These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Interpreting Accident Statistics  

E-print Network

Accident statistics have often been used to support the argument that an abnormally small proportion of drivers account for a large proportion of the accidents. This paper compares statistics developed from six-year data ...

Ferreira, Joseph Jr.

2

Statistical Interpretation of Entropy Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Statistical Interpretation of Entropy Launcher package is a self-contained file for teaching the basic concept of the statistical interpretation of entropy. The file contains ready-to-run Easy Java Simulations (EJS) programs and curricular materials. The curricular materials describe a simple hands-on coin flip experiment that can help student become familiar with the basic statistical ideas involved in the approach to equilibrium and the second law of thermodynamics. The materials also describe how the EJS programs can be used to extend this simple experiment and explore these concepts at a deeper level. The EJS programs include simulations of the coin flip experiment, the expansion of an ideal gas in a box, the mixing of hot and cold ideal gases, and the action of Maxwell's Demon. The materials in this resource are described in an article titled "The Statistical Interpretation of Entropy: An Activity" to be published in The Physics Teacher.

Timberlake, Todd

2010-07-03

3

WINKS Statistics Tutorials: Interpreting Statistical p-values  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, created by WINKS Statistics Tutorials, discusses the understanding of and interpretation of p-values for those who read articles with statistical information. The page provides an introduction to much of the statistical jargon used in scientific journals, studies, etc. While simplistic, it is a nice overview and provides answers to many basic questions needing to be answered to best understand statistical information.

4

Statistical interpretation of texture for medical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Findings from transrectal ultrasound examinations of the prostate are usually based on the echogenicity observed by visual interpretation of the ultrasound image. Hypoechoic areas are typically suspected to be cancerous. Previous studies have indicated that a high percentage (as high as 96%) of cancerous lesions are hypoechoic, but only a moderate percentage (about 50%) of hypoechoic regions are cancerous. We have been investigating statistical measures of texture of digitized ultrasound images of the prostate to assess whether improved accuracies can be achieved for diagnosing prostate cancer and for identifying cancerous lesions. This paper presents our approach as well as results obtained for 17 patients, eight non-cancerous and nine cancerous. The results of a small `blind test,' based on seven subjects, are also presented. Recently, a pathological mount of a prostate cross-section from a prostatectomy was selected as a test case for applying texture analysis to detect prostatic adenocarcinoma. The approach and results are described. The results of both studies are encouraging, but must be considered exploratory due to the small data sets. The results do provide support to the idea that texture information in the prostate is related to a structural change in the gland when carcinoma occurs.

Houston, A. G.; Premkumar, Saganti B.; Pitts, David E.; Babaian, Richard J.

1992-06-01

5

Statistics in the interpretation of geochemical data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical method of determining the threshold concentration in geochemical exploration is described. Examples are presented of its use in prospecting surveys at Parakao, Northland; Shotover River, Moke Creek, and Waitahuna, Otago; and the Longwood Range, Southland.

X. K. Williams

1967-01-01

6

A Statistical Interpretation of Student Evaluation Feedback.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to examine feedback arising from student evaluation questionnaires. Various sections focus on discussion of the evaluation instrument, development of a model and presentation of empirical evidence concerning student evaluation biases, interpretation of data, and conclusions. (Author/DB)

Dilts, David A.

1980-01-01

7

Tentative statistical interpretation of non-equilibrium entropy  

E-print Network

We suggest a certain statistical interpretation for the entropy produced in driven thermodynamic processes. The exponential function of half irreversible entropy re-weights the probability of the standard Ornstein-Uhlenbeck-type thermodynamic fluctuations.(We add a proof of the standard Fluctuation Theorem which represents a more natural interpretation.)

Lajos Diosi

2000-01-02

8

Combinatorial interpretation of Haldane-Wu fractional exclusion statistics.  

PubMed

Assuming that the maximal allowed number of identical particles in a state is an integer parameter, q, we derive the statistical weight and analyze the associated equation that defines the statistical distribution. The derived distribution covers Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein ones in the particular cases q=1 and q--> infinity (n(i)/q-->1), respectively. We show that the derived statistical weight provides a natural combinatorial interpretation of Haldane-Wu fractional exclusion statistics, and present exact solutions of the distribution equation. PMID:12241246

Aringazin, A K; Mazhitov, M I

2002-08-01

9

Interpretingstatistical hypothesis testing” results in clinical research  

PubMed Central

Difference between “Clinical Significance and Statistical Significance” should be kept in mind while interpretingstatistical hypothesis testing” results in clinical research. This fact is already known to many but again pointed out here as philosophy of “statistical hypothesis testing” is sometimes unnecessarily criticized mainly due to failure in considering such distinction. Randomized controlled trials are also wrongly criticized similarly. Some scientific method may not be applicable in some peculiar/particular situation does not mean that the method is useless. Also remember that “statistical hypothesis testing” is not for decision making and the field of “decision analysis” is very much an integral part of science of statistics. It is not correct to say that “confidence intervals have nothing to do with confidence” unless one understands meaning of the word “confidence” as used in context of confidence interval. Interpretation of the results of every study should always consider all possible alternative explanations like chance, bias, and confounding. Statistical tests in inferential statistics are, in general, designed to answer the question “How likely is the difference found in random sample(s) is due to chance” and therefore limitation of relying only on statistical significance in making clinical decisions should be avoided. PMID:22707861

Sarmukaddam, Sanjeev B.

2012-01-01

10

A Statistical Interpretation of Student Evaluation Feedback: A Comment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critiqued is a paper on student evaluation of instructors by David Dilts which appeared in the "Journal of Economic Education," Spring 1980. Shortcomings and problems in Dilts' work are examined, and an alternative estimation procedure, using a statistical interpretation, is proposed. (Author/RM)

Blackwell, J. Lloyd

1983-01-01

11

Interpreting Assessment Data: Statistical Techniques You Can Use  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

*Available late fall 2008* Are you properly evaluating the results of the tests you give to students? Can you explain the difference between classroom assessment and standardized assessment? Are you on solid ground with your grading system? Demystify--and even use--statistics to answer these important questions and more in this clear, easy-to-use text for preservice and classroom science teachers and methods professors. The text's practical approach helps teachers understand how to interpret student assessments statistically and how to measure and explain the validity and reliability of those assessments. Included are a global history of testing to its present state and valuable instructions for using graphing calculators for easy computing. This nonthreatening framework for measuring and interpreting assessment results is a must-have for your professional development library.

Christmann, Edwin P.; Badgett, John L.

2008-11-01

12

Adapting internal statistical models for interpreting visual cues to depth  

PubMed Central

The informativeness of sensory cues depends critically on statistical regularities in the environment. However, statistical regularities vary between different object categories and environments. We asked whether and how the brain changes the prior assumptions about scene statistics used to interpret visual depth cues when stimulus statistics change. Subjects judged the slants of stereoscopically presented figures by adjusting a virtual probe perpendicular to the surface. In addition to stereoscopic disparities, the aspect ratio of the stimulus in the image provided a “figural compression” cue to slant, whose reliability depends on the distribution of aspect ratios in the world. As we manipulated this distribution from regular to random and back again, subjects’ reliance on the compression cue relative to stereoscopic cues changed accordingly. When we randomly interleaved stimuli from shape categories (ellipses and diamonds) with different statistics, subjects gave less weight to the compression cue for figures from the category with more random aspect ratios. Our results demonstrate that relative cue weights vary rapidly as a function of recently experienced stimulus statistics, and that the brain can use different statistical models for different object categories. We show that subjects’ behavior is consistent with that of a broad class of Bayesian learning models. PMID:20465321

Seydell, Anna; Knill, David C.; Trommershäuser, Julia

2010-01-01

13

Quantum statistics as geometry: Conflict, Mechanism, Interpretation, and Implication  

E-print Network

The conflict between the determinism of geometry in general relativity and the essential statistics of quantum mechanics blocks the development of a unified theory. Electromagnetic radiation is essential to both fields and supplies a common meeting ground. It is proposed that a suitable mechanism to resolve these differences can be based on the use of a time-symmetric treatment for the radiation. Advanced fields of the absorber can be interpreted to supply the random character of spontaneous emission. This allows the statistics of the Born rule to come from the spontaneous emission that occurs during a physical measurement. When the absorber is included, quantum mechanics is completely deterministic. It is suggested that the peculiar properties of kaons may be induced by the advanced effects of the neutrino field. Schr\\"odinger's cat loses its enigmatic personality and the identification of mental processes as an essential component of a measurement is no longer needed.

Galehouse, Daniel C

2015-01-01

14

On Local Region Models and a Statistical Interpretation of the Piecewise Smooth Mumford-Shah Functional  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mumford-Shah functional is a general and quite popular variational model for image segmentation. In particular, it provides the possibility to represent regions by smooth approximations. In this paper, we derive a statistical interpretation of the full (piecewise smooth) Mumford-Shah functional by relating it to recent works on local region sta- tistics. Moreover, we show that this statistical interpretation comes

Thomas Brox; Daniel Cremers

2009-01-01

15

Algorithms and statistics for advanced DNA analysis For the first time in history, humankind has the ability to easily read and write DNA sequence, a code  

E-print Network

to computational, statistical, and mathematical analysis are required. Meanwhile, overuse of antibiotics in hospitals and agriculture has led to widespread development of antibiotic resistant bacteria. The number the evolution of genomes and the spread of antibiotic resistance. Opportunities exist for Ph.D. students

University of Technology, Sydney

16

Multiple Hypergeometric Functions: Probabilistic Interpretations and Statistical Uses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews and interprets recent mathematics of special functions, with emphasis on integral representations of multiple hypergeometric functions. B.C. Carlson's centrally important parameterized functions R and ?, initially defined as Dirichlet averages, are expressed as probability-generating functions of mixed multinomial distributions. Various nested families generalizing the Dirichlet distributions are developed for Bayesian inference in multinomial sampling and contingency tables.

James M. Dickey

1983-01-01

17

Statistical Analysis and Interpretation of Discrete Compositional Data  

E-print Network

Analysis and Interpretation of Discrete Compositional Data Dean Billheimer The Boeing Company, Seattle Peter Guttorp University of Washington, Seattle William F. Fagan Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 6 with the University of Washington. This document has not undergone Agency review, and reflects in no way official

Washington at Seattle, University of

18

Confounded Statistical Analyses Hinder Interpretation of the NELP Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Early Literacy Panel (2008) report identified early predictors of reading achievement as good targets for instruction, and many of those skills are related to decoding. In this article, the authors suggest that the developmental trajectories of rapidly developing skills pose problems for traditional statistical analyses. Rapidly…

Paris, Scott G.; Luo, Serena Wenshu

2010-01-01

19

Statistical characteristics of MST radar echoes and its interpretation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two concepts of fundamental importance are reviewed: the autocorrelation function and the frequency power spectrum. In addition, some turbulence concepts, the relationship between radar signals and atmospheric medium statistics, partial reflection, and the characteristics of noise and clutter interference are discussed.

Woodman, Ronald F.

1989-01-01

20

A statistical model for interpreting computerized dynamic posturography data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) is widely used for assessment of altered balance control. CDP trials are quantified using the equilibrium score (ES), which ranges from zero to 100, as a decreasing function of peak sway angle. The problem of how best to model and analyze ESs from a controlled study is considered. The ES often exhibits a skewed distribution in repeated trials, which can lead to incorrect inference when applying standard regression or analysis of variance models. Furthermore, CDP trials are terminated when a patient loses balance. In these situations, the ES is not observable, but is assigned the lowest possible score--zero. As a result, the response variable has a mixed discrete-continuous distribution, further compromising inference obtained by standard statistical methods. Here, we develop alternative methodology for analyzing ESs under a stochastic model extending the ES to a continuous latent random variable that always exists, but is unobserved in the event of a fall. Loss of balance occurs conditionally, with probability depending on the realized latent ES. After fitting the model by a form of quasi-maximum-likelihood, one may perform statistical inference to assess the effects of explanatory variables. An example is provided, using data from the NIH/NIA Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging.

Feiveson, Alan H.; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Paloski, William H.

2002-01-01

21

On the physical interpretation of statistical data from black-box systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we explore the physical interpretation of statistical data collected from complex black-box systems. Given the output statistics of a black-box system, and considering a class of relevant Markov dynamics which are physically meaningful, we reverse-engineer the Markov dynamics to obtain an equilibrium distribution that coincides with the output statistics observed. This reverse-engineering scheme provides us with a conceptual physical interpretation of the black-box system investigated. Five specific reverse-engineering methodologies are developed, based on the following dynamics: Langevin, geometric Langevin, diffusion, growth-collapse, and decay-surge. In turn, these methodologies yield physical interpretations of the black-box system in terms of conceptual intrinsic forces, temperatures, and instabilities. The application of these methodologies is exemplified in the context of the distribution of wealth and income in human societies, which are outputs of the complex black-box system called “the economy”.

Eliazar, Iddo I.; Cohen, Morrel H.

2013-07-01

22

Statistical interpretation of the Bekenstein entropy for systems with a stretched horizon.  

PubMed

For the two-charge extremal holes in string theory we show that the Bekenstein entropy obtained from the area of the stretched horizon has a statistical interpretation as a "coarse graining entropy": different microstates give geometries that differ near r = 0, and the stretched horizon cuts off the metric at r = b where these geometries start to differ. PMID:12059472

Lunin, Oleg; Mathur, Samir D

2002-05-27

23

Prostate Cancer Screening: Facts, Statistics, and Interpretation in Response to the US Preventive  

E-print Network

Prostate Cancer Screening: Facts, Statistics, and Interpretation in Response to the US Preventive of the evidence for screening for prostate cancer1 and made a clear recommendation against screening. By giving by the benefits in terms of reduced prostate cancer mortality is open to reasonable doubt. As such, we can

El Zarki, Magda

24

A STATISTICAL INTERPRETATION OF TERM SPECIFICITY AND ITS APPLICATION IN RETRIEVAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exhaustivity of document descriptions and the specificity of index terms are usually regarded as independent. It is suggested that specificity should be interpreted statistically, as a function of term use rather than of term meaning. The effects on retrieval of variations in term specificity are examined, experiments with three test collections showing, in particular, that frequently-occurring terms are required

KAREN SPARCK JONES

1972-01-01

25

Alternative interpretations of statistics on health effects of low-level radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four examples of the interpretation of statistics of data on low-level radiation are reviewed: (a) genetic effects of the atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, (b) cancer at Rocky Flats, (c) childhood leukemia and fallout in Utah, and (d) cancer among workers at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard. Aggregation of data, adjustment for age, and other problems related to the determination

1983-01-01

26

New physicochemical interpretations for the adsorption of food dyes on chitosan films using statistical physics treatment.  

PubMed

In this work, statistical physics treatment was employed to study the adsorption of food dyes onto chitosan films, in order to obtain new physicochemical interpretations at molecular level. Experimental equilibrium curves were obtained for the adsorption of four dyes (FD&C red 2, FD&C yellow 5, FD&C blue 2, Acid Red 51) at different temperatures (298, 313 and 328 K). A statistical physics formula was used to interpret these curves, and the parameters such as, number of adsorbed dye molecules per site (n), anchorage number (n'), receptor sites density (NM), adsorbed quantity at saturation (N asat), steric hindrance (?), concentration at half saturation (c1/2) and molar adsorption energy (?E(a)) were estimated. The relation of the above mentioned parameters with the chemical structure of the dyes and temperature was evaluated and interpreted. PMID:25308634

Dotto, G L; Pinto, L A A; Hachicha, M A; Knani, S

2015-03-15

27

Statistical issues in the design, analysis and interpretation of animal carcinogenicity studies.  

PubMed Central

Statistical issues in the design, analysis and interpretation of animal carcinogenicity studies are discussed. In the area of experimental design, issues that must be considered include randomization of animals, sample size considerations, dose selection and allocation of animals to experimental groups, and control of potentially confounding factors. In the analysis of tumor incidence data, survival differences among groups should be taken into account. It is important to try to distinguish between tumors that contribute to the death of the animal and "incidental" tumors discovered at autopsy in an animal dying of an unrelated cause. Life table analyses (appropriate for lethal tumors) and incidental tumor tests (appropriate for nonfatal tumors) are described, and the utilization of these procedures by the National Toxicology Program is discussed. Despite the fact that past interpretations of carcinogenicity data have tended to focus on pairwise comparisons in general and high-dose effects in particular, the importance of trend tests should not be overlooked, since these procedures are more sensitive than pairwise comparisons to the detection of carcinogenic effects. No rigid statistical "decision rule" should be employed in the interpretation of carcinogenicity data. Although the statistical significance of an observed tumor increase is perhaps the single most important piece of evidence used in the evaluation process, a number of biological factors must also be taken into account. The use of historical control data, the false-positive issue and the interpretation of negative trends are also discussed. PMID:6525993

Haseman, J K

1984-01-01

28

Interpretations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although nobody can question the practical efficiency of quantum mechanics, there remains the serious question of its interpretation. As Valerio Scarani puts it, "We do not feel at ease with the indistinguishability principle (that is, the superposition principle) and some of its consequences." Indeed, this principle which pervades the quantum world is in stark contradiction with our everyday experience. From the very beginning of quantum mechanics, a number of physicists--but not the majority of them!--have asked the question of its "interpretation". One may simply deny that there is a problem: according to proponents of the minimalist interpretation, quantum mechanics is self-sufficient and needs no interpretation. The point of view held by a majority of physicists, that of the Copenhagen interpretation, will be examined in Section 10.1. The crux of the problem lies in the status of the state vector introduced in the preceding chapter to describe a quantum system, which is no more than a symbolic representation for the Copenhagen school of thought. Conversely, one may try to attribute some "external reality" to this state vector, that is, a correspondence between the mathematical description and the physical reality. In this latter case, it is the measurement problem which is brought to the fore. In 1932, von Neumann was first to propose a global approach, in an attempt to build a purely quantum theory of measurement examined in Section 10.2. This theory still underlies modern approaches, among them those grounded on decoherence theory, or on the macroscopic character of the measuring apparatus: see Section 10.3. Finally, there are non-standard interpretations such as Everett's many worlds theory or the hidden variables theory of de Broglie and Bohm (Section 10.4). Note, however, that this variety of interpretations has no bearing whatsoever on the practical use of quantum mechanics. There is no controversy on the way we should use quantum mechanics!

Bellac, Michel Le

2014-11-01

29

Impact of equity models and statistical measures on interpretations of educational reform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present three models of equity and show how these, along with the statistical measures used to evaluate results, impact interpretation of equity in education reform. Equity can be defined and interpreted in many ways. Most equity education reform research strives to achieve equity by closing achievement gaps between groups. An example is given by the study by Lorenzo et al. that shows that interactive engagement methods lead to increased gender equity. In this paper, we reexamine the results of Lorenzo et al. through three models of equity. We find that interpretation of the results strongly depends on the model of equity chosen. Further, we argue that researchers must explicitly state their model of equity as well as use effect size measurements to promote clarity in education reform.

Rodriguez, Idaykis; Brewe, Eric; Sawtelle, Vashti; Kramer, Laird H.

2012-12-01

30

Alternative interpretations of statistics on health effects of low-level radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four examples of problems in alternative interpretation of statistics of data on low-level radiation are reviewed: (1) post-hoc analysis and aggregation of data leading to faulty conclusions in the re-analysis of genetic effects of the atomic bomb, and premature conclusions on the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard data; (2) inappropriate adjustment for age and ignoring differences between urban and rural areas leading

1982-01-01

31

Application of machine learning and expert systems to Statistical Process Control (SPC) chart interpretation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Statistical Process Control (SPC) charts are one of several tools used in quality control. Other tools include flow charts, histograms, cause and effect diagrams, check sheets, Pareto diagrams, graphs, and scatter diagrams. A control chart is simply a graph which indicates process variation over time. The purpose of drawing a control chart is to detect any changes in the process signalled by abnormal points or patterns on the graph. The Artificial Intelligence Support Center (AISC) of the Acquisition Logistics Division has developed a hybrid machine learning expert system prototype which automates the process of constructing and interpreting control charts.

Shewhart, Mark

1991-01-01

32

Editorial: New analytical and statistical approaches for interpreting the relationships among environmental stressors and biomarkers.  

PubMed

Abstract The broad topic of biomarker research has an often-overlooked component: the documentation and interpretation of the surrounding chemical environment and other meta-data, especially from visualization, analytical and statistical perspectives. A second concern is how the environment interacts with human systems biology, what the variability is in "normal" subjects, and how such biological observations might be reconstructed to infer external stressors. In this article, we report on recent research presentations from a symposium at the 248th American Chemical Society meeting held in San Francisco, 10-14 August 2014, that focused on providing some insight into these important issues. PMID:25444302

Bean, Heather D; Pleil, Joachim D; Hill, Jane E

2014-12-01

33

Misuse of statistics in the interpretation of data on low-level radiation  

SciTech Connect

Four misuses of statistics in the interpretation of data of low-level radiation are reviewed: (1) post-hoc analysis and aggregation of data leading to faulty conclusions in the reanalysis of genetic effects of the atomic bomb, and premature conclusions on the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard data; (2) inappropriate adjustment for age and ignoring differences between urban and rural areas leading to potentially spurious increase in incidence of cancer at Rocky Flats; (3) hazard of summary statistics based on ill-conditioned individual rates leading to spurious association between childhood leukemia and fallout in Utah; and (4) the danger of prematurely published preliminary work with inadequate consideration of epidemiological problems - censored data - leading to inappropriate conclusions, needless alarm at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, and diversion of scarce research funds.

Hamilton, L.D.

1982-01-01

34

Facies control on sandstone composition (and influence of statistical methods on interpretations) in the John Henry Member, Straight Cliffs Formation,  

E-print Network

Facies control on sandstone composition (and influence of statistical methods on interpretations.J. Weltje Keywords: Sedimentary petrography Sandstone provenance Facies Univariate vs. multivariate that suggest distinct modal sandstone compositions. Detrital modes from six sandstone facies (upper shoreface

Johnson, Cari

35

Data Analysis and Statistical Methods for the Assessment and Interpretation of Geochronologic Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ages are traditionally reported as a weighted mean with an uncertainty based on least squares analysis of analytical error on individual dates. This method does not take into account geological uncertainties, and cannot accommodate asymmetries in the data. In most instances, this method will understate uncertainty on a given age, which may lead to over interpretation of age data. Geologic uncertainty is difficult to quantify, but is typically greater than analytical uncertainty. These factors make traditional statistical approaches inadequate to fully evaluate geochronologic data. We propose a protocol to assess populations within multi-event datasets and to calculate age and uncertainty from each population of dates interpreted to represent a single geologic event using robust and resistant statistical methods. To assess whether populations thought to represent different events are statistically separate exploratory data analysis is undertaken using a box plot, where the range of the data is represented by a 'box' of length given by the interquartile range, divided at the median of the data, with 'whiskers' that extend to the furthest datapoint that lies within 1.5 times the interquartile range beyond the box. If the boxes representing the populations do not overlap, they are interpreted to represent statistically different sets of dates. Ages are calculated from statistically distinct populations using a robust tool such as the tanh method of Kelsey et al. (2003, CMP, 146, 326-340), which is insensitive to any assumptions about the underlying probability distribution from which the data are drawn. Therefore, this method takes into account the full range of data, and is not drastically affected by outliers. The interquartile range of each population of dates (the interquartile range) gives a first pass at expressing uncertainty, which accommodates asymmetry in the dataset; outliers have a minor affect on the uncertainty. To better quantify the uncertainty, a resistant tool that is insensitive to local misbehavior of data is preferred, such as the normalized median absolute deviations proposed by Powell et al. (2002, Chem Geol, 185, 191-204). We illustrate the method using a dataset of 152 monazite dates determined using EPMA chemical data from a single sample from the Neoproterozoic Brasília Belt, Brazil. Results are compared with ages and uncertainties calculated using traditional methods to demonstrate the differences. The dataset was manually culled into three populations representing discrete compositional domains within chemically-zoned monazite grains. The weighted mean ages and least squares uncertainties for these populations are 633±6 (2?) Ma for a core domain, 614±5 (2?) Ma for an intermediate domain and 595±6 (2?) Ma for a rim domain. Probability distribution plots indicate asymmetric distributions of all populations, which cannot be accounted for with traditional statistical tools. These three domains record distinct ages outside the interquartile range for each population of dates, with the core domain lying in the subrange 642-624 Ma, the intermediate domain 617-609 Ma and the rim domain 606-589 Ma. The tanh estimator yields ages of 631±7 (2?) for the core domain, 616±7 (2?) for the intermediate domain and 601±8 (2?) for the rim domain. Whereas the uncertainties derived using a resistant statistical tool are larger than those derived from traditional statistical tools, the method yields more realistic uncertainties that better address the spread in the dataset and account for asymmetry in the data.

Reno, B. L.; Brown, M.; Piccoli, P. M.

2007-12-01

36

Easily Constructed Microscale Spectroelectrochemical Cell.  

