Nixdorf; F. Wilhelms; D. Steinhage; H. Miller

    2002-01-01

    Electromagnetic reflection (EMR) measurements are active remote sensing methods that have become a major tool for glaciological investigations. Although the basic pro- cesses are well understood, the unambiguous interpretation of EMR data, especially internal layering, still requires further information. The Antacrtic ice sheet provides a unique setting for investigating the relation between physical­chemical properties of ice and EMR data. Cold

  2. Design Document. EKG Interpretation Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Sandra M.

    This teaching plan is designed to assist nursing instructors assigned to advanced medical surgical nursing courses in acquainting students with the basic skills needed to perform electrocardiographic (ECG or EKG) interpretations. The first part of the teaching plan contains a statement of purpose; audience recommendations; a flow chart detailing…

  3. INTERPRETES: Jovita Gmez Couto, soprano

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    INTERPRETES: Jovita Gómez Couto, soprano Ascensión Padilla, soprano Agatha Martínez, soprano Side Story, Leonard Berstein Javier Peláez Tell him, Lauryn Hill Ascensión Padilla y Agatha Martínez Padilla I dreamed a dream de Los Miserables, Claude-Michel Schönberg Jovita Gómez Segunda parte We wish

  4. [Attempt at multidimensional dream interpretation].

    PubMed

    Bengesser, G

    1995-01-01

    The recent developments of depthpsychology and neurophysiology makes a new orientation and interpretation of dreams necessary. Koella for example describes night-mares of persons taking Beta-blockers. Of course, the great ideas of Freud and Adler should be integrated, not abandoned. Most of all influences of biologic factors on quality of dreams should be discussed. PMID:7660671

  5. Provability interpretations of modal logic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert M. Solovay

    1976-01-01

    We consider interpretations of modal logic in Peano arithmetic (P) determined by an assignment of a sentencev\\u000a * ofP to each propositional variablev. We put (?)*=“0 = 1”, (? ? ?)* = “?* ? ?*” and let (??)* be a formalization of “?)* is a theorem ofP”. We say that a modal formula, ?, isvalid if ?* is a theorem

  6. MWD interpretation tracks bit wear

    SciTech Connect

    Falconer, I.G.; Burgess, T.M.; Wolfenberger, E.

    1986-02-01

    A new realtime, measurement-while-drilling (MWD) interpretation technique uses MWD downhole-weight-on-bit and torque sensors to monitor bit-tooth wear and to diagnose bearing failure. This article describes the results of the mechanical efficiency log (trademark MEL).

  7. Software Copyright Interpretation. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, LeRoy

    1985-01-01

    This digest presents a reprint of an article which addresses the issue of the rights of computer software owners to duplicate materials. A conservative approach to software copyright is taken which looks to how the law will likely be interpreted, rather than waiting for the definitive decision by a court. Three major issues involved with software…

  8. Statistical Methods for Imaging System Neal H. Clinthorne,

    E-print Network

    Fessler, Jeffrey A.

    Radiotracer in Patient Emission Tomograph Image Reconstruction Human Interpretation Radiation Source Detector injected into patient · SPECT or PET cameras · Scintillation cameras · Radiation detectors · etcStatistical Methods for Imaging System Design Neal H. Clinthorne, Division of Nuclear Medicine

  9. Crunching Numbers: What Cancer Screening Statistics Really Tell Us

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer screening studies have shown that more screening does not necessarily translate into fewer cancer deaths. This article explains how to interpret the statistics used to describe the results of screening studies.

  10. Cosmic inflation and big bang interpreted as explosions

    E-print Network

    Eckhard Rebhan

    2012-11-05

    It has become common understanding that the recession of galaxies and the corresponding redshift of light received from them can only be explained by an expansion of the space between them and us. In this paper, for the presently favored case of a universe without spatial curvature, it is shown that this interpretation is restricted to comoving coordinates. It is proven by construction that within the framework of general relativity other coordinates exist in relation to which these phenomena can be explained by a motion of the cosmic substrate across space, caused by an explosion like big bang or by inflation preceding an almost big bang. At the place of an observer, this motion occurs without any spatial expansion. It is shown that in these "explosion coordinates" the usual redshift comes about by a Doppler shift and a subsequent gravitational shift. Making use of this interpretation, it can easily be understood why in comoving coordinates light rays of short spatial extensions expand and thus constitute an exemption from the rule that small objects up to the size of the solar system or even galaxies do not participate in the expansion of the universe. It is also discussed how the two interpretations can be reconciled with each other.

  11. 8 CFR 1003.22 - Interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Procedure § 1003.22 Interpreters. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing shall swear or affirm to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the United States Government, in which event no such oath or...

  12. Godel's Functional ("Dialectica") Interpretation Jeremy Avigad

    E-print Network

    Avigad, Jeremy

    interpretations In 1958, Kurt G¨odel published in the journal Dialectica an interpretation of intuitionisticCHAPTER VI G¨odel's Functional ("Dialectica") Interpretation Jeremy Avigad Department of Philosophy to be known as G¨odel's functional or Dialectica interpretation. When combined with G¨odel's double

  13. The Easily Learned, Easily Remembered Heuristic in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koriat, Asher; Ackerman, Rakefet; Lockl, Kathrin; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    A previous study with adults [Koriat, A. (2008a). "Easy comes, easy goes? The link between learning and remembering and its exploitation in metacognition." "Memory & Cognition," 36, 416-428] established a correlation between learning and remembering: items requiring more trials to acquisition (TTA) were less likely to be recalled than those…

  14. Estimating and Interpreting Forward Interest RatesSweden 1992-1994

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars E. O. Svensson

    1994-01-01

    The use of forward interest rates as a monetary policy indicator is demonstrated, using Sweden 1992-1994 as an example. The forward rates are interpreted as indicating market expectations of the time-path of future interest rates, future inflation rates, and future currency depreciation rates. They separate market expectations for the short-, medium-, and long-term more easily than the standard yield curve.

  15. Teaching Business Statistics with Real Data to Undergraduates and the Use of Technology in the Class Room

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singamsetti, Rao

    2007-01-01

    In this paper an attempt is made to highlight some issues of interpretation of statistical concepts and interpretation of results as taught in undergraduate Business statistics courses. The use of modern technology in the class room is shown to have increased the efficiency and the ease of learning and teaching in statistics. The importance of…

  16. Pediatric DXA: technique and interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Henwood, Maria J.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) technique and interpretation with emphasis on the considerations unique to pediatrics. Specifically, the use of DXA in children requires the radiologist to be a “clinical pathologist” monitoring the technical aspects of the DXA acquisition, a “statistician” knowledgeable in the concepts of Z-scores and least significant changes, and a “bone specialist” providing the referring clinician a meaningful context for the numeric result generated by DXA. The patient factors that most significantly influence bone mineral density are discussed and are reviewed with respect to available normative databases. The effects the growing skeleton has on the DXA result are also presented. Most important, the need for the radiologist to be actively involved in the technical and interpretive aspects of DXA is stressed. Finally, the diagnosis of osteoporosis should not be made on DXA results alone but should take into account other patient factors. PMID:16715219

  17. Modelling Metamorphism by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Preda, Mila; Giacobazzi, Roberto; Debray, Saumya; Coogan, Kevin; Townsend, Gregg M.

    Metamorphic malware apply semantics-preserving transformations to their own code in order to foil detection systems based on signature matching. In this paper we consider the problem of automatically extract metamorphic signatures from these malware. We introduce a semantics for self-modifying code, later called phase semantics, and prove its correctness by showing that it is an abstract interpretation of the standard trace semantics. Phase semantics precisely models the metamorphic code behavior by providing a set of traces of programs which correspond to the possible evolutions of the metamorphic code during execution. We show that metamorphic signatures can be automatically extracted by abstract interpretation of the phase semantics, and that regular metamorphism can be modelled as finite state automata abstraction of the phase semantics.

  18. MQSA National Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Act and Program National Statistics (MQSA) MQSA National Statistics In this section of the MQSA Scorecard, we present the most commonly requested national statistics regarding the MQSA program. These statistics are updated ...

  19. Limb Loss Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Limb Loss Statistics > Limb Loss Statistics Limb Loss Statistics There are nearly 2 million people living with ... Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics; 1998. HCUP Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). Healthcare Cost ...

  20. Log interpretation of shaly sandstones

    E-print Network

    Baker, Joel Foster

    1987-01-01

    Log Interpretation of Shaly Sandstones. (August 1987) Joel Foster Baker, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Robert R. Berg The determination of water saturation from the resistivity logs to evaluate the potential... to the Union Oil Company of California and to the Society of Professional Nell Log Analysts for their grants to help fund the project. Special thanks go to Dr. Berg for his help, and more importantly, his availability and willingness to give help. Last...

  1. Monad transformers and modular interpreters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheng Liang; Paul Hudak; Mark P. Jones

    1995-01-01

    We show how a set of building blocks can be used to construct programming language interpreters, and present implementations of such building blocks capable of supporting many commonly known features, including simple expressions, three different function call mechanisms (call-by-name, call-by-value and lazy evaluation), references and assignment, nondeterminism, first-class continuations, and program tracing.The underlying mechanism of our system is monad transformers,

  2. Interpreting Chemical Labels Learning Module

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Southwest Center for Microsystems Education is a Regional Advanced Technology Education Center funded in part by the National Science Foundation. This safety learning module covers the content and interpretation of chemical labels and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Diamond ratings. It contains an Instructor Guide, Participant Guide and supporting presentations. Visitors are encouraged to create an account and login in order to access the full set of resources.

  3. Probabilistic Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brigitte Falkenburg; Peter Mittelstaedt

    The probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics is based on Born's 1926 papers and von Neumann's formal account of quantum\\u000a mechanics in ? Hilbert space. According to Max Born (1882–1970), the quantum mechanical ? wave function ? does not have any\\u000a direct physical meaning, whereas its square ???2 is a probability [1] ? Born rule, probability in quantum mechanics. According to

  4. Interpreting neurodynamics: concepts and facts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harald Atmanspacher; Stefan Rotter

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of neuronal systems, briefly neurodynamics, has developed into an attractive and influential research branch\\u000a within neuroscience. In this paper, we discuss a number of conceptual issues in neurodynamics that are important for an appropriate\\u000a interpretation and evaluation of its results. We demonstrate their relevance for selected topics of theoretical and empirical\\u000a work. In particular, we refer to the

  5. The University of Chicago Department of Statistics

    E-print Network

    Stephens, Matthew

    in personalized medicine has already begun. The hope is that genetic testing will benefit patients of genetic testing with additional emphasis on two popular statistical methods for evaluating markers of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health Unviersity of Pittsburgh Interpreting Genetic Association

  6. Statistical Tracking in Video Traffic Surveillance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey E. Boyd; Jean Meloche; Yehuda Vardi

    1999-01-01

    Applications that interpret video data need to track ob- jects as they move in a scene. Tracking methods that es- timate the state trajectories of objects as they change over time (e.g. Kalman filter) have difficulty as the number of ob- jects and clutter increase. We present an alternative, call ed statistical tracking , that is based on the concept

  7. Interpretation of carotid duplex testing.

    PubMed

    Quirk, Karen; Bandyk, Dennis F

    2013-01-01

    Carotid duplex ultrasound is an accurate noninvasive technique to estimate the risk of atheroembolic stroke using extracranial carotid artery bifurcation-based imaging and velocimetry criteria. When compared with angiography, the sensitivity and specificity of predicting internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis are both high (>90%), but vary with disease prevalence, stenosis severity categories, and the velocity spectra criteria used. The interpretation of carotid duplex testing is not standardized; most vascular laboratories use either referenced or internally validated criteria for stenosis classification. In an effort to bring standardization to carotid duplex testing, the Intersocietal Accreditation Commission of vascular laboratories has recommended use of the Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound Consensus Conference criteria for ICA stenosis severity. The interpretation criteria are based on carotid artery bifurcation imaging and pulsed Doppler velocity spectra analysis with measurements of peak systolic and end-diastolic velocity from the diseased ICA and peak systolic velocity ratio calculated from the nondiseased common carotid artery and the site of maximum ICA stenosis. Carotid duplex ultrasound is the recommended diagnostic test for symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with known or suspected extracranial carotid artery occlusive disease. Appropriate test interpretation allows an initial clinical decision regarding medical treatment, intervention, or the need for additional cerebrovascular imaging. Carotid duplex testing can be used for atherosclerotic disease screening, surveillance for disease progression or restenosis after intervention, and diagnosis of occlusive and nonatherosclerotic conditions involving the aortic arch branches, carotid, vertebral, or subclavian arteries. PMID:24636604

  8. Consistent interpretations of quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Omnes, R. (Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, Universite de Paris XI, Batiment 211, 91405 Orsay CEDEX (France))

    1992-04-01

    Within the last decade, significant progress has been made towards a consistent and complete reformulation of the Copenhagen interpretation (an interpretation consisting in a formulation of the experimental aspects of physics in terms of the basic formalism; it is consistent if free from internal contradiction and complete if it provides precise predictions for all experiments). The main steps involved decoherence (the transition from linear superpositions of macroscopic states to a mixing), Griffiths histories describing the evolution of quantum properties, a convenient logical structure for dealing with histories, and also some progress in semiclassical physics, which was made possible by new methods. The main outcome is a theory of phenomena, viz., the classically meaningful properties of a macroscopic system. It shows in particular how and when determinism is valid. This theory can be used to give a deductive form to measurement theory, which now covers some cases that were initially devised as counterexamples against the Copenhagen interpretation. These theories are described, together with their applications to some key experiments and some of their consequences concerning epistemology.

  9. Galaxy rotation curves and nonextensive statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frigerio Martins, C.; Lima, J. A. S.; Chimenti, P.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the influence of the nonextensive q-statistics and kinetic theory on galactic scales through the analysis of a devised sample of spiral rotation curves. Largely supported by recent developments on the foundations of statistical mechanics and a plethora of astrophysical applications, the theory also provides an alternative interpretation to the empirical cored dark matter profiles observed in galaxies. We show that the observations could well be fitted with reasonable values for the mass model parameters, encouraging further investigation into q-statistics on the distribution of dark matter from both observational and theoretical points of view.

  10. Generating Statistical Tables with Canned Statistical Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, James E.; Hebbler, Stephen W.