PubMed

The design and performance of an easily constructed cell for microscale spectroelectrochemical analysis is described. A cation exchange polymer film, Nafion, was used as a salt bridge to provide ionic contact between a small sample well containing a coiled wire working electrode and separate, larger wells housing reference and auxiliary electrodes. The cell was evaluated using aqueous ferri/ferrocyanide as a test system and shown to be capable of relatively sensitive visible absorption measurements (path lengths on the order of millimeters) and reasonably rapid bulk electrolysis (~ 5 min) of samples in the 1 to 5 ?L volume range. Minor alterations to the cell design are cited that could allow for analysis of sub-microliter volumes, rapid multi-sample analysis, and measurements in the ultraviolet spectral region. PMID:24058214

Flowers, Paul A; Strickland, Jordan C

2010-01-01

37

Easily Constructed Microscale Spectroelectrochemical Cell  

PubMed Central

The design and performance of an easily constructed cell for microscale spectroelectrochemical analysis is described. A cation exchange polymer film, Nafion, was used as a salt bridge to provide ionic contact between a small sample well containing a coiled wire working electrode and separate, larger wells housing reference and auxiliary electrodes. The cell was evaluated using aqueous ferri/ferrocyanide as a test system and shown to be capable of relatively sensitive visible absorption measurements (path lengths on the order of millimeters) and reasonably rapid bulk electrolysis (~ 5 min) of samples in the 1 to 5 ?L volume range. Minor alterations to the cell design are cited that could allow for analysis of sub-microliter volumes, rapid multi-sample analysis, and measurements in the ultraviolet spectral region. PMID:24058214

Strickland, Jordan C.

2013-01-01

38

Parameterization of training images for aquifer 3-D facies modeling integrating geological interpretations and statistical inference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

develop a stochastic approach to construct channelized 3-D geological models constrained to borehole measurements as well as geological interpretation. The methodology is based on simple 2-D geologist-provided sketches of fluvial depositional elements, which are extruded in the 3rd dimension. Multiple-point geostatistics (MPS) is used to impair horizontal variability to the structures by introducing geometrical transformation parameters. The sketches provided by the geologist are used as elementary training images, whose statistical information is expanded through randomized transformations. We demonstrate the applicability of the approach by applying it to modeling a fluvial valley filling sequence in the Maules Creek catchment, Australia. The facies models are constrained to borehole logs, spatial information borrowed from an analogue and local orientations derived from the present-day stream networks. The connectivity in the 3-D facies models is evaluated using statistical measures and transport simulations. Comparison with a statistically equivalent variogram-based model shows that our approach is more suited for building 3-D facies models that contain structures specific to the channelized environment and which have a significant influence on the transport processes.

Jha, Sanjeev Kumar; Comunian, Alessandro; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Kelly, Bryce F. J.

2014-10-01

39

Crossing statistic: Bayesian interpretation, model selection and resolving dark energy parametrization problem  

SciTech Connect

By introducing Crossing functions and hyper-parameters I show that the Bayesian interpretation of the Crossing Statistics [1] can be used trivially for the purpose of model selection among cosmological models. In this approach to falsify a cosmological model there is no need to compare it with other models or assume any particular form of parametrization for the cosmological quantities like luminosity distance, Hubble parameter or equation of state of dark energy. Instead, hyper-parameters of Crossing functions perform as discriminators between correct and wrong models. Using this approach one can falsify any assumed cosmological model without putting priors on the underlying actual model of the universe and its parameters, hence the issue of dark energy parametrization is resolved. It will be also shown that the sensitivity of the method to the intrinsic dispersion of the data is small that is another important characteristic of the method in testing cosmological models dealing with data with high uncertainties.

Shafieloo, Arman, E-mail: arman@ewha.ac.kr [Institute for the Early Universe, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-05-01

40

Variability in diffusion kurtosis imaging: impact on study design, statistical power and interpretation.  

PubMed

Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is an emerging technique with the potential to quantify properties of tissue microstructure that may not be observable using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). In order to help design DKI studies and improve interpretation of DKI results, we employed statistical power analysis to characterize three aspects of variability in four DKI parameters; the mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, mean kurtosis, and radial kurtosis. First, we quantified the variability in terms of the group size required to obtain a statistical power of 0.9. Second, we investigated the relative contribution of imaging and post-processing noise to the total variance, in order to estimate the benefits of longer scan times versus the inclusion of more subjects. Third, we evaluated the potential benefit of including additional covariates such as the size of the structure when testing for differences in group means. The analysis was performed in three major white matter structures of the brain: the superior cingulum, the corticospinal tract, and the mid-sagittal corpus callosum, extracted using diffusion tensor tractography and DKI data acquired in a healthy cohort. The results showed heterogeneous variability across and within the white matter structures. Thus, the statistical power varies depending on parameter and location, which is important to consider if a pathogenesis pattern is inferred from DKI data. In the data presented, inter-subject differences contributed more than imaging noise to the total variability, making it more efficient to include more subjects rather than extending the scan-time per subject. Finally, strong correlations between DKI parameters and the structure size were found for the cingulum and corpus callosum. Structure size should thus be considered when quantifying DKI parameters, either to control for its potentially confounding effect, or as a means of reducing unexplained variance. PMID:23507377

Szczepankiewicz, Filip; Lätt, Jimmy; Wirestam, Ronnie; Leemans, Alexander; Sundgren, Pia; van Westen, Danielle; Ståhlberg, Freddy; Nilsson, Markus

2013-08-01

41

Dose impact in radiographic lung injury following lung SBRT: Statistical analysis and geometric interpretation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To demonstrate a new method of evaluating dose response of treatment-induced lung radiographic injury post-SBRT (stereotactic body radiotherapy) treatment and the discovery of bimodal dose behavior within clinically identified injury volumes. Methods: Follow-up CT scans at 3, 6, and 12 months were acquired from 24 patients treated with SBRT for stage-1 primary lung cancers or oligometastic lesions. Injury regions in these scans were propagated to the planning CT coordinates by performing deformable registration of the follow-ups to the planning CTs. A bimodal behavior was repeatedly observed from the probability distribution for dose values within the deformed injury regions. Based on a mixture-Gaussian assumption, an Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm was used to obtain characteristic parameters for such distribution. Geometric analysis was performed to interpret such parameters and infer the critical dose level that is potentially inductive of post-SBRT lung injury. Results: The Gaussian mixture obtained from the EM algorithm closely approximates the empirical dose histogram within the injury volume with good consistency. The average Kullback-Leibler divergence values between the empirical differential dose volume histogram and the EM-obtained Gaussian mixture distribution were calculated to be 0.069, 0.063, and 0.092 for the 3, 6, and 12 month follow-up groups, respectively. The lower Gaussian component was located at approximately 70% prescription dose (35 Gy) for all three follow-up time points. The higher Gaussian component, contributed by the dose received by planning target volume, was located at around 107% of the prescription dose. Geometrical analysis suggests the mean of the lower Gaussian component, located at 35 Gy, as a possible indicator for a critical dose that induces lung injury after SBRT. Conclusions: An innovative and improved method for analyzing the correspondence between lung radiographic injury and SBRT treatment dose has been demonstrated. Bimodal behavior was observed in the dose distribution of lung injury after SBRT. Novel statistical and geometrical analysis has shown that the systematically quantified low-dose peak at approximately 35 Gy, or 70% prescription dose, is a good indication of a critical dose for injury. The determined critical dose of 35 Gy resembles the critical dose volume limit of 30 Gy for ipsilateral bronchus in RTOG 0618 and results from previous studies. The authors seek to further extend this improved analysis method to a larger cohort to better understand the interpatient variation in radiographic lung injury dose response post-SBRT.

Yu, Victoria; Kishan, Amar U.; Cao, Minsong; Low, Daniel; Lee, Percy; Ruan, Dan, E-mail: druan@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States)

2014-03-15

42

Testing for Independence in a Two-Way Table: New Interpretations of the Chi-Square Statistic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classical chi-square test for independence in a two-way contingency table often rejects the independence hypothesis at an extremely small significance level, particularly when the sample size is large. This paper proposes some alternative distributions to independence, to help interpret the $\\\\chi^2$ statistic in such situations. The uniform alternative, in which every possible contingency table of the given dimension and

Persi Diaconis; Bradley Efron

1985-01-01

43

A Decision Tree Approach to the Interpretation of Multivariate Statistical Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the nature, power, and limitations of four multivariate techniques: factor analysis, multiple analysis of variance, multiple regression, and multiple discriminant analysis. Shows how decision trees assist in interpreting results. (SK)

Fok, Lillian Y.; And Others

1995-01-01

44

Boyle temperature as a point of ideal gas in gentile statistics and its economic interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boyle temperature is interpreted as the temperature at which the formation of dimers becomes impossible. To Irving Fisher's correspondence principle we assign two more quantities: the number of degrees of freedom, and credit. We determine the danger level of the mass of money M when the mutual trust between economic agents begins to fall.

Maslov, V. P.; Maslova, T. V.

2014-07-01

45

A Common Language Effect Size Statistic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the shortcomings in interpretability and generalizability of the effect size statistics currently available to researchers can be overcome by a statistic that expresses how often a score sampled from one distribution will be greater than a score sampled from another distribution. The statistic, the common language effect size indicator, is easily calculated from sample means and variances (or

Kenneth O. McGraw; S. P. Wong

1992-01-01

46

Statistical approaches for enhancing causal interpretation of the m to y relation in mediation analysis.  

PubMed

Statistical mediation methods provide valuable information about underlying mediating psychological processes, but the ability to infer that the mediator variable causes the outcome variable is more complex than widely known. Researchers have recently emphasized how violating assumptions about confounder bias severely limits causal inference of the mediator to dependent variable relation. Our article describes and addresses these limitations by drawing on new statistical developments in causal mediation analysis. We first review the assumptions underlying causal inference and discuss three ways to examine the effects of confounder bias when assumptions are violated. We then describe four approaches to address the influence of confounding variables and enhance causal inference, including comprehensive structural equation models, instrumental variable methods, principal stratification, and inverse probability weighting. Our goal is to further the adoption of statistical methods to enhance causal inference in mediation studies. PMID:25063043

MacKinnon, David P; Pirlott, Angela G

2015-02-01

47

An Easily Constructed Trigonal Prism Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model of a trigonal prism which is useful for teaching stereochemistry (especially of the neodymium enneahydrate ion), can be made easily by using a sealed, empty envelope. The steps necessary to accomplish this task are presented. (JN)

Yamana, Shukichi

1984-01-01

48

A Statistical Technique for Interpreting Streamflow Timing Using Streambed Sediment Thermographs  

Microsoft Academic Search

and no flow. The MSD statistical technique was developed to identify ment depths to take advantage of reductions in the the thermal amplitude changes from bed sediment thermographs and diurnal temperature wave amplitude that occur as heat to infer streamflow timing. The accuracy of the MSD technique is is lost to the standing water above the sediments. Such quantified using

Kyle W. Blasch; Ty P. A. Ferré; John P. Hoffmann

2004-01-01

49

Interpreting Assessment Data: Statistical Techniques You Can Use (e-book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are you properly evaluating the results of the tests you give to students? Can you explain the difference between classroom assessment and standardized assessment? Are you on solid ground with your grading system? Demystify--and even use--statistics to answ

Christmann, Edwin P.; Badgett, John L.

2009-06-13

50

Translating the Statistical Representation of the Effects of Education Interventions into More Readily Interpretable Forms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is directed to researchers who conduct and report education intervention studies. Its purpose is to stimulate and guide them to go a step beyond reporting the statistics that emerge from their analysis of the differences between experimental groups on the respective outcome variables. With what is often very minimal additional effort,…

Lipsey, Mark W.; Puzio, Kelly; Yun, Cathy; Hebert, Michael A.; Steinka-Fry, Kasia; Cole, Mikel W.; Roberts, Megan; Anthony, Karen S.; Busick, Matthew D.

2012-01-01

51

Statistics Translated: A Step-by-Step Guide to Analyzing and Interpreting Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written in a humorous and encouraging style, this text shows how the most common statistical tools can be used to answer interesting real-world questions, presented as mysteries to be solved. Engaging research examples lead the reader through a series of six steps, from identifying a researchable problem to stating a hypothesis, identifying…

Terrell, Steven R.

2012-01-01

52

An overview of statistical and regulatory issues in the planning, analysis, and interpretation of subgroup analyses in confirmatory clinical trials.  

PubMed

Whether confirmatory or exploratory in nature, the investigation of subgroups poses statistical and interpretational challenges, yet these investigations can have important consequences for product licensing, labeling, reimbursement, and prescribing decisions. This article provides a high-level, nontechnical summary of key statistical issues in the analysis of subgroups, with a focus on the regulatory context in which drug development and licensing decisions are made. References to specific aspects of regulatory processes are based on the system in Europe, though it is hoped that the principles outlined can be generally applied to other regulatory regions. This article challenges the common assumption that a clinical trial population should be assumed to be homogeneous, with homogeneous response to treatment, and asks whether commonly employed strategies for handling and identifying potential heterogeneity are sufficient. Investigations into subgroups are unavoidable, yet subgroup analyses suffer from fundamental complications and limitations of which those planning and interpreting clinical trials must be aware. Some areas for further methodological work and an improved methodological framework for the conduct of exploratory subgroup analyses are discussed. Above all, the need for an integrated scientific approach is highlighted. PMID:24392975

Hemmings, Robert

2014-01-01

53

Statistical analyses to support forensic interpretation for a new ten-locus STR profiling system.  

PubMed

A new ten-locus STR (short tandem repeat) profiling system was recently introduced into casework by the Forensic Science Service (FSS) and statistical analyses are described here based on data collected using this new system for the three major racial groups of the UK: Caucasian. Afro-Caribbean and Asian (of Indo-Pakistani descent). Allele distributions are compared and the FSS position with regard to routine significance testing of DNA frequency databases is discussed. An investigation of match probability calculations is carried out and the consequent analyses are shown to provide support for proposed changes in how the FSS reports DNA results when very small match probabilities are involved. PMID:11296886

Foreman, L A; Evett, I W

2001-01-01

54

Electronic modules easily separated from heat sink  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metal heat sink and electronic modules bonded to a thermal bridge can be easily cleaved for removal of the modules for replacement or repair. A thin film of grease between a fluorocarbon polymer film on the metal heat sink and an adhesive film on the modules acts as the cleavage plane.

1965-01-01

55

Statistical interpretation of transient current power-law decay in colloidal quantum dot arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new statistical model of the charge transport in colloidal quantum dot arrays is proposed. It takes into account Coulomb blockade forbidding multiple occupancy of nanocrystals and the influence of energetic disorder of interdot space. The model explains power-law current transients and the presence of the memory effect. The fractional differential analogue of the Ohm law is found phenomenologically for nanocrystal arrays. The model combines ideas that were considered as conflicting by other authors: the Scher-Montroll idea about the power-law distribution of waiting times in localized states for disordered semiconductors is applied taking into account Coulomb blockade; Novikov's condition about the asymptotic power-law distribution of time intervals between successful current pulses in conduction channels is fulfilled; and the carrier injection blocking predicted by Ginger and Greenham (2000 J. Appl. Phys. 87 1361) takes place.

Sibatov, R. T.

2011-08-01

56

Statistic-mathematical interpretation of some assessment parameters of the grassland ecosystem according to soil characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant parameters of permanent grasslands are represented by the pastoral value and Shannon and Simpson biodiversity indices. The dynamics of these parameters has been studied in several plant associations in Banat Plain, Romania. From the point of view of their typology, these permanent grasslands belong to the steppe area, series Festuca pseudovina, type Festuca pseudovina-Achilea millefolium, subtype Lolium perenne. The methods used for the purpose of this research included plant cover analysis (double meter method, calculation of Shannon and Simpson indices), and statistical methods of regression and correlation. The results show that, in the permanent grasslands in the plain region, when the pastoral value is average to low, the level of interspecific biodiversity is on the increase.

Samfira, Ionel; Boldea, Marius; Popescu, Cosmin

2012-09-01

57

A statistical approach to the interpretation of aliphatic hydrocarbon distributions in marine sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Q-mode factor analysis was used to quantitate the distribution of the major aliphatic hydrocarbon (n-alkanes, pristane, phytane) systems in sediments from a variety of marine environments. The compositions of the pure end members of the systems were obtained from factor scores and the distribution of the systems within each sample was obtained from factor loadings. All the data, from the diverse environments sampled (estuarine (San Francisco Bay), fresh-water (San Francisco Peninsula), polar-marine (Antarctica) and geothermal-marine (Gorda Ridge) sediments), were reduced to three major systems: a terrestrial system (mostly high molecular weight aliphatics with odd-numbered-carbon predominance), a mature system (mostly low molecular weight aliphatics without predominance) and a system containing mostly high molecular weight aliphatics with even-numbered-carbon predominance. With this statistical approach, it is possible to assign the percentage contribution from various sources to the observed distribution of aliphatic hydrocarbons in each sediment sample. ?? 1991.

Rapp, J.B.

1991-01-01

58

A COMPREHENSIVE STATISTICALLY-BASED METHOD TO INTERPRET REAL-TIME FLOWING MEASUREMENTS  

SciTech Connect

In this project, we are developing new methods for interpreting measurements in complex wells (horizontal, multilateral and multi-branching wells) to determine the profiles of oil, gas, and water entry. These methods are needed to take full advantage of ''smart'' well instrumentation, a technology that is rapidly evolving to provide the ability to continuously and permanently monitor downhole temperature, pressure, volumetric flow rate, and perhaps other fluid flow properties at many locations along a wellbore; and hence, to control and optimize well performance. In this first year, we have made considerable progress in the development of the forward model of temperature and pressure behavior in complex wells. In this period, we have progressed on three major parts of the forward problem of predicting the temperature and pressure behavior in complex wells. These three parts are the temperature and pressure behaviors in the reservoir near the wellbore, in the wellbore or laterals in the producing intervals, and in the build sections connecting the laterals, respectively. Many models exist to predict pressure behavior in reservoirs and wells, but these are almost always isothermal models. To predict temperature behavior we derived general mass, momentum, and energy balance equations for these parts of the complex well system. Analytical solutions for the reservoir and wellbore parts for certain special conditions show the magnitude of thermal effects that could occur. Our preliminary sensitivity analyses show that thermal effects caused by near-wellbore reservoir flow can cause temperature changes that are measurable with smart well technology. This is encouraging for the further development of the inverse model.

Pinan Dawkrajai; Analis A. Romero; Keita Yoshioka; Ding Zhu; A.D. Hill; Larry W. Lake

2004-10-01

59

A Comprehensive Statistically-Based Method to Interpret Real-Time Flowing Measurements  

SciTech Connect

With the recent development of temperature measurement systems, continuous temperature profiles can be obtained with high precision. Small temperature changes can be detected by modern temperature measuring instruments such as fiber optic distributed temperature sensor (DTS) in intelligent completions and will potentially aid the diagnosis of downhole flow conditions. In vertical wells, since elevational geothermal changes make the wellbore temperature sensitive to the amount and the type of fluids produced, temperature logs can be used successfully to diagnose the downhole flow conditions. However, geothermal temperature changes along the wellbore being small for horizontal wells, interpretations of a temperature log become difficult. The primary temperature differences for each phase (oil, water, and gas) are caused by frictional effects. Therefore, in developing a thermal model for horizontal wellbore, subtle temperature changes must be accounted for. In this project, we have rigorously derived governing equations for a producing horizontal wellbore and developed a prediction model of the temperature and pressure by coupling the wellbore and reservoir equations. Also, we applied Ramey's model (1962) to the build section and used an energy balance to infer the temperature profile at the junction. The multilateral wellbore temperature model was applied to a wide range of cases at varying fluid thermal properties, absolute values of temperature and pressure, geothermal gradients, flow rates from each lateral, and the trajectories of each build section. With the prediction models developed, we present inversion studies of synthetic and field examples. These results are essential to identify water or gas entry, to guide flow control devices in intelligent completions, and to decide if reservoir stimulation is needed in particular horizontal sections. This study will complete and validate these inversion studies.

Keita Yoshioka; Pinan Dawkrajai; Analis A. Romero; Ding Zhu; A. D. Hill; Larry W. Lake

2007-01-15

60

An Efficient, Easily Constructed Cell Homogenizing Press  

PubMed Central

An easily constructed, highly efficient cell homogenizing press is described which should be available to laboratories at moderate cost. The press allows the preparation of homogenates from up to 20 g of packed cell paste in a single batch without danger of damage to the press. Cell breakage and recovery of cell homogenates is accomplished at temperatures which maintain the material in the frozen state. The press may be assembled, disassembled, and cleaned with minimal effort. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:14496011

Sagers, Richard D.

1962-01-01

61

Chemical and statistical interpretation of sized aerosol particles collected at an urban site in Thessaloniki, Greece.  

PubMed

The size distribution of aerosol particles (PM0.015-PM18) in relation to their soluble inorganic species and total water soluble organic compounds (WSOC) was investigated at an urban site of Thessaloniki, Northern Greece. The sampling period was from February to July 2007. The determined compounds were compared with mass concentrations of the PM fractions for nano (N: 0.015 < Dp < 0.06), ultrafine (UFP: 0.015 < Dp < 0.125), fine (FP: 0.015 < Dp < 2.0) and coarse particles (CP: 2.0 < Dp < 8.0) in order to perform mass closure of the water soluble content for the respective fractions. Electrolytes were the dominant species in all fractions (24-27%), followed by WSOC (16-23%). The water soluble inorganic and organic content was found to account for 53% of the nanoparticle, 48% of the ultrafine particle, 45% of the fine particle and 44% of the coarse particle mass. Correlations between the analyzed species were performed and the effect of local and long-range transported emissions was examined by wind direction and backward air mass trajectories. Multivariate statistical analysis (cluster analysis and principal components analysis) of the collected data was performed in order to reveal the specific data structure. Possible sources of air pollution were identified and an attempt is made to find patterns of similarity between the different sized aerosols and the seasons of monitoring. It was proven that several major latent factors are responsible for the data structure despite the size of the aerosols - mineral (soil) dust, sea sprays, secondary emissions, combustion sources and industrial impact. The seasonal separation proved to be not very specific. PMID:24007436

Tsitouridou, Roxani; Papazova, Petia; Simeonova, Pavlina; Simeonov, Vasil

2013-01-01

62

QC Metrics from CPTAC Raw LC-MS/MS Data Interpreted through Multivariate Statistics  

PubMed Central

Shotgun proteomics experiments integrate a complex sequence of processes, any of which can introduce variability. Quality metrics computed from LC-MS/MS data have relied upon identifying MS/MS scans, but a new mode for the QuaMeter software produces metrics that are independent of identifications. Rather than evaluating each metric independently, we have created a robust multivariate statistical toolkit that accommodates the correlation structure of these metrics and allows for hierarchical relationships among data sets. The framework enables visualization and structural assessment of variability. Study 1 for the Clinical Proteomics Technology Assessment for Cancer (CPTAC), which analyzed three replicates of two common samples at each of two time points among 23 mass spectrometers in nine laboratories, provided the data to demonstrate this framework, and CPTAC Study 5 provided data from complex lysates under Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) to complement these findings. Identification-independent quality metrics enabled the differentiation of sites and run-times through robust principal components analysis and subsequent factor analysis. Dissimilarity metrics revealed outliers in performance, and a nested ANOVA model revealed the extent to which all metrics or individual metrics were impacted by mass spectrometer and run time. Study 5 data revealed that even when SOPs have been applied, instrument-dependent variability remains prominent, although it may be reduced, while within-site variability is reduced significantly. Finally, identification-independent quality metrics were shown to be predictive of identification sensitivity in these data sets. QuaMeter and the associated multivariate framework are available from http://fenchurch.mc.vanderbilt.edu and http://homepages.uc.edu/~wang2x7/, respectively. PMID:24494671

2015-01-01

63

ACECARD. Acquire CoOmmodities Easily Card  

SciTech Connect

Acquire Commodities Easily Card (AceCard) provides an automated end-user method to distribute company credit card charges to internal charge numbers. AceCard will allow cardholders to record card purchases in an on-line order log, enter multiple account distributions per order that can be posted to the General Ledger, track orders, and receipt information, and provide a variety of cardholder and administrative reports. Please note: Customers must contact Ed Soler (423)-576-6151, Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, for help with the installation of the package. The fee for this installation help will be coordinated by the customer and Lockheed Martin and is in addition to cost of the package from ESTSC. Customers should contact Sandy Presley (423)-576-4708 for user help.