    A method of generating common statistical tables using canned statistical computer software is presented. This method allows instructors to provide statistical tables for their students, tailored to their needs. The four most common tables used in elementary college statistics courses are z (standard normal), t, F, and chi square. Specific "p"…

  11. Fast and low-area TPGs based on T-type flip-flops can be easily integrated to the scan path

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomasz Garbolino; Andrzej Hlawiczka; Adam Kristof

    2000-01-01

    A new structure of the fast and low-area test pattern generator (TPG) composed of T-type flip-flops that can be easily integrated to the scan path is proposed in the paper. Nowadays, techniques of incorporating TPGs containing T-type flip-flops to the scan path either use asynchronous set and reset inputs of flip-flops or require adding a large amount of logic to

  12. A Road More Easily Traveled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanly, Pat

    2009-01-01

    Rough patches occur at both ends of the education pipeline, as students enter community colleges and move on to work or enrollment in four-year institutions. Career pathways--sequences of coherent, articulated, and rigorous career and academic courses that lead to an industry-recognized certificate or a college degree--are a promising approach to…

  13. Comparison of a Novel Computerized Analysis Program and Visual Interpretation of Cardiotocography

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen-Yu; Yu, Chun; Chang, Chia-Chen; Lin, Chii-Wann

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare a novel computerized analysis program with visual cardiotocography (CTG) interpretation results. Methods Sixty-two intrapartum CTG tracings with 20- to 30-minute sections were independently interpreted using a novel computerized analysis program, as well as the visual interpretations of eight obstetricians, to evaluate the baseline fetal heart rate (FHR), baseline FHR variability, number of accelerations, number/type of decelerations, uterine contraction (UC) frequency, and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) 3-Tier FHR classification system. Results There was no significant difference in interobserver variation after adding the components of computerized analysis to results from the obstetricians' visual interpretations, with excellent agreement for the baseline FHR (ICC 0.91), the number of accelerations (ICC 0.85), UC frequency (ICC 0.97), and NICHD category I (kappa statistic 0.91); good agreement for baseline variability (kappa statistic 0.68), the numbers of early decelerations (ICC 0.78) and late decelerations (ICC 0.67), category II (kappa statistic 0.78), and overall categories (kappa statistic 0.80); and moderate agreement for the number of variable decelerations (ICC 0.60), and category III (kappa statistic 0.50). Conclusions This computerized analysis program is not inferior to visual interpretation, may improve interobserver variations, and could play a vital role in prenatal telemedicine. PMID:25437442

  14. The wetland continuum: a conceptual framework for interpreting biological studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Euliss, N.H., Jr.; LaBaugh, J.W.; Fredrickson, L.H.; Mushet, D.M.; Swanson, G.A.; Winter, T.C.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Nelson, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a conceptual model, the wetland continuum, which allows wetland managers, scientists, and ecologists to consider simultaneously the influence of climate and hydrologic setting on wetland biological communities. Although multidimensional, the wetland continuum is most easily represented as a two-dimensional gradient, with ground water and atmospheric water constituting the horizontal and vertical axis, respectively. By locating the position of a wetland on both axes of the continuum, the potential biological expression of the wetland can be predicted at any point in time. The model provides a framework useful in the organization and interpretation of biological data from wetlands by incorporating the dynamic changes these systems undergo as a result of normal climatic variation rather than placing them into static categories common to many wetland classification systems. While we developed this model from the literature available for depressional wetlands in the prairie pothole region of North America, we believe the concept has application to wetlands in many other geographic locations.

  15. Statistical thermodynamics of natural images.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Greg J; Mora, Thierry; Tka?ik, Gašper; Bialek, William

    2013-01-01

    The scale invariance of natural images suggests an analogy to the statistical mechanics of physical systems at a critical point. Here we examine the distribution of pixels in small image patches and show how to construct the corresponding thermodynamics. We find evidence for criticality in a diverging specific heat, which corresponds to large fluctuations in how "surprising" we find individual images, and in the quantitative form of the entropy vs energy. We identify special image configurations as local energy minima and show that average patches within each basin are interpretable as lines and edges in all orientations. PMID:23383852

  16. Interpretations of Elastic Electron Scattering

    E-print Network

    Donnelly, T W; Milner, R G

    2015-01-01

    Elastic scattering of relativistic electrons from the nucleon yields Lorentz invariant form factors that describe the fundamental distribution of charge and magnetism. The spatial dependence of the nucleon's charge and magnetism is typically interpreted in the Breit reference frame which is related by a Lorentz boost from the laboratory frame, where the nucleon is at rest. We construct a toy model to estimate how the charge and magnetic radii of the nucleon are modified between the Breit and lab. frames. This has implications for the ratio of the proton electric to magnetic elastic form factors as a function of momentum transfer as well as for determinations of the proton charge radius.

  17. An Interpreter for Quantum Circuits

    E-print Network

    Lucas Helms; Ruben Gamboa

    2013-04-30

    This paper describes an ACL2 interpreter for "netlists" describing quantum circuits. Several quantum gates are implemented, including the Hadamard gate H, which rotates vectors by 45 degrees, necessitating the use of irrational numbers, at least at the logical level. Quantum measurement presents an especially difficult challenge, because it requires precise comparisons of irrational numbers and the use of random numbers. This paper does not address computation with irrational numbers or the generation of random numbers, although future work includes the development of pseudo-random generators for ACL2.

  18. The Interpretation of Correlation Data.

    E-print Network

    Conner, A. B. (Arthur Benjamin)

    1923-01-01

    classes-genetic and non-genetic. 'he general features of the correlation table are shown and ;ions given of the meaning of different placements of frequency tions in the table, and showing also the possibilities in the I of material where the non-genetic... as to correlation between characters. Ac- cordin~ly, one should be very cautious not to overestimate its value. n the interpretation of pure-line data one can determine with ;y the measure of the non-genetic correlation. From pure-line L,LLGlabion data one may...

  19. Interpretations of Elastic Electron Scattering

    E-print Network

    T. W. Donnelly; D. K. Hasell; R. G. Milner

    2015-05-18

    Elastic scattering of relativistic electrons from the nucleon yields Lorentz invariant form factors that describe the fundamental distribution of charge and magnetism. The spatial dependence of the nucleon's charge and magnetism is typically interpreted in the Breit reference frame which is related by a Lorentz boost from the laboratory frame, where the nucleon is at rest. We construct a toy model to estimate how the charge and magnetic radii of the nucleon are modified between the Breit and lab. frames. This has implications for the ratio of the proton electric to magnetic elastic form factors as a function of momentum transfer as well as for determinations of the proton charge radius.

  20. Feed analyses and their interpretation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mary Beth

    2014-11-01

    Compositional analysis is central to determining the nutritional value of feedstuffs for use in ration formulation. The utility of the values and how they should be used depends on how representative the feed subsample is, the nutritional relevance and analytical variability of the assays, and whether an analysis is suitable to be applied to a particular feedstuff. Commercial analyses presently available for carbohydrates, protein, and fats have improved nutritionally pertinent description of feed fractions. Factors affecting interpretation of feed analyses and the nutritional relevance and application of currently available analyses are discussed. PMID:25441538

  1. The Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale: further evidence for multidimensionality.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Tsung-Yuan

    2010-12-01

    The Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale has been conceptualized as multidimensional. Three of the six theoretical dimensions, Interpretation Anxiety, Test and Class Anxiety, and Fear of Asking for Help, tap anxiety about statistics; the other three dimensions, Worth of Statistics, Computation Self-concept, and Fear of Statistics Teachers, measure perceptions and attitudes toward statistics. This conceptualization of a second-order factor model consisting of two superordinate factors and six first-order factors has remained empirically untested. In 77 graduate students (15 men, 62 women; M age = 27.6 yr.) enrolled in applied statistics courses in Taiwan, a confirmatory factor analysis of two competing models based on subscale scores yielded results supporting the multidimensional construct validity of the scale. As multidimensionality was previously supported based on item scores, but not subscale scores, the findings are interpreted as partially consistent with previous research testing the theoretical factor structure of the scale. PMID:21323156

  2. The interpretation of selection coefficients.

    PubMed

    Barton, N H; Servedio, M R

    2015-05-01

    Evolutionary biologists have an array of powerful theoretical techniques that can accurately predict changes in the genetic composition of populations. Changes in gene frequencies and genetic associations between loci can be tracked as they respond to a wide variety of evolutionary forces. However, it is often less clear how to decompose these various forces into components that accurately reflect the underlying biology. Here, we present several issues that arise in the definition and interpretation of selection and selection coefficients, focusing on insights gained through the examination of selection coefficients in multilocus notation. Using this notation, we discuss how its flexibility-which allows different biological units to be identified as targets of selection-is reflected in the interpretation of the coefficients that the notation generates. In many situations, it can be difficult to agree on whether loci can be considered to be under "direct" versus "indirect" selection, or to quantify this selection. We present arguments for what the terms direct and indirect selection might best encompass, considering a range of issues, from viability and sexual selection to kin selection. We show how multilocus notation can discriminate between direct and indirect selection, and describe when it can do so. PMID:25790030

  3. USER-FRIENDLY IBM PC (PERSONAL COMPUTER) COMPUTER PROGRAMS FOR SOLVING SAMPLING AND STATISTICAL PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    User friendly IBM personal computer programs for solving sampling and related statistical problems have been prepared. The programs are designed so that persons without an in-depth understanding of statistics can easily use them. Specific, detailed, written instructions for appli...

  4. Statistical analysis of correlated phase error in transmission characteristics of arrayed-waveguide gratings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koichi Maru; Masahiro Okawa; Kensuke Matsui; Hisato Uetsuka

    2002-01-01

    Transmission characteristics of arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs) are significantly influenced by phase errors in a waveguide array, which are easily caused by the variation of fabrication process. In this paper, the statistical analysis of transmission characteristics is presented using correlation and spectral density of phase errors. A simple statistical approach, based on a simplified model of a waveguide array, is

  5. 10 CFR 20.1006 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 20.1006 Section 20.1006 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION General Provisions § 20.1006 Interpretations. Except as specifically...

  6. 10 CFR 20.1006 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 20.1006 Section 20.1006 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION General Provisions § 20.1006 Interpretations. Except as specifically...

  7. 10 CFR 20.1006 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 20.1006 Section 20.1006 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION General Provisions § 20.1006 Interpretations. Except as specifically...

  8. 10 CFR 20.1006 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 20.1006 Section 20.1006 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION General Provisions § 20.1006 Interpretations. Except as specifically...

  9. 10 CFR 76.6 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Interpretations. 76.6 Section 76.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.6 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in...

  10. 10 CFR 76.6 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Interpretations. 76.6 Section 76.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.6 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in...

  11. 10 CFR 76.6 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Interpretations. 76.6 Section 76.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.6 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in...

  12. 10 CFR 76.6 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Interpretations. 76.6 Section 76.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.6 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in...

  13. 10 CFR 76.6 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Interpretations. 76.6 Section 76.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.6 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in...

  14. 10 CFR 26.7 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 26.7 Section 26.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Administrative Provisions § 26.7 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the...

  15. 10 CFR 26.7 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 26.7 Section 26.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Administrative Provisions § 26.7 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the...

  16. Performance assessment for radiologists interpreting screening mammography

    E-print Network

    Woodard, Dawn B.

    Performance assessment for radiologists interpreting screening mammography D. B. Woodard 1, A. E interpretive performance of individual radiologists in screening mammography. While doing this we account. Our approach is demonstrated with data from mammography registries and radiologist surveys. For each

  17. Prototyping Symbolic Execution Engines for Interpreted Languages

    E-print Network

    Candea, George

    Prototyping Symbolic Execution Engines for Interpreted Languages Stefan Bucur Ã?cole Polytechnique are written in dynamic interpreted languages like Python. Building a new symbolic execution engine language specifications lead to their implementation in a symbolic execution engine potentially differing

  18. 10 CFR 34.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Interpretations. 34.5 Section 34.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS General Provisions § 34.5 Interpretations....

  19. 10 CFR 34.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Interpretations. 34.5 Section 34.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS General Provisions § 34.5 Interpretations....

  20. Statistical templates for visual search

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, John F.; Landy, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    How do we find a target embedded in a scene? Within the framework of signal detection theory, this task is carried out by comparing each region of the scene with a “template,” i.e., an internal representation of the search target. Here we ask what form this representation takes when the search target is a complex image with uncertain orientation. We examine three possible representations. The first is the matched filter. Such a representation cannot account for the ease with which humans can find a complex search target that is rotated relative to the template. A second representation attempts to deal with this by estimating the relative orientation of target and match and rotating the intensity-based template. No intensity-based template, however, can account for the ability to easily locate targets that are defined categorically and not in terms of a specific arrangement of pixels. Thus, we define a third template that represents the target in terms of image statistics rather than pixel intensities. Subjects performed a two-alternative, forced-choice search task in which they had to localize an image that matched a previously viewed target. Target images were texture patches. In one condition, match images were the same image as the target and distractors were a different image of the same textured material. In the second condition, the match image was of the same texture as the target (but different pixels) and the distractor was an image of a different texture. Match and distractor stimuli were randomly rotated relative to the target. We compared human performance to pixel-based, pixel-based with rotation, and statistic-based search models. The statistic-based search model was most successful at matching human performance. We conclude that humans use summary statistics to search for complex visual targets. PMID:24627458

  1. Finding One Variable Statistics With a Graphing Calculator

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-28

    This quick YouTube video from high school statistics teacher Roger W. Davis explains how to find one variable statistics using the TI-84 graphing calculator. The demonstration goes through three steps: entering the data, finding one variable statistics using the STAT menu, and interpreting the results. The data created includes mean, sum, median and more. Flash player is required to view this video, and the running time for the clip is 3:12.

  2. Order Statistics and Applications

    E-print Network

    Yorke, James

    Order Statistics and Applications Rosemary Smith #12;Introduction to Order Statistics Unordered Statistics and Observations Ordered Statistics and Observations #12;What kinds of problems are we trying of two order statistics. #12;Formula For We start with the standard formula for expected value Many

  3. FISHERY STATISTICS UNITED STATES

    E-print Network

    FISHERY STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES 1972 STATISTICAL DIGEST NO. 66 Prepared by STATISTICS;ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The data in this edition of "Fishery Statistics of the United States" were collected in co- operation with the various States and tabulated by the staff of the Statistics and Market News Division

  4. Literate Statistical Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Rossini

    Literate Statistical Practice (LSP) is an method for statistical practice which suggests that documentation and specication occur at the same time as statistical coding. It applies literate programming Knuth (1992) to the practice of statistics. We discuss 2 dierent approaches for LSP, one currently implemented using Emacs with Noweb and Emacs Speaks Statistics (ESS), and the other developed based on

  5. Aerial photography and image interpretation for resource management

    SciTech Connect

    Paine, D.P.

    1981-01-01

    This elementary textbook emphasizes aerial photo interpretation but includes some photogrammetry and an introduction to nonphotographic remote sensing - a subject of much broader scope. Even though the subject matter is quantitaive, the mathematics involved has been kept as simple as possible. The book is organized into an introduction and five parts. Part One deals with the geometric and measurement aspects of the use of vertical aerial photography that are essential for both the interpretative and photogrammetric aspects of the use of aerial photography. Part Two delves deeper into the photogrammetric aspects of aerial photography. Photogrammetry, as contrasted to photo interpretation, is concerned with making reliable measurements on aerial photographs and the production of maps, both planimetric and topographic. Part Three starts with a chapter on films and filters and a chapter on the principles and techniques of photo interpretation, followed by five chapters emphasizing application. Part Four covers elementary statistics and sampling methods, and aerial photo mensurational techniques for forest inventory. Part Five briefly discussed radiant energy flow plus the scanner and radar systems.