Soler, E.E. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1996-09-01

64

Easily retrievable objects among the NEO population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asteroids and comets are of strategic importance for science in an effort to understand the formation, evolution and composition of the Solar System. Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are of particular interest because of their accessibility from Earth, but also because of their speculated wealth of material resources. The exploitation of these resources has long been discussed as a means to lower the cost of future space endeavours. In this paper, we consider the currently known NEO population and define a family of so-called Easily Retrievable Objects (EROs), objects that can be transported from accessible heliocentric orbits into the Earth's neighbourhood at affordable costs. The asteroid retrieval transfers are sought from the continuum of low energy transfers enabled by the dynamics of invariant manifolds; specifically, the retrieval transfers target planar, vertical Lyapunov and halo orbit families associated with the collinear equilibrium points of the Sun-Earth Circular Restricted Three Body problem. The judicious use of these dynamical features provides the best opportunity to find extremely low energy Earth transfers for asteroid material. A catalogue of asteroid retrieval candidates is then presented. Despite the highly incomplete census of very small asteroids, the ERO catalogue can already be populated with 12 different objects retrievable with less than 500 m/s of ? v. Moreover, the approach proposed represents a robust search and ranking methodology for future retrieval candidates that can be automatically applied to the growing survey of NEOs.

García Yárnoz, D.; Sanchez, J. P.; McInnes, C. R.

2013-08-01

65

Easily available enzymes as natural retting agents.  

PubMed

Easily available commercial enzymes currently have great potential in bast fibre processing and can be modified for different end uses. There are several new technologies using enzymes that are able to modify fibre parameters, achieve requested properties, improve processing results and are more beneficial to the ecology in the area of bast fibre processing and fabrics finishing. Enzymatic methods for retting of flax, "cottonisation" of bast fibres, hemp separation, and processing of flax rovings before wet spinning, etc., fall into this group of new technologies. Such enzymatic biotechnologies can provide benefits in textile, composite, reinforced plastic and other technical applications. Laboratory, pilot and industrial scale results and experiences have demonstrated the ability of selected enzymes to decompose interfibre-bonding layers based on pectin, lignin and hemicelluloses. Texazym SER spray is able to increase flax long fibre yields by more than 40%. Other enzymes in combination with mild mechanical treatment can replace aggressive and energy-intensive processing like Laroche "cottonisation". Texazym SCW and DLG pretreatments of flax rovings are presented. PMID:17309044

Antonov, Viktor; Marek, Jan; Bjelkova, Marie; Smirous, Prokop; Fischer, Holger

2007-03-01

66

Compositionality and Statistics in Adjective Acquisition: 4-Year-Olds Interpret "Tall" and "Short" Based on the Size Distributions of Novel Noun Referents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four experiments investigated 4-year-olds' understanding of adjective-noun compositionality and their sensitivity to statistics when interpreting scalar adjectives. In Experiments 1 and 2, children selected "tall" and "short" items from 9 novel objects called "pimwits" (1-9 in. in height) or from this array plus 4 taller or shorter distractor…

Barner, David; Snedeker, Jesse

2008-01-01

67

Quantum of area {Delta}A=8{pi}l{sub P}{sup 2} and a statistical interpretation of black hole entropy  

SciTech Connect

In contrast to alternative values, the quantum of area {Delta}A=8{pi}l{sub P}{sup 2} does not follow from the usual statistical interpretation of black hole entropy; on the contrary, a statistical interpretation follows from it. This interpretation is based on the two concepts: nonadditivity of black hole entropy and Landau quantization. Using nonadditivity a microcanonical distribution for a black hole is found and it is shown that the statistical weight of a black hole should be proportional to its area. By analogy with conventional Landau quantization, it is shown that quantization of a black hole is nothing but the Landau quantization. The Landau levels of a black hole and their degeneracy are found. The degree of degeneracy is equal to the number of ways to distribute a patch of area 8{pi}l{sub P}{sup 2} over the horizon. Taking into account these results, it is argued that the black hole entropy should be of the form S{sub bh}=2{pi}{center_dot}{Delta}{Gamma}, where the number of microstates is {Delta}{Gamma}=A/8{pi}l{sub P}{sup 2}. The nature of the degrees of freedom responsible for black hole entropy is elucidated. The applications of the new interpretation are presented. The effect of noncommuting coordinates is discussed.

Ropotenko, Kostiantyn [State Administration of Communications, Ministry of Transport and Communications of Ukraine, 22, Khreschatyk, 01001, Kyiv (Ukraine)

2010-08-15

68

Fast interval-valued statistical interconnect modeling and reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correlated interval representations of range uncertainty offer an attractive solution for approximating computations on statistical quantities. The key idea is to use finite intervals to approximate the essential mass of a pdf as it moves through numerical operators; the resulting compact interval-valued solution can be easily interpreted as a statistical distribution and efficiently sampled. This paper describes improved interval-valued algorithms

James D. Z. Ma; Rob A. Rutenbar

2005-01-01

69

A Note on the Calculation and Interpretation of the Delta-p Statistic for Categorical Independent Variables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This methodological note illustrates how a commonly used calculation of the Delta-p statistic is inappropriate for categorical independent variables, and this note provides users of logistic regression with a revised calculation of the Delta-p statistic that is more meaningful when studying the differences in the predicted probability of an…

Cruce, Ty M.

2009-01-01

70

Voltage controlled oscillator is easily aligned, has low phase noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Voltage Controlled Oscillator /VCO/, represented by an equivalent RF circuit, is easily adjusted for optimum performance by varying the circuit parameter. It contains a crystal drive level which is also easily adjusted to obtain minimum phase noise.

Sydnor, R. L.

1965-01-01

71

Statistical factor analysis technique for characterizing basalt through interpreting nuclear and electrical well logging data (case study from Southern Syria).  

PubMed

Factor analysis technique is proposed in this research for interpreting the combination of nuclear well logging, including natural gamma ray, density and neutron-porosity, and the electrical well logging of long and short normal, in order to characterize the large extended basaltic areas in southern Syria. Kodana well logging data are used for testing and applying the proposed technique. The four resulting score logs enable to establish the lithological score cross-section of the studied well. The established cross-section clearly shows the distribution and the identification of four kinds of basalt which are hard massive basalt, hard basalt, pyroclastic basalt and the alteration basalt products, clay. The factor analysis technique is successfully applied on the Kodana well logging data in southern Syria, and can be used efficiently when several wells and huge well logging data with high number of variables are required to be interpreted. PMID:24296157

Asfahani, Jamal

2014-02-01

72

Proper interpretation of chronic toxicity studies and their statistics: A critique of "Which level of evidence does the US National Toxicology Program provide? Statistical considerations using the Technical Report 578 on Ginkgo biloba as an example"  

PubMed

A recent article by Gaus (2014) demonstrates a serious misunderstanding of the NTP's statistical analysis and interpretation of rodent carcinogenicity data as reported in Technical Report 578 (Ginkgo biloba) (NTP, 2013), as well as a failure to acknowledge the abundant literature on false positive rates in rodent carcinogenicity studies. The NTP reported Ginkgo biloba extract to be carcinogenic in mice and rats. Gaus claims that, in this study, 4800 statistical comparisons were possible, and that 209 of them were statistically significant (p<0.05) compared with 240 (4800×0.05) expected by chance alone; thus, the carcinogenicity of Ginkgo biloba extract cannot be definitively established. However, his assumptions and calculations are flawed since he incorrectly assumes that the NTP uses no correction for multiple comparisons, and that significance tests for discrete data operate at exactly the nominal level. He also misrepresents the NTP's decision making process, overstates the number of statistical comparisons made, and ignores the fact that the mouse liver tumor effects were so striking (e.g., p<0.0000000000001) that it is virtually impossible that they could be false positive outcomes. Gaus' conclusion that such obvious responses merely "generate a hypothesis" rather than demonstrate a real carcinogenic effect has no scientific credibility. Moreover, his claims regarding the high frequency of false positive outcomes in carcinogenicity studies are misleading because of his methodological misconceptions and errors. PMID:25261588

Kissling, Grace E; Haseman, Joseph K; Zeiger, Errol

2014-09-26

73

Chemical data and statistical interpretations for rocks and ores from the Ranger uranium mine, Northern Territory, Australia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analytical results for 61 elements in 370 samples from the Ranger Mine area are reported. Most of the rocks come from drill core in the Ranger No. 1 and Ranger No. 3 deposits, but 20 samples are from unmineralized drill core more than 1 km from ore. Statistical tests show that the elements Mg, Fe, F, Be, Co, Li, Ni, Pb, Sc, Th, Ti, V, CI, As, Br, Au, Ce, Dy, La Sc, Eu, Tb, Yb, and Tb have positive association with uranium, and Si, Ca, Na, K, Sr, Ba, Ce, and Cs have negative association. For most lithologic subsets Mg, Fe, Li, Cr, Ni, Pb, V, Y, Sm, Sc, Eu, and Yb are significantly enriched in ore-bearing rocks, whereas Ca, Na, K, Sr, Ba, Mn, Ce, and Cs are significantly depleted. These results are consistent with petrographic observations on altered rocks. Lithogeochemistry can aid exploration, but for these rocks requires methods that are expensive and not amenable to routine use.

Nash, J. Thomas; Frishman, David

1983-01-01

74

Fast Interval-Valued Statistical Modeling of Interconnect and Effective Capacitance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correlated interval representations of range uncertainty offer an attractive solution to approximating computations on statistical quantities. The key idea is to use finite intervals to approximate the essential mass of a probability density function (pdf) as it moves through numerical operators; the resulting compact interval-valued solution can be easily interpreted as a statistical distribution and efficiently sampled. This paper first

James D. Ma; Rob A. Rutenbar

2006-01-01

75

Easily constructed mini-sextant demonstrates optical principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An easily constructed optical instrument for measuring the angle between the Sun and the horizon is described. The miniature sextant relies on multiple reflections to produce multiple images of the sun at fixed angles away from the true Sun.

Nenninger, Garet G.

2000-04-01

76

Facies control on sandstone composition (and influence of statistical methods on interpretations) in the John Henry Member, Straight Cliffs Formation, Southern Utah, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper Cretaceous John Henry Member of the Straight Cliffs Formation preserves regressive shoreface and channel facies, and transgressive lagoonal tidal inlet facies that suggest distinct modal sandstone compositions. Detrital modes from six sandstone facies (upper shoreface, lower shoreface, deflected mouth bars, fluvial channels, tidal inlets and washover fans), and their spatial and temporal variations, provide additional data regarding the depositional environments and setting of the John Henry Member. Three statistical methods were utilized: univariate standard deviation and confidence interval and multivariate logratio transformations to assess the compositional difference between facies using estimation of means. Both univariate statistical methods have some inherent problems. Standard deviation does not account for sample size, while the confidence interval method incorporates a t-test to account for only some of the uncertainty of small sample size. The results of the univariate methods differ slightly and both indicate statistically distinct sandstone compositions based on facies. Multivariate statistics are much more robust and suggest similar trends, yet display different compositional means and have inconclusive confidence fields as they incorporate all of the uncertainty associated with small sampling sizes. In general, sandstone compositions become more quartz-rich and compositionally mature as sediment is transported from proximal fluvial environments to distal upper shoreface environments. This trend reflects the degree of preferential reworking or winnowing of unstable grains prior to lithification. More complicated relationships are observed as facies distributions shift through space and time. Sandstone compositions support a deflected wave-dominated deltaic interpretation for the John Henry Member in this area. Sandstone compositions become more lithic-rich from north to south, corresponding to the facies distribution of upper shoreface and deflected mouth bars, respectively. Mouth bars occur at the intersection of the fluvial channel and the coastline where sand is deflected via longshore drift to the southern portion of the field area. Upper shoreface facies located further away from mouth bar facies are heavily reworked by wave processes and contain more mature quartz-rich modal compositions. Additionally, high feldspathic and lithic concentrations in tidal inlet facies suggest that this facies was sourced closer to mouth bars rather than updrift upper shoreface sediments. A shift in sandstone composition occurs at the end of the second transgressive-regressive cycle of the John Henry Member throughout the Rogers Canyon area. This compositional change is concurrent with a relatively large basinward shift in facies, which suggests that it reflects the transition from regressive to transgressive facies associated with the relative sea level fall rather than a change in the main sediment source area.

Allen, Jessica L.; Johnson, Cari L.

2010-10-01

77

Novel Cyclic Sugar Imines: Carbohydrate Mimics and Easily  

E-print Network

Novel Cyclic Sugar Imines: Carbohydrate Mimics and Easily Elaborated Scaffolds for Aza-Sugars functionalized aza-sugars through highly diastereoselective organometallic additions. Polyhydroxylated nitrogen heterocycle aza-sugars may be considered to be mimics of sugars in which the ring oxygen has been substituted

Davis, Ben G.

78

Epoxy-coated containers easily opened by wire band  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Epoxy coating reduces punctures, abrasions, and contamination of synthetic cellular containers used for shipping and storing fragile goods and equipment. A wire band is wound around the closure joint, followed by the epoxy coating. The container can then be easily opened by pulling the wire through the epoxy around the joint.

Mc Coy, J. W.

1966-01-01

79

Pulsar statistics and their interpretations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that a lack of knowledge concerning interstellar electron density, the true spatial distribution of pulsars, the radio luminosity source distribution of pulsars, the real ages and real aging rates of pulsars, the beaming factor (and other unknown factors causing the known sample of about 350 pulsars to be incomplete to an unknown degree) is sufficient to cause a minimum uncertainty of a factor of 20 in any attempt to determine pulsar birth or death rates in the Galaxy. It is suggested that this uncertainty must impact on suggestions that the pulsar rates can be used to constrain possible scenarios for neutron star formation and stellar evolution in general.

Arnett, W. D.; Lerche, I.

1981-01-01

80

Metview and VAPOR: Exploring ECMWF forecasts easily in four dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) is an international organisation providing its member states and co-operating states with forecasts in the medium time range of up to 15 days as well as other forcasts and analysis. As part of its mission, ECMWF generates an increasing number of forecast data products for its users. To support the work of forecasters and researchers and to let them make best use of ECMWF forecasts, the Centre also provides tools and interfaces to visualise their products. This allows users to make use of and explore forecasts without having to transfer large amounts of raw data. This is especially true for products based on ECMWF's 50 member ensemble forecast. Users can choose to explore ECMWF's forecasts from the web or through visualisation tools installed locally or at ECMWF. ECMWF also develops in co-operation with INPE, Brazil, the Metview meteorological workstation and batch system. Metview enables users to easily analyse and visualise forecasts, and is routinely used by scientists and forecasters at ECMWF and other institutions. While Metview offers high quality visualisation in two-dimensional plots and animations, it uses external tools to visualise data in four dimensions. VAPOR is the Visualization and Analysis Platform for Ocean, Atmosphere, and Solar Researchers. VAPOR provides an interactive 3D visualisation environment that runs on most UNIX and Windows systems equipped with modern 3D graphics cards. VAPOR development is led by the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Scientific Computing Division in collaboration with U.C. Davis and Ohio State University. In this paper we will give an overview of how users, with Metview and access to ECMWF's archive, can visualise forecast data in four dimensions within VAPOR. The process of preparing the data in Metview is the key step and described in detail. The benefits to researchers are highlighted with a case study analysing a given weather scenario.

Siemen, Stephan; Kertesz, Sandor; Carver, Glenn

2014-05-01

81

Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... Statistics Request Permissions Print to PDF Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics This section has been reviewed and approved by ... nodes or distant parts of the body. Survival statistics should be interpreted with caution. These estimates are ...

82

Easily Installable Wireless Behavioral Monitoring System with Electric Field Sensor for Ordinary Houses  

PubMed Central

This paper describes an indoor behavioral monitoring system for improving the quality of life in ordinary houses. It employs a device that uses weak radio waves for transmitting the obtained data and it is designed such that it can be installed by a user without requiring any technical knowledge or extra constructions. This study focuses on determining the usage statistics of home electric appliances by using an electromagnetic field sensor as a detection device. The usage of the home appliances is determined by measuring the electromagnetic field that can be observed in an area near the appliance. It is assumed that these usage statistics could provide information regarding the indoor behavior of a subject. Since the sensor is not direction sensitive and does not require precise positioning and wiring, it can be easily installed in ordinary houses by the end users. For evaluating the practicability of the sensor unit, several simple tests have been performed. The results indicate that the proposed system could be useful for collecting the usage statistics of home appliances. PMID:19415135

Tsukamoto, S; Hoshino, H; Tamura, T

2008-01-01

83

Course: Psychology 280 (schedule #22501-22506/Sections 1-6); Statistical Methods in Psychology Course Description: Quantitative methods in psychology for producing, analyzing, and interpreting data. Sampling,  

E-print Network

/20/09 in SD Union) the following statistics are enumerated: 1. More adults play video games than take, 7/26/07). Or in an article dated 7/22/08 it is claimed that "More women #12;- 2 - leaving job pool...women to the lowest in a decade. 6. Women pulled even with men among new recipients of doctoral degrees in 2007

Gallo, Linda C.

84

Interpretive Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)

DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

1977-01-01

85

Interpreting Bones.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an activity which introduces students to the nature and challenges of paleoanthropology. In the exercise, students identify diagrammed bones and make interpretations about the creature. Presents questions and tasks employed in the lesson. (ML)

Weymouth, Patricia P.

1986-01-01

86

Statistical treatment and preliminary interpretation of chemical data from a uranium deposit in the northeast part of the Church Rock area, Gallup mining district, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Statistical treatment of analytical data from 106 samples of uranium-mineralized and unmineralized or weakly mineralized rocks of the Morrison Formation from the northeastern part of the Church Rock area of the Grants uranium region indicates that along with uranium, the deposits in the northeast Church Rock area are enriched in barium, sulfur, sodium, vanadium and equivalent uranium. Selenium and molybdenum are sporadically enriched in the deposits and calcium, manganese, strontium, and yttrium are depleted. Unlike the primary deposits of the San Juan Basin, the deposits in the northeast part of the Church Rock area contain little organic carbon and several elements that are characteristically enriched in the primary deposits are not enriched or are enriched to a much lesser degree in the Church Rock deposits. The suite of elements associated with the deposits in the northeast part of the Church Rock area is also different from the suite of elements associated with the redistributed deposits in the Ambrosia Lake district. This suggests that the genesis of the Church Rock deposits is different, at least in part, from the genesis of the primary deposits of the San Juan Basin or the redistributed deposits at Ambrosia Lake.

Spirakis, C.S.; Pierson, C.T.; Santos, E.S.; Fishman, N.S.

1983-01-01

87

Interpreting results from trials of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: a statistical test for detecting vaccine-induced increases in carriage of nonvaccine serotypes.  

PubMed

Conjugate vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) protect against nasopharyngeal carriage of serotypes included in the vaccine. However, in several clinical trials, vaccinees have shown increased carriage of nonvaccine serotypes of pneumococcus. These increases may be due to serotype replacement, if vaccine-induced protection against carriage of vaccine serotypes increases susceptibility to carriage of nonvaccine serotypes. Alternatively, observed increases may be an artifact of "unmasking," in which nonvaccine serotypes are more readily detected among vaccinees than among controls because vaccine serotypes are not present. In this paper, a statistical test for distinguishing serotype replacement from unmasking is described. The test attempts to reject a null model of unmasking alone; serotype replacement is inferred if the observed increase in detectable nonvaccine serotype carriage among vaccinees is significantly greater than that expected under the null model. Significance is assessed using the Bayesian "posterior predictive p value" as modified by Robins et al. (J Am Stat Assoc 2000;95:1143-56). Analysis of data from a South African trial suggests that replacement may have occurred in the study, but results do not reach the conventional level of significance in rejecting the null hypothesis of unmasking (p = 0.074). The author performs sensitivity analyses for the prior and for unmeasured confounding by differences in susceptibility to pneumococcus carriage. The implications of the findings and the assumptions and limitations of this technique are then discussed. PMID:11427408

Lipsitch, M

2001-07-01

88

Engineering interpretation  

E-print Network

to interpret images using a small amount of edge and corner data. The Archer, Henry Moore. 8­bit greyscale image, 591 KBytes. Artist's line drawing of The Archer. Perhaps 200 bytes of information. Edges, it is important to bear in mind the invari­ able presence of image noise. Consider this signal I

Dyer, Charles R.

89

Programming Interpretation,  

E-print Network

/2004) Chapter 2: Basic Notions of Predicate Logic . Signature, Formula . Interpretation, Model . Implication2. Basic Notions of Predicate Logic 2­1 Deductive Databases and Logic Programming (Winter 2003 and Logic Programming Univ. Halle, 2011 2. Basic Notions of Predicate Logic 2­2 Objectives After completing

Brass, Stefan

90

Programming Interpretation,  

E-print Network

/2004) Chapter 2: Basic Notions of Predicate Logic . Signature, Formula . Interpretation, Model . Implication2. Basic Notions of Predicate Logic 2­1 Deductive Databases and Logic Programming (Winter 2003 and Logic Programming Univ. Halle, 2003 2. Basic Notions of Predicate Logic 2­2 Objectives After completing

Brass, Stefan

91

Programming Interpretation,  

E-print Network

/2004) Chapter 2: Basic Notions of Predicate Logic . Signature, Formula . Interpretation, Model . Implication2. Basic Notions of Predicate Logic 2­1 Deductive Databases and Logic Programming (Winter 2003 and Logic Programming Univ. Halle, 2006 2. Basic Notions of Predicate Logic 2­2 Objectives After completing

Brass, Stefan

92

Statistics Clinic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Do you have elevated p-values? Is the data analysis process getting you down? Do you experience anxiety when you need to respond to criticism of statistical methods in your manuscript? You may be suffering from Insufficient Statistical Support Syndrome (ISSS). For symptomatic relief of ISSS, come for a free consultation with JSC biostatisticians at our help desk during the poster sessions at the HRP Investigators Workshop. Get answers to common questions about sample size, missing data, multiple testing, when to trust the results of your analyses and more. Side effects may include sudden loss of statistics anxiety, improved interpretation of your data, and increased confidence in your results.

Feiveson, Alan H.; Foy, Millennia; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fiedler, James

2014-01-01

93

SLAR image interpretation keys for geographic analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A means for side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) imagery to become a more widely used data source in geoscience and agriculture is suggested by providing interpretation keys as an easily implemented interpretation model. Interpretation problems faced by the researcher wishing to employ SLAR are specifically described, and the use of various types of image interpretation keys to overcome these problems is suggested. With examples drawn from agriculture and vegetation mapping, direct and associate dichotomous image interpretation keys are discussed and methods of constructing keys are outlined. Initial testing of the keys, key-based automated decision rules, and the role of the keys in an information system for agriculture are developed.

Coiner, J. C.

1972-01-01

94

Landslides triggered by the 12 January 2010 Mw 7.0 Port-au-Prince, Haiti, earthquake: visual interpretation, inventory compiling and spatial distribution statistical analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 12 January 2010 Port-au-Prince, Haiti, earthquake (Mw 7.0) triggered tens of thousands of landslides. The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlations of the occurrence of landslides and their erosion thicknesses with topographic factors, seismic parameters, and their distance from roads. A total of 30 828 landslides triggered by the earthquake covered a total area of 15.736 km2, distributed in an area more than 3000 km2, and the volume of landslide accumulation materials is estimated to be about 29 700 000 m3. These landslides are of various types, mostly belonging to shallow disrupted landslides and rock falls, but also include coherent deep-seated landslides and rock slides. These landslides were delineated using pre- and post-earthquake high-resolutions satellite images. Spatial distribution maps and contour maps of landslide number density, landslide area percentage, and landslide erosion thickness were constructed in order to analyze the spatial distribution patterns of co-seismic landslides. Statistics of size distribution and morphometric parameters of co-seismic landslides were carried out and were compared with other earthquake events in the world. Four proxies of co-seismic landslide abundance, including landslides centroid number density (LCND), landslide top number density (LTND), landslide area percentage (LAP), and landslide erosion thickness (LET) were used to correlate co-seismic landslides with various landslide controlling parameters. These controlling parameters include elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, slope curvature, topographic position, distance from drainages, lithology, distance from the epicenter, distance from the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault, distance along the fault, and peak ground acceleration (PGA). A comparison of these impact parameters on co-seismic landslides shows that slope angle is the strongest impact parameter on co-seismic landslide occurrence. Our co-seismic landslide inventory is much more detailed than other inventories in several previous publications. Therefore, we carried out comparisons of inventories of landslides triggered by the Haiti earthquake with other published results and proposed possible reasons of any differences. We suggest that the empirical functions between earthquake magnitude and co-seismic landslides need to update on the basis of the abundant and more complete co-seismic landslide inventories recently available.

Xu, C.; Shyu, J. B. H.; Xu, X.-W.

2014-02-01

95

Landslides triggered by the 12 January 2010 Port-au-Prince, Haiti, Mw = 7.0 earthquake: visual interpretation, inventory compiling, and spatial distribution statistical analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 12 January 2010 Port-au-Prince, Haiti, earthquake (Mw= 7.0) triggered tens of thousands of landslides. The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlations of the occurrence of landslides and the thicknesses of their erosion with topographic, geologic, and seismic parameters. A total of 30 828 landslides triggered by the earthquake covered a total area of 15.736 km2, distributed in an area more than 3000 km2, and the volume of landslide accumulation materials is estimated to be about 29 700 000 m3. These landslides are of various types, mostly belonging to shallow disrupted landslides and rock falls, but also include coherent deep-seated landslides and rock slides. These landslides were delineated using pre- and post-earthquake high-resolution satellite images. Spatial distribution maps and contour maps of landslide number density, landslide area percentage, and landslide erosion thickness were constructed in order to analyze the spatial distribution patterns of co-seismic landslides. Statistics of size distribution and morphometric parameters of co-seismic landslides were carried out and were compared with other earthquake events in the world. Four proxies of co-seismic landslide abundance, including landslides centroid number density (LCND), landslide top number density (LTND), landslide area percentage (LAP), and landslide erosion thickness (LET) were used to correlate co-seismic landslides with various environmental parameters. These parameters include elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, slope curvature, topographic position, distance from drainages, lithology, distance from the epicenter, distance from the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault, distance along the fault, and peak ground acceleration (PGA). A comparison of these impact parameters on co-seismic landslides shows that slope angle is the strongest impact parameter on co-seismic landslide occurrence. Our co-seismic landslide inventory is much more detailed than other inventories in several previous publications. Therefore, we carried out comparisons of inventories of landslides triggered by the Haiti earthquake with other published results and proposed possible reasons for any differences. We suggest that the empirical functions between earthquake magnitude and co-seismic landslides need to be updated on the basis of the abundant and more complete co-seismic landslide inventories recently available.

Xu, C.; Shyu, J. B. H.; Xu, X.

2014-07-01

96

Interpretive Medicine  

PubMed Central

Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the recognition of quality in interpretation and knowledge generation within the qualitative research field, I propose a framework by which to evaluate the quality of knowledge generated within generalist, interpretive clinical practice. I describe three priorities for research in developing this model further, which will strengthen and preserve core elements of the discipline of general practice, and thus promote and support the health needs of the public. PMID:21805819

Reeve, Joanne

2010-01-01

97

Time Resolved Thermal Diffusivity of Seasonal Snow Determined from Inexpensive, Easily-Implemented Temperature Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal diffusivity of snow is an important physical property associated with key hydrological phenomena such as snow melt and heat and water vapor exchange with the atmosphere. These phenomena have broad implications in studies of climate and heat and water budgets on many scales. However, direct measurements of snow thermal diffusivity require coupled point measurements of thermal conductivity and density, which are nonstationary due to snow metamorphism. Furthermore, thermal conductivity measurements are typically obtained with specialized heating probes or plates and snow density measurements require digging snow pits. Therefore, direct measurements are difficult to obtain with high enough temporal resolution such that direct comparisons with atmospheric conditions can be made. This study uses highly resolved (7.5 to 10 cm for depth and 1min for time) temperature measurements from the Plaine Morte glacier in Switzerland as initial and boundary conditions to numerically solve the 1D heat equation and iteratively optimize for thermal diffusivity. The method uses flux boundary conditions to constrain thermal diffusivity such that spuriously high values in thermal diffusivity are eliminated. Additionally, a t-test ensuring statistical significance between solutions of varied thermal diffusivity result in further constraints on thermal diffusivity that eliminate spuriously low values. The results show that time resolved (1 minute) thermal diffusivity can be determined from easily implemented and inexpensive temperature measurements of seasonal snow with good agreement to widely used parameterizations based on snow density. This high time resolution further affords the ability to explore possible turbulence-induced enhancements to heat and mass transfer in the snow.

Oldroyd, H. J.; Higgins, C. W.; Huwald, H.; Selker, J. S.; Parlange, M. B.

2011-12-01

98

VALUES AND LIMITATIONS OF STATISTICAL MODELS  

PubMed Central

Methodological consequences of population heterogeneity for the sequential logit model in studies of education transitions are now well understood. There are two main mechanisms by which heterogeneity may cause biases to parameter estimates in sequential logit models: outcome incommensurability and population incommensurability. These methodological problems are intrinsic to the substantive research question and thus are not easily remediable with better statistical models. All statistical solutions require extra information in the form of additional data or additional assumptions. In some settings, the researcher may explicitly introduce a form of heterogeneity into the sequential logit model and then evaluate the model. In other settings, the researcher may wish to stay with the conventional sequential logit model and interpret the results descriptively. PMID:22043133

Xie, Yu

2011-01-01

99

[Correspondence analysis: a theoretical basis for categorical data interpretation in health sciences].  

PubMed

Categorical variables are common in the biomedical field, and many descriptive methods have been proposed for revealing intrinsic patterns in data. Correspondence Analysis is an especially useful method for categorical data analysis of large contingency tables. Although numerous studies have been published on this method, most Portuguese-language articles have failed to explore its full potential, focusing only on graphical interpretation. The current paper reviews the method, showing that graphical analysis can be enriched by the right statistics. The article presents the mathematical basis for correspondence analysis and its most frequently used statistics. The procedure has shown that such statistics enrich symmetric map evaluation, that a low relative frequency category can be represented by supplementary category points, and that inertia contributions are highly related to residual analysis of contingency tables, not easily visualized by symmetric maps. Correspondence Analysis has proven advantageous when compared to principal components analysis. PMID:24714938

Infantosi, Antonio Fernando Catelli; Costa, João Carlos da Gama Dias; Almeida, Renan Moritz Varnier Rodrigues de

2014-03-01

100

STATISTICAL METHODS STATISTICAL METHODS  

E-print Network

STATISTICAL METHODS 1 STATISTICAL METHODS Arnaud Delorme, Swartz Center for Computational@salk.edu. Keywords: statistical methods, inference, models, clinical, software, bootstrap, resampling, PCA, ICA Abstract: Statistics represents that body of methods by which characteristics of a population are inferred

Delorme, Arnaud

101

Surface structure, model and mechanism of an insect integument adapted to be damaged easily  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Several sawfly larvae of the Tenthredinidae (Hymenoptera) are called easy bleeders because their whole body integument, except the head capsule, disrupts very easily at a given spot, under a slight mechanical stress at this spot. The exuding haemolymph droplet acts as a feeding deterrent towards invertebrate predators. The present study aimed to describe the cuticle surface, to consider it

Jean-Luc Boevé; Véronique Ducarme; Tanguy Mertens; Philippe Bouillard; Sergio Angeli

2004-01-01

102

100 Ways to Use Solo Performers (or Any Easily Produced Act).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Campus activities programers are encouraged to use creativity and to experiment in incorporating solo, or easily produced, acts into campus events. Ideas include using solo acts as openers or as part of larger special or traditional events. A sample campus survey, designed to discover campus preferences, is included. (MSE)

McCarthy, Danny; Suggs, Del

1993-01-01

103

Transforming basic robotic platforms into easily deployable and Web remotely controllable robots  

E-print Network

Transforming basic robotic platforms into easily deployable and Web remotely controllable robots basic robotic platforms into Web remotely controllable robots. Our goal is to achieve robot deploymentG), the robot can be deployed and Web- controlled. The distant user can send commands to the robot

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

104

As sustainability becomes integrated into public policy decision making,comprehensive and easily accessible sustainability  

E-print Network

As sustainability becomes integrated into public policy decision making,comprehensive and easily accessible sustainability information will be needed to assist policy analysis.As visual analytics emerges as a major tool of policy analysis,sustainability information,particularly sustainability indicators

Hall, Sharon J.

105

A synthesis and optimization procedure for fully and easily testable sequential machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors outline a synthesis procedure which beginning from a state transition graph (STG) description of a sequential machine produces an optimized fully and easily testable logic implementation. This logic-level implementation is guaranteed to be testable for all single stuck-at faults in the combinational logic and the test sequences for these faults can be obtained using combinational test generation techniques

Srinivas Devadas; Hi-keung Tony Ma; A. Richard Newton; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-vincentelli

1989-01-01

106

Journal of Neuroscience Methods 68 (19961247-251 An easily constructed carbon fiber recording and microiontophoresis  

E-print Network

Journal of Neuroscience Methods 68 (19961247-251 An easily constructed carbon fiber recording; Carbon fiber; Electrolytic lesion 1. Intradwtion Microiontophoresis is widely used in neuropharmaco al.. 1990: Godwin, 1994; Verbeme et al., 1995). Carbon fiber electrodes, both single and multibarr

107

a more easily digestible food for the bees, and in preservation of the food against attack  

E-print Network

a more easily digestible food for the bees, and in preservation of the food against attack by fungi] suggested that the nutritive value of pollen for both bee-collected and bee-stored was identical, at least in Apis mellifera. The aim 1. INTRODUCTION Scaptotrigona postica is an eusocial bee that lives

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

108

Measurement in Education: Interpreting Achievement Profiles - Uses and Warnings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The interpretation of test profiles, graphic devices which indicate the overall performance of an individual or group of individuals, is discussed. Some uses of profiles are presented, together with a three step profile analysis procedure for interpreting test results. Because profiles are relatively simple to construct and appear to be easily

Gardner, Eric F.

109

STRATEGIESEMPLOYERS Translation/Interpretation  

E-print Network

STRATEGIESEMPLOYERS GOVERNMENT Translation/Interpretation Journalism/Broadcasting Linguistics,MEDIA,ENTERTAINMENT FOREIGN LANGUAGE AREAS Advertising Translation/Interpretation Journalism/Broadcasting Publishing to keep up with developments overseas. INDUSTRYANDCOMMERCE Translation/Interpretation Banking

Kaminsky, Werner

110

Statistical Process Control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Statistical Process Control is a lesson plan which provides an overview of Statistical Process Control, showing the value of collecting and analyzing data that enables people to systematically analyze and improve a process. After completing this module, students should be able to construct and interpret different statistical charts in order to evaluate a process. Note: This module is part of a modularized manufacturing technology curriculum created by the PSCME, found at www.pscme.org/educators.html.

Devine, Craig; Imre, John; King, John

2010-09-02

111

Synthesis, Characterization, to application of water soluble and easily removable cationic pressure sensitive adhesives  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, the world has expressed an increasing interest in the recycling of waste paper to supplement the use of virgin fiber as a way to protect the environment. Statistics show that major countries are increasing their use of recycled paper. For example, in 1991 to 1996, the U.S. increased its recovered paper utilization rate from 31% to 39%, Germany went from 50% to 60%, the UK went from 60% to 70%, France increased from 46% to 49%, and China went from 32% to 35% [1]. As recycled fiber levels and water system closures both increase, recycled product quality will need to improve in order for recycled products to compete with products made from virgin fiber [2]. The use of recycled fiber has introduced an increasing level of metal, plastic, and adhesive contamination into the papermaking process which has added to the complexity of the already overwhelming task of providing a uniform and clean recycle furnish. The most harmful of these contaminates is a mixture of adhesives and polymeric substances that are commonly known as stickies. Stickies, which enter the mill with the pulp furnish, are not easily removed from the repulper and become more difficult the further down the system they get. This can be detrimental to the final product quality. Stickies are hydrophobic, tacky, polymeric materials that are introduced into the papermaking system from a mixture of recycled fiber sources. Properties of stickies are very similar to the fibers used in papermaking, viz. size, density, hydrophobicity, and electrokinetic charge. This reduces the probability of their removal by conventional separation processes, such as screening and cleaning, which are based on such properties. Also, their physical and chemical structure allows for them to extrude through screens, attach to fibers, process equipment, wires and felts. Stickies can break down and then reagglomerate and appear at seemingly any place in the mill. When subjected to a number of factors including changes in pH, temperature, concentration, charge, and shear forces, stickies can deposit [3]. These deposits can lead to decreased runnability, productivity and expensive downtime. If the stickie remains in the stock, then machine breaks can be common. Finally, if the stickie is not removed or deposited, it will either leave in the final product causing converting and printing problems or recirculate within the mill. It has been estimated that stickies cost the paper industry between $600 and $700 million a year due to the cost of control methods and lost production attributed to stickies [3]. Also, of the seven recycling mills opened in the United States between 1994 and 1997, four have closed citing stickies as the main reason responsible for the closure [4]. Adhesives are widely used throughout the paper and paperboard industry and are subsequently found in the recycled pulp furnish. Hodgson stated that even the best stock preparation process can only remove 99% of the contaminants, of which the remaining 1% is usually adhesives of various types which are usually 10-150 microns in effective diameter [5]. The large particles are removed by mechanical means such as cleaners and screens, and the smaller, colloidal particles can be removed with washing. The stickies that pass through the cleaning and screening processes cause 95% of the problems associated with recycling [6]. The cleaners will remove most of the stickies that have a density varying from the pulp slurry ({approx}1.0 g/cm3) and will accept stickies with densities ranging from 0.95-1.05 g/cm3 [2]. The hydrophobicity of the material is also an important characteristic of the stickie [7]. The hydrophobicity causes the stickies to agglomerate with other hydrophobic materials such as other stickies, lignin, and even pitch. The tacky and viscous nature of stickies contributes to many product and process problems, negatively affecting the practicality of recycled fiber use. The source of stickies that evade conventional removal techniques are usually synthetic polymers, including acrylates, styrene butadiene rub

Institute of Paper Science Technology

2004-01-30

112

A transportable and easily configurable multi-projector display system for distributed virtual reality applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper details how simple PC software, a small network of consumer level PCs, some do-it-yourself hardware and four low cost video projectors can be combined to form an easily configurable and transportable projection display with applications in virtual reality training. This paper provides some observations on the practical difficulties of using such a system, its effectiveness in delivering a VE for training and what benefit may be offered through the deployment of a large number of these low cost environments.

Grimes, Holly; McMenemy, Karen R.; Ferguson, R. S.

2008-02-01

113

Statistical laws in linguistics  

E-print Network

Zipf's law is just one out of many universal laws proposed to describe statistical regularities in language. Here we review and critically discuss how these laws can be statistically interpreted, fitted, and tested (falsified). The modern availability of large databases of written text allows for tests with an unprecedent statistical accuracy and also a characterization of the fluctuations around the typical behavior. We find that fluctuations are usually much larger than expected based on simplifying statistical assumptions (e.g., independence and lack of correlations between observations).These simplifications appear also in usual statistical tests so that the large fluctuations can be erroneously interpreted as a falsification of the law. Instead, here we argue that linguistic laws are only meaningful (falsifiable) if accompanied by a model for which the fluctuations can be computed (e.g., a generative model of the text). The large fluctuations we report show that the constraints imposed by linguistic laws...

Altmann, Eduardo G

2015-01-01

114

An AAA-DDD Triply Hydrogen-Bonded Complex Easily Accessible for Supramolecular Polymers.  

PubMed

For a complementary hydrogen-bonded complex, when every hydrogen-bond acceptor is on one side and every hydrogen-bond donor is on the other, all secondary interactions are attractive and the complex is highly stable. AAA-DDD (A=acceptor, D=donor) is considered to be the most stable among triply hydrogen-bonded sequences. The easily synthesized and further derivatized AAA-DDD system is very desirable for hydrogen-bonded functional materials. In this case, AAA and DDD, starting from 4-methoxybenzaldehyde, were synthesized with the Hantzsch pyridine synthesis and Friedländer annulation reaction. The association constant determined by fluorescence titration in chloroform at room temperature is 2.09×10(7) ?M(-1) . The AAA and DDD components are not coplanar, but form a V shape in the solid state. Supramolecular polymers based on AAA-DDD triply hydrogen bonded have also been developed. This work may make AAA-DDD triply hydrogen-bonded sequences easily accessible for stimuli-responsive materials. PMID:25339060

Han, Yi-Fei; Chen, Wen-Qiang; Wang, Hong-Bo; Yuan, Ying-Xue; Wu, Na-Na; Song, Xiang-Zhi; Yang, Lan

2014-12-15

115

Interpreting 12th-Graders' NAEP-Scaled Mathematics Performance Using High School Predictors and Postsecondary Outcomes from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88). Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2007-328  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The search for an understandable reporting format has led the National Assessment Governing Board to explore the possibility of measuring and interpreting student performance on the 12th-grade National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), the Nation's Report Card, in terms of readiness for college, the workplace, and the military. This…

Scott, Leslie A.; Ingels, Steven J.

2007-01-01

116

Cancer Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... 1975-2011 Did You Know? Video Series Cancer Statistics Understanding Cancer Statistics Learn definitions of statistical terms, how cancer statistics are used, and how population-based cancer statistics ...

117

Statistical modeling of air pollution.  

PubMed

The present communication deals with the application of several chemometric methods (principal components analysis, source apportioning on absolute principal components scores, chemical mass balance, self-organizing maps) to various aerosol data collections from different regions in Europe. It is shown that different latent factors explaining over 75 % of the total variance are responsible for the data structure and could be reliable identified and interpreted. Further, the contribution of each identified source to the formation of the particle total mass and chemical compounds total concentration is calculated. Thus, a reliable assessment of the air quality in the respective region is done. Classification by self-organizing maps makes it possible to better understand the role of different discriminating tracers in the air pollution. The use of chemical mass balance approach ensures a sound modeling of the pollution sources. The requirements of the sustainability concept for ecological indicators in this case is easily transformed to a multivariate statistical problem taking into account not separate indicators but the specific multivariate nature of the aerosol pollution. PMID:22217080

Tsakovski, Stefan L; Simeonova, Pavlina A; Simeonov, Vasil D

2012-01-01

118

GoCxx: a tool to easily leverage C++ legacy code for multicore-friendly Go libraries and frameworks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current HENP libraries and frameworks were written before multicore systems became widely deployed and used. From this environment, a ‘single-thread’ processing model naturally emerged but the implicit assumptions it encouraged are greatly impairing our abilities to scale in a multicore/manycore world. Writing scalable code in C++ for multicore architectures, while doable, is no panacea. Sure, C++11 will improve on the current situation (by standardizing on std::thread, introducing lambda functions and defining a memory model) but it will do so at the price of complicating further an already quite sophisticated language. This level of sophistication has probably already strongly motivated analysis groups to migrate to CPython, hoping for its current limitations with respect to multicore scalability to be either lifted (Grand Interpreter Lock removal) or for the advent of a new Python VM better tailored for this kind of environment (PyPy, Jython, …) Could HENP migrate to a language with none of the deficiencies of C++ (build time, deployment, low level tools for concurrency) and with the fast turn-around time, simplicity and ease of coding of Python? This paper will try to make the case for Go - a young open source language with built-in facilities to easily express and expose concurrency - being such a language. We introduce GoCxx, a tool leveraging gcc-xml's output to automatize the tedious work of creating Go wrappers for foreign languages, a critical task for any language wishing to leverage legacy and field-tested code. We will conclude with the first results of applying GoCxx to real C++ code.

Binet, Sébastien

2012-12-01

119

Surface structure, model and mechanism of an insect integument adapted to be damaged easily.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Several sawfly larvae of the Tenthredinidae (Hymenoptera) are called easy bleeders because their whole body integument, except the head capsule, disrupts very easily at a given spot, under a slight mechanical stress at this spot. The exuding haemolymph droplet acts as a feeding deterrent towards invertebrate predators. The present study aimed to describe the cuticle surface, to consider it from a mechanistic point of view, and to discuss potential consequences of the integument surface in the predator-prey relationships. RESULTS: The integument surface of sawfly larvae was investigated by light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) which revealed that the cuticle of easy bleeders was densely covered by what we call "spider-like" microstructures. Such microstructures were not detected in non-easy bleeders. A model by finite elements of the cuticle layer was developed to get an insight into the potential function of the microstructures during easy bleeding. Cuticle parameters (i.e., size of the microstructures and thickness of the epi-versus procuticle) were measured on integument sections and used in the model. A shear force applied on the modelled cuticle surface led to higher stress values when microstructures were present, as compared to a plan surface. Furthermore, by measuring the diameter of a water droplet deposited on sawfly larvae, the integument of several sawfly species was determined as hydrophobic (e.g., more than Teflon(R)), which was related to the sawfly larvae's ability to bleed easily. CONCLUSION: Easy bleeders show spider-like microstructures on their cuticle surface. It is suggested that these microstructures may facilitate integument disruption as well as render the integument hydrophobic. This latter property would allow the exuding haemolymph to be maintained as a droplet at the integument surface. PMID:15461785

Boevé, Jean-Luc; Ducarme, Véronique; Mertens, Tanguy; Bouillard, Philippe; Angeli, Sergio

2004-10-01

120

Effects of easily ionizable elements on the liquid sampling atmospheric pressure glow discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of studies has been undertaken to determine the susceptibility of the liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD) atomic emission source to easily ionizable element (EIE) effects. The initial portions of the study involved monitoring the voltage drop across the plasma as a function of the pH to ascertain whether or not the conductivity of the liquid eluent alters the plasma energetics and subsequently the analyte signal strength. It was found that altering the pH (0.0 to 2.0) in the sample matrix did not significantly change the discharge voltage. The emission signal intensities for Cu(I) 327.4 nm, Mo(I) 344.7 nm, Sc(I) 326.9 nm and Hg(I) 253.6 nm were measured as a function of the easily ionizable element (sodium and calcium) concentration in the injection matrix. A range of 0.0 to 0.1% (w/v) EIE in the sample matrix did not cause a significant change in the Cu, Sc, and Mo signal-to-background ratios, with only a slight change noted for Hg. In addition to this test of analyte response, the plasma energetics as a function of EIE concentration are assessed using the ratio of Mg(II) to Mg(I) (280.2 nm and 285.2 nm, respectively) intensities. The Mg(II)/Mg(I) ratio showed that the plasma energetics did not change significantly over the same range of EIE addition. These results are best explained by the electrolytic nature of the eluent acting as an ionic (and perhaps spectrochemical) buffer.

Venzie, Jacob L.; Marcus, R. Kenneth

2006-06-01

121

Surface structure, model and mechanism of an insect integument adapted to be damaged easily  

PubMed Central

Background Several sawfly larvae of the Tenthredinidae (Hymenoptera) are called easy bleeders because their whole body integument, except the head capsule, disrupts very easily at a given spot, under a slight mechanical stress at this spot. The exuding haemolymph droplet acts as a feeding deterrent towards invertebrate predators. The present study aimed to describe the cuticle surface, to consider it from a mechanistic point of view, and to discuss potential consequences of the integument surface in the predator-prey relationships. Results The integument surface of sawfly larvae was investigated by light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) which revealed that the cuticle of easy bleeders was densely covered by what we call "spider-like" microstructures. Such microstructures were not detected in non-easy bleeders. A model by finite elements of the cuticle layer was developed to get an insight into the potential function of the microstructures during easy bleeding. Cuticle parameters (i.e., size of the microstructures and thickness of the epi-versus procuticle) were measured on integument sections and used in the model. A shear force applied on the modelled cuticle surface led to higher stress values when microstructures were present, as compared to a plan surface. Furthermore, by measuring the diameter of a water droplet deposited on sawfly larvae, the integument of several sawfly species was determined as hydrophobic (e.g., more than Teflon®), which was related to the sawfly larvae's ability to bleed easily. Conclusion Easy bleeders show spider-like microstructures on their cuticle surface. It is suggested that these microstructures may facilitate integument disruption as well as render the integument hydrophobic. This latter property would allow the exuding haemolymph to be maintained as a droplet at the integument surface. PMID:15461785

Boevé, Jean-Luc; Ducarme, Véronique; Mertens, Tanguy; Bouillard, Philippe; Angeli, Sergio

2004-01-01

122

The emergent Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a new and conceptually simple interpretation of quantum mechanics based on reduced density matrices of sub-systems from which the standard Copenhagen interpretation emerges as an effective description of macroscopically large systems. This interpretation describes a world in which definite measurement results are obtained with probabilities that reproduce the Born rule. Wave function collapse is seen to be a useful but fundamentally unnecessary piece of prudent book keeping which is only valid for macro-systems. The new interpretation lies in a class of modal interpretations in that it applies to quantum systems that interact with a much larger environment. However, we show that it does not suffer from the problems that have plagued similar modal interpretations like macroscopic superpositions and rapid flipping between macroscopically distinct states. We describe how the interpretation fits neatly together with fully quantum formulations of statistical mechanics and that a measurement process can be viewed as a process of ergodicity breaking analogous to a phase transition. The key feature of the new interpretation is that joint probabilities for the ergodic subsets of states of disjoint macro-systems only arise as emergent quantities. Finally we give an account of the EPR-Bohm thought experiment and show that the interpretation implies the violation of the Bell inequality characteristic of quantum mechanics but in a way that is rather novel. The final conclusion is that the Copenhagen interpretation gives a completely satisfactory phenomenology of macro-systems interacting with micro-systems.

Hollowood, Timothy J.

2014-05-01

123

STRATEGIESEMPLOYERS Translation/Interpretation  

E-print Network

STRATEGIESEMPLOYERS GOVERNMENT Translation/Interpretation Language Analysis Linguistics Diplomacy vacancies. Review special hiring authorizations to be hired and to advance more quickly. Participate, Page 2) AREAS Translation/Interpretation Airline Services Management Booking and Reservations Travel

New Hampshire, University of

124

Translation and Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines recent trends in the fields of translation and interpretation, focusing on translation and interpretation theory and practice, language-specific challenges, computer-assisted translation, machine translation, subtitling, and translator and interpreter training. An annotated bibliography discusses seven important works in the field. (112…

Nicholson, Nancy Schweda

1995-01-01

125

Journalists as Interpretive Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes viewing journalists as members of an interpretive community (not a profession) united by its shared discourse and collective interpretations of key public events. Applies the frame of the interpretive community to journalistic discourse about two events central for American journalists--Watergate and McCarthyism. (SR)

Zelizer, Barbie

1993-01-01

126

Data Acquisition Interpretation  

E-print Network

Data Acquisition Inversion Interpretation Discussion Virgin River DCIP Report Justin Granek1 1 Report #12;Data Acquisition Inversion Interpretation Discussion Outline 1 Data Acquisition Location Survey Specications 2 Inversion Data Errors DCIP2D DCIP3D 3 Interpretation Correlations Snowbird Tectonic

Oldenburg, Douglas W.