  6. Royal Statistical Society Center for Statistical Education

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created by the Royal Statistical Society, this website's purpose it to promote the improvement of statistical education, training and understanding. You will find activities, resources and current news to help in teaching statistics. The site breaks down its resources in this manner: for school, higher education, for all levels, problem solving and MSOR@RSSCSE. The page is quite broad in scope. For this reason, it is a great resource for those interested in almost any aspect of statistics education.

  7. Court Interpreting: The Anatomy of a Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jongh, Elena M.

    For both translators and interpreters, language proficiency is only the starting point for professional work. The equivalence of both meaning and style are necessary for faithful translation. The legal interpreter or translator must understand the complex characteristics and style of legal language. Court interpreting is a relatively young…

  8. An Online Synchronous Test for Professional Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Nian-Shing; Ko, Leong

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on an experiment designed to conduct an interpreting test for multiple candidates online, using web-based synchronous cyber classrooms. The test model was based on the accreditation test for Professional Interpreters produced by the National Accreditation Authority of Translators and Interpreters (NAATI) in Australia.…

  9. INTERPRETIVE AGENTS: A HEATBUG REFERENCE SIMULATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. SALLACH; V. S. MELLARKOD

    Interpretive heatbugs (IHB) is a reference application designed as the first implementation of the interpretive agents (IA) research program. As described in previous papers, the IA initiative identifies three mechanisms (prototype reasoning, situation definition, and orientation accounting) to create an interpretive architecture that supports agents whose actions are oriented by meaning. The reference application uses the familiar heatbugs environment, where

  10. Interpretation of line drawings of complex objects

    E-print Network

    Winckler, Marco Antonio Alba

    Interpretation of line drawings of complex objects Martin C Cooper Before research on the machine interpretation of line drawings can find practical applications it is essential to study realistic models of real curvature) are permitted on object surfaces. Keywords: line drawing interpretation, labelling, smooth edges

  11. Galois Connections GC and Abstract Interpretation

    E-print Network

    Clarke, Edmund M.

    fsu-logo Galois Connections Examples Properties GC and Abstract Interpretation Galois Connections Properties GC and Abstract Interpretation Monotone Galois Connection Let X, and Y , be preorders. Let L : X GC and Abstract Interpretation Antitone Galois Connection Let X, and Y , be preorders. Let L : X Y

  12. Interface Problems: Structural Constraints on Interpretation?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lyn Frazier; Charles Clifton; Keith Rayner; Patricia Deevy; Sungryong Koh; Markus Bader

    2005-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the interpretation of quantified noun phrases in relation to discourse structure. They demonstrated, using questionnaire and on-line reading techniques, that readers in English prefer to give a quantified noun phrase in (VP-external) subject position a presuppositional interpretation, in which the noun phrase limits or restricts the interpretation of an already available set, rather than giving it a

  13. Statistics Poker: Reinforcing Basic Statistical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    Learning basic statistical concepts does not need to be tedious or dry; it can be fun and interesting through cooperative learning in the small-group activity of Statistics Poker. This article describes a teaching approach for reinforcing basic statistical concepts that can help students who have high anxiety and makes learning and reinforcing…

  14. Local kinetic interpretation of entropy production through reversed diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porporato, A.; Kramer, P. R.; Cassiani, M.; Daly, E.; Mattingly, J.

    2011-10-01

    The time reversal of stochastic diffusion processes is revisited with emphasis on the physical meaning of the time-reversed drift and the noise prescription in the case of multiplicative noise. The local kinematics and mechanics of free diffusion are linked to the hydrodynamic description. These properties also provide an interpretation of the Pope-Ching formula for the steady-state probability density function along with a geometric interpretation of the fluctuation-dissipation relation. Finally, the statistics of the local entropy production rate of diffusion are discussed in the light of local diffusion properties, and a stochastic differential equation for entropy production is obtained using the Girsanov theorem for reversed diffusion. The results are illustrated for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process.

  15. Local kinetic interpretation of entropy production through reversed diffusion.

    PubMed

    Porporato, A; Kramer, P R; Cassiani, M; Daly, E; Mattingly, J

    2011-10-01

    The time reversal of stochastic diffusion processes is revisited with emphasis on the physical meaning of the time-reversed drift and the noise prescription in the case of multiplicative noise. The local kinematics and mechanics of free diffusion are linked to the hydrodynamic description. These properties also provide an interpretation of the Pope-Ching formula for the steady-state probability density function along with a geometric interpretation of the fluctuation-dissipation relation. Finally, the statistics of the local entropy production rate of diffusion are discussed in the light of local diffusion properties, and a stochastic differential equation for entropy production is obtained using the Girsanov theorem for reversed diffusion. The results are illustrated for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. PMID:22181122

  16. Interpreting neurodynamics: concepts and facts

    PubMed Central

    Rotter, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of neuronal systems, briefly neurodynamics, has developed into an attractive and influential research branch within neuroscience. In this paper, we discuss a number of conceptual issues in neurodynamics that are important for an appropriate interpretation and evaluation of its results. We demonstrate their relevance for selected topics of theoretical and empirical work. In particular, we refer to the notions of determinacy and stochasticity in neurodynamics across levels of microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic descriptions. The issue of correlations between neural, mental and behavioral states is also addressed in some detail. We propose an informed discussion of conceptual foundations with respect to neurobiological results as a viable step to a fruitful future philosophy of neuroscience. PMID:19003452

  17. Securing wide appreciation of health statistics

    PubMed Central

    Pyrrait, A. M. DO Amaral; Aubenque, M. J.; Benjamin, B.; DE Groot, Meindert J. W.; Kohn, R.

    1954-01-01

    All the authors are agreed on the need for a certain publicizing of health statistics, but do Amaral Pyrrait points out that the medical profession prefers to convince itself rather than to be convinced. While there is great utility in articles and reviews in the professional press (especially for paramedical personnel) Aubenque, de Groot, and Kohn show how appreciation can effectively be secured by making statistics more easily understandable to the non-expert by, for instance, including readable commentaries in official publications, simplifying charts and tables, and preparing simple manuals on statistical methods. Aubenque and Kohn also stress the importance of linking health statistics to other economic and social information. Benjamin suggests that the principles of market research could to advantage be applied to health statistics to determine the precise needs of the “consumers”. At the same time, Aubenque points out that the value of the ultimate results must be clear to those who provide the data; for this, Kohn suggests that the enumerators must know exactly what is wanted and why. There is general agreement that some explanation of statistical methods and their uses should be given in the curricula of medical schools and that lectures and postgraduate courses should be arranged for practising physicians. PMID:13199668

  18. Mental Illness Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at NIMH News About Us Home > Health & Education Statistics Prevalence Disability Suicide Cost Global More Prevalence Disability ... those affected receive treatment. The information on these statistics pages includes the best statistics currently available on ...

  19. PEIRS: a pathologist-maintained expert system for the interpretation of chemical pathology reports.

    PubMed

    Edwards, G; Compton, P; Malor, R; Srinivasan, A; Lazarus, L

    1993-01-01

    Provision of a comprehensive interpretative service is an important challenge facing chemical pathologists. Attempts to automate report interpretation using expert systems have been limited in the past by the difficulties of rule base maintenance. We have applied a novel knowledge acquisition technique, ripple down rules, in the development of PEIRS (Pathology Expert Interpretative Reporting System), a user-maintained expert system for automating chemical pathology report interpretation. We created over 950 rules for thyroid function tests, arterial blood gases and other test sub-groups in 9 mths of operation. A staff pathologist performed all maintenance tasks as part of his routine duties without any need for computer programming skills. No clerical staff involvement was required. Duplication of rule addition for reports requiring multiple comments was the only limitation to coverage of other high volume test groups. PEIRS is the first expert system for the automated interpretation of a range of chemical pathology reports which operates in routine use without extra staffing requirements. PEIRS does not require "knowledge engineering" expertise. Thus, the knowledge base is flexible and can be easily maintained and updated by the pathologist. Expert systems based on ripple down rules should enable pathologists to provide a comprehensive automated interpretative service within the context of the total testing process. PMID:8316495

  20. On Interpreting the Interpreter – Experiences of Language Practitioners Mediating for the TRC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Anthonissen

    2008-01-01

    This article considers the role of the interpreters at the hearings of the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) in view of a topical question in translation studies. Referring to experiences of simultaneous translating interpreters, the paper highlights a number of characterising features of the interpretation processes at TRC hearings. The problem addressed here relates to how interpreters’ recollections

  1. Comparison of Dream Interpretation, Event Interpretation, and Unstructured Sessions in Brief Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diemer, Roberta A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-five distressed adult clients received 2 sessions each of dream and event interpretation using the Hill model during 12 sessions of successful therapy. No differences were found in depth, insight, and working alliance among dream interpretation, event interpretation, and unstructured sessions, suggesting that dream interpretation is as…

  2. The role of interpreters in inclusive classrooms.

    PubMed

    Antia, S D; Kreimeyer, K H

    2001-10-01

    The roles of interpreters in an inclusive classroom were examined through a qualitative, 3-year case study of three interpreters in an inclusive school. Interviews were conducted with interpreters, classroom teachers, special education teachers, and administrators. The interview data were supplemented with observations and field notes. Results indicate that in addition to sign interpreting between American Sign Language and speech, the interpreters clarified teacher directions, facilitated peer interaction, tutored the deaf children, and kept the teachers and special educators informed of the deaf children's progress. The interpreter/aides and the classroom teachers preferred this full-participant interpreter role, while the special educators and administrators preferred a translator role. Classroom teachers were more comfortable with full-time interpreters who knew the classroom routine, while the special educators and administrators feared that full-time interpreters fostered child and teacher dependence. These issues are discussed in terms of congruence with the Registry of Interpreters code of ethics and how integration of young children might be best facilitated. PMID:11816860

  3. Fitting and interpreting occupancy models.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Alan H; Lindenmayer, David B; Donnelly, Christine F

    2013-01-01

    We show that occupancy models are more difficult to fit than is generally appreciated because the estimating equations often have multiple solutions, including boundary estimates which produce fitted probabilities of zero or one. The estimates are unstable when the data are sparse, making them difficult to interpret, and, even in ideal situations, highly variable. As a consequence, making accurate inference is difficult. When abundance varies over sites (which is the general rule in ecology because we expect spatial variance in abundance) and detection depends on abundance, the standard analysis suffers bias (attenuation in detection, biased estimates of occupancy and potentially finding misleading relationships between occupancy and other covariates), asymmetric sampling distributions, and slow convergence of the sampling distributions to normality. The key result of this paper is that the biases are of similar magnitude to those obtained when we ignore non-detection entirely. The fact that abundance is subject to detection error and hence is not directly observable, means that we cannot tell when bias is present (or, equivalently, how large it is) and we cannot adjust for it. This implies that we cannot tell which fit is better: the fit from the occupancy model or the fit ignoring the possibility of detection error. Therefore trying to adjust occupancy models for non-detection can be as misleading as ignoring non-detection completely. Ignoring non-detection can actually be better than trying to adjust for it. PMID:23326323

  4. Normativity, interpretation, and Bayesian models

    PubMed Central

    Oaksford, Mike

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that evaluative normativity should be expunged from the psychology of reasoning. A broadly Davidsonian response to these arguments is presented. It is suggested that two distinctions, between different types of rationality, are more permeable than this argument requires and that the fundamental objection is to selecting theories that make the most rational sense of the data. It is argued that this is inevitable consequence of radical interpretation where understanding others requires assuming they share our own norms of reasoning. This requires evaluative normativity and it is shown that when asked to evaluate others’ arguments participants conform to rational Bayesian norms. It is suggested that logic and probability are not in competition and that the variety of norms is more limited than the arguments against evaluative normativity suppose. Moreover, the universality of belief ascription suggests that many of our norms are universal and hence evaluative. It is concluded that the union of evaluative normativity and descriptive psychology implicit in Davidson and apparent in the psychology of reasoning is a good thing. PMID:24860519

  5. Guide to Magellan image interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, John P.; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Weitz, Catherine M.; Farr, Tom G.; Senske, David A.; Stofan, Ellen R.; Michaels, Gregory; Parker, Timothy J.; Fulton, D. (editor)

    1993-01-01

    An overview of Magellan Mission requirements, radar system characteristics, and methods of data collection is followed by a description of the image data, mosaic formats, areal coverage, resolution, and pixel DN-to-dB conversion. The availability and sources of image data are outlined. Applications of the altimeter data to estimate relief, Fresnel reflectivity, and surface slope, and the radiometer data to derive microwave emissivity are summarized and illustrated in conjunction with corresponding SAR image data. Same-side and opposite-side stereo images provide examples of parallax differences from which to measure relief with a lateral resolution many times greater than that of the altimeter. Basic radar interactions with geologic surfaces are discussed with respect to radar-imaging geometry, surface roughness, backscatter modeling, and dielectric constant. Techniques are described for interpreting the geomorphology and surface properties of surficial features, impact craters, tectonically deformed terrain, and volcanic landforms. The morphologic characteristics that distinguish impact craters from volcanic craters are defined. Criteria for discriminating extensional and compressional origins of tectonic features are discussed. Volcanic edifices, constructs, and lava channels are readily identified from their radar outlines in images. Geologic map units are identified on the basis of surface texture, image brightness, pattern, and morphology. Superposition, cross-cutting relations, and areal distribution of the units serve to elucidate the geologic history.

  6. Bioinformatics for personal genome interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Nehrt, Nathan L.; Kann, Maricel G.; Bromberg, Yana

    2012-01-01

    An international consortium released the first draft sequence of the human genome 10 years ago. Although the analysis of this data has suggested the genetic underpinnings of many diseases, we have not yet been able to fully quantify the relationship between genotype and phenotype. Thus, a major current effort of the scientific community focuses on evaluating individual predispositions to specific phenotypic traits given their genetic backgrounds. Many resources aim to identify and annotate the specific genes responsible for the observed phenotypes. Some of these use intra-species genetic variability as a means for better understanding this relationship. In addition, several online resources are now dedicated to collecting single nucleotide variants and other types of variants, and annotating their functional effects and associations with phenotypic traits. This information has enabled researchers to develop bioinformatics tools to analyze the rapidly increasing amount of newly extracted variation data and to predict the effect of uncharacterized variants. In this work, we review the most important developments in the field—the databases and bioinformatics tools that will be of utmost importance in our concerted effort to interpret the human variome. PMID:22247263

  7. American Statistical Association: Statistics in Sports

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This section of the American Statistical Association website covers Statistics in Sports. Available here are a few older articles dealing with sports statistics and links to websites containing data for several professional and amateur sports, as well as websites with general news and information about sports, and a listing of official team websites for pro teams. A section called Statistics on the Web provides links to academic departments, conferences, and employers, while another section answers some frequently asked questions about sports statistics as a career. The website also provides an explanation of the Player Game Percentage (PGP) technique and uses the 2004 World Series as an example to demonstrate the technique. Educators will find a link to a website that offers suggestions of ways to incorporate sports statistics in the classroom.