127

HELPING ORGANIZATIONS SEE THEIR OPTIMAL FUTURE MORE CLEARLY AND REALIZE IT MORE EASILY AND QUICKLY Collaborating for Excellence!  

E-print Network

HELPING ORGANIZATIONS SEE THEIR OPTIMAL FUTURE MORE CLEARLY AND REALIZE IT MORE EASILY AND QUICKLY #12;HELPING ORGANIZATIONS SEE THEIR OPTIMAL FUTURE MORE CLEARLY AND REALIZE IT MORE EASILY AND QUICKLY to the successful development of future, global engineers · Collaboration ­ Achieving excellence through

Prodiæ, Aleksandar

128

Open Window: When Easily Identifiable Genomes and Traits Are in the Public Domain  

PubMed Central

“One can't be of an enquiring and experimental nature, and still be very sensible.” - Charles Fort [1] As the costs of personal genetic testing “self-quantification” fall, publicly accessible databases housing people's genotypic and phenotypic information are gradually increasing in number and scope. The latest entrant is openSNP, which allows participants to upload their personal genetic/genomic and self-reported phenotypic data. I believe the emergence of such open repositories of human biological data is a natural reflection of inquisitive and digitally literate people's desires to make genomic and phenotypic information more easily available to a community beyond the research establishment. Such unfettered databases hold the promise of contributing mightily to science, science education and medicine. That said, in an age of increasingly widespread governmental and corporate surveillance, we would do well to be mindful that genomic DNA is uniquely identifying. Participants in open biological databases are engaged in a real-time experiment whose outcome is unknown. PMID:24647311

Angrist, Misha

2014-01-01

129

Easily regenerable solid adsorbents based on polyamines for carbon dioxide capture from the air.  

PubMed

Adsorbents prepared easily by impregnation of fumed silica with polyethylenimine (PEI) are promising candidates for the capture of CO2 directly from the air. These inexpensive adsorbents have high CO2 adsorption capacity at ambient temperature and can be regenerated in repeated cycles under mild conditions. Despite the very low CO2 concentration, they are able to scrub efficiently all CO2 out of the air in the initial hours of the experiments. The influence of parameters such as PEI loading, adsorption and desorption temperature, particle size, and PEI molecular weight on the adsorption behavior were investigated. The mild regeneration temperatures required could allow the use of waste heat available in many industrial processes as well as solar heat. CO2 adsorption from the air has a number of applications. Removal of CO2 from a closed environment, such as a submarine or space vehicles, is essential for life support. The supply of CO2-free air is also critical for alkaline fuel cells and batteries. Direct air capture of CO2 could also help mitigate the rising concerns about atmospheric CO2 concentration and associated climatic changes, while, at the same time, provide the first step for an anthropogenic carbon cycle. PMID:24644023

Goeppert, Alain; Zhang, Hang; Czaun, Miklos; May, Robert B; Prakash, G K Surya; Olah, George A; Narayanan, S R

2014-05-01

130

Synchronized Drumming Enhances Activity in the Caudate and Facilitates Prosocial Commitment - If the Rhythm Comes Easily  

PubMed Central

Why does chanting, drumming or dancing together make people feel united? Here we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying interpersonal synchrony and its subsequent effects on prosocial behavior among synchronized individuals. We hypothesized that areas of the brain associated with the processing of reward would be active when individuals experience synchrony during drumming, and that these reward signals would increase prosocial behavior toward this synchronous drum partner. 18 female non-musicians were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they drummed a rhythm, in alternating blocks, with two different experimenters: one drumming in-synchrony and the other out-of-synchrony relative to the participant. In the last scanning part, which served as the experimental manipulation for the following prosocial behavioral test, one of the experimenters drummed with one half of the participants in-synchrony and with the other out-of-synchrony. After scanning, this experimenter “accidentally” dropped eight pencils, and the number of pencils collected by the participants was used as a measure of prosocial commitment. Results revealed that participants who mastered the novel rhythm easily before scanning showed increased activity in the caudate during synchronous drumming. The same area also responded to monetary reward in a localizer task with the same participants. The activity in the caudate during experiencing synchronous drumming also predicted the number of pencils the participants later collected to help the synchronous experimenter of the manipulation run. In addition, participants collected more pencils to help the experimenter when she had drummed in-synchrony than out-of-synchrony during the manipulation run. By showing an overlap in activated areas during synchronized drumming and monetary reward, our findings suggest that interpersonal synchrony is related to the brain's reward system. PMID:22110623

Kokal, Idil; Engel, Annerose; Kirschner, Sebastian; Keysers, Christian

2011-01-01

131

Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum: an easily missed respiratory pathogen in HIV-infected patients.  

PubMed

Despite being a well-known respiratory pathogen for immunocompromised patients, Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum has uncommonly been reported to occur in persons with infection attributable to HIV virus. We report three cases of respiratory tract infection attributable to C. pseudodiphtheriticum in HIV-infected patients and review the four previous cases from the medical literature. All of them were male with a median CD4 lymphocyte count of 110 cells/mm3 (range, 18-198/mm3); five of the seven cases occurred in persons for whom AIDS was diagnosed previously. The onset of symptomatology was usually acute and the most common radiographic appearance was alveolar infiltrate (six patients) with cavitation (two patients) and pleural effusion (two patients). In five of the seven cases, C. pseudodiphtheriticum was isolated from bronchoscopic samples and in the remaining two cases was recovered from lung biopsy (one patient) and sputum (one patient). In the three patients reported herein and in one previous case from the medical literature, quantitative culturing of bronchoscopic samples obtained through either bronchoalveolar lavage or protected brush catheter procedures yielded more than 10(3) CFU/mL. All the strains tested were susceptible to penicillin and vancomycin. Resistance to macrolides was common. Recovery was observed in six of the seven patients. C. pseudodiphtheriticum should be regarded as a potential respiratory pathogen in HIV-infected patients. This infection presents late in the course of HIV disease and it seems to respond well to appropriate antibiotic treatment in most of the cases. This easily overlooked pathogen should be added to the list of organisms implicated in respiratory tract infections in this population. PMID:10212746

Gutiérrez-Rodero, F; Ortiz de la Tabla, V; Martínez, C; Masiá, M M; Mora, A; Escolano, C; González, E; Martin-Hidalgo, A

1999-04-01

132

Statistical Laboratory & Department of Statistics  

E-print Network

Statistical Laboratory & Department of Statistics Annual Report July 1, 2005 to December 31, 2006...............................................33 Statistical Computing Section ......................................34 CSSM and statistical methodology in the nutritional sciences. We were also very pleased to secure a permanent lecturer

133

Interpreting Technical Drawings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interpreting Technical Drawings introduces students to the various sources of information found within technical drawings and provides practice interpreting various projections. After completing this module, students should be able to identify orthographic, isometric, and sectional views and interpret key information on technical drawings. Note: This module is part of a modularized manufacturing technology curriculum created by the PSCME, found at www.pscme.org/educators.html.

2010-08-11

134

Integrated 3-D quality control of geological interpretation through the use of simple methods and programs  

SciTech Connect

Integrating different petroleum geology disciplines gives insight and help in analyzing data and in checking the quality of different interpretations. Simple approaches and affordable programs allow rapid visualization of data in 3-D. Displaying geological data from stratigraphy, diagenesis, and structural geology together, allows identification of anomalies (i.e. development targets) and often gives clues of the controlling processes. Four case studies from world class fields are used to illustrate the vital need to integrate quality control of interpretation across disciplines. Distribution of diagenetic alterations is revealed by visualizing diagenetic and petrographic data against faults in a 3-D statistical program. Faults are transferred from 3-D seismic into such a program and then analyzed against other data. Fault intersections wrongly correlated are also easily picked. Other powerful tools include a modified use of the Bischke Plots that allow the identification of missing sections previously identified as fault cut-outs. The quality of interpretation has sometimes been assessed from the presence of stacked anomalies of various expression. In other cases repeated unexpected isopach trends revealed subtle faults such as riedels sealing and compartmentizing the reservoirs. Occasionally the timing of fault reactivation was assessed precisely whereas all other techniques failed even to identify these hidden features. Unrecognized porosity-depth trends were identified after filtering data for stratigraphy or sedimentology and studying it in its geographical and tectonic context. Three dimensional visualization was needed in cases of quartz overgrowth where grain size, depth, stratigraphy and location with respect to faults were all important.

Chatellier, J.Y.; Gustavo, F.; Magaly, Q. (Intevep, Caracas (Venezuela))

1996-01-01

135

Integrated 3-D quality control of geological interpretation through the use of simple methods and programs  

SciTech Connect

Integrating different petroleum geology disciplines gives insight and help in analyzing data and in checking the quality of different interpretations. Simple approaches and affordable programs allow rapid visualization of data in 3-D. Displaying geological data from stratigraphy, diagenesis, and structural geology together, allows identification of anomalies (i.e. development targets) and often gives clues of the controlling processes. Four case studies from world class fields are used to illustrate the vital need to integrate quality control of interpretation across disciplines. Distribution of diagenetic alterations is revealed by visualizing diagenetic and petrographic data against faults in a 3-D statistical program. Faults are transferred from 3-D seismic into such a program and then analyzed against other data. Fault intersections wrongly correlated are also easily picked. Other powerful tools include a modified use of the Bischke Plots that allow the identification of missing sections previously identified as fault cut-outs. The quality of interpretation has sometimes been assessed from the presence of stacked anomalies of various expression. In other cases repeated unexpected isopach trends revealed subtle faults such as riedels sealing and compartmentizing the reservoirs. Occasionally the timing of fault reactivation was assessed precisely whereas all other techniques failed even to identify these hidden features. Unrecognized porosity-depth trends were identified after filtering data for stratigraphy or sedimentology and studying it in its geographical and tectonic context. Three dimensional visualization was needed in cases of quartz overgrowth where grain size, depth, stratigraphy and location with respect to faults were all important.

Chatellier, J.Y.; Gustavo, F.; Magaly, Q. [Intevep, Caracas (Venezuela)

1996-12-31

136

Psychological testing of sign language interpreters.  

PubMed

Twenty-eight sign language interpreters participated in a battery of tests to determine if a profile of cognitive, motor, attention, and personality attributes might distinguish them as a group and at different credential levels. Eight interpreters held Level II and nine held Level III Virginia Quality Assurance Screenings (VQAS); the other 11 held Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf (RID) certification. Six formal tests, the Quick Neurological Screening Test-II, the Wonderlic Personnel Test, the Test of Visual-Motor Skills (TVMS), the d2 Test of Attention, the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test, and the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF), were administered to the interpreters. Average scores were high on most of the tests; differences across the three groups were not statistically significant. Results from only one test, the d2 Test of Attention, were significantly correlated with interpreter level. Comparisons between educational and community interpreters also revealed no differences. Personality traits were widely distributed, but one trait, abstract reasoning, tested extremely high in 18 interpreters. Discussion of the potential implications of these results, particularly for educational interpreters, is offered. PMID:15304401

Seal, Brenda C

2004-01-01

137

Preparation and Use of an Easily Constructed, Inexpensive Chamber for Viewing Courtship Behaviors of Fruit Flies, Drosophila sp.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details the construction of a viewing chamber for fruit flies that connects to a dissecting microscope and features a design that enables students to easily move fruit flies in and out of the chamber. (DDR)

Christensen, Timothy J.; Labov, Jay B.

1997-01-01

138

A synthetic interpretation: the double-preparation theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 1927 Solvay conference, three apparently irreconcilable interpretations of the quantum mechanics wave function were presented: the pilot-wave interpretation by de Broglie, the soliton wave interpretation by Schrödinger and the Born statistical rule by Born and Heisenberg. In this paper, we demonstrate the complementarity of these interpretations corresponding to quantum systems that are prepared differently and we deduce a synthetic interpretation: the double-preparation theory. We first introduce in quantum mechanics the concept of semi-classical statistically prepared particles, and we show that in the Schrödinger equation these particles converge, when h\\to 0, to the equations of a statistical set of classical particles. These classical particles are undiscerned, and if we assume continuity between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics, we conclude the necessity of the de Broglie–Bohm interpretation for the semi-classical statistically prepared particles (statistical wave). We then introduce in quantum mechanics the concept of a semi-classical deterministically prepared particle, and we show that in the Schrödinger equation this particle converges, when h\\to 0, to the equations of a single classical particle. This classical particle is discerned and assuming continuity between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics, we conclude the necessity of the Schrödinger interpretation for the semi-classical deterministically prepared particle (the soliton wave). Finally we propose, in the semi-classical approximation, a new interpretation of quantum mechanics, the ‘theory of the double preparation’, which depends on the preparation of the particles.

Gondran, Michel; Gondran, Alexandre

2014-12-01

139

SOCR: Statistics Online Computational Resource  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need for hands-on computer laboratory experience in undergraduate and graduate statistics education has been firmly established in the past decade. As a result a number of attempts have been undertaken to develop novel approaches for problem-driven statistical thinking, data analysis and result interpretation. In this paper we describe an…

Dinov, Ivo D.

2006-01-01

140

Topics in statistical data analysis for high-energy physics  

E-print Network

These lectures concern two topics that are becoming increasingly important in the analysis of High Energy Physics (HEP) data: Bayesian statistics and multivariate methods. In the Bayesian approach we extend the interpretation of probability to cover not only the frequency of repeatable outcomes but also to include a degree of belief. In this way we are able to associate probability with a hypothesis and thus to answer directly questions that cannot be addressed easily with traditional frequentist methods. In multivariate analysis we try to exploit as much information as possible from the characteristics that we measure for each event to distinguish between event types. In particular we will look at a method that has gained popularity in HEP in recent years: the boosted decision tree (BDT).

G. Cowan

2010-12-16

141

Assessing compositional variability through graphical analysis and Bayesian statistical approaches: case studies on transgenic crops.  

PubMed

New transgenic (GM) crops are subjected to extensive safety assessments that include compositional comparisons with conventional counterparts as a cornerstone of the process. The influence of germplasm, location, environment, and agronomic treatments on compositional variability is, however, often obscured in these pair-wise comparisons. Furthermore, classical statistical significance testing can often provide an incomplete and over-simplified summary of highly responsive variables such as crop composition. In order to more clearly describe the influence of the numerous sources of compositional variation we present an introduction to two alternative but complementary approaches to data analysis and interpretation. These include i) exploratory data analysis (EDA) with its emphasis on visualization and graphics-based approaches and ii) Bayesian statistical methodology that provides easily interpretable and meaningful evaluations of data in terms of probability distributions. The EDA case-studies include analyses of herbicide-tolerant GM soybean and insect-protected GM maize and soybean. Bayesian approaches are presented in an analysis of herbicide-tolerant GM soybean. Advantages of these approaches over classical frequentist significance testing include the more direct interpretation of results in terms of probabilities pertaining to quantities of interest and no confusion over the application of corrections for multiple comparisons. It is concluded that a standardized framework for these methodologies could provide specific advantages through enhanced clarity of presentation and interpretation in comparative assessments of crop composition. PMID:22616479

Harrigan, George G; Harrison, Jay M

2012-01-01

142

Usage Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Cool Tools ESPAÑOL MedlinePlus Statistics To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Quarterly User Statistics Graph | Quarterly User Statistics Table | Number of Health ...

143

Theory Interpretations in PVS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this task was to provide a mechanism for theory interpretations in a prototype verification system (PVS) so that it is possible to demonstrate the consistency of a theory by exhibiting an interpretation that validates the axioms. The mechanization makes it possible to show that one collection of theories is correctly interpreted by another collection of theories under a user-specified interpretation for the uninterpreted types and constants. A theory instance is generated and imported, while the axiom instances are generated as proof obligations to ensure that the interpretation is valid. Interpretations can be used to show that an implementation is a correct refinement of a specification, that an axiomatically defined specification is consistent, or that a axiomatically defined specification captures its intended models. In addition, the theory parameter mechanism has been extended with a notion of theory as parameter so that a theory instance can be given as an actual parameter to an imported theory. Theory interpretations can thus be used to refine an abstract specification or to demonstrate the consistency of an axiomatic theory. In this report we describe the mechanism in detail. This extension is a part of PVS version 3.0, which will be publicly released in mid-2001.

Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan; Butler, Ricky W. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

144

32. Statistics 1 32. STATISTICS  

E-print Network

32. Statistics 1 32. STATISTICS Revised September 2007 by G. Cowan (RHUL). This chapter gives an overview of statistical methods used in High Energy Physics. In statistics, we are interested in using's validity or to determine the values of its parameters. There are two main approaches to statistical

Masci, Frank

145

Department of Statistics STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM  

E-print Network

Department of Statistics STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM ERIC KOLACZYK Department of Statistics Boston University Statistical Analysis of Network Data: (Re)visiting the Foundations MONDAY, October 13, 2014, at 4, statistical methods and modeling have been central to these efforts. But how well do we truly understand

146

Geological interpretation of a Gemini photo  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Study of the Gemini V photograph of the Salt Range and Potwar Plateau, West Pakistan, indicates that small-scale orbital photographs permit recognition of the regional continuity of some geologic features, particularly faults and folds that could he easily overlooked on conventional air photographs of larger scale. Some stratigraphic relationships can also be recognized on the orbital photograph, but with only minimal previous geologic knowledge of the area, these interpretations are less conclusive or reliable than the interpretation of structure. It is suggested that improved atmospheric penetration could be achieved through the use of color infrared film. Photographic expression of topography could also be improved by deliberately photographing some areas during periods of low sun angle.

Hemphill, William R.; Danilchik, Walter

1968-01-01

147

Interpretation of Bernoulli's Equation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses Bernoulli's equation with regards to: horizontal flow of incompressible fluids, change of height of incompressible fluids, gases, liquids and gases, and viscous fluids. Provides an interpretation, properties, terminology, and applications of Bernoulli's equation. (MVL)

Bauman, Robert P.; Schwaneberg, Rolf

1994-01-01

148

A two-stage anaerobic system for biodegrading wastewater containing terephthalic acid and high strength easily degradable pollutants.  

PubMed

The high strength easily biodegradable pollutants (represented by CODE) are strong inhibitors of terephthalic acid (TA) anaerobic biodegradation. At the same time, TA can inhibit easily biodegradable pollutants removal under anaerobic conditions to a limited extent. This mutual inhibition could happen and cause a low removal efficiency of both TA and CODE, when the effluent from TA workshops containing TA and easily biodegradable pollutants are treated by a single anaerobic reactor system. Based upon the treatment kinetics analysis of both TA degradation and CODE removal, a two-stage up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket and up-flow fixed film reactor(UASB-UAFF) system for dealing with this kind of wastewater was developed and run successfully at laboratory scale. An UASB reactor with the methanogenic consortium as the first stage removes the easily biodegradable pollutants(CODE). An UAFF reactor as the second stage is mainly in charge of TA degradation. At a CODE loading of 15.3 g/(L.d) and a TA loading of 1.4 g/(L.d), HRT 18.5 h, the CODE and TA removal rate of the system reached 89.2% and 71.6%, respectively. PMID:12491720

Li, Xiao-ming; Zeng, Guang-ming; Liu, Jing-jin; Chen, Jian; Lun, Shi-yi

2002-10-01

149

Double copper sheath multiconductor instrumentation cable is durable and easily installed in high thermal or nuclear radiation area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multiconductor instrumentation cable in which the conducting wires are routed through two concentric copper tube sheaths, employing a compressed insulator between the conductors and between the inner and outer sheaths, is durable and easily installed in high thermal or nuclear radiation area. The double sheath is a barrier against moisture, abrasion, and vibration.

Mc Crae, A. W., Jr.

1967-01-01

150

THE EASILY VISIBLE rings of Saturn, made of ice and dust that reflect the sun's light in vivid  

E-print Network

THE EASILY VISIBLE rings of Saturn, made of ice and dust that reflect the sun's light in vivid hues of Saturn's gravitational field. The ring has a diameter of about 22.5 million miles--almost 300 times the size of Saturn, which itself is almost 95 times the size of Earth. It is also very thick: About 20

Danforth, Chris

151

Hospitals as interpretation systems.  

PubMed Central

In this study of 162 hospitals, it was found that the chief executive officer's (CEO's) interpretation of strategic issues is related to the existing hospital strategy and the hospital's information processing structure. Strategy was related to interpretation in terms of the extent to which a given strategic issue was perceived as controllable or uncontrollable. Structure was related to the extent to which an issue was defined as positive or negative, was labeled as controllable or uncontrollable, and was perceived as leading to a gain or a loss. Together, strategy and structure accounted for a significant part of the variance in CEO interpretations of strategic events. The theoretical and managerial implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:1991677

Thomas, J B; McDaniel, R R; Anderson, R A

1991-01-01

152

STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM MONDAY, MARCH 24, 2014  

E-print Network

STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM MONDAY, MARCH 24, 2014 TALK: 4:15 PM -- SCIENCE CENTER RM. 705 RECEPTION: 3 Department of Statistics University of California, Berkeley ABSTRACT In a 2009 PNAS article, based on work at appropriate speeds. We discuss these results and argue that while they are hard to interpret statistically

Schrag, Daniel

153

Systematic detection of statistically overrepresented DNA motif association rules.  

PubMed

DNA motifs, or cis-elements, are short nucleotide sequence patterns recognized by various transcription factors (TFs). In promoters, these TFs bind in a complex combinatorial manner in order to regulate the expression of a downstream gene. The combinatorial space is frequently large and difficult to manage since vertebrates have thousands of transcription factors and more than 20,000 genes. We introduce a computer program called CAYCE (Combinatorial AnalYsis of Cis-Elements) that systematically detects statistically overrepresented DNA motif association rules independent of Microarray information. CAYCE is an adaptation of the apriori algorithm traditionally used for association rule mining, but offers three significant advancements. (1) It analyzes multiple occurrences of an item, corresponding to multiple TF binding sites, (2) It compares results with a biologically relevant background, and (3), it provides p-values for straightforward statistical interpretation. CAYCE can be easily applied to any item-set data where the investigator is also interested in multiple occurrences of a single item, and/or overrepresentation of association rules compared with a background. Applying CAYCE to human promoters in 1% of the human genome, we discover that motif clusters containing five repetitions of SP1 are the most statistically significant. PMID:17503362

Lin, Jane Marie; Weng, Zhiping

2006-01-01

154

Statistics as a dynamical attractor  

E-print Network

It is demonstrated that any statistics can be represented by an attractor of the solution to a corresponding systen of ODE coupled with its Liouville equation. Such a non-Newtonian representation allows one to reduce foundations of statistics to better established foundations of ODE. In addition to that, evolution to the attractor reveals possible micro-mechanisms driving random events to the final distribution of the corresponding statistical law. Special attention is concentrated upon the power law and its dynamical interpretation: it is demonstrated that the underlying dynamics supports a " violent reputation" of the power law statistics.

Zak, Michail

2012-01-01

155

Statistics as a dynamical attractor  

E-print Network

It is demonstrated that any statistics can be represented by an attractor of the solution to a corresponding systen of ODE coupled with its Liouville equation. Such a non-Newtonian representation allows one to reduce foundations of statistics to better established foundations of ODE. In addition to that, evolution to the attractor reveals possible micro-mechanisms driving random events to the final distribution of the corresponding statistical law. Special attention is concentrated upon the power law and its dynamical interpretation: it is demonstrated that the underlying dynamics supports a " violent reputation" of the power law statistics.

Michail Zak

2012-08-30

156

Modification of codes NUALGAM and BREMRAD. Volume 3: Statistical considerations of the Monte Carlo method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The statistics are considered of the Monte Carlo method relative to the interpretation of the NUGAM2 and NUGAM3 computer code results. A numerical experiment using the NUGAM2 code is presented and the results are statistically interpreted.

Firstenberg, H.

1971-01-01

157

Interpreting Carnivore Scent-Station Surveys  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) has placed online a 1998 scientific publication from the Journal of Wildlife Management (Vol 62(4):1235-1245) entitled "Interpreting Carnivore Scent-Station Surveys." In it, the authors analyze a subset of data from the Minnesota carnivore scent-station survey collected during 1986-93, "to determine statistical properties and to examine analyses of scent-station data." This resource, of interest to wildlife managers, may be downloaded as a .zip files.

158

Histoplasmosis Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... About CDC.gov . Fungal Diseases Share Compartir Histoplasmosis Statistics How common is histoplasmosis? In the United States, ... Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & Testing Treatment Health Professionals Statistics More Resources Blastomycosis Definition Symptoms People at Risk & ...

159

Caregiving Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

Statistics on Family Caregivers and Family Caregiving Caregiving Population Economics of Caregiving Impact on Family Caregiver's Health ... Identified Family Caregivers, 2001. Top State by State Statistics The economic value of family caregiving is detailed ...

160

Interpreting the Constitution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

Brennan, William J., Jr.

1987-01-01

161

Fractal interpretation of intermittency  

SciTech Connect

Implication of intermittency in high-energy collisions is first discussed. Then follows a description of the fractal interpretation of intermittency. A basic quantity with asymptotic fractal behavior is introduced. It is then shown how the factorial moments and the G moments can be expressed in terms of it. The relationship between the intermittency indices and the fractal indices is made explicit.

Hwa, R.C.

1991-12-01

162

Interpretation as Abduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hobbs, J.R., M.E. Stickel, D.E. Appelt and P. Martin, Interpretation as abduction, Artificial Intelligence 63 (1993) 69-142. Abduction is inference to the best explanation. In the TACITUS project at SRI we have developed an approach to abductive inference, called \\

Jerry R. Hobbs; Mark E. Stickel; Douglas E. Appelt; Paul A. Martin

1993-01-01

163

Listening and Message Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Message interpretation, the notion that individuals assign meaning to stimuli, is related to listening presage, listening process, and listening product. As a central notion of communication, meaning includes (a) denotation and connotation, and (b) content and relational meanings, which can vary in ambiguity and vagueness. Past research on message…

Edwards, Renee

2011-01-01

164

Interpreting & Biomechanics. PEPNet Tipsheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) refers to a collection of disorders associated with nerves, muscles, tendons, bones, and the neurovascular (nerves and related blood vessels) system. CTD symptoms may involve the neck, back, shoulders, arms, wrists, or hands. Interpreters with CTD may experience a variety of symptoms including: pain, joint…

PEPNet-Northeast, 2001

2001-01-01

165

Nationally consistent and easily-implemented approach to evaluate littoral-riparian habitat quality in lakes and reservoirs  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Lakes Assessment (NLA) and other lake survey and monitoring efforts increasingly rely upon biological assemblage data to define lake condition. Information concerning the multiple dimensions of physical and chemical habitat is necessary to interpret this biological ...

166

Statistical Diversions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a branch of knowledge, Statistics is ubiquitous and its applications can be found in (almost) every field of human endeavour. In this article, the authors track down the possible source of the link between the "Siren song" and applications of Statistics. Answers to their previous five questions and five new questions on Statistics are presented.

Petocz, Peter; Sowey, Eric

2008-01-01

167

Statistical Diversions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term "data snooping" refers to the practice of choosing which statistical analyses to apply to a set of data after having first looked at those data. Data snooping contradicts a fundamental precept of applied statistics, that the scheme of analysis is to be planned in advance. In this column, the authors shall elucidate the statistical

Petocz, Peter; Sowey, Eric

2012-01-01

168

Large, Easily Deployable Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Study of concepts for large space structures will interest those designing scaffolding, radio towers, rescue equipment, and prefabricated shelters. Double-fold, double-cell module was selected for further design and for zero gravity testing. Concept is viable for deployment by humans outside space vehicle as well as by remotely operated manipulator.

Agan, W. E.

1983-01-01

169

An easily diagnosable PLA  

E-print Network

than the common stuck-at faults [4). Existing testing algorithms, such as the D-algorithm [6]. , PODE1VI 7] and FAN [8', , cannot efficiently test or localize faults inside s. PLA. Vote that the testing and diagnosing problems are quite different..., s); begin for ii = 1, :3, 5, p ? 1 do begin /" diagnosis of product line"/ /s initiate shift register'/ end; 25 Shift in S and record product line output v=0; if f=0 and s=0 then begin for ii = 1 to p do begin /* Apply test vectors/ /* v...

Kao, Chung Min

1989-01-01

170

Gille-SIO 221C 1 Objective Mapping: Anisotropic Statistics  

E-print Network

Gille-SIO 221C 1 Objective Mapping: Anisotropic Statistics Objective mapping discussions often assume that covariance statistics are isotropic and homogeneous. However, in the ocean and atmosphere. The equations used to carry out objective mapping are easily modified to allow for anisotropic statistics

Gille, Sarah T.

171

On statistical aspects of Qjets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process by which jet algorithms construct jets and subjets is inherently ambiguous and equally well motivated algorithms often return very different answers. The Qjets procedure was introduced by the authors to account for this ambiguity by considering many reconstructions of a jet at once, allowing one to assign a weight to each interpretation of the jet. Employing these weighted interpretations leads to an improvement in the statistical stability of many measurements. Here we explore in detail the statistical properties of these sets of weighted measurements and demonstrate how they can be used to improve the reach of jet-based studies.

Ellis, Stephen D.; Hornig, Andrew; Krohn, David; Roy, Tuhin S.

2015-01-01

172

Ta3N5-Pt nonwoven cloth with hierarchical nanopores as efficient and easily recyclable macroscale photocatalysts  

PubMed Central

Traditional nanosized photocatalysts usually have high photocatalytic activity but can not be efficiently recycled. Film-shaped photocatalysts on the substrates can be easily recycled, but they have low surface area and/or high production cost. To solve these problems, we report on the design and preparation of efficient and easily recyclable macroscale photocatalysts with nanostructure by using Ta3N5 as a model semiconductor. Ta3N5-Pt nonwoven cloth has been prepared by an electrospinning-calcination-nitridation-wet impregnation method, and it is composed of Ta3N5 fibers with diameter of 150–200?nm and hierarchical pores. Furthermore, these fibers are constructed from Ta3N5 nanoparticles with diameter of ~25?nm which are decorated with Pt nanoparticles with diameter of ~2.5?nm. Importantly, Ta3N5-Pt cloth can be used as an efficient and easily recyclable macroscale photocatalyst with wide visible-light response, for the degradation of methylene blue and parachlorophenol, probably resulting in a very promising application as “photocatalyst dam” for the polluted river. PMID:24496147

Li, Shijie; Zhang, Lisha; Wang, Huanli; Chen, Zhigang; Hu, Junqing; Xu, Kaibing; Liu, Jianshe

2014-01-01

173

Ta3N5-Pt nonwoven cloth with hierarchical nanopores as efficient and easily recyclable macroscale photocatalysts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional nanosized photocatalysts usually have high photocatalytic activity but can not be efficiently recycled. Film-shaped photocatalysts on the substrates can be easily recycled, but they have low surface area and/or high production cost. To solve these problems, we report on the design and preparation of efficient and easily recyclable macroscale photocatalysts with nanostructure by using Ta3N5 as a model semiconductor. Ta3N5-Pt nonwoven cloth has been prepared by an electrospinning-calcination-nitridation-wet impregnation method, and it is composed of Ta3N5 fibers with diameter of 150-200 nm and hierarchical pores. Furthermore, these fibers are constructed from Ta3N5 nanoparticles with diameter of ~25 nm which are decorated with Pt nanoparticles with diameter of ~2.5 nm. Importantly, Ta3N5-Pt cloth can be used as an efficient and easily recyclable macroscale photocatalyst with wide visible-light response, for the degradation of methylene blue and parachlorophenol, probably resulting in a very promising application as ``photocatalyst dam'' for the polluted river.

Li, Shijie; Zhang, Lisha; Wang, Huanli; Chen, Zhigang; Hu, Junqing; Xu, Kaibing; Liu, Jianshe

2014-02-01

174

Tips for Mental Health Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers tips for working with interpreters in mental health settings. These tips include: (1) Using trained interpreters, not bilingual staff or community members; (2) Explaining "interpreting procedures" to the providers and clients; (3) Addressing the stigma associated with mental health that may influence interpreters; (4) Defining…

Whitsett, Margaret

2008-01-01

175

Term statistics Zipf's law text statistics  

E-print Network

Term statistics Zipf's law text statistics October 20, 2014 text statistics 1 / 19 #12;Term statistics Zipf's law Overview 1 Term statistics 2 Zipf's law text statistics 2 / 19 #12;Term statistics Zipf's law Outline 1 Term statistics 2 Zipf's law text statistics 3 / 19 #12;Term statistics Zipf's law Model

Lu, Jianguo

176

Department of Statistics STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM  

E-print Network

Department of Statistics STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM GOURAB MUKHERJEE Department of Statistics Stanford University Minimax Estimation of High-dimensional Predictive Densities MONDAY, February 11, 2013, at 4:00 PM investments and sports betting, have been undergoing a gradual evolution from point predic- tion towards

Stephens, Matthew

177

National Association for Interpretation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NAI promotes the advancement of the profession of interpretation, a communication process used in on-site informal education programs at parks, zoos, nature centers, historic sites, museums, and aquaria. This site announces national and regional NAI conferences, workshops on diverse topics, skill certification programs, networking opportunities and job listing service. Includes membership information and application; can order newsletters, professional journals and books. Membership, program and publication fees apply.

2011-05-18

178

Interpreting Geologic Sections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Athro, Limited is a for-profit corporation that publishes high school and college level biology, earth science, and geology course supplements and independent learning materials on the Web. This site provides instruction in interpreting the order of events in three hypothetical and one real geological section. For each section there is a list of events and an animation of the history of the section once the student has decided on the order of events.

Paul Morris

179

National Association for Interpretation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NAI promotes the advancement of the profession of interpretation, a communication process used in on-site informal education programs at parks, zoos, nature centers, historic sites, museums, and aquaria. This site announces national and regional NAI conferences, workshops on diverse topics, skill certification programs, networking opportunities and job listing service. Includes membership information and application; can order newsletters, professional journals and books. Membership, program and publication fees apply.

180

Autoadaptivity and optimization in distributed ECG interpretation.  

PubMed

This paper addresses principal issues of the ECG interpretation adaptivity in a distributed surveillance network. In the age of pervasive access to wireless digital communication, distributed biosignal interpretation networks may not only optimally solve difficult medical cases, but also adapt the data acquisition, interpretation, and transmission to the variable patient's status and availability of technical resources. The background of such adaptivity is the innovative use of results from the automatic ECG analysis to the seamless remote modification of the interpreting software. Since the medical relevance of issued diagnostic data depends on the patient's status, the interpretation adaptivity implies the flexibility of report content and frequency. Proposed solutions are based on the research on human experts behavior, procedures reliability, and usage statistics. Despite the limited scale of our prototype client-server application, the tests yielded very promising results: the transmission channel occupation was reduced by 2.6 to 5.6 times comparing to the rigid reporting mode and the improvement of the remotely computed diagnostic outcome was achieved in case of over 80% of software adaptation attempts. PMID:20064764

Augustyniak, Piotr

2010-03-01

181

The Statistical Literacy Needed to Interpret School Assessment Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State-wide and national testing in areas such as literacy and numeracy produces reports containing graphs and tables illustrating school and individual performance. These are intended to inform teachers, principals, and education organisations about student and school outcomes, to guide change and improvement. Given the complexity of the…

Chick, Helen; Pierce, Robyn

2013-01-01

182

Model Output Statistics (MOS) -Objective Interpretation of NWP  

E-print Network

System "Fun Facts" With apologies to David Letterman, of course! 9 million regression equations 75 million forecasts per day 1200 products sent daily 400,000 lines of code ­ mostly FORTRAN 180 min suite (GFS, NAM) Other additions to the lineup 3. Simple regression examples / REEP 4. Development

Kalnay, Eugenia

183

Interpreting uncertainty terms.  

PubMed

Uncertainty terms (e.g., some, possible, good, etc.) are words that do not have a fixed referent and hence are relatively ambiguous. A model is proposed that specifies how, from the hearer's perspective, recognition of facework as a potential motive for the use of an uncertainty term results in a calibration of the intended meaning of that term. Four experiments are reported that examine the impact of face threat, and the variables that affect it (e.g., power), on the manner in which a variety of uncertainty terms (probability terms, quantifiers, frequency terms, etc.) are interpreted. Overall, the results demonstrate that increased face threat in a situation will result in a more negative interpretation of an utterance containing an uncertainty term. That the interpretation of so many different types of uncertainty terms is affected in the same way suggests the operation of a fundamental principle of language use, one with important implications for the communication of risk, subjective experience, and so on. PMID:25090127

Holtgraves, Thomas

2014-08-01

184

Data Interpretation: Using Probability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experimental data are analysed statistically to allow researchers to draw conclusions from a limited set of measurements. The hard fact is that researchers can never be certain that measurements from a sample will exactly reflect the properties of the entire group of possible candidates available to be studied (although using a sample is often the…

Drummond, Gordon B.; Vowler, Sarah L.

2011-01-01

185

Psychological Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains materials for a college level undergraduate statistics course. The approach places emphasis on practical application. Examples are shown with hand computations and with the Minitab statistical program (V13.1). There are a couple of spreadsheets as well. Topics include: frequency distributions, graphing techniques, central tendency, variability, relative standing, correlation, dichotomous variables, continuous variables (1 and 2 sample), ANOVA: one way and two way, and nonparametric statistics.

Plonsky, Mark

2009-01-26

186

Oxidative C-C bond formation (Scholl reaction) with DDQ as an efficient and easily recyclable oxidant.  

PubMed

DDQ in the presence of an acid is known to oxidize a variety of aromatic donors to the corresponding cation radicals. Herein, we now demonstrate that the DDQ/H(+) system can be effectively utilized for the oxidative C-C bond formations or biaryl synthesis. The efficient preparation of a variety of polyaromatic hydrocarbons including graphitic hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronenes, ease of isolation of the clean products, and ready regeneration of DDQ from easily recovered reduced DDQ-H(2) advances the use of DDQ/H(+) for Scholl reactions. PMID:19594139

Zhai, Linyi; Shukla, Ruchi; Rathore, Rajendra

2009-08-01

187

Interpretation of Conventional Mass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conventional mass is not a precise physical quantity but useful virtual one in mass metrology. Because the precise level of conventional mass is related to the OIML class, it is necessary to check if the assignment of weight class is under control. The documents of OIML (International Organization of Legal Metrology) D 28 and R 111 describe the limitation of the quantity in real application. In this presentation, we are trying to interpret and review the concept of conventional mass, for example, by estimating buoyancy deviation and maximum permissible error, in weight calibrations in Korea. Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract only.

Lee, Sungjun; Kim, Kwang Pyo

188

Interpreting Paleoenvironments with Microfossils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is constructed to help students gain a better understanding of how scientists can use foraminifera to interpret past environments. Specifically, they will have the opportunity to understand one of the basic tenets of geology: the present is the key to the past, a principle otherwise known as uniformitarianism. Objectives include: distinguishing between planktonic, benthic, hyaline, porcelaneous, and agglutinated foraminifera, calculating the proportion of planktonic specimens in a sample, establishing the species diversity of a sample, establishing the shell-type ratio of a sample, and reconstructing the environment of deposition of the sample.

Culver, Stephen

189

Graphs: Interpret Line Plots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website application provides practice interpreting line plots. The format of the website makes it available to use with individual students on one computer or with an entire class on an interactive white board. Each practice problem is submitted to determine if it is correct, when an incorrect answer is submitted the correct answer and an option for an explanation appears. Each problem set is also timed and the user is provided with a percent correct. This website does have a membership option for a fee which would enable the teacher to track the progress of multiple students over time.

2012-01-01

190

Monitoring and interpreting bioremediation effectiveness  

SciTech Connect

Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, extensive research was conducted by the US Environments Protection Agency and Exxon to develop and implement bioremediation techniques for oil spill cleanup. A key challenge of this program was to develop effective methods for monitoring and interpreting bioremediation effectiveness on extremely heterogenous intertidal shorelines. Fertilizers were applied to shorelines at concentrations known to be safe, and effectiveness achieved in acceleration biodegradation of oil residues was measure using several techniques. This paper describes the most definitive method identified, which monitors biodegradation loss by measuring changes in ratios of hydrocarbons to hopane, a cycloalkane present in the oil that showed no measurable degradation. Rates of loss measured by the hopane ratio method have high levels of statistical confidence, and show that the fertilizer addition stimulated biodegradation rates as much a fivefold. Multiple regression analyses of data show that fertilizer addition of nitrogen in interstitial pore water per unit of oil load was the most important parameter affecting biodegradation rate, and results suggest that monitoring nitrogen concentrations in the subsurface pore water is preferred technique for determining fertilizer dosage and reapplication frequency.

Bragg, J.R. [Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (United States); Prince, R.C. [Exxon Research and Engineering Co., Annadale, NJ (United States); Harner, J. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Atlas, R.M. [Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States)

1993-12-31

191

Statistical Diversions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors focus on hypothesis testing--that peculiarly statistical way of deciding things. Statistical methods for testing hypotheses were developed in the 1920s and 1930s by some of the most famous statisticians, in particular Ronald Fisher, Jerzy Neyman and Egon Pearson, who laid the foundations of almost all modern methods of…

Petocz, Peter; Sowey, Eric

2008-01-01

192

Statistics Poster Challenge for Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The analysis and interpretation of data are important life skills. A poster challenge for schoolchildren provides an innovative outlet for these skills and demonstrates their relevance to daily life. We discuss our Statistics Poster Challenge and the lessons we have learned.

Payne, Brad; Freeman, Jenny; Stillman, Eleanor

2013-01-01

193

Statistical mechanics of the vacuum  

E-print Network

The vacuum is full of virtual particles which exist for short moments of time. In this paper we construct a chaotic model of vacuum fluctuations associated with a fundamental entropic field that generates an arrow of time. The dynamics can be physically interpreted in terms of fluctuating virtual momenta. This model leads to a generalized statistical mechanics that distinguishes fundamental constants of nature.

Christian Beck

2011-12-07

194

Reading and Interpreting Tables and Graphs Involving Rates and Percentages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This survey, created by Milo Schield of Augsburg College, assesses statistical literacy. The survey focuses on the general use of informal statistics in everyday situations: reading and interpreting tables and graphs involving rates and percentages. The survey itself takes between thirty and forty minutes. The author does apologize for the length, but insists that it is due to how comprehensive the survey is. Sixty-nine questions in length, almost every topic concerning statistics is covered. The survey was funded by the W.M. Keck Statistical Literacy Project.

Schield, Milo

2009-03-11

195

Generic interpreters and microprocessor verification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following topics are covered in viewgraph form: (1) generic interpreters; (2) Viper microprocessors; (3) microprocessor verification; (4) determining correctness; (5) hierarchical decomposition; (6) interpreter theory; (7) AVM-1; (8) phase-level specification; and future work.

Windley, Phillip J.

1990-01-01

196

Interpretation of genetic variants.  

PubMed

Sequencing of the human genome and introduction of clinical next-generation sequencing enable discovery of all DNA variants carried by an individual. Variants may be solely responsible for disease, may contribute to disease, or may have no influence on the development of disease. Interpreting the effect of these variants upon disease is a major challenge for medicine. Although the process is still evolving, certain methods are useful in discriminating the effect of variants upon phenotype. These methods have been employed to the greatest extent in Mendelian disorders where deleterious changes in one gene can cause disease. Here, we briefly review the relative merits of these methods, with emphasis on using a comprehensive approach modelled after the analysis of variants that causes cystic fibrosis. PMID:24343785

Sosnay, Patrick R; Cutting, Garry R

2014-03-01

197

3-D Seismic Interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

Moore, Gregory F.

2009-05-01

198

Interpreting bruises at necropsy  

PubMed Central

The accurate interpretation of bruising at necropsy is essential to understanding how a victim has been injured and assists the pathologist in a reliable reconstruction of the events leading to death. It is essential not only to assess the mechanism of production of a bruise, taking into account the type of impacting surface and the magnitude of force used, but also to estimate when the injury was caused. An account is given of the various methods used in the examination of bruises, particularly with respect to aging, as well as the factors that may affect their appearance. Differentiation from artefacts resulting from postmortem changes is also discussed in some detail. Key Words: bruising • necropsy • time of death • cause of death PMID:11328832

Vanezis, P

2001-01-01

199

Collaborative Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Collaborative Statistics was written by Barbara Illowsky and Susan Dean, faculty members at De Anza College in Cupertino, California. The textbook was developed over several years and has been used in regular and honors-level classroom settings and in distance learning classes. This textbook is intended for introductory statistics courses being taken by students at twoâ and fourâÂÂyear colleges who are majoring in fields other than math or engineering. Intermediate algebra is the only prerequisite. The book focuses on applications of statistical knowledge rather than the theory behind it.

Dean, Susan; Illowsky, Barbara

2009-11-17

200

Rainbow statistics  

E-print Network

Non-commutative quantum field theories and their global quantum group symmetries provide an intriguing attempt to go beyond the realm of standard local quantum field theory. A common feature of these models is that the quantum group symmetry of their Hilbert spaces induces additional structure in the multiparticle states which reflects a non-trivial momentum-dependent statistics. We investigate the properties of this "rainbow statistics" in the particular context of $\\kappa$-quantum fields and discuss the analogies/differences with models with twisted statistics.

Michele Arzano; Dario Benedetti

2008-09-04

201

Engineering Statistics From "Engineering Statistics" , Top &  

E-print Network

Engineering Statistics From "Engineering Statistics" , Top & Wiley, Prapaisri & Pongchanun 2 From "Engineering Statistics" , Top & Wiley, Prapaisri & Pongchanun 3 " "(Sample) (Sampling) ""(Population) " "(Statistics) ""(Parameter) From "Engineering Statistics" , Top & Wiley, Prapaisri

Kovintavewat, Piya

202

Statistics Indonesia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 1997, the Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS-Statistics Indonesia) is a non-departmental Indonesian government institution directly responsible to the Indonesian president. As the law that created this valuable institution stipulates, the BPS is intended to provide data to the government and the public, along cooperating with other international statistical institutions. Visitors looking for statistics on any number of topics will not be disappointed, as the areas covered include agriculture, consumer price indices, employment, energy, foreign trade, mining, population, public finance, tourism, and social welfare. Additionally, there are monthly macro-economic statistical reports for the years from 1998 to 2001 that can be downloaded and viewed as well. The site is rounded out by a collection of some 21 papers from the past four years that analyze various economic data from the country, such as earning data and manufacturing production.

203

Statistical Mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review and further develop a mathematical framework for non-equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics recently proposed in (JP4, JP5, JP6, Ru3, Ru4, Ru5, Ru6). In the alge- braic formalism of quantum statistical mechanics we introduce notions of non-equilibrium steady states, entropy production and heat fluxes, and study their properties. Our basic paradigm is a model of a small (finite) quantum system

V. Jaksi ´; C.-A. Pillet

1937-01-01

204

Appropriate use of medical interpreters.  

PubMed

More than 25 million Americans speak English "less than very well," according to the U.S. Census Bureau. This population is less able to access health care and is at higher risk of adverse outcomes such as drug complications and decreased patient satisfaction. Title VI of the Civil Rights Act mandates that interpreter services be provided for patients with limited English proficiency who need this service, despite the lack of reimbursement in most states. Professional interpreters are superior to the usual practice of using ad hoc interpreters (i.e., family, friends, or untrained staff). Untrained interpreters are more likely to make errors, violate confidentiality, and increase the risk of poor outcomes. Children should never be used as interpreters except in emergencies. When using an interpreter, the clinician should address the patient directly and seat the interpreter next to or slightly behind the patient. Statements should be short, and the discussion should be limited to three major points. In addition to acting as a conduit for the discussion, the interpreter may serve as a cultural liaison between the physician and patient. When a bilingual clinician or a professional interpreter is not available, phone interpretation services or trained bilingual staff members are reasonable alternatives. The use of professional interpreters (in person or via telephone) increases patient satisfaction, improves adherence and outcomes, and reduces adverse events, thus limiting malpractice risk. PMID:25369625

Juckett, Gregory; Unger, Kendra

2014-10-01

205

INCREASING SCIENTIFIC POWER WITH STATISTICAL POWER  

EPA Science Inventory

A brief survey of basic ideas in statistical power analysis demonstrates the advantages and ease of using power analysis throughout the design, analysis, and interpretation of research. he power of a statistical test is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis of the test...

206

Screencast Tutorials Enhance Student Learning of Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the use of computer-assisted instruction has rapidly increased, there is little empirical research evaluating these technologies, specifically within the context of teaching statistics. The authors assessed the effect of screencast tutorials on learning outcomes, including statistical knowledge, application, and interpretation. Students…

Lloyd, Steven A.; Robertson, Chuck L.

2012-01-01

207

Sum Over Histories: Discrete Step Interpretation  

E-print Network

We study the transition of a particle between two points such that the particle takes discrete spatial steps in this transition. We analyze how the sum over histories interpretation of quantum mechanics can be implemented in this scenario. We show that the Euclidean propagator of a free particle is recovered if the minimum space interval is of the order or greater than the De Broglie's wavelength of the particle. We also describe the statistical ensembles that model this transition. Furthermore, we discuss a possible extension of this model to 2-dimensions which serves as an example to extend it to any number of spatial dimensions.