  8. Applied Statistics Spring 2010

    E-print Network

    Langseth, Helge

    of the course is to give the students a solid foundation for use of basic statistical methods in science, statistical process control, contingency tables and nonparametric methods. Use of statistical computer package) · Nonparametric methods #12;19 Why is statistics important in science and industry? The book emphasizes "the

  9. Statistical database design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis Y. L. Chin; Gultekin Ozsoyoglu

    1981-01-01

    The security problem of a statistical database is to limit the use of the database so that no sequence of statistical queries is sufficient to deduce confidential or private information. In this paper it is suggested that the problem be investigated at the conceptual data model level. The design of a statistical database should utilize a statistical security management facility

  10. Monetary and Financial Statistics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    This Handbook provides an overview of the wide range of monetary and financial statistics collected by most central banks, as well as the main uses of these data. In an increasingly globalised financial system, several statistics collected by central banks are only useful if similar statistics are available for other economies. So international harmonisation of statistical frameworks and co-operation between

  11. Sampling in Statistical Inference

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lacey, Michelle

    This site, presented by the Department of Statistics at Yale University, gives an explanation, a definition and an example of sampling in statistical inference. Topics include parameters, statistics, sampling distributions, bias, and variability. Overall, this is a great resource for any mathematics classroom studying statistics.

  12. STATISTICAL METHODS INFECTIOUS METHODS

    E-print Network

    Appendix G STATISTICAL METHODS INFECTIOUS METHODS STATISTICAL ROADMAP Prepared in Support of: CDC for Environmental Health 1 #12;Statistical Methods for Analyzing Data Collected During the Churchill County Study 1 with the complex statistical analysis, investigators from the CDC contracted with Battelle for their assistance

  13. The Power of Statistical Tests for Moderators in Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedges, Larry V.; Pigott, Therese D.

    2004-01-01

    Calculation of the statistical power of statistical tests is important in planning and interpreting the results of research studies, including meta-analyses. It is particularly important in moderator analyses in meta-analysis, which are often used as sensitivity analyses to rule out moderator effects but also may have low statistical power. This…

  14. Photon statistics of coherent harmonic radiation of a linac free electron laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teng Chen

    1999-01-01

    The subject of statistical fluctuations in a free electron laser (FEL) is both fundamental and significant to the understanding of FEL radiation. This dissertation deals with two relevant issues in this regard: the photon statistics of the visible coherent spontaneous harmonic radiation (CSHR); and the examination of the electron shot-noise interpretation of the observed statistical fluctuations. In this dissertation, we

  15. Surveys Assessing Students' Attitudes toward Statistics: A Systematic Review of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Meaghan M.; Beran, Tanya; Hecker, Kent G.

    2012-01-01

    Students with positive attitudes toward statistics are likely to show strong academic performance in statistics courses. Multiple surveys measuring students' attitudes toward statistics exist; however, a comparison of the validity and reliability of interpretations based on their scores is needed. A systematic review of relevant electronic…

  16. QUANTUM STATISTICAL CORRECTIONS TO ASTROPHYSICAL PHOTODISINTEGRATION RATES

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, G. J. [Center for Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Pehlivan, Yamac [Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University Besiktas, Istanbul 34349 (Turkey); Kajino, Toshitaka [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Balantekin, A. B. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Kusakabe, Motohiko, E-mail: gmathews@nd.edu, E-mail: yamac@physics.wisc.edu, E-mail: kajino@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: baha@physics.wisc.edu, E-mail: kusakabe@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)

    2011-01-20

    Tabulated rates for astrophysical photodisintegration reactions make use of Boltzmann statistics for the photons involved as well as the interacting nuclei. Here, we derive analytic corrections for the Planck-spectrum quantum statistics of the photon energy distribution. These corrections can be deduced directly from the detailed balance condition without the assumption of equilibrium as long as the photons are represented by a Planck spectrum. Moreover, we show that these corrections affect not only the photodisintegration rates but also modify the conditions of nuclear statistical equilibrium as represented in the Saha equation. We deduce new analytic corrections to the classical Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics which can easily be added to the reverse reaction rates of existing reaction network tabulations. We show that the effects of quantum statistics, though generally quite small, always tend to speed up photodisintegration rates and are largest for nuclei and environments for which Q/kT {approx} 1. As an illustration, we examine possible effects of these corrections on the r-process, the rp-process, explosive silicon burning, the {gamma}-process, and big bang nucleosynthesis. We find that in most cases one is quite justified in neglecting these corrections. The correction is largest for reactions near the drip line for an r-process with very high neutron density, or an rp-process at high temperature.

  17. Statistical Applets: Animated Exercise

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Duckworth, William

    This collection of statistical applets is designed to accompany the textbook, "Practice of Business Statistics." The applets can be used without the textbook and cover many introductory statistics concepts including mean, normal curve, correlation and regression, probability, the law of large numbers, the central limit theorem, confidence intervals, statistical significance, power, and ANOVA. This is a great collection of interactive materials for either instructors or students studying statistics.

  18. Environmental affect and participation in interpretation 

    E-print Network

    Giles, Martha Ann

    1982-01-01

    by people who participate in social interpretative presentat. ions. The key assumptions supported in the review of the literature were developed into the theoretical base for the research: One reason people participate in social interpretive presentations... may be that they perceive that the affect for the resource endorsed or affirmed by the interpreter and the other presentation participants will be similar to their own. The research was conducted to test four hypothesized relationships between...

  19. "Weird" Fuzzy Notations: An Algebraic Interpretation

    E-print Network

    Ward, Karen

    "Weird" Fuzzy Notations: An Algebraic Interpretation Vladik Kreinovich Department of Computer justification for these "weird" nota- tions, justification that will helpfully make them somewhat less confusing

  20. Medical Interpreters as Tools: Dangers and Challenges in the Utilitarian Approach to Interpreters’ Roles and Functions

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Eric M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study explores the tensions, challenges, and dangers when a utilitarian view of interpreter is constructed, imposed, and/or reinforced in health care settings. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with 26 medical interpreters from 17 different languages and cultures and 39 providers of five specialties. Grounded theory was used for data analysis. Results The utilitarian view to interpreters’ roles and functions influences providers in the following areas: (a) hierarchical structure and unidirectional communication, (b) the interpreter seen as information gatekeeper, (c) the interpreter seen as provider proxy, and (d) interpreter’s emotional support perceived as tools. Conclusion When interpreters are viewed as passive instruments, a utilitarian approach may compromise the quality of care by silencing patients’ and interpreters’ voice, objectifying interpreters’ emotional work, and exploiting patients’ needs. Practice Implications Providers need to recognize that a utilitarian approach to the interpreter’s role and functions may create interpersonal and ethical dilemmas that compromise the quality of care. By viewing interpreters as smart technology (rather than passive instruments), both providers and interpreters can learn from and co-evolve with each other, allowing them to maintain control over their expertise and to work as collaborators in providing quality care. PMID:22857777

  1. A new statistical tool for NOAA local climate studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeyeva, M. M.; Meyers, J. C.; Hollingshead, A.

    2011-12-01

    The National Weather Services (NWS) Local Climate Analysis Tool (LCAT) is evolving out of a need to support and enhance the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) field offices' ability to efficiently access, manipulate, and interpret local climate data and characterize climate variability and change impacts. LCAT will enable NOAA's staff to conduct regional and local climate studies using state-of-the-art station and reanalysis gridded data and various statistical techniques for climate analysis. The analysis results will be used for climate services to guide local decision makers in weather and climate sensitive actions and to deliver information to the general public. LCAT will augment current climate reference materials with information pertinent to the local and regional levels as they apply to diverse variables appropriate to each locality. The LCAT main emphasis is to enable studies of extreme meteorological and hydrological events such as tornadoes, flood, drought, severe storms, etc. LCAT will close a very critical gap in NWS local climate services because it will allow addressing climate variables beyond average temperature and total precipitation. NWS external partners and government agencies will benefit from the LCAT outputs that could be easily incorporated into their own analysis and/or delivery systems. Presently we identified five existing requirements for local climate: (1) Local impacts of climate change; (2) Local impacts of climate variability; (3) Drought studies; (4) Attribution of severe meteorological and hydrological events; and (5) Climate studies for water resources. The methodologies for the first three requirements will be included in the LCAT first phase implementation. Local rate of climate change is defined as a slope of the mean trend estimated from the ensemble of three trend techniques: (1) hinge, (2) Optimal Climate Normals (running mean for optimal time periods), (3) exponentially-weighted moving average. Root mean squared error is used to determine the best fit of trend to the observations with the least error. The studies of climate variability impacts on local extremes use composite techniques applied to various definitions of local variables: from specified percentiles to critical thresholds. Drought studies combine visual capabilities of Google maps with statistical estimates of drought severity indices. The process of development will be linked to local office interactions with users to ensure the tool will meet their needs as well as provide adequate training. A rigorous internal and tiered peer-review process will be implemented to ensure the studies are scientifically-sound that will be published and submitted to the local studies catalog (database) and eventually to external sources, such as the Climate Portal.

  2. Statistics for analytical chemistry, 2nd edition

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.C.; Miller, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    This book represents another attempt to educate analytical chemists in the use of simple statistics. It is an easy-to-read overview of the topics with which every analytical chemist should be familiar. The early chapter on errors in analysis, significance testing, and quality control are well written. A good introduction to these topics is provided in the first 100 pages. Chapter 6 on nonparametric methods is quite useful; it provides justification and incentive to learn and use these methods. Chapter 7 covers very large and useful topics such as experimental design, optimization, and pattern recognition. Fractional factorial designs and principle component analysis are only mentioned, not discussed in detail. This book can be easily read and can heighten one's awareness of many important topics from statistics to chemometrics. Because it comes complete with a number of good exercises (no programs), the author also recommend it as a textbook for a short course.

  3. Pointwise probability reinforcements for robust statistical inference.

    PubMed

    Frénay, Benoît; Verleysen, Michel

    2014-02-01

    Statistical inference using machine learning techniques may be difficult with small datasets because of abnormally frequent data (AFDs). AFDs are observations that are much more frequent in the training sample that they should be, with respect to their theoretical probability, and include e.g. outliers. Estimates of parameters tend to be biased towards models which support such data. This paper proposes to introduce pointwise probability reinforcements (PPRs): the probability of each observation is reinforced by a PPR and a regularisation allows controlling the amount of reinforcement which compensates for AFDs. The proposed solution is very generic, since it can be used to robustify any statistical inference method which can be formulated as a likelihood maximisation. Experiments show that PPRs can be easily used to tackle regression, classification and projection: models are freed from the influence of outliers. Moreover, outliers can be filtered manually since an abnormality degree is obtained for each observation. PMID:24300550

  4. The Correlation Coefficient as the Ratio of Two Means: An Interpretation Due to Galton and Brogden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James M.; Nicewander, W. Alan

    A standard interpretation of the coefficient of correlation may be obtained from the ratio of two variances. If it is assumed that two variables, X and Y, are bivariate normal and scaled to have zero means and unit variances, it can be shown that the correlation between X and Y is the ratio of two conditional means. Galton's statistical studies of…

  5. Understanding and Interpreting Effect Size Measures in General Linear Model Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, Linda M.; Gangstead, Sandra Kay; Henson, Robin K.

    Best practice is now understood by many to include reporting effect sizes when submitting manuscripts for publication since some (and potentially more) journals in the education field require, or strongly encourage, authors to report magnitude of effect measures with their statistical interpretation discussion. Therefore, it is important that…

  6. Reliability of the Advanced Psychodiagnostic Interpretation (API) Scoring System for the Bender Gestalt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aucone, Ernest J.; Raphael, Alan J.; Golden, Charles J.; Espe-Pfeifer, Patricia; Seldon, Jen; Pospisil, Tanya; Dornheim, Liane; Proctor-Weber, Zoe; Calabria, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Assessed the interrater reliability of the revised Advanced Psychodiagnostic Interpretation (API) (A. Raphael and C. Golden, 1998) scoring system for the Bender Gestalt Test (L. Bender, 1938). Agreement across nine raters exceeded 90% for each of three clinical protocols, and kappa statistics indicated good interrater reliability. (SLD)

  7. Distributed data collection for a database of radiological image interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, L. Rodney; Ostchega, Yechiam; Goh, Gin-Hua; Thoma, George R.

    1997-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine, in collaboration with the National Center for Health Statistics and the National Institute for Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, has built a system for collecting radiological interpretations for a large set of x-ray images acquired as part of the data gathered in the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. This system is capable of delivering across the Internet 5- and 10-megabyte x-ray images to Sun workstations equipped with X Window based 2048 X 2560 image displays, for the purpose of having these images interpreted for the degree of presence of particular osteoarthritic conditions in the cervical and lumbar spines. The collected interpretations can then be stored in a database at the National Library of Medicine, under control of the Illustra DBMS. This system is a client/server database application which integrates (1) distributed server processing of client requests, (2) a customized image transmission method for faster Internet data delivery, (3) distributed client workstations with high resolution displays, image processing functions and an on-line digital atlas, and (4) relational database management of the collected data.

  8. THE ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY AND STATISTICAL EDUCATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neville Hunt; Flavia Jolliffe; Neville Davies

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the role of the Royal Statistical Society in shaping statistical education within the UK and further afield. Until 2001 the Society had four agencies concerned with education at all levels. The work of these is discussed and recent new arrangements are outlined. The Society's efforts to disseminate good practice through organising meetings and running a network of

  9. Whole slide imaging for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 immunohistochemistry interpretation: Accuracy, Precision, and reproducibility studies for digital manual and paired glass slide manual interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Wilbur, David C.; Brachtel, Elena F.; Gilbertson, John R.; Jones, Nicholas C.; Vallone, John G.; Krishnamurthy, Savitra

    2015-01-01

    Background: The use of digital whole slide imaging for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) immunohistochemistry (IHC) could create improvements in workflow and performance, allowing for central archiving of specimens, distributed and remote interpretation, and the potential for additional computerized automation. Procedures: The accuracy, precision, and reproducibility of manual digital interpretation for HER2 IHC were determined by comparison to manual glass slide interpretation. Inter- and intra-pathologist reproducibility and precision between the glass slide and digital interpretations of HER2 IHC were determined in 5 studies using DAKO HercepTest-stained breast cancer slides with the Philips Digital Pathology System. In 2 inter-method studies, 3 pathologists interpreted glass and digital slides in sequence or in random order with a minimum of 7 days as a washout period. These studies also measured inter-observer reproducibility and precision. Another two studies measured intra-pathologist reproducibility on cases read 10 times by glass and digital methods. One additional study evaluated the effects of adding IHC control slides with each run, using 1 pathologist interpreting glass and digital slides randomized from the sets above along with appropriate controls for each slide in the set. Results: The overall results show that there is no statistical difference between the variance of performance when comparing glass and digital HER2 interpretations; and there were no effects noted when control tissues were evaluated in conjunction with the test slides. Conclusions: The results show that there is an equivalence of result when interpreting HER2 IHC slides in breast cancer by either glass slides or digital images. Digital interpretation can therefore be safely and effectively used for this purpose. PMID:26110090

  10. Linguistic Abilities in Translators and Interpreters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John B.

    The purpose of this paper is to review research in the general area of linguistic abilities that might have relevance to the selection and training of translators and interpreters. An important issue to be addressed is what is the criterion of success, that is, how can success in translation and interpretation be measured? The procedures used in…

  11. Translators and Interpreters: Professionals or Shoemakers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viaggio, Sergio

    Translators and interpreters are not currently trained as professionals, but taught a "do-as-I-do" system inherited from the medieval guilds. Most are self-made, having acquired technique and applied it to languages already known. However, there is now enough known about mediated interlingual communication to teach translators and interpreters how…

  12. State of the Atmosphere: Interpreting Weather Observations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kim LaFrance

    The purpose of this lesson is to let students analyze atmospheric radiosonde data from a balloon launched at NASA Langley Research Center by teachers attending a workshop. Other resources are included to assist in interpreting the observations. Students are asked to explain in paragraph format their interpretation of the atmospheric conditions depicted by the data and the graph produced using the data.