Muhammad Adeel Ajaib

2014-03-09

208

SOCR: Statistics Online Computational Resource  

PubMed Central

The need for hands-on computer laboratory experience in undergraduate and graduate statistics education has been firmly established in the past decade. As a result a number of attempts have been undertaken to develop novel approaches for problem-driven statistical thinking, data analysis and result interpretation. In this paper we describe an integrated educational web-based framework for: interactive distribution modeling, virtual online probability experimentation, statistical data analysis, visualization and integration. Following years of experience in statistical teaching at all college levels using established licensed statistical software packages, like STATA, S-PLUS, R, SPSS, SAS, Systat, etc., we have attempted to engineer a new statistics education environment, the Statistics Online Computational Resource (SOCR). This resource performs many of the standard types of statistical analysis, much like other classical tools. In addition, it is designed in a plug-in object-oriented architecture and is completely platform independent, web-based, interactive, extensible and secure. Over the past 4 years we have tested, fine-tuned and reanalyzed the SOCR framework in many of our undergraduate and graduate probability and statistics courses and have evidence that SOCR resources build student’s intuition and enhance their learning. PMID:21451741

Dinov, Ivo D.

2011-01-01

209

Impact of Statistical Learning Methods on the Predictive Power of Multivariate Normal Tissue Complication Probability Models  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To study the impact of different statistical learning methods on the prediction performance of multivariate normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models. Methods and Materials: In this study, three learning methods, stepwise selection, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), and Bayesian model averaging (BMA), were used to build NTCP models of xerostomia following radiotherapy treatment for head and neck cancer. Performance of each learning method was evaluated by a repeated cross-validation scheme in order to obtain a fair comparison among methods. Results: It was found that the LASSO and BMA methods produced models with significantly better predictive power than that of the stepwise selection method. Furthermore, the LASSO method yields an easily interpretable model as the stepwise method does, in contrast to the less intuitive BMA method. Conclusions: The commonly used stepwise selection method, which is simple to execute, may be insufficient for NTCP modeling. The LASSO method is recommended.

Xu Chengjian, E-mail: c.j.xu@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Schaaf, Arjen van der; Schilstra, Cornelis; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Veld, Aart A. van't [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

2012-03-15

210

Interpreting Interpretation in Psychoanalysis: Freud, Klein, and Lacan.  

E-print Network

??This theoretical dissertation examines psychoanalytic interpretation through a critical textual analysis of primary texts by Sigmund Freud, Melanie Klein, and Jacques Lacan. Chapter One presents… (more)

Harper, Lynn Christine

2006-01-01

211

Linking numbers, spin, and statistics of solitons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spin and statistics of solitons in the (2 + 1)- and (3 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear sigma models is considered. For the (2 + 1)-dimensional case, there is the possibility of fractional spin and exotic statistics; for 3 + 1 dimensions, the usual spin-statistics relation is demonstrated. The linking-number interpretation of the Hopf invariant and the use of suspension considerably simplify the analysis.

Wilczek, F.; Zee, A.

1983-01-01

212

-Plant species decline due to abandonment of meadows cannot easily be reversed by mowing -151 Journal of Vegetation Science 10: 151-164, 1999  

E-print Network

- Plant species decline due to abandonment of meadows cannot easily be reversed by mowing - 151 species decline due to abandonment of meadows cannot easily be reversed by mowing. A case study from mowing in two plots of ca. 100 m2 in an abandoned meadow dominated by Brachypodium pinnatum on the slope

Stampfli, Andreas

213

Easily implementable field programmable gate array-based adaptive optics system with state-space multichannel control.  

PubMed

In this paper, an easily implementable adaptive optics system (AOS) based on a real-time field programmable gate array (FPGA) platform with state-space multichannel control programmed by LabVIEW has been developed, and also integrated into a laser focusing system successfully. To meet the requirements of simple programming configuration and easy integration with other devices, the FPGA-based AOS introduces a standard operation procedure including AOS identification, computation, and operation. The overall system with a 32-channel driving signal for a deformable mirror (DM) as input and a Zernike polynomial via a lab-made Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) as output is optimally identified to construct a multichannel state-space model off-line. In real-time operation, the FPGA platform first calculates the Zernike polynomial of the optical wavefront measured from the SHWS as the feedback signal. Then, a state-space multichannel controller according to the feedback signal and the identified model is designed and implemented in the FPGA to drive the DM for phase distortion compensation. The current FPGA-based AOS is capable of suppressing low-frequency thermal disturbances with a steady-state phase error of less than 0.1 ? within less than 10 time steps when the control loop is operated at a frequency of 30 Hz. PMID:24089871

Chang, Chia-Yuan; Ke, Bo-Ting; Su, Hung-Wei; Yen, Wei-Chung; Chen, Shean-Jen

2013-09-01

214

Easily Modified Factors Contribute to Delays in Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile Infection: a Cohort Study and Intervention  

PubMed Central

Although rapid laboratory tests are available for diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), delays in completion of CDI testing are common in clinical practice. We conducted a cohort study of 242 inpatients tested for CDI to determine the timing of different steps involved in diagnostic testing and to identify modifiable factors contributing to delays in diagnosis. The average time from test order to test result was 1.8 days (range, 0.2 to 10.6), with time from order to stool collection accounting for most of the delay (mean, 1.0 day; range, 0 to 10). Several modifiable factors contributed to delays, including not providing stool collection supplies to patients in a timely fashion, rejection of specimens due to incorrect labeling or leaking from the container, and holding samples in the laboratory for batch processing. Delays in testing contributed to delays in initiation of treatment for patients diagnosed with CDI and to frequent prescription of empirical CDI therapy for patients with mild to moderate symptoms whose testing was ultimately negative. An intervention that addressed several easily modified factors contributing to delays resulted in a significant decrease in the time required to complete CDI testing. These findings suggest that health care facilities may benefit from a review of their processes for CDI testing to identify and address modifiable factors that contribute to delays in diagnosis and treatment of CDI. PMID:23678072

Kundrapu, Sirisha; Jury, Lucy A.; Sitzlar, Brett; Sunkesula, Venkata C. K.; Sethi, Ajay K.

2013-01-01

215

Easily implementable field programmable gate array-based adaptive optics system with state-space multichannel control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, an easily implementable adaptive optics system (AOS) based on a real-time field programmable gate array (FPGA) platform with state-space multichannel control programmed by LabVIEW has been developed, and also integrated into a laser focusing system successfully. To meet the requirements of simple programming configuration and easy integration with other devices, the FPGA-based AOS introduces a standard operation procedure including AOS identification, computation, and operation. The overall system with a 32-channel driving signal for a deformable mirror (DM) as input and a Zernike polynomial via a lab-made Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) as output is optimally identified to construct a multichannel state-space model off-line. In real-time operation, the FPGA platform first calculates the Zernike polynomial of the optical wavefront measured from the SHWS as the feedback signal. Then, a state-space multichannel controller according to the feedback signal and the identified model is designed and implemented in the FPGA to drive the DM for phase distortion compensation. The current FPGA-based AOS is capable of suppressing low-frequency thermal disturbances with a steady-state phase error of less than 0.1 ? within less than 10 time steps when the control loop is operated at a frequency of 30 Hz.

Chang, Chia-Yuan; Ke, Bo-Ting; Su, Hung-Wei; Yen, Wei-Chung; Chen, Shean-Jen

2013-09-01

216

Early Prediction of Intensive Care Unit–Acquired Weakness Using Easily Available Parameters: A Prospective Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction An early diagnosis of Intensive Care Unit–acquired weakness (ICU–AW) using muscle strength assessment is not possible in most critically ill patients. We hypothesized that development of ICU–AW can be predicted reliably two days after ICU admission, using patient characteristics, early available clinical parameters, laboratory results and use of medication as parameters. Methods Newly admitted ICU patients mechanically ventilated ?2 days were included in this prospective observational cohort study. Manual muscle strength was measured according to the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale, when patients were awake and attentive. ICU–AW was defined as an average MRC score <4. A prediction model was developed by selecting predictors from an a–priori defined set of candidate predictors, based on known risk factors. Discriminative performance of the prediction model was evaluated, validated internally and compared to the APACHE IV and SOFA score. Results Of 212 included patients, 103 developed ICU–AW. Highest lactate levels, treatment with any aminoglycoside in the first two days after admission and age were selected as predictors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the prediction model was 0.71 after internal validation. The new prediction model improved discrimination compared to the APACHE IV and the SOFA score. Conclusion The new early prediction model for ICU–AW using a set of 3 easily available parameters has fair discriminative performance. This model needs external validation. PMID:25347675

Wieske, Luuk; Witteveen, Esther; Verhamme, Camiel; Dettling-Ihnenfeldt, Daniela S.; van der Schaaf, Marike; Schultz, Marcus J.; van Schaik, Ivo N.; Horn, Janneke

2014-01-01

217

Fundamentals of interpretation in echocardiography  

SciTech Connect

This illustrated book provides familiarity with the many clinical, physical, and electronic factors that bear on echocardiographic interpretation. Physical and clinical principles are integrated with considerations of anatomy and physiology to address interpretive problems. This approach yields, for example, sections on the physics and electronics of M-mode, cross sectional, and Doppler systems which are informal, full of echocardiagrams, virtually devoid of mathematics, and rigorously related to common issues faced by echocardiograph interpreters.

Harrigan, P.; Lee, R.M.

1985-01-01

218

Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first working draft of the World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C) Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition is now available. The document "defines the process of Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition and the syntax and semantics of semantic interpretation tags that can be added to speech recognition grammars." The document is a draft, open for suggestions from W3C members and other interested users.

Lernout & Hauspie Speech Products.; Tichelen, Luc V.

2001-01-01

219

Learning Speech Translation from Interpretation.  

E-print Network

??This thesis introduces methods to directly train speech translation systems on audio recordings of interpreter-mediated communication. By employing unsupervised and lightly supervised training techniques, the… (more)

Paulik, Matthias

2010-01-01

220

QUANTIFICATION AND INTERPRETATION OF TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS IN SEDIMENT SAMPLES BY A GC/MS METHOD AND COMPARISON WITH EPA 418.1 AND A RAPID FIELD METHOD  

EPA Science Inventory

ABSTRACT: Total Petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as a lumped parameter can be easily and rapidly measured or monitored. Despite interpretational problems, it has become an accepted regulatory benchmark used widely to evaluate the extent of petroleum product contamination. Three cu...

221

Geochemical Interpretation of Collision Volcanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collision volcanism can be defined as volcanism that takes place during an orogeny from the moment that continental subduction starts to the end of orogenic collapse. Its importance in the Geological Record is greatly underestimated as collision volcanics are easily misinterpreted as being of volcanic arc, extensional or mantle plume origin. There are many types of collision volcanic province: continent-island arc collision (e.g. Banda arc); continent-active margin collision (e.g. Tibet, Turkey-Iran); continent-rear-arc collision (e.g. Bolivia); continent-continent collision (e.g. Tuscany); and island arc-island arc collision (e.g. Taiwan). Superimposed on this variability is the fact that every orogeny is different in detail. Nonetheless, there is a general theme of cyclicity on different time scales. This starts with syn-collision volcanism resulting from the subduction of an ocean-continent transition and continental lithosphere, and continues through post-collision volcanism. The latter can be subdivided into orogenic volcanism, which is related to thickened crust, and post-orogenic, which is related to orogenic collapse. Typically, but not always, collision volcanism is preceded by normal arc volcanism and followed by normal intraplate volcanism. Identification and interpretation of collision volcanism in the Geologic Record is greatly facilitated if a dated stratigraphic sequence is present so that the petrogenic evolution can be traced. In any case, the basis of fingerprinting collision terranes is to use geochemical proxies for mantle and subduction fluxes, slab temperatures, and depths and degrees of melting. For example, syn-collision volcanism is characterized by a high subduction flux relative to mantle flux because of the high input flux of fusible sediment and crust coupled with limited mantle flow, and because of high slab temperatures resulting from the decrease in subduction rate. The resulting geochemical patterns are similar regardless of collision type with extreme LILE and significant HFSE enrichment relative to MORB and with large negative Nb-Ta and Ti anomalies. Post-collision volcanism is usually ascribed to combinations of slab detachment, delamination, and slab roll back (orogenic) and extension (post-orogenic). The magma source is typically conductively-heated, sub-continental mantle lithosphere with composition and depth of melting depending on the nature and evolution of the collision zone in question. Geochemical patterns may be similar to those of syn-collision basalts or of intraplate, continental basalts - or transitional between these. This variability in space and time, though problematic for geochemical fingerprinting, can give clues to the polarity and development of the collision zone, for example by highlighting the distribution of subduction-modified mantle lithosphere and hence of pre-collision subduction zones. One characteristic common to this setting is a high crustal input resulting from the presence of a hot, thick 'crustal chemical filter' which is evident on geochemical projections that highlight AFC-type processes. Using this, and other, geochemical features it is possible to develop methodologies to at least partly see through the complexity of collision terranes.

Pearce, Julian

2014-05-01

222

Statistical Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A good resource for problems in statistics in engineering. Contains some applets, and good textual examples related to engineering. Some topics include Monte Carlo method, Central Limit Theorem, Risk, Logistic Regression, Generalized Linear Models, and Confidence. Overall, this is a well presented and good site for anyone interested in engineering or mathematics.

Annis, Charles

223

Statistics Investigations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage contains statistics investigations in the form of word problems. The investigations are located on the left hand side of the page on the navigation bar: the links are "Recommended Investigations" and "Additional Investigations". Within each investigation there are additional links to external resources that can be used to solve or illustrate the problem.

2013-01-01

224

Interpreting Repeated Measures Data through "Special" Mean Contrasts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Use of "special" orthonormal mean contrasts and mean contrast variances can help educational researchers interpret a wide variety of repeated measures data. Most statistical packages allow educational researchers to test for differences across repeated measures using both the univariate mixed model F test and a multivariate test. Numerous…

Barcikowski, Robert; Robey, Randall R.

225

Statistical ecology comes of age.  

PubMed

The desire to predict the consequences of global environmental change has been the driver towards more realistic models embracing the variability and uncertainties inherent in ecology. Statistical ecology has gelled over the past decade as a discipline that moves away from describing patterns towards modelling the ecological processes that generate these patterns. Following the fourth International Statistical Ecology Conference (1-4 July 2014) in Montpellier, France, we analyse current trends in statistical ecology. Important advances in the analysis of individual movement, and in the modelling of population dynamics and species distributions, are made possible by the increasing use of hierarchical and hidden process models. Exciting research perspectives include the development of methods to interpret citizen science data and of efficient, flexible computational algorithms for model fitting. Statistical ecology has come of age: it now provides a general and mathematically rigorous framework linking ecological theory and empirical data. PMID:25540151

Gimenez, Olivier; Buckland, Stephen T; Morgan, Byron J T; Bez, Nicolas; Bertrand, Sophie; Choquet, Rémi; Dray, Stéphane; Etienne, Marie-Pierre; Fewster, Rachel; Gosselin, Frédéric; Mérigot, Bastien; Monestiez, Pascal; Morales, Juan M; Mortier, Frédéric; Munoz, François; Ovaskainen, Otso; Pavoine, Sandrine; Pradel, Roger; Schurr, Frank M; Thomas, Len; Thuiller, Wilfried; Trenkel, Verena; de Valpine, Perry; Rexstad, Eric

2014-12-01

226

Statistical ecology comes of age  

PubMed Central

The desire to predict the consequences of global environmental change has been the driver towards more realistic models embracing the variability and uncertainties inherent in ecology. Statistical ecology has gelled over the past decade as a discipline that moves away from describing patterns towards modelling the ecological processes that generate these patterns. Following the fourth International Statistical Ecology Conference (1–4 July 2014) in Montpellier, France, we analyse current trends in statistical ecology. Important advances in the analysis of individual movement, and in the modelling of population dynamics and species distributions, are made possible by the increasing use of hierarchical and hidden process models. Exciting research perspectives include the development of methods to interpret citizen science data and of efficient, flexible computational algorithms for model fitting. Statistical ecology has come of age: it now provides a general and mathematically rigorous framework linking ecological theory and empirical data. PMID:25540151

Gimenez, Olivier; Buckland, Stephen T.; Morgan, Byron J. T.; Bez, Nicolas; Bertrand, Sophie; Choquet, Rémi; Dray, Stéphane; Etienne, Marie-Pierre; Fewster, Rachel; Gosselin, Frédéric; Mérigot, Bastien; Monestiez, Pascal; Morales, Juan M.; Mortier, Frédéric; Munoz, François; Ovaskainen, Otso; Pavoine, Sandrine; Pradel, Roger; Schurr, Frank M.; Thomas, Len; Thuiller, Wilfried; Trenkel, Verena; de Valpine, Perry; Rexstad, Eric

2014-01-01

227

Input of easily available organic C and N stimulates microbial decomposition of soil organic matter in arctic permafrost soil  

PubMed Central

Rising temperatures in the Arctic can affect soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition directly and indirectly, by increasing plant primary production and thus the allocation of plant-derived organic compounds into the soil. Such compounds, for example root exudates or decaying fine roots, are easily available for microorganisms, and can alter the decomposition of older SOM (“priming effect”). We here report on a SOM priming experiment in the active layer of a permafrost soil from the central Siberian Arctic, comparing responses of organic topsoil, mineral subsoil, and cryoturbated subsoil material (i.e., poorly decomposed topsoil material subducted into the subsoil by freeze–thaw processes) to additions of 13C-labeled glucose, cellulose, a mixture of amino acids, and protein (added at levels corresponding to approximately 1% of soil organic carbon). SOM decomposition in the topsoil was barely affected by higher availability of organic compounds, whereas SOM decomposition in both subsoil horizons responded strongly. In the mineral subsoil, SOM decomposition increased by a factor of two to three after any substrate addition (glucose, cellulose, amino acids, protein), suggesting that the microbial decomposer community was limited in energy to break down more complex components of SOM. In the cryoturbated horizon, SOM decomposition increased by a factor of two after addition of amino acids or protein, but was not significantly affected by glucose or cellulose, indicating nitrogen rather than energy limitation. Since the stimulation of SOM decomposition in cryoturbated material was not connected to microbial growth or to a change in microbial community composition, the additional nitrogen was likely invested in the production of extracellular enzymes required for SOM decomposition. Our findings provide a first mechanistic understanding of priming in permafrost soils and suggest that an increase in the availability of organic carbon or nitrogen, e.g., by increased plant productivity, can change the decomposition of SOM stored in deeper layers of permafrost soils, with possible repercussions on the global climate. PMID:25089062

Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Jörg; Alves, Ricardo J. Eloy; Barsukov, Pavel; Bárta, Ji?í; ?apek, Petr; Gentsch, Norman; Gittel, Antje; Guggenberger, Georg; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Mikutta, Robert; Rusalimova, Olga; Šantr??ková, Hana; Shibistova, Olga; Urich, Tim; Watzka, Margarete; Zrazhevskaya, Galina; Richter, Andreas

2014-01-01

228

Input of easily available organic C and N stimulates microbial decomposition of soil organic matter in arctic permafrost soil.  

PubMed

Rising temperatures in the Arctic can affect soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition directly and indirectly, by increasing plant primary production and thus the allocation of plant-derived organic compounds into the soil. Such compounds, for example root exudates or decaying fine roots, are easily available for microorganisms, and can alter the decomposition of older SOM ("priming effect"). We here report on a SOM priming experiment in the active layer of a permafrost soil from the central Siberian Arctic, comparing responses of organic topsoil, mineral subsoil, and cryoturbated subsoil material (i.e., poorly decomposed topsoil material subducted into the subsoil by freeze-thaw processes) to additions of (13)C-labeled glucose, cellulose, a mixture of amino acids, and protein (added at levels corresponding to approximately 1% of soil organic carbon). SOM decomposition in the topsoil was barely affected by higher availability of organic compounds, whereas SOM decomposition in both subsoil horizons responded strongly. In the mineral subsoil, SOM decomposition increased by a factor of two to three after any substrate addition (glucose, cellulose, amino acids, protein), suggesting that the microbial decomposer community was limited in energy to break down more complex components of SOM. In the cryoturbated horizon, SOM decomposition increased by a factor of two after addition of amino acids or protein, but was not significantly affected by glucose or cellulose, indicating nitrogen rather than energy limitation. Since the stimulation of SOM decomposition in cryoturbated material was not connected to microbial growth or to a change in microbial community composition, the additional nitrogen was likely invested in the production of extracellular enzymes required for SOM decomposition. Our findings provide a first mechanistic understanding of priming in permafrost soils and suggest that an increase in the availability of organic carbon or nitrogen, e.g., by increased plant productivity, can change the decomposition of SOM stored in deeper layers of permafrost soils, with possible repercussions on the global climate. PMID:25089062

Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Jörg; Alves, Ricardo J Eloy; Barsukov, Pavel; Bárta, Ji?í; Capek, Petr; Gentsch, Norman; Gittel, Antje; Guggenberger, Georg; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Mikutta, Robert; Rusalimova, Olga; Santr??ková, Hana; Shibistova, Olga; Urich, Tim; Watzka, Margarete; Zrazhevskaya, Galina; Richter, Andreas

2014-08-01

229

Rapid Quantitative Analysis of Microcystins in Raw Surface Waters with MALDI MS Utilizing Easily Synthesized Internal Standards  

PubMed Central

The freshwater cyanotoxins, microcystins (MCs), pose a global public health threat as potent hepatotoxins in cyanobacterial blooms; their persistence in drinking and recreational water has been associated with potential chronic effects in addition to acute intoxications. Rapid and accurate detection of the over 80 structural congeners is challenged by the rigorous and time consuming clean up required to overcome interference found in raw water samples. MALDI-MS has shown promise for rapid quantification of individual congeners in raw water samples, with very low operative cost, but so far limited sensitivity and lack of available and versatile internal standards (ISs) has limited its use. Two easily synthesized S-hydroxyethyl–Cys(7)-MC-LR and –RR ISs were used to generate linear standard curves in a reflectron MALDI instrument, reproducible across several orders of magnitude for MC –LR, - RR and –YR. Minimum quantification limits in direct water samples with no clean up or concentration step involved were consistently below 7 ?g/L, with recoveries from spiked samples between 80 and 119%. This method improves sensitivity by 30 fold over previous reports of quantitative MALDI-TOF applications to MCs and provides a salient option for rapid throughput analysis for multiple MC congeners in untreated raw surface water blooms as a means to identify source public health threats and target intervention strategies within a watershed. As demonstrated by analysis of a set of samples from Uruguay, utilizing the reaction of different MC congeners with alternate sulfhydryl compounds, the m/z of the IS can be customized to avoid overlap with interfering compounds in local surface water samples. PMID:24388801

Roegner, Amber F.; Schirmer, Macarena Pírez; Puschner, Birgit; Brena, Beatriz; Gonzalez-Sapienza, Gualberto

2014-01-01

230

Philosophical perspectives on quantum chaos: Models and interpretations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of quantum chaos is a special case of the larger problem of understanding how the classical world emerges from quantum mechanics. While we have learned that chaos is pervasive in classical systems, it appears to be almost entirely absent in quantum systems. The aim of this dissertation is to determine what implications the interpretation of quantum mechanics has for attempts to explain the emergence of classical chaos. There are three interpretations of quantum mechanics that have set out programs for solving the problem of quantum chaos: the standard interpretation, the statistical interpretation, and the deBroglie-Bohm causal interpretation. One of the main conclusions of this dissertation is that an interpretation alone is insufficient for solving the problem of quantum chaos and that the phenomenon of decoherence must be taken into account. Although a completely satisfactory solution of the problem of quantum chaos is still outstanding, I argue that the deBroglie-Bohm interpretation with the help of decoherence outlines the most promising research program to pursue. In addition to making a contribution to the debate in the philosophy of physics concerning the interpretation of quantum mechanics, this dissertation reveals two important methodological lessons for the philosophy of science. First, issues of reductionism and intertheoretic relations cannot be divorced from questions concerning the interpretation of the theories involved. Not only is the exploration of intertheoretic relations a central part of the articulation and interpretation of an individual theory, but the very terms used to discuss intertheoretic relations, such as `state' and `classical limit', are themselves defined by particular interpretations of the theory. The second lesson that emerges is that, when it comes to characterizing the relationship between classical chaos and quantum mechanics, the traditional approaches to intertheoretic relations, namely reductionism and theoretical pluralism, are inadequate. The fruitful ways in which models have been used in quantum chaos research point to the need for a new framework for addressing intertheoretic relations that focuses on models rather than laws.

Bokulich, Alisa Nicole

2001-09-01

231

Analyzing spike trains with circular statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In neuroscience, specifically electrophysiology, it is common to replace a measured sequence of action potentials or spike trains with delta functions prior to analysis. We apply a method called circular statistics to a time series of delta functions and show that the method is equivalent to the power spectrum. This technique allows us to easily visualize the idea of the power spectrum of spike trains and easily reveals oscillatory and stochastic behavior. We provide several illustrations of the method and an example suitable for students, and suggest that the method might be useful for courses in introductory biophysics and neuroscience.