  13. Infusing Counseling Skills in Test Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawlins, Melanie E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Presents an instructional model based on Neurolinguistic Programming that links counseling student course work in measurement and test interpretation with counseling techniques and theory. A process incorporating Neurolinguistic Programming patterns is outlined for teaching graduate students the counseling skills helpful in test interpretation.…

  14. INTERPRETIVE AGENTS: IDENTIFYING PRINCIPLES, DESIGNING MECHANISMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Sallach

    The present paper takes the position that social action inherently involves meaning and, thus, cannot be adequately modeled without representing the interpretive process among agents. The development of interpretive models is challenging, however, and quickly raises issues of computational tractability. A strategy is developed based on three assumptions (agent focus, continuity reduction and orientation fields) and three mechanisms (prototype inference,

  15. Determining the number of interpretable factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles B. Crawford

    1975-01-01

    Argues that a major weakness of current methods of determining the number of factors is that they require this decision to be made before rotation; therefore, information on the possible interpretability of factors cannot be considered in determining the appropriate number. An objective, noninferential index for determining the number of interpretable factors is described. The effects of type of rotation,

  16. Can Children Resist Making Interpretations when Uncertain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Sarah R.; Robinson, Elizabeth J.; Freeth, Megan M.

    2008-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined young children's ability to delay a response to ambiguous input. In Experiment 1, 5- and 6-year-olds performed as poorly when they needed to choose between basing an interpretation on ambiguous input and delaying an interpretation as when making explicit evaluations of knowledge, whereas 7- and 8-year-olds found the…

  17. Of Ice and Statisticians: Interpreting Measurements

    E-print Network

    Percival, Don

    Of Ice and Statisticians: Interpreting Measurements of Arctic Sea Ice Thickness Don Percival due to tsunamis - interpreting thickness of Arctic sea ice (today's topic) 2 #12;Some Background of interest: has the average thickness of Arc- tic sea ice declined significantly over the past 30 years

  18. A Platform for Audiovisual Seismic Interpretation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sigurd Saue

    We are describing a pilot study investigating the use of sonification techniques in seismic interpretation for oil exploration. Due to emerging development criteria of conformance and usefulness, the project was redirected from a free experimental tool box to a primitive but functioning work station for seismic interpretation. The emphasis was put on extracting interesting seismic parameters for sonification. The most

  19. Exercises for Beginning and Group Interpretation Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Janice Jones

    Composing oral poems and storytelling are two exercises that speech teachers can use in oral interpretation courses. Conducting the oral poetry exercise early in an introductory interpretation course allows students to become acquainted with each other and to encourage each other while sharing something of themselves with the entire class. This…

  20. Interpreting Nominal Compounds for Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, L. S.; Croft, W. B.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the interpretation of nominal compounds in the context of natural language processing for information retrieval. Knowledge-intensive algorithms that can successfully interpret compounds found in technical documents are described, and experiments are reported that indicate these algorithms may be unnecessary for improving retrieval…

  1. Bounded Functional Interpretation Fernando Ferreira a,1

    E-print Network

    Oliva, Paulo

    Introduction In 1958 Kurt G¨odel presented an interpretation of Heyting Arithmetic HA into a quantifier assignment of formulas. In contrast with G¨odel's functional "Dialectica" interpretation, the new interpre of first-order arithmetic to quantifier-free formulas of the language of T. G¨odel's so-called functional

  2. Oral Interpretation of Literature: Readers' Theater

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The pedagogical principle of experiential learning embodied in the oral interpretation of literature through Readers' Theater provides an avenue to accomplish a seemingly daunting task. Students' participation in reading, interpreting, discussing, writing, assessing, and performing their own creative responses to a literary work promotes a…

  3. Teaching Fourth Generation Evaluation through Monologue Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Eric; Sparks, Cheryl

    1992-01-01

    This article illustrates the use of monologue interpretation, in which an interpreter illuminates issues in a speaker's monologue to translate theoretical pedagogical material into usable classroom applications. The example shows how the tenets of Guba and Lincoln's (1989) Responsive Constructivist Fourth Generation Model were presented via…

  4. Interpretation of drill cuttings from geothermal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B.; Sibbett, B.S.

    1981-06-01

    Problems in interpreting drill cuttings, as opposed to drill cores, and methods to solve these problems are outlined. The following are covered: identification of lithology; recognition of faults and fractures; interpretation of hydrothermal alteration; geochemistry; sample collection; sample preparple examination; and sample storage. (MHR)

  5. A Method for Teaching Topographic Map Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuit, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Students learn how to read and interpret topographic maps by using a set of simplified map exercise cards. Students learn in the field as opposed to a traditional classroom. Map symbols, distance, direction, form, and relief are among the map interpretation topics taught with this method. The multiple-choice format of the exercise also allows for…

  6. Just Do It: Resources for Interpretive Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koepler, Jes

    2008-01-01

    Now that you have finished reading this journal issue and understand what interpretive planning is and when to apply it, how can you get started and just "do" it? This article provides an annotated list of practical handbooks and internet resources that provide guidelines for museum practitioners to engage in interpretive planning at institutions…

  7. [Interpreting Historic Sites & the Built Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yellis, Ken, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    This issue focuses on the interpretation of built environments, from Washington Irving's 19th century home in Tarrytown, New York, to structures in contemporary Chicago. Barbara Carson, Margaret Piatt, and Renee Friedman discuss the interpretation of interior and exterior spaces and explain how to teach history with objects instead of teaching the…

  8. Probability in modal interpretations of quantum mechanics

    E-print Network

    Seevinck, Michiel

    Probability in modal interpretations of quantum mechanics Dennis Dieks Institute for the History interpretations have the ambition to construe quantum mechanics as an ob- jective, man-independent description of physical reality. Their second leading idea is probabilism: quantum mechanics does not completely fix

  9. Interface Problems: Structural Constraints on Interpretation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles; Rayner, Keith; Deevy, Patricia; Koh, Sungryong; Bader, Markus

    2005-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the interpretation of quantified noun phrases in relation to discourse structure. They demonstrated, using questionnaire and on-line reading techniques, that readers in English prefer to give a quantified noun phrase in (VP-external) subject position a presuppositional interpretation, in which the noun phrase limits…

  10. Institute of Mathematical Statistics COLLECTIONS

    E-print Network

    Jones, Galin

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Reverse Exchangeability and Extreme Order Statistics Yindeng Jiang and Michael D. PerlmanInstitute of Mathematical Statistics COLLECTIONS Volume 00 Advances in Modern Statistical Theory of Mathematical Statistics Beachwood, Ohio, USA #12;Institute of Mathematical Statistics Collections Series Editor

  11. Bayes Estimation Bayes Statistical Thinking

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Li-Xin

    Bayes Estimation Bayes Statistical Thinking Mathematical Statistics Chapter Seven Bayes Estimation #12;Bayes Estimation Bayes Statistical Thinking Method of Estimation (IV)---Bayes Estimation Part I. Three Types of Information in Statistical Inference #12;Bayes Estimation Bayes Statistical Thinking

  12. Irish Cepaea nemoralis Land Snails Have a Cryptic Franco-Iberian Origin That Is Most Easily Explained by the Movements of Mesolithic Humans

    PubMed Central

    Grindon, Adele J.; Davison, Angus

    2013-01-01

    The origins of flora and fauna that are only found in Ireland and Iberia, but which are absent from intervening countries, is one of the enduring questions of biogeography. As Southern French, Iberian and Irish populations of the land snail Cepaea nemoralis sometimes have a similar shell character, we used mitochondrial phylogenies to begin to understand if there is a shared “Lusitanian” history. Although much of Europe contains snails with A and D lineages, by far the majority of Irish individuals have a lineage, C, that in mainland Europe was only found in a restricted region of the Eastern Pyrenees. A past extinction of lineage C in the rest of Europe cannot be ruled out, but as there is a more than 8000 year continuous record of Cepaea fossils in Ireland, the species has long been a food source in the Pyrenees, and the Garonne river that flanks the Pyrenees is an ancient human route to the Atlantic, then we suggest that the unusual distribution of the C lineage is most easily explained by the movements of Mesolithic humans. If other Irish species have a similarly cryptic Lusitanian element, then this raises the possibility of a more widespread and significant pattern. PMID:23840368

  13. Real World Interpretations of Quantum Theory

    E-print Network

    Adrian Kent

    2011-11-03

    I propose a new class of interpretations, {\\it real world interpretations}, of the quantum theory of closed systems. These interpretations postulate a preferred factorization of Hilbert space and preferred projective measurements on one factor. They give a mathematical characterisation of the different possible worlds arising in an evolving closed quantum system, in which each possible world corresponds to a (generally mixed) evolving quantum state. In a realistic model, the states corresponding to different worlds should be expected to tend towards orthogonality as different possible quasiclassical structures emerge or as measurement-like interactions produce different classical outcomes. However, as the worlds have a precise mathematical definition, real world interpretations need no definition of quasiclassicality, measurement, or other concepts whose imprecision is problematic in other interpretational approaches. It is natural to postulate that precisely one world is chosen randomly, using the natural probability distribution, as the world realised in Nature, and that this world's mathematical characterisation is a complete description of reality.

  14. Real World Interpretations of Quantum Theory

    E-print Network

    Kent, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    I propose a new class of interpretations, {\\it real world interpretations}, of the quantum theory of closed systems. These interpretations postulate a preferred factorization of Hilbert space and preferred projective measurements on one factor. They give a mathematical characterisation of the different possible worlds arising in an evolving closed quantum system, in which each possible world corresponds to a (generally mixed) evolving quantum state. In a realistic model, the states corresponding to different worlds should be expected to tend towards orthogonality as different possible quasiclassical structures emerge or as measurement-like interactions produce different classical outcomes. However, as the worlds have a precise mathematical definition, real world interpretations need no definition of quasiclassicality, measurement, or other concepts whose imprecision is problematic in other interpretational approaches. It is natural to postulate that precisely one world is chosen randomly, using the natural pr...

  15. The Interpretation of Enceladus Gravity (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, D. J.; Iess, L.; Parisi, M.; Ducci, M.; Asmar, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    The determination of the gravity field by Cassini is challenging because of the small mass and short duration of the gravitational interaction, even with data from three encounters. E19 data have been successfully integrated into the multiarc analysis, providing a stable and consistent gravity field. This required inclusion of the effect of atmospheric drag due to Enceladus' plumes. This presentation will deal only with the interpretation of these data. The dominant features of the non-central gravity are large values for the harmonic coefficients J2 and C22 and a much smaller but statistically significant negative J3. The value of J2/C22=3.55×0.05 is moderately in excess of the value of 10/3 that applies to a synchronously rotating body with no lateral variation in material properties. Given the obvious latitudinal variation of Enceladus' physical characteristics, primarily expressed by the activity centered on the South Pole, it is plausible that the deviation from 10/3 arises primarily because of a positive anomaly in J2 rather than any anomaly in C22. However, applying Radau-Darwin to the value of C22/q (where q is the usual dimensionless measure of the centrifugal effect on gravity) implies that the moment of inertia is about 0.34MR^2. The high heat output and indirect inference for liquid water suggests a fully differentiated Enceladus. For the known mean density and any plausible mantle density, this would require an unreasonably low core density of 2.5 g/cc or less. A more realistic interpretation is that both J2 and C22 are modestly non-hydrostatic, but that J2 is affected more because of a negative mass anomaly in the Southern hemisphere, consistent with the observed negative J3. One non-unique way to reconcile the observed gravity with a realistic MOI of 0.32 to 0.33MR^2 is to assume that the rocky core of Enceladus has retained some memory of a previous faster rotational state. Even if the ice shell is perfectly relaxed, this reconciles the data for a core shape corresponding to a rotation that is only a few to 10% larger then the current value, small compared to the total change expected for the expansion of the assumed synchronous orbit over the age of the Saturnian system. Other possibilities will be discussed. We assume that the only source of additional gravity beyond that from rotation and tides, past and present, is a mass anomaly centered at the South pole. A negative point mass anomaly then predicts a contribution to J2 that is of the same magnitude but opposite sign to J3. The inferred J2 anomaly is of the right sign but about a factor of two larger than this point mass prediction. This can be understood by assuming that that the mass anomaly is extended in latitude away from the pole, consistent with the observed extent of the South pole topographic depression. A physically plausible explanation that explains both the J2 anomaly and J3 is to invoke this observed depression of nearly 1km as a negative mass anomaly. A compensating ocean of around 10km in thickness at the base of the ice (depth ~50km) is not essential to explain the gravity but is consistent with the gravity and plausible based on other geophysical considerations. More precise topography and gravity in a future mission could strengthen the case for an ocean but ambiguity will always be present because of the uncertain nature and shape of the core.

  16. Surrogate Decision Makers’ Interpretation of Prognostic Information

    PubMed Central

    Zier, Lucas S.; Sottile, Peter D.; Hong, Seo Yeon; Weissfield, Lisa A.; White, Douglas B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about why surrogate decision makers for patients with advanced illness often have overly optimistic expectations about prognosis. Objective To determine how surrogates interpret prognostic statements and to explore factors influencing surrogates’ interpretations of grim prognostic information. Design Multicenter, mixed-methods study. Setting Intensive care units of 3 hospitals in San Francisco, California. Participants 80 surrogates of critically ill patients. Measurements Participants recorded their interpretation of 16 prognostic statements using a standard probability scale. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine whether participants interpreted statements more optimistically as the expressed probability of survival decreased. Fifteen surrogates whose responses exhibited this trend participated in a semistructured interview. Results Participants’ interpretations of prognostic statements expressing a low risk for death were relatively accurate, but interpretations of statements conveying a high risk for death were more optimistic than the actual meaning (P < 0.001; generalized estimating equation model). Interpretations of the statement “90% chance of surviving” did not differ from the actual meaning, but interpretations of “5% chance of surviving” were more optimistic and showed substantial variability (median, 90% [interquartile range, 90% to 95%; P = 0.11] vs. 15% [interquartile range, 5% to 40%; P < 0.001], respectively). Two main themes from the interviews explained this trend: surrogates’ need to register optimism in the face of a poor prognosis and surrogates’ belief that patient attributes unknown to the physician would lead to better-than-predicted outcomes. Limitation Surrogates’ interpretations were elicited in an experimental setting rather than during actual clinician–surrogate conversations. Conclusion Inaccurate interpretations of physicians’ prognostications by surrogates arise partly from optimistic biases rather than simply from misunderstandings. Primary Funding Source National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. PMID:22393131

  17. Statistics for Chemists: Exercises

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wehrens, Ron

    This website contains a group of exercises that allow students to practice basic statistical calculations for descriptive statistics, confidence intervals, hypothesis tests, regression and experimental design. The exercises are interactive and provide feedback for students who submit wrong answers.

  18. Anaplasmosis: Statistics and Epidemiology

    MedlinePLUS

    ... States Geography Seasonality Persons at risk Further Reading Statistics and Epidemiology Annual Cases of Anaplasmosis in the ... PDF - 21 pages] Anaplasmosis Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Statistics and Epidemiology In-Depth Information Related Tick Topics ...

  19. Blood Facts and Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About Blood > Blood Facts and Statistics Printable Version Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts ... about American Red Cross Blood Services Facts about blood needs Every two seconds someone in the U.S. ...

  20. Immigration and Naturalization Statistics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    United States. Immigration and Naturalization Service.

    The Immigration and Naturalizations Service Statistics site provides "comprehensive annual immigration statistics from 1994-1996, as well as state estimates of the United States' illegal alien resident and foreign-born populations."

  1. Uterine Cancer Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Research AMIGAS Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed Statistics for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal ( ... Skin Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer Home Uterine Cancer Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  2. Pneumocystis Pneumonia Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CDC.gov . Fungal Diseases Share Compartir Pneumocystis pneumonia Statistics Before the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic ... Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & Testing Treatment Health Professionals Statistics More Resources Blastomycosis Definition Symptoms People at Risk & ...

  3. Listeria (Listeriosis) Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page: About CDC.gov . Listeria (Listeriosis) Share Compartir Statistics Estimates CDC estimates that approximately 1600 illnesses and ... 12, 2011 Case Count Map Epi Curve Surveillance Statistics People at Risk Prevention Sources of Infection Diagnosis & ...

  4. Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis) Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov . Fungal Diseases Share Compartir Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis) Statistics How common is valley fever? In states where ... Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & Testing Treatment Health Professionals Statistics More Resources Blastomycosis Definition Symptoms People at Risk & ...

  5. Brain Tumor Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... updates Please leave this field empty Brain Tumor Statistics SHARE Share on Facebook Preview your comments Share ... Close Finish Home > About Us > News > Brain Tumor Statistics Listen Brain Tumors do not discriminate. Primary brain ...

  6. Ehrlichiosis: Statistics and Epidemiology

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Persons at risk Other Ehrlichiosis, Undetermined Further Reading Statistics and Epidemiology Annual Cases of Ehrlichiosis in the ... PDF - 21 pages] Ehrlichiosis Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Statistics and Epidemiology In-Depth Information Related Tick Topics ...

  7. Background and Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    Background & Statistics FAQ About Homeless Veterans Homeless Veterans Facts Demographics of Homeless Veterans Incarcerated Veterans Research Briefs Sources FAQ ... VETERANS In May 2007, the Bureau of Justice Statistics released a special report on incarcerated veterans. The ...

  8. Application of Demand-Control Theory to Sign Language Interpreting: Implications for Stress and Interpreter Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Robyn K.; Pollard, Robert Q., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    This article uses the framework of demand-control theory to examine the occupation of sign language interpreting. It discusses the environmental, interpersonal, and intrapersonal demands that impinge on the interpreter's decision latitude and notes the prevalence of cumulative trauma disorders, turnover, and burnout in the interpreting profession.…

  9. Interpreter perspectives of in-person, telephonic, and videoconferencing medical interpretation in clinical encounters

    PubMed Central

    Price, Erika Leemann; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.; Nickleach, Dana; López, Monica; Karliner, Leah S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine professional medical interpreters’ perspectives of in-person and remote interpreting modalities. Methods Survey of interpreters at three medical centers assessing satisfaction with aspects of communication using each modality, and adequacy of videoconferencing medical interpretation (VMI) and telephonic interpretation for 21 common clinical scenarios in the hospital and ambulatory care settings. Results 52 interpreters completed the survey (73% response). All modalities were equally satisfactory for conveying information. Respondents favored in-person to telephonic interpretation for establishing rapport (95% versus 71%, p = .002) and for facilitating clinician understanding of patients’ social and cultural backgrounds (92% versus 69%, p = .002). Scenarios with substantial educational or psychosocial dimensions had no more than 70% of respondents rating telephonic interpretation as adequate (25–70%); for all of these scenarios, VMI represented an improvement (52–87%). Conclusion From the interpreter perspective, telephonic interpretation is satisfactory for information exchange, but less so for interpersonal aspects of communication. In scenarios where telephonic interpretation does not suffice, particularly those with substantial educational or psychosocial components, VMI offers improved communication. Practice implications Differences in interpreters’ perspectives of modalities based on communication needs and clinical scenario suggest mixed use of multiple modalities may be the best language access strategy. PMID:21930360

  10. NewMINT interpretation assistance system: United States Constitution First Amendment's initial 1344 interpretations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Layman E. Allen; Adam W. Tury

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we describe and illustrate a new refinement in the MINT (Multiple INTerpretation) Assistance System that has Arrow Diagrams in the left margin of interpretations of legal text that indicates the sentential logical relationships of the constituent sentences of the interpretations. The new version is called NewMINT. An example of the use of NewMINT is presented in detail

  11. Weighted order statistic classifiers with large rank-order margin.

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, R. B. (Reid B.); Hush, D. R. (Donald R.); Theiler, J. P. (James P.); Gokhale, M. (Maya)

    2003-01-01

    We describe how Stack Filters and Weighted Order Statistic function classes can be used for classification problems. This leads to a new design criteria for linear classifiers when inputs are binary-valued and weights are positive . We present a rank-based measure of margin that can be directly optimized as a standard linear program and investigate its effect on generalization error with experiment. Our approach can robustly combine large numbers of base hypothesis and easily implement known priors through regularization.

  12. Electronic Statistics Textbook

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    "This Electronic Statistics Textbook offers training in the understanding and application of statistics ... and covers a wide variety of applications, including laboratory research (biomedical, agricultural, etc.), business statistics and forecasting, social science statistics and survey research, data mining, engineering and quality control applications, and many others." The contents of this site are too numerous to list, but it suffices to say that it will be difficult to find a concept not covered by this online text.

  13. The Statistics of Style

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Swift, J.

    Created by J. Swift of the Royal Statistical Society, this article describes an exercise, probability and statistics, which develops a statistic that measures the variety of noun usage in order to distinguish two authors. The exercise emphasizes the use of frequency.

  14. Statistics for Chemists

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wehrens, R.

    This site is a comprehensive resource on statistics, including information on descriptive statistics, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, regression, ANOVA, experimental design, and multivariate statistics. Web-based exercises are interspersed throughout the text, allowing students to practice what they are learning and to obtain immediate feedback.

  15. Deconstructing Statistics Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earley, Mark A.; Mertler, Craig A.

    A number of scales have been developed to measure the construct of statistics anxiety, the anxiety students feel when they take a statistics course, but few researchers have examined whether this anxiety is due solely to being enrolled in a statistics course or if there is some component that is simply a function of being a student (anxiety in any…

  16. GRADUATE STUDY IN STATISTICS

    E-print Network

    - mental statistics, epidemiology, financial modeling, image processing, massive data, machine control, robust methods, statistical computing, statistical genetics and link- age analysis, spatial opportunities through our collaborative Ph.D. program with the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center

  17. Statistics for Applications

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Panchenko, Dmitry

    Dmitry Panchenko of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is an undergraduate course in Statistics for Applications. The site features lecture notes, a syllabus and assignments. Course topics include hypothesis testing and estimation, confidence intervals, chi-square tests, nonparametric statistics, analysis of variance, regression and correlation. This is a nice example of a course structure for an applied statistics course.

  18. Giovanni Gallavotti STATISTICAL MECHANICS

    E-print Network

    Roma "La Sapienza", Università di

    Giovanni Gallavotti STATISTICAL MECHANICS Short Treatise Roma 1999 #12; . #12; Short treatise of Statistical Mechanics Giovanni Gallavotti Dipartimento di Fisica Universitâ??a di Roma La Sapienza 00185 Roma that started with my involvement as Coordinator of the Statistical Mechanics section of the Italian Encyclo

  19. Giovanni Gallavotti STATISTICAL MECHANICS

    E-print Network

    Roma "La Sapienza", Università di

    Giovanni Gallavotti STATISTICAL MECHANICS Short Treatise Roma 1999 #12;. #12;Short treatise of Statistical Mechanics Giovanni Gallavotti Dipartimento di Fisica Universit`a di Roma La Sapienza 00185 Roma that started with my involvement as Coordinator of the Statistical Mechanics section of the Italian Encyclo

  20. Teaching Statistics Using SAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandeville, Garrett K.

    The Statistical Analysis System (SAS) is presented as the single most appropriate statistical package to use as an aid in teaching statistics. A brief review of literature in which SAS is compared to SPSS, BMDP, and other packages is followed by six examples which demonstrate features unique to SAS which have pedagogical utility. Of particular…

  1. Statistical quality management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderlaan, Paul

    1992-10-01

    Some aspects of statistical quality management are discussed. Quality has to be defined as a concrete, measurable quantity. The concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM), Statistical Process Control (SPC), and inspection are explained. In most cases SPC is better than inspection. It can be concluded that statistics has great possibilities in the field of TQM.

  2. Statistical Computing Software Reviews

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark J. Schervish

    1985-01-01

    This department includes the two sections New Developments in Statistical Computing and Statistical Computing Software Reviews; suitable contents for each of these sections is described under the respective section heading. Articles submitted for the department, outside the two sections, should not be highly technical and should be relevant to the teaching or practice of statistical computing.This section is similar in

  3. Statistics: Power from Data!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Statistics Canada's website designed to teach secondary mathematics and information studies students statistical information. Each chapter is intended to be complete in itself, with exercises and lesson plans. The site covers a broad spectrum of topics involving statistics. Overall, it is a comprehensive view of this vast field.

  4. Statistics Teacher Network

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    This website provides links to all current and past issues of "The Statistics Teacher Network". This newsletter for K-12 teachers is published three times a year, and presents up to date articles that describe statistical activities that have been successful in the classroom. It also informs educators of statistical workshops, programs, and reviews of books, software, and calculators.

  5. Avoiding Statistical Mistakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasser, Nora

    2007-01-01

    Avoiding statistical mistakes is important for educators at all levels. Basic concepts will help you to avoid making mistakes using statistics and to look at data with a critical eye. Statistical data is used at educational institutions for many purposes. It can be used to support budget requests, changes in educational philosophy, changes to…

  6. What is Statistics?; The Answer by Quantum Language

    E-print Network

    Ishikawa, Shiro

    2012-01-01

    Since the problem: "What is statistics?" is most fundamental in sceince, in order to solve this problem, there is every reason to believe that we have to start from the proposal of a worldview. Recently we proposed measurement theory (i.e., quantum language, or the linguistic interpretation of quantum mechanics), which is characterized as the linguistic turn of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. This turn from physics to language does not only extend quantum theory to classical theory but also yield the quantum mechanical world view (i.e., the (quantum) linguistic world view, and thus, a form of quantum thinking, in other words, quantum philosophy). Thus, we believe that the quantum lingistic formulation of statistics gives an answer to the question: "What is statistics?". In this paper, this will be done through the studies of inference interval, statistical hypothesis testing, Fisher maximum likelihood method, Bayes method and regression analysis in meaurement theory.

  7. Renaissance Versus Revelation - The Timescale of the Interpretation and Assimilation of a Message from ETI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, S.

    The speed with which data received from an ETI (extraterrestrial intelligence) is interpreted and assimilated by humanity will probably have a significant impact on its societal and other consequences. It is often assumed that a lengthy decryption and interpretation process would cushion the consequent shock to human culture. It is argued here that slowness of decryption may not be a safe assumption. For example, a signal could be specifically designed by the ETI for rapid decryption. The lengthy analysis of a heavily encrypted message might be analogous to the normal processes of science - a Renaissance - but an easily decrypted message might have an immediate impact - akin to a religious revelation - and would thereby be more likely to be destabilising.

  8. Plain language for interpreting in consulting rooms.

    PubMed

    Lesch, H M

    2007-12-01

    Intercultural communication is by nature a complex activity. In a multilingual society like ours, it will inevitably surface in the health care sector. The services of an interpreter are often considered to break the impasse in this communication process. The communication problem between the two parties, the service provider and client/patient, is often not simply a matter of language but societal factors of which the liaison interpreter should be aware of also plays a major role for effective extended communication. This article focuses on some of the problems in rendering an oral source text in multilingual and multicultural societies such as South Africa in which there are heterogeneous target audiences for interpreting. It is pointed out that interpreters in such societies must take into account the heterogeneity of the target audiences, or otherwise interpreting will only be symbolic gestures, empty of value, and thus not communicate the message intended. In the process the limitations of the interpreter and how the presence of the interpreter can be facilitated, is also highlighted. PMID:18402423

  9. Statistical Convergence and Convergence in Statistics

    E-print Network

    Mark Burgin; Oktay Duman

    2006-12-07

    Statistical convergence was introduced in connection with problems of series summation. The main idea of the statistical convergence of a sequence l is that the majority of elements from l converge and we do not care what is going on with other elements. We show (Section 2) that being mathematically formalized the concept of statistical convergence is directly connected to convergence of such statistical characteristics as the mean and standard deviation. At the same time, it known that sequences that come from real life sources, such as measurement and computation, do not allow, in a general case, to test whether they converge or statistically converge in the strict mathematical sense. To overcome limitations induced by vagueness and uncertainty of real life data, neoclassical analysis has been developed. It extends the scope and results of the classical mathematical analysis by applying fuzzy logic to conventional mathematical objects, such as functions, sequences, and series. The goal of this work is the further development of neoclassical analysis. This allows us to reflect and model vagueness and uncertainty of our knowledge, which results from imprecision of measurement and inaccuracy of computation. In the context on the theory of fuzzy limits, we develop the structure of statistical fuzzy convergence and study its properties.

  10. The formal verification of generic interpreters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windley, P.; Levitt, K.; Cohen, G. C.

    1991-01-01

    The task assignment 3 of the design and validation of digital flight control systems suitable for fly-by-wire applications is studied. Task 3 is associated with formal verification of embedded systems. In particular, results are presented that provide a methodological approach to microprocessor verification. A hierarchical decomposition strategy for specifying microprocessors is also presented. A theory of generic interpreters is presented that can be used to model microprocessor behavior. The generic interpreter theory abstracts away the details of instruction functionality, leaving a general model of what an interpreter does.

  11. On the impact of atmospheric waves on fluxes and turbulence statistics during nighttime conditions: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durden, D. J.; Nappo, C. J.; Leclerc, M. Y.; Duarte, H. F.; Zhang, G.; Pires, L. B. M.; Parker, M. J.; Kurzeja, R. J.

    2013-03-01

    The interpretation of flux measurements in the nocturnal stable boundary layer is typically fraught with difficulties. This paper reports on how the presence of waves in a time series leads to an overestimation of turbulence statistics and errors in turbulent flux calculations. Using time series of the pressure signal from a microbarograph, the presence of waves at a flux measurement site near Aiken, SC is identified and removed. Our findings suggest that filtering of eddy-covariance data in the presence of wave events prevents both an overestimation of turbulence statistics and errors in turbulent flux calculations. The results showed that large amplitude wave-like events occurred on 31% of the nights considered in the present study. Remarkably, in low-turbulence environments, the presence of a gravity wave can enhance turbulence statistics more than 50%. The presence of the wave modulates the calculated turbulent fluxes of CO2, resulting in erroneous flux calculations of the order of 10% depending on the averaging time and pressure perturbation threshold criteria. In addition, u∗ was affected by the presence of the wave, and in at least one case, a 10% increase caused u∗ to exceed the arbitrary 0.25 ms-1 threshold used in many studies. These preliminary results suggest that biases due to nocturnal atmospheric phenomena can easily creep unnoticed into flux data. The impact of different averaging periods was found to depend on the choice of the variables. This is a product of the width of the averaging window in relation to the wave cycle and dealt with the phase relationship of the variables being analyzed; hence, these errors are primarily introduced through our processing methods. These results provide a novel insight into errors introduced in turbulent fluxes. By contributing more accurate inputs of both turbulent kinetic energy and u∗, these results could be invaluable in improving modeling efforts applied to nocturnal exchange.

  12. Statistical Power-Law Spectra due to Reservoir Fluctuations

    E-print Network

    T. S. Biró; G. G. Barnaföldi; P. Ván; K. Ürmössy

    2014-04-04

    LHC ALICE data are interpreted in terms of statistical power-law tailed pT spectra. As explanation we derive such statistical distributions for particular particle number fluctuation patterns in a finite heat bath exactly, and for general thermodynamical systems in the subleading canonical expansion approximately. Our general result, $q = 1 - 1/C + \\Delta T^2 / T^2$, demonstrates how the heat capacity and the temperature fluctuation effects compete, and cancel only in the standard Gaussian approximation.

  13. Electron energy level statistics in graphene quantum dots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. De Raedt; M. I. Katsnelson

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by recent experimental observations of size quantization of electron energy levels in graphene quantum dots [7]\\u000a we investigate the level statistics in the simplest tight-binding model for different dot shapes by computer simulation. The\\u000a results are in a reasonable agreement with the experiment which confirms qualitatively interpretation of observed level statistics\\u000a in terms of “Dirac billiards” without taking into

  14. Statistical LabsResearch

    E-print Network

    Collins, Michael

    . OUTPUT: Profits soared at [Company Boeing Co.], easily topping forecasts on [Location Wall Street ) A B D d E e C F f G g #12; Information Extraction: Named Entities INPUT: Profits soared at Boeing CoRelationship = Company­Location Company = Boeing Location = Seattleg fRelationship = Employer­Employee Employer = Boeing

  15. Data analysis using the Gnu R system for statistical computation

    SciTech Connect

    Simone, James; /Fermilab

    2011-07-01

    R is a language system for statistical computation. It is widely used in statistics, bioinformatics, machine learning, data mining, quantitative finance, and the analysis of clinical drug trials. Among the advantages of R are: it has become the standard language for developing statistical techniques, it is being actively developed by a large and growing global user community, it is open source software, it is highly portable (Linux, OS-X and Windows), it has a built-in documentation system, it produces high quality graphics and it is easily extensible with over four thousand extension library packages available covering statistics and applications. This report gives a very brief introduction to R with some examples using lattice QCD simulation results. It then discusses the development of R packages designed for chi-square minimization fits for lattice n-pt correlation functions.

  16. Planning a School for Translators and Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, David L.

    1975-01-01

    This article outlines guidelines for designing a school for translators and interpreters, the main points being selection of languages to be taught, curriculum planning, selection of qualified teachers and size of the student body. (CLK)

  17. Ground photography for improvved image interpretation training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lougeay, R.

    1981-01-01

    Systematic sets of ground based color and color infrared photography were presented to students in remote sensing classes to enhance their ability to interpret satellite images. Features readily apparent on computer enhanced LANDSAT images were presented simultaneously with ground based photography in the format of slide triplicates. It was hypothesized that this instructional approach would improve the students' abilities to recognize, understand and interpret ground phenomena present on remotely sensed imagery. Tests conducted in undergraduate remote sensing classes substantially upheld this hypothesis. Student image interpretive abilities were tested before and after being exposed to the ground level photography. In general, image interpretive skills of the class improved by 25%. Also, the performance of students having different academic majors varied greatly for differing types of image subjects.

  18. 12 CFR 609.920 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...business, consumer, or commercial transactions. E-SIGN requires that statutes and regulations be interpreted to allow E-commerce as long as the safeguards of E-SIGN are met and its exceptions recognized. Generally, an electronic record...

  19. 12 CFR 609.920 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...business, consumer, or commercial transactions. E-SIGN requires that statutes and regulations be interpreted to allow E-commerce as long as the safeguards of E-SIGN are met and its exceptions recognized. Generally, an electronic record...

  20. 12 CFR 609.920 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...business, consumer, or commercial transactions. E-SIGN requires that statutes and regulations be interpreted to allow E-commerce as long as the safeguards of E-SIGN are met and its exceptions recognized. Generally, an electronic record...

  1. 12 CFR 609.920 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...business, consumer, or commercial transactions. E-SIGN requires that statutes and regulations be interpreted to allow E-commerce as long as the safeguards of E-SIGN are met and its exceptions recognized. Generally, an electronic record...

  2. 12 CFR 907.5 - Regulatory Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...907.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS PROCEDURES...Regulatory Interpretations. (a) Authority. Finance Board staff, in its discretion, may...

  3. 12 CFR 907.5 - Regulatory Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...907.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS PROCEDURES...Regulatory Interpretations. (a) Authority. Finance Board staff, in its discretion, may...

  4. 48 CFR 9904.401-61 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY...BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401-61 Interpretation....

  5. 48 CFR 9904.401-61 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY...BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401-61 Interpretation....

  6. Intelligent Automatic Interpretation of Active Marine Sonar 

    E-print Network

    Hallam, John C. T.

    1984-01-01

    This dissertation explores the problems raised by the design and construction of a real-time sonar interpreter operating in a three dimensional marine context, and then focusses on two major research issues inherent in ...

  7. 8 CFR 1003.22 - Interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Interpreters. 1003.22 Section 1003.22 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure...

  8. 8 CFR 1003.22 - Interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Interpreters. 1003.22 Section 1003.22 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure...

  9. Structural Analysis and Matrix Interpretive System /SAMIS/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Structural Analysis and Matrix Interpretive System eliminates high-speed digital computer restrictions of lack of generalization and lack of flexibility. Programming concepts of the system are standardization, modularity, and programming for intermediate-size problems.

  10. 8 CFR 1240.5 - Interpreter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS...REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Removal Proceedings...as an interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under...

  11. 8 CFR 1240.44 - Interpreter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW...JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS...OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Proceedings...before an immigration judge under...unless the interpreter...employee of the United States Government, in which...

  12. 8 CFR 1240.5 - Interpreter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS...REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Removal Proceedings...as an interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under...

  13. 8 CFR 1240.5 - Interpreter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS...REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Removal Proceedings...as an interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under...

  14. 8 CFR 1240.44 - Interpreter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW...JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS...OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Proceedings...before an immigration judge under...unless the interpreter...employee of the United States Government, in which...

  15. 8 CFR 1240.44 - Interpreter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW...JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS...OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Proceedings...before an immigration judge under...unless the interpreter...employee of the United States Government, in which...

  16. 8 CFR 1240.44 - Interpreter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW...JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS...OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Proceedings...before an immigration judge under...unless the interpreter...employee of the United States Government, in which...

  17. 8 CFR 1240.44 - Interpreter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW...JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS...OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Proceedings...before an immigration judge under...unless the interpreter...employee of the United States Government, in which...

  18. 8 CFR 1240.5 - Interpreter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS...REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Removal Proceedings...as an interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under...

  19. 8 CFR 1240.5 - Interpreter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS...REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Removal Proceedings...as an interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under...

  20. 10 CFR 75.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...5 Section 75.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT General Provisions § 75.5 Interpretations. Except as authorized specifically by the Commission in...

  1. Dealing with Interpretation Errors in Tutorial Dialogue. 

    E-print Network

    Dzikovska, Myroslava; Callaway, Charles; Farrow, Elaine; Moore, Johanna D.; Steinhauser, Natalie; Campbell, Gwendolyn

    We describe an approach to dealing with interpretation errors in a tutorial dialogue system. Allowing students to provide explanations and generate contentful talk can be helpful for learning, but the language that ...

  2. The Linguistic Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    E-print Network

    Ishikawa, Shiro

    2012-01-01

    About twenty years ago, we proposed the mathematical formulation of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and further, we concluded that Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and EPR-paradox are not contradictory. This is true, however we now think that we should have argued about it under a certain firm interpretation of quantum mechanics. Recently we proposed the linguistic quantum interpretation (called quantum and classical measurement theory), which was characterized as a kind of metaphysical and linguistic turn of the Copenhagen interpretation. This turn from physics to language does not only extend quantum theory to classical systems but also yield the quantum mechanical world view (i.e., the philosophy of quantum mechanics, in other words, quantum philosophy). In fact, we can consider that traditional philosophies have progressed toward quantum philosophy. In this paper, we first review the linguistic quantum interpretation, and further, clarify the relation between EPR-paradox and Heisenberg's uncertainty...

  3. The Possibilist Transactional Interpretation and Relativity

    E-print Network

    Ruth E. Kastner

    2012-06-22

    A recent ontological variant of Cramer's Transactional Interpretation, called "Possibilist Transactional Interpretation" or PTI, is extended to the relativistic domain. The present interpretation clarifies the concept of 'absorption,' which plays a crucial role in TI (and in PTI). In particular, in the relativistic domain, coupling amplitudes between fields are interpreted as amplitudes for the generation of confirmation waves (CW) by a potential absorber in response to offer waves (OW), whereas in the nonrelativistic context CW are taken as generated with certainty. It is pointed out that solving the measurement problem requires venturing into the relativistic domain in which emissions and absorptions take place; nonrelativistic quantum mechanics only applies to quanta considered as 'already in existence' (i.e., 'free quanta'), and therefore cannot fully account for the phenomenon of measurement, in which quanta are tied to sources and sinks.

  4. Interpretation and Petrogenesis of Zoned Plagioclase

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    R. K. Smith

    The purpose of this exercise is to give students the experience of utilizing the two component solid solution phase diagram of albite-anorthite and applying this diagram to the interpretation and petrogenesis of chemically zoned plagioclase.

  5. Generating and interpreting referring expressions in context

    E-print Network

    Smith, Dustin Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Referring expressions with vague and ambiguous modifiers, such as "a quick visit" and "the big meeting," are difficult for computers to interpret because their meanings are defined in part by context. For the hearer to ...

  6. 14 CFR 240.1 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...Interpretation. 240.1 Section 240.1 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... United States of America, Civil Aeronautics Board, Washington, D.C....

  7. 14 CFR 240.1 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01...Interpretation. 240.1 Section 240.1 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... United States of America, Civil Aeronautics Board, Washington, D.C....

  8. 14 CFR 240.1 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...Interpretation. 240.1 Section 240.1 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... United States of America, Civil Aeronautics Board, Washington, D.C....

  9. 14 CFR 240.1 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...Interpretation. 240.1 Section 240.1 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... United States of America, Civil Aeronautics Board, Washington, D.C....

  10. 14 CFR 240.1 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...Interpretation. 240.1 Section 240.1 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... United States of America, Civil Aeronautics Board, Washington, D.C....

  11. 7 CFR 2901.4 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ADMINISTRATIVE...interpretation shall be provided to FERC and the Secretary of Energy. Notice of the issuance of the written...

  12. 77 FR 32441 - Proposed Legal Interpretation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ...involves the exercise of pilot in command (PIC) discretion regarding the admission of...second broad issue raised by IPA involves the PIC's exercise of discretion regarding flight...prior legal interpretations examining the PIC's overall safety responsibility, as...

  13. On measuring quantitative interpretations of reasonable doubt.

    PubMed

    Dhami, Mandeep K

    2008-12-01

    Beyond reasonable doubt represents a probability value that acts as the criterion for conviction in criminal trials. I introduce the membership function (MF) method as a new tool for measuring quantitative interpretations of reasonable doubt. Experiment 1 demonstrated that three different methods (i.e., direct rating, decision theory based, and MF) provided significantly different and uncorrelated interpretations of reasonable doubt, although all methods predicted verdicts equally well, and showed inter-individual variability in interpretations. In Experiment 2 only the direct rating method demonstrated a significant effect of judicial instructions on reasonable doubt. In both experiments, the MF method showed intra-individual variability in interpretations of reasonable doubt. The methods may be capturing different aspects of the concept of reasonable doubt. These findings have implications for the validity of past research findings on reasonable doubt and for the utility of triangulation of methods in future research. PMID:19102618

  14. Recreation/Tourism/Interpretation Graduate Schools

    E-print Network

    Recreation/Tourism/Interpretation Graduate Schools Brigham Young University Provo, Utah, Recreation and Tourism Management http://www.hehd.clemson.edu/PRTM/mprtm.htm Colorado State University Programs: Natural Resource Recreation Tourism and Commercial Recreation Campus Recreation, Programming

  15. Interactive LDAP in C\\/C++ Interpreter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua Liu; Harry H. Cheng

    This article describes how to use the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) interactively with a C\\/C++ interpreter through the Ch LDAP package. Ch is an embeddable C\\/C++ interpreter that provides a superset of C. Ch LDAP is an open source binding to the open source OpenLDAP C API, and can be used to build client LDAP programs to add, delete,

  16. Stratigraphic statistical curvature analysis techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Bengtson, C.A.; Ziagos, J.P.

    1987-05-01

    SCAT applies statistical techniques to dipmeter data to identify patterns of bulk curvature, determine transverse and longitudinal structural directions, and reconstruct cross sections and contour maps. STRAT-SCAT applies the same concepts to geometric interpretation of multistoried unimodal, bimodal, or trough-type cross-bedding and also to seismic stratigraphy-scale stratigraphic structures. Structural dip, which comprises the bulk of dipmeter data, is related to beds that (statistically) were deposited with horizontal attitudes; stratigraphic dip is related to beds that were deposited with preferentially oriented nonhorizontal attitudes or to beds that assumed such attitudes because of differential compaction. Stratigraphic dip generates local zones of departure from structural dip on special SCAT plots. The RMS (root-mean-square) of apparent structural dip is greatest in the (structural) T-direction and least in the perpendicular L-direction; the RMS of stratigraphic dip (measured with respect to structural dip) is greatest in the stratigraphic T*-direction and least in the stratigraphic L*-direction. Multistoried, cross-bedding appears on T*-plots as local zones of either greater scatter or statistically significant departure of stratigraphic median dip from structural dip. In contrast, the L*-plot (except for trough-type cross-bedding) is sensitive to cross-bedding. Seismic stratigraphy-scale depositional sequences are identified on Mercator dip versus azimuth plots and polar tangent plots as secondary cylindrical-fold patterns imposed on global structural patterns. Progradational sequences generate local cycloid-type patterns on T*-plots, and compactional sequences generate local cycloid-type patterns on T*-plots, and compactional sequences generate local half-cusp patterns. Both features, however, show only structural dip on L*-plots.

  17. BS in STATISTICS: Statistical Science Emphasis (695220) MAP Sheet Department of Statistics

    E-print Network

    Olsen Jr., Dan R.

    BS in STATISTICS: Statistical Science Emphasis (695220) MAP Sheet Department of Statistics the following: Stat 121 Principles of Statistics Stat 151 Introduction to Bayesian Statistics Stat 201 Statistics for Engineers & Scientists Stat 301 Statistics & Probability for Sec Ed Note: Students who have

  18. Springer Series in Statistics Springer Series in Statistics

    E-print Network

    Cappé, Olivier

    Springer Series in Statistics Springer Series in Statistics Inference in Hidden Markov Models class of statistical models with applications in diverse areas such as communications engineering models, including both algo- rithms and statistical theory. Topics range from filtering and smoothing

  19. O the Verge of Collapse: Modal Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruetsche, Laura

    1995-01-01

    The conjunction of Schrodinger dynamics and the usual way of thinking about the conditions under which quantum systems exhibit determinate values implies that measurements don't have outcomes. The orthodox fix to this quantum measurement problem is von Neumann's postulate of measurement collapse, which suspends Schrodinger dynamics in measurement contexts. Contending that the fundamental dynamical law of quantum theory breaks down every time we test the theory empirically, the collapse postulate is unsatisfactory. Recently philosophers (e.g., van Fraassen and Healey) and physicists (e.g., Kochen and Dieks) have proposed a less violent solution to the measurement problem. Their modal interpretations of quantum mechanics advocate unusual ways of thinking about the situations under which quantum systems exhibit determinate observable values, semantics which reconcile determinate measurement outcomes with universal Schrodinger dynamics. Thus modal interpretations hold out hope that quantum theory is complete and exceptionless. This dissertation tempers that hope. I consider the modal approach to the neglected problem of state preparation. A promising modal account exploits standard quantum transition probabilities. But, I claim, modal interpretations must subject these transition probabilities to a consistency constraint which they can be shown to violate. Non-standard transition probabilities might avoid this inconsistency, but they would also introduce novel dynamics, and so undo the modal triumph of taking Schrodinger dynamics to be complete and universal. Next I consider Albert and Loewer's assault on modal accounts of "error-prone" measurements. I argue that the Albert-Loewer problem is more general than Albert, Loewer, or their critics appreciate, and that the Araki-Yanase theorem implies the existence of a class of observables whose error-free measurements succumb to the Albert-Loewer problem. I review modal responses to Albert and Loewer which appeal to the palliative effects of a decohering environment and find them incomplete. Finally, based on the physicist Anthony Leggett's work with SQUIDs, I present a system concerning which the empirical commitments of modal interpretations contradict those of the quantum statistical algorithm, minimally interpreted. I conclude that these modal difficulties can be resolved only by taking the quantum formalism to be incomplete.

  20. Assessing the Statistical Significance of the Achieved Classification Error of Classifiers Constructed using Serum Peptide Profiles, and a Prescription for Random Sampling Repeated Studies for Massive High-Throughput Genomic and Proteomic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lyons-Weiler, James; Pelikan, Richard; Zeh, Herbert J; Whitcomb, David C; Malehorn, David E; Bigbee, William L; Hauskrecht, Milos

    2007-01-01

    Peptide profiles generated using SELDI/MALDI time of flight mass spectrometry provide a promising source of patient-specific information with high potential impact on the early detection and classification of cancer and other diseases. The new profiling technology comes, however, with numerous challenges and concerns. Particularly important are concerns of reproducibility of classification results and their significance. In this work we describe a computational validation framework, called PACE (Permutation-Achieved Classification Error), that lets us assess, for a given classification model, the significance of the Achieved Classification Error (ACE) on the profile data. The framework compares the performance statistic of the classifier on true data samples and checks if these are consistent with the behavior of the classifier on the same data with randomly reassigned class labels. A statistically significant ACE increases our belief that a discriminative signal was found in the data. The advantage of PACE analysis is that it can be easily combined with any classification model and is relatively easy to interpret. PACE analysis does not protect researchers against confounding in the experimental design, or other sources of systematic or random error. We use PACE analysis to assess significance of classification results we have achieved on a number of published data sets. The results show that many of these datasets indeed possess a signal that leads to a statistically significant ACE. PMID:19305632

  1. Parameter-less approaches for interpreting dynamic cellular response

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cellular response such as cell signaling is an integral part of information processing in biology. Upon receptor stimulation, numerous intracellular molecules are invoked to trigger the transcription of genes for specific biological purposes, such as growth, differentiation, apoptosis or immune response. How complex are such specialized and sophisticated machinery? Computational modeling is an important tool for investigating dynamic cellular behaviors. Here, I focus on certain types of key signaling pathways that can be interpreted well using simple physical rules based on Boolean logic and linear superposition of response terms. From the examples shown, it is conceivable that for small-scale network modeling, reaction topology, rather than parameter values, is crucial for understanding population-wide cellular behaviors. For large-scale response, non-parametric statistical approaches have proven valuable for revealing emergent properties. PMID:25183996

  2. A new physics interpretation of the IceCube data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illana, José Ignacio; Masip, Manuel; Meloni, Davide

    2015-05-01

    IceCube has recently observed 37 events of TeV-PeV energies. The angular distribution, with a strong preference for downgoing directions, the spectrum, and the small muon to shower ratio in the data cannot be accommodated assuming standard interactions of atmospheric neutrinos. We obtain an excellent fit, however, if a diffuse flux of ultrahigh energy (cosmogenic) neutrinos experiences collisions where only a small fraction of the energy is transferred to the target nucleon. We show that consistent models of TeV gravity or other non-Wilsonian completions of the standard model provide cross sections with these precise features. An increased statistics could clearly distinguish our scenario from the one assumed by IceCube (a diffuse flux of astrophysical neutrinos with a ?E-2 spectrum) and establish the need for new physics in the interpretation of the data.

  3. Exploring the three-dimensional organization of genomes: interpreting chromatin interaction data

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, Job; Marti-Renom, Marc A.; Mirny, Leonid A.

    2013-01-01

    How DNA is organized in three dimensions inside the cell nucleus and how that affects the ways in which cells access, read and interpret genetic information are among the longest standing questions in cell biology. Using newly developed molecular, genomic, and computational approaches based on the chromosome conformation capture technology (such as 3C, 4C, 5C and Hi-C) the spatial organization of genomes is being explored at unprecedented resolution. Interpreting the increasingly large chromatin interaction datasets is now posing novel challenges. Here we describe several types of statistical and computational approaches that have recently been developed to analyze chromatin interaction data. PMID:23657480

  4. Determination of total, commonality, and uniqueness of interpreted structural elements from remotely sensed data in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenfield, G.H.

    1986-01-01

    Statistical analysis is conducted to determine the unique value of real- and synthetic-aperture side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) to detect interpreted structural elements. SLAR images were compared to standard and digitally enhanced Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) images and to aerial photographs. After interpretation of the imagery, data were cumulated by total length in miles and by frequency of counts. Maximum uniqueness is obtained first from real-aperture SLAR, 58.3% of total, and, second, from digitally enhanced Landsat MSS images, 54.1% of total. ?? 1986 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  5. The Relationship Between Statistics Anxiety and Attitudes Toward Statistics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Recep KOÇAK; Paul F. ZELHART

    2007-01-01

    As the applications of statistical techniques have increased, studies that investigate the problems faced while teaching statistics have increased as well. However, most problems faced in statistics teaching are not due to cognitive deficiencies but may be due to attitudinal factors such as statistics anxiety. In the present study, the relationship between statistics anxiety and attitudes towards statistics anxiety was

  6. 1 Statistics Statistics plays an important role throughout society, providing

    E-print Network

    Vertes, Akos

    1 Statistics STATISTICS Statistics plays an important role throughout society, providing data. They also explore how those skills can be applied to develop new initiatives. Statistics is one. UNDERGRADUATE Bachelor's program · Bachelor of Science with a major in statistics (http:// bulletin.gwu.edu/arts-sciences/statistics

  7. Ternary algebras with braided statistics

    E-print Network

    Azzouz Zinoun

    2010-03-06

    Algebraic relations that characterize quantum statistics (Bose-Einstein statistic, Fermi-Dirac statistic, supersymmetry, parastatistic, anyonic statistic, ...) are reformulated herein in terms of a new algebraic structure, which we call para-algebra.

  8. Ternary algebras with braided statistics

    E-print Network

    Zinoun, Azzouz

    2010-01-01

    Algebraic relations that characterize quantum statistics (Bose-Einstein statistic, Fermi-Dirac statistic, supersymmetry, parastatistic, anyonic statistic, ...) are reformulated herein in terms of a new algebraic structure, which we call para-algebra.

  9. Statistical Mechanics with focus on

    E-print Network

    Johannesson, Henrik

    Statistical Mechanics with focus on Liquids, Solutions and Colloidal Systems Course contents A. Foundations of statistical mechanics Classical dynamics ­ Hamilton's and Liouville's equations The concept thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. B. Liquid state theory; Equilibrium statistical mechanics for liquids

  10. Adoption and Foster Care Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Research » Adoption & Foster Care Statistics Adoption & Foster Care Statistics Listen The Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and ... 2003) State-by-State Adoption and Foster Care Statistics State-Specific Adoption Statistics 2013 2012 2011 2010 ...

  11. Statistics and Data Analysis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Abebe, Asheber

    This online introductory statistics textbook covers basic descriptive, statistical, and graphical procedures for analyzing data sets and contains three data sets and a practice final exam. Chapter headings include: descriptive statistics, probability, resampling, discrete probability models, continuous probability models, central limit theorem, confidence intervals, tests of hypotheses, estimation of effect: two independent samples, design of experiments, and regression. The relation to this site includes exercises.

  12. Statistics and Graphing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Matt Laposata

    Statistics play a vital role in the scientific enterprise. This activity provides background information and tutorials on basic statistics (mean, median, standard deviation, etc.) used in science. Topics include descriptive statistics (measures of central tendency and dispersion) and presenting data (tables, figures, and graphs). Sample datasets from actual scientific experiments are used to illustrate points. Links to an online statisitical tool and an online graphing application are also provided.

  13. A support method for the contextual interpretation of biomechanical data.

    PubMed

    Roux, Emmanuel; Godillon-Maquinghen, Anne-Pascale; Caulier, Patrice; Bouilland, Stéphane; Bouttens, Denis

    2006-01-01

    In the clinical field, biomechanical data provided by advanced technical devices are still underexploited. Data analysis usually consists of extracting attributes or computing synthetic values from temporal data and exploiting them by means of a monovariable statistical method. This article proposes a method to support clinicians, especially those in orthopedics, in the contextual interpretation of biomechanical data. We propose to characterize temporal biomechanical data by means of fuzzy space-time windows and to induce fuzzy decision trees to map the biomechanical and clinical data related to patients. Then, we present a method for objectively explaining a given clinical characteristic of a particular patient; this method is derived using the fuzzy rule base generated from the trees and a satisfiability measure. We have applied our method to real data in order to provide an objective explanation of the subjective self-evaluation of the functional status of patients with a shoulder prosthesis, and evaluate it by means of the stratified tenfold cross validation method. The mean explanation rate--which corresponds to the mean proportion of the patients belonging to test sets whose functional state is explained by the proposed method--exceeds 80% for more than half of the decision trees, and exceeds 70% for 94% of the trees. By supporting clinicians during the biomechanical data interpretation process, our method helps them take the objective biomechanical measurements in the medical practice into account, particularly in orthopedics. It can also make subjective evaluations more objective by mapping subjective and objective data. PMID:16445256

  14. Applying Descriptive Statistics to Teaching the Regional Classification of Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindquist, Peter S.; Hammel, Daniel J.

    1998-01-01

    Describes an exercise for college and high school students that relates descriptive statistics to the regional climatic classification. The exercise introduces students to simple calculations of central tendency and dispersion, the construction and interpretation of scatterplots, and the definition of climatic regions. Forces students to engage…

  15. Statistical Analysis of Protein Folding Kinetics Aaron R. Dinner

    E-print Network

    Dinner, Aaron

    Statistical Analysis of Protein Folding Kinetics Aaron R. Dinner , Sung-Sau So ¡ , and Martin and theoretical studies over several years have led to the emergence of a unified general mechanism for protein folding that serves as a framework for the design and interpretation of research in this area [1

  16. Online Recognition of Unconstrained Handwritten Japanese Text Using Statistical Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsumi Marukawa; Takeshi Nagasaki; Kazuyoshi Kikuta

    We developed an online recognition system to read unconstrained handwritten Japanese texts using statistical information. The substantial problems of reading handwritten Japanese text are how to correctly segment freely written characters and how to correct errors of character classification. Our method searches for the best interpretation by integrating the likelihoods of character segmentation, character classification and language processing. For the

  17. Statistics and Scientific Method: an Introduction for Students and Researchers.

    E-print Network

    Diggle, Peter J.

    Statistics and Scientific Method: an Introduction for Students and Researchers. Peter J. Diggle and interpreting data. This makes it relevant to al- most every kind of scientific investigation. In practice, most scientific data involve some degree of imprecision or uncertainty, and one consequence of this is that data

  18. Assessing Statistical Aspects of Test Fairness with Structural Equation Modelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Rex B.

    2013-01-01

    Test fairness and test bias are not synonymous concepts. Test bias refers to statistical evidence that the psychometrics or interpretation of test scores depend on group membership, such as gender or race, when such differences are not expected. A test that is grossly biased may be judged to be unfair, but test fairness concerns the broader, more…

  19. Statistical mechanics of band states and impurity states in semiconductors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C.-O. Almbladh

    1981-01-01

    Thermodynamic analogies have previously been invoked to interpret the temperature- and pressure-dependent electronic levels in a semiconductor as standard Gibbs free energies. In this paper it is shown by means of statistical mechanical arguments using the pressure ensemble that standard Gibbs free energies are the quantities determining equilibrium occupations of electronic levels and hence are the thermodynamic quantities that enter

  20. Basic Statistical Concepts and Methods for Earth Scientists

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olea, Ricardo A.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Statistics is the science of collecting, analyzing, interpreting, modeling, and displaying masses of numerical data primarily for the characterization and understanding of incompletely known systems. Over the years, these objectives have lead to a fair amount of analytical work to achieve, substantiate, and guide descriptions and inferences.