Takeshita, Daisuke; Gale, John T.; Montgomery, Erwin B.; Bahar, Sonya; Moss, Frank

2009-05-01

232

CAN WE INTERPRET IRRATIONAL BEHAVIOR?  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to some theories of interpretation, it is difficult to explain and predict irrational behavior in intentional terms because irrational behavior does not support the ascription of intentional states with determinate content. In this paper I challenge this claim by offering a general diagnosis of those cases in which behavior, rational or not, resists interpretation. I argue that indeterminacy of

Lisa Bortolotti

2004-01-01

233

Judging Dramatic Interpretation: Textual Considerations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recent growth in popularity among college students of dramatic interpretation in forensic competition justifies an examination of textual considerations and resultant criteria important to the evaluation of dramatic literature. The first considerations of the student contemplating the dramatic interpretation event are the selection of material…

Manchester, Bruce B.

234

Interpretation and Change in Counseling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the function of interpretation in counseling independent of its theoretical content. Reviews theory and research to yield three contrasting models of the function of interpretation in the change process. Discusses the relative merits of the three models of change and their implications for research. (Author)

Claiborn, Charles D.

1982-01-01

235

Remote sensing and image interpretation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A textbook prepared primarily for use in introductory courses in remote sensing is presented. Topics covered include concepts and foundations of remote sensing; elements of photographic systems; introduction to airphoto interpretation; airphoto interpretation for terrain evaluation; photogrammetry; radiometric characteristics of aerial photographs; aerial thermography; multispectral scanning and spectral pattern recognition; microwave sensing; and remote sensing from space.

Lillesand, T. M.; Kiefer, R. W. (principal investigators)

1979-01-01

236

Curriculum Guide for Interpreter Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a curriculum guide for the training of interpreters for the deaf consisting of 15 sections to be used as individual units or comprising a two part, 1 year course. The full course uses the text, Interpreting for Deaf People, as a guide and includes laboratory and practicum experiences. Curriculum guidelines include specific aims such…

Sternberg, Martin L. A.; And Others

237

Basic Interpreting Strategies for Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some deaf interpreting strategies are offered to parents of children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Parents are urged to utilize space in their interpreting, use name signs, utilize sight lines to distinguish characters in stories, use exaggerated signs to translate nursery rhymes, place themselves carefully at a public performance, and learn…

Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara

1993-01-01

238

Interpretation Bias and Social Anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socially anxious (SA) individuals interpret ambiguous social events negatively. It is not clear, however, whether this bias is due to general distress (e.g., depression and general anxiety) or level of social anxiety. In the current study we conducted two experiments examining interpretation bias in SA individuals using videos. Each video involved an actor or actress who approached the camera and

Nader Amir; Courtney Beard; Emily Bower

2005-01-01

239

Students' Interpretation of a Function Associated with a Real-Life Problem from Its Graph  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The properties of a function such as limit, continuity, derivative, growth, or concavity can be determined more easily from its graph than by doing any algebraic operation. For this reason, it is important for students of mathematics to interpret some of the properties of a function from its graph. In this study, we investigated the competence of…

Mahir, Nevin

2010-01-01

240

Four Faculty Positions Applied Statistics & Computational Statistics  

E-print Network

Four Faculty Positions Applied Statistics & Computational Statistics The Department of Statistics at the Assistant Professor rank. Two positions are open in the area of Applied Statistics, with a focus on the development of statistical methodology and statistical consulting. The other two positions are open

Shepp, Larry

241

Statistical Modeling of SAR Images: A Survey  

PubMed Central

Statistical modeling is essential to SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) image interpretation. It aims to describe SAR images through statistical methods and reveal the characteristics of these images. Moreover, statistical modeling can provide a technical support for a comprehensive understanding of terrain scattering mechanism, which helps to develop algorithms for effective image interpretation and creditable image simulation. Numerous statistical models have been developed to describe SAR image data, and the purpose of this paper is to categorize and evaluate these models. We first summarize the development history and the current researching state of statistical modeling, then different SAR image models developed from the product model are mainly discussed in detail. Relevant issues are also discussed. Several promising directions for future research are concluded at last. PMID:22315568

Gao, Gui

2010-01-01

242

Statistical modeling of SAR images: a survey.  

PubMed

Statistical modeling is essential to SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) image interpretation. It aims to describe SAR images through statistical methods and reveal the characteristics of these images. Moreover, statistical modeling can provide a technical support for a comprehensive understanding of terrain scattering mechanism, which helps to develop algorithms for effective image interpretation and creditable image simulation. Numerous statistical models have been developed to describe SAR image data, and the purpose of this paper is to categorize and evaluate these models. We first summarize the development history and the current researching state of statistical modeling, then different SAR image models developed from the product model are mainly discussed in detail. Relevant issues are also discussed. Several promising directions for future research are concluded at last. PMID:22315568

Gao, Gui

2010-01-01

243

Enhancing the Teaching of Statistics: Portfolio Theory, an Application of Statistics in Finance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we present an application of statistics using real stock market data. Most, if not all, students have some familiarity with the stock market (or at least they have heard about it) and therefore can understand the problem easily. It is the real data analysis that students find interesting. Here we explore the building of efficient…

Christou, Nicolas

2008-01-01

244

Learning Statistics By Doing Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, created by Gary Smith of Pomona College, discusses a project-based approach to teaching statistics. The article focuses on the team aspect of learning, it introduces concepts such as: working with data, learning by doing, learning by writing, learning by speaking, and authentic assessment of material. An appendix contains a list of twenty projects that have been successfully assigned.

Smith, Gary

245

Statistical Shorts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this statistics and probability activity students must determine whether each statement is always true, sometimes true, sometimes false, or always false. Students must have a basic understanding of probability statements and the foundation for understanding mean, median, and mode in order to complete this activity for all twelve statements. In addition to the task, tips for getting started, possible solutions, a teacher resource page, and a printable page are provided.

NRICH

2013-01-01

246

Statistical Optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wiley Classics Library consists of selected books that have become recognized classics in their respective fields. With these new unabridged and inexpensive editions, Wiley hopes to extend the life of these important works by making them available to future generations of mathematicians and scientists. Currently available in the Series: T. W. Anderson The Statistical Analysis of Time Series T. S. Arthanari & Yadolah Dodge Mathematical Programming in Statistics Emil Artin Geometric Algebra Norman T. J. Bailey The Elements of Stochastic Processes with Applications to the Natural Sciences Robert G. Bartle The Elements of Integration and Lebesgue Measure George E. P. Box & Norman R. Draper Evolutionary Operation: A Statistical Method for Process Improvement George E. P. Box & George C. Tiao Bayesian Inference in Statistical Analysis R. W. Carter Finite Groups of Lie Type: Conjugacy Classes and Complex Characters R. W. Carter Simple Groups of Lie Type William G. Cochran & Gertrude M. Cox Experimental Designs, Second Edition Richard Courant Differential and Integral Calculus, Volume I RIchard Courant Differential and Integral Calculus, Volume II Richard Courant & D. Hilbert Methods of Mathematical Physics, Volume I Richard Courant & D. Hilbert Methods of Mathematical Physics, Volume II D. R. Cox Planning of Experiments Harold S. M. Coxeter Introduction to Geometry, Second Edition Charles W. Curtis & Irving Reiner Representation Theory of Finite Groups and Associative Algebras Charles W. Curtis & Irving Reiner Methods of Representation Theory with Applications to Finite Groups and Orders, Volume I Charles W. Curtis & Irving Reiner Methods of Representation Theory with Applications to Finite Groups and Orders, Volume II Cuthbert Daniel Fitting Equations to Data: Computer Analysis of Multifactor Data, Second Edition Bruno de Finetti Theory of Probability, Volume I Bruno de Finetti Theory of Probability, Volume 2 W. Edwards Deming Sample Design in Business Research

Goodman, Joseph W.

2000-07-01

247

Statistics I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will encounter the concept of a distribution, along with parameters that describe a distribution's "typical" values (average) and a distribution's spread (variance). To understand simple distributions and uncertainty propagation in the coming sections, it is necessary to be familiar with the concept of statistical independence. When two variables fluctuate independently, their covariance vanishes, and the variance of their sum is the sum of their variances.

2013-06-21

248

Diagnosis and characterization of Hb C/Hb Iowa: a rare but easily misidentified compound heterozygous condition.  

PubMed

Hb Iowa is a rare hemoglobin (Hb) variant with a Gly --> Ala substitution at position 119 of beta-globin. It was previously reported only in an African American infant who was also heterozygous for Hb S [beta6(A3)Glu --> Val] and her mother (Hb A/Iowa). Here we describe the second report of Hb Iowa, the first in conjunction with Hb C [beta6(A3)Glu --> Lys]. The patient was an African American girl, originally diagnosed as homozygous Hb C during neonatal screening. When seen in our clinic, hematological data for both the child and her mother (Hb C trait) indicated mild anemia with slightly low mean corpuscular volume (MCV) but normal red blood cell (RBC) count. Analysis of blood from the child by capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF) identified Hb C and an unknown Hb variant with an isoelectric point (pI) intermediate to that of Hbs F and A. The unknown variant was identified as Hb Iowa by DNA sequence analysis of the beta-globin gene (GGC --> GCC). Both reported cases of Hb Iowa indicated that there are no abnormal hematological manifestations associated with this rare Hb variant. In both cases, however, Hb Iowa was mistaken for Hb F during routine neonatal screening by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and/or gel IEF. Neonatal misidentification of Hb Iowa led to misdiagnosis of sickle cell disease and Hb C disease, respectively. In our patient, Hb Iowa was also misidentified as Hb A at 2 years of age by a commercial reference laboratory using cellulose acetate and citrate agar gel electrophoresis. This led to an incorrect diagnosis of Hb C trait. These results show that commonly used analytical methods can easily misidentify Hb Iowa as Hbs F or A in neonates, or older individuals, resulting in incorrect identification of the Hb phenotype. We conclude that the presence of Hb Iowa, or other variants with similar pIs, should be considered in cases where the results of follow-up testing conflict with neonatal diagnosis of sickle cell or Hb C disease, or where clinical presentation does not agree with diagnosis of either homozygous or heterozygous Hb S or Hb C. PMID:15008260

Somjee, Saika; Yu, Lolie C; Hagar, Arthur F; Hempe, James M

2004-02-01

249

Three-Dimensional Statistics of Radio Polarimetry  

E-print Network

The measurement of radio polarization may be regarded as a three-dimensional statistical problem because the large photon densities at radio wavelengths allow the simultaneous detection of the three Stokes parameters which completely describe the radiation's polarization. The statistical nature of the problem arises from the fluctuating instrumental noise, and possibly from fluctuations in the radiation's polarization. A statistical model is used to derive the general, three-dimensional statistics that govern radio polarization measurements. The statistics are derived for specific cases of source-intrinsic polarization, with an emphasis on the orthogonal polarization modes in pulsar radio emission. The statistics are similar to those commonly found in other fields of the physical, biological, and Earth sciences. Given the highly variable linear and circular polarization of pulsar radio emission, an understanding of the three-dimensional statistics may be an essential prequisite to a thorough interpretation of pulsar polarization data.

Mark M. McKinnon

2003-06-03

250

The disagreeable behaviour of the kappa statistic.  

PubMed

It is often of interest to measure the agreement between a number of raters when an outcome is nominal or ordinal. The kappa statistic is used as a measure of agreement. The statistic is highly sensitive to the distribution of the marginal totals and can produce unreliable results. Other statistics such as the proportion of concordance, maximum attainable kappa and prevalence and bias adjusted kappa should be considered to indicate how well the kappa statistic represents agreement in the data. Each kappa should be considered and interpreted based on the context of the data being analysed. Copyright © 2014 JohnWiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25470361

Flight, Laura; Julious, Steven A

2015-01-01

251

Pornography and rape: theory and practice? Evidence from crime data in four countries where pornography is easily available.  

PubMed

We have looked at the empirical evidence of the well-known feminist dictum: "pornography is the theory--rape is the practice" (Morgan, 1980). While earlier research, notably that generated by the U.S. Commission on Obscenity and Pornography (1970) had found no evidence of a causal link between pornography and rape, a new generation of behavioral scientists have, for more than a decade, made considerable effort to prove such a connection, especially as far as "aggressive pornography" is concerned. The first part of the article examines and discusses the findings of this new research. A number of laboratory experiments have been conducted, much akin to the types of experiments developed by researchers of the effects of nonsexual media violence. As in the latter, a certain degree of increased "aggressiveness" has been found under certain circumstances, but to extrapolate from such laboratory effects to the commission of rape in real life is dubious. Studies of rapists' and nonrapists' immediate sexual reactions to presentations of pornography showed generally greater arousal to non-violent scenes, and no difference can be found in this regard between convicted rapists, nonsexual criminals and noncriminal males. In the second part of the paper an attempt was made to study the necessary precondition for a substantial causal relationship between the availability of pornography, including aggressive pornography, and rape--namely, that obviously increased availability of such material was followed by an increase in cases of reported rape. The development of rape and attempted rape during the period 1964-1984 was studied in four countries: the U.S.A., Denmark, Sweden and West Germany. In all four countries there is clear and undisputed evidence that during this period the availability of various forms of pictorial pornography including violent/dominant varieties (in the form of picture magazines, and films/videos used at home or shown in arcades or cinemas) has developed from extreme scarcity to relative abundance. If (violent) pornography causes rape, this exceptional development in the availability of (violent) pornography should definitely somehow influence the rape statistics. Since, however, the rape figures could not simply be expected to remain steady during the period in question (when it is well known that most other crimes increased considerably), the development of rape rates was compared with that of non-sexual violent offences and nonviolent sexual offences (in so far as available statistics permitted). The results showed that in none of the countries did rape increase more than nonsexual violent crimes. This finding in itself would seem sufficient to discard the hypothesis that pornography causes rape.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2032762

Kutchinsky, B

1991-01-01

252

Rational integration of noisy evidence and prior semantic expectations in sentence interpretation  

E-print Network

Rational integration of noisy evidence and prior semantic expectations in sentence interpretation predictions about such a rational (Bayesian) noisy-channel language comprehender in a sentence comprehen- sion relies on rational statistical inference over a noisy channel. communication | psycholinguistics

Makous, Walter

253

Spike statistics  

E-print Network

In this paper we explore stochastical and statistical properties of so-called recurring spike induced Kasner sequences. Such sequences arise in recurring spike formation, which is needed together with the more familiar BKL scenario to yield a complete description of generic spacelike singularities. In particular we derive a probability distribution for recurring spike induced Kasner sequences, complementing similar available BKL results, which makes comparisons possible. As examples of applications, we derive results for so-called large and small curvature phases and the Hubble-normalized Weyl scalar.

J. Mark Heinzle; Claes Uggla

2012-12-21

254

Modularity and locality in interpretation  

E-print Network

This thesis will argue for four broad claims: (1) That local contexts are needed for a descriptively adequate theory of linguistic interpretation, (2) That presupposition accommodation is made with respect to a set of ...

Singh, Raj, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01

255

Car Troubles: An Interpretive Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growing amount of U.S. surface area being paved increases interpretive opportunities for teaching about the environmental impacts of automobiles. Provides methods and suggestions for educating high school students. Provides several computer graphics. (LZ)

Dawson, Leslie

1995-01-01

256

Security bugs in embedded interpreters  

E-print Network

Because embedded interpreters offer flexibility and performance, they are becoming more prevalent, and can be found at nearly every level of the software stack. As one example, the Linux kernel defines languages to describe ...

Chen, Haogang

257

Discourse coherence and gesture interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In face-to-face conversation, communicators orchestrate multimodal contributions that meaning- fully combine the linguistic resources of spoken language and the visuo-spatial affordances of gesture. In this paper, we characterise this meaningful combination in terms of the COHERENCE of gesture and speech. Descriptive analyses illustrate the diverse ways gesture interpretation can supplement and extend the interpretation of prior gestures and accompanying speech.

Alex Lascarides; Matthew Stone

2009-01-01

258

Intelligent Collection Environment for an Interpretation System  

SciTech Connect

An Intelligent Collection Environment for a data interpretation system is described. The environment accepts two inputs: A data model and a number between 0.0 and 1.0. The data model is as simple as a single word or as complex as a multi-level/multidimensional model. The number between 0.0 and 1.0 is a control knob to indicate the user's desire to allow loose matching of the data (things are ambiguous and unknown) versus strict matching of the data (things are precise and known). The environment produces a set of possible interpretations, a set of requirements to further strengthen or to differentiate a particular subset of the possible interpretation from the others, a set of inconsistencies, and a logic map that graphically shows the lines of reasoning used to derive the above output. The environment is comprised of a knowledge editor, model explorer, expertise server, and the World Wide Web. The Knowledge Editor is used by a subject matter expert to define Linguistic Types, Term Sets, detailed explanations, and dynamically created URI's, and to create rule bases using a straight forward hyper matrix representation. The Model Explorer allows rapid construction and browsing of multi-level models. A multi-level model is a model whose elements may also be models themselves. The Expertise Server is an inference engine used to interpret the data submitted. It incorporates a semantic network knowledge representation, an assumption based truth maintenance system, and a fuzzy logic calculus. It can be extended by employing any classifier (e.g. statistical/neural networks) of complex data types. The World Wide Web is an unstructured data space accessed by the URI's supplied as part of the output of the environment. By recognizing the input data model as a query, the environment serves as a deductive search engine. Applications include (but are not limited to) interpretation of geophysical phenomena, a navigation aid for very large web sites, monitoring of computer or sensor networks, customer support, trouble shooting, and searching complex digital libraries (e.g. genome libraries).

Maurer, W J

2001-07-19

259

Consequences of Not Interpreting Structure Coefficients in Published CFA Research: A Reminder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is a statistical procedure frequently used to test the fit of data to measurement models. Published CFA studies typically report factor pattern coefficients. Few reports, however, also present factor structure coefficients, which can be essential for the accurate interpretation of CFA results. The interpretation

Graham, James M.; Guthrie, Abbie C.; Thompson, Bruce

2003-01-01

260

Interpreting and reporting on a SETI discovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary issues related to the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) are examined to define potential public reactions to variations in extraterrestrial signal content. A typology of possible signal characteristics is set forth that would shape public reaction to such a discovery. Attention is given to the SETI Protocol Agreement and other methods for announcing SETI discoveries, and statistics are reviewed regarding scientific and public opinions about the implications of a SETI discovery. The certainty of ETI signals is related to certainty, clarity, sensory accessibility, activity level, and intentionality, and the policy implications of signal typology are discussed. The typology is concluded to demonstrate the need for a committee for contact verification and interpretation that would provide advice on the release of information to the public.

Tarter, Donald E.

1992-05-01

261

Appendix A. A discussion of interpreting odds ratios of the extended continuation ratio The effects of the variables in a probability model, such as the extended continuation  

E-print Network

Appendices Appendix A. A discussion of interpreting odds ratios of the extended continuation ratio) model (Eq. 1), are most easily interpreted using odds ratios (Armstrong and Sloan 1989, Fahrmeir constant, we can derive the odds ratio i: i = odds{Y = j|Y j, X1, X2, . . . , Xi + di, . . . , Xn} odds

262

An Interpretation of Banded Magnetospheric Radio Emissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently-published Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorer/Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (AMPTE/IRM) banded magnetospheric emissions, commonly referred to as '(n + 1/2)f(sub ce)' emissions where f(sub ce) is the electron gyrofrequency, are analyzed by treating them as analogous to sounder-stimulated ionospheric emissions. We show that both individual AMPTE/IRM spectra of magnetospheric banded emissions, and a statistically-derived spectra observed over the two-year lifetime of the mission, can be interpreted in a self-consistent manner. The analysis, which predicts all spectral peaks within 4% of the observed peaks, interprets the higher-frequency emissions as due to low group-velocity Bernstein-mode waves and the lower-frequency emissions as eigen modes of cylindrical-electromagnetic-plasma-oscillations. The demarcation between these two classes of emissions is the electron plasma frequency f(sub pe), where an emission is often observed. This f(sub pe), emission is not necessarily the strongest. None of the observed banded emissions were attributed to the upper-hybrid frequency. We present Alouette-2 and ISIS-1 plasma-resonance data, and model electron temperature (T(sub e)) values, to support the argument that the frequency-spectrum of ionospheric sounder-stimulated emissions is not strongly temperature dependent and thus that the interpretation of these emissions in the ionosphere is relevant to other plasmas (such as the magnetosphere) where N(sub e) and T(sub e) can be quite different but where the ratio f(sub pe)/f(sub ce) is identical.

Benson, Robert F.; Osherovich, V. A.; Fainberg, J.; Vinas, A. F.; Ruppert, D. R.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

263

Spin, Statistics, and Reflections, II. Lorentz Invariance  

E-print Network

The analysis of the relation between modular P$_1$CT-symmetry -- a consequence of the Unruh effect -- and Pauli's spin-statistics relation is continued. The result in the predecessor to this article is extended to the Lorentz symmetric situation. A model $\\G_L$ of the universal covering $\\widetilde{L_+^\\uparrow}\\cong SL(2,\\complex)$ of the restricted Lorentz group $L_+^\\uparrow$ is modelled as a reflection group at the classical level. Based on this picture, a representation of $\\G_L$ is constructed from pairs of modular P$_1$CT-conjugations, and this representation can easily be verified to satisfy the spin-statistics relation.

Bernd Kuckert; Reinhard Lorenzen

2005-12-21

264

Using Playing Cards to Differentiate Probability Interpretations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aprioristic (classical, naïve and symmetric) and frequentist interpretations of probability are commonly known. Bayesian or subjective interpretation of probability is receiving increasing attention. This paper describes an activity to help students differentiate between the three types of probability interpretations.

López Puga, Jorge

2014-01-01

265

Against many-worlds interpretations  

SciTech Connect

This is a critical review of the literature on many-worlds interpretations, MWI, with arguments drawn partly from earlier critiques. The essential postulates involved in various MWI are extracted, and their consistency with the evident physical world is examined. Arguments are presented against MWI. The relevance of frequency operators o MWI is examined; it is argued that frequency operator theorems do not in themselves provide a probability interpretation for quantum mechanics, and thus neither support existing MWI nor would be useful in constructing new MWI. Comments are made on papers that advocate MWI. It is concluded that no plausible set of axioms exists for an MWI that describes known physics.

Kent, A. (Inst. for Advanced Study, School of Natural Sciences, Princeton, NJ (US))

1990-05-10

266

Crunching Numbers: What Cancer Screening Statistics Really Tell Us  

Cancer.gov

Cancer screening studies have shown that more screening does not necessarily translate into fewer cancer deaths. This article explains how to interpret the statistics used to describe the results of screening studies.

267

MQSA National Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... MQSA) Scorecard Articles MQSA National Statistics MQSA National Statistics In this section of the MQSA Scorecard, we present the most commonly requested national statistics regarding the MQSA program. These statistics are updated ...

268

Social Research and Scholarly Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines: (1) the relationship between group membership and the production of knowledge; (2) comparative versus non-comparative research; and (3) the structure of data interpretation for Afro-Americans versus Euro-Americans. At issue is the lack of blacks involved in the National Research Council's study of blacks. (PS)

Butler, John Sibley

1987-01-01

269

Interpretive Reproduction in Children's Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author looks at children's play from the perspective of interpretive reproduction, emphasizing the way children create their own unique peer cultures, which he defines as a set of routines, artifacts, values, and concerns that children engage in with their playmates. The article focuses on two types of routines in the peer culture of preschool…

Corsaro, William A.

2012-01-01

270

Interpretation of the Weyl tensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to folklore in general relativity, the Weyl tensor can be decomposed into parts corresponding to Newton-like, incoming and outgoing wavelike field components. It is shown here that this one-to-one correspondence does not hold for space-time geometries with cylindrical isometries. This is done by investigating some well-known exact solutions of Einstein’s field equations with whole-cylindrical symmetry, for which the physical interpretation is very clear, but for which the standard Weyl interpretation would give contradictory results. For planar or spherical geometries, however, the standard interpretation works for both static and dynamical space-times. It is argued that one reason for the failure in the cylindrical case is that for waves spreading in two spatial dimensions there is no local criterion to distinguish incoming and outgoing waves already at the linear level. It turns out that Thorne’s local energy notion, subject to certain qualifications, provides an efficient diagnostic tool to extract the proper physical interpretation of the space-time geometry in the case of cylindrical configurations.

Hofmann, Stefan; Niedermann, Florian; Schneider, Robert

2013-09-01

271

[Attempt at multidimensional dream interpretation].  

PubMed

The recent developments of depthpsychology and neurophysiology makes a new orientation and interpretation of dreams necessary. Koella for example describes night-mares of persons taking Beta-blockers. Of course, the great ideas of Freud and Adler should be integrated, not abandoned. Most of all influences of biologic factors on quality of dreams should be discussed. PMID:7660671

Bengesser, G

1995-01-01

272

A Interpretation of Polarization Matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based upon the polar decomposition, this dissertation shows that a general polarization element is equivalent to a diattenuator, followed by a retarder then by a depolarizer. Such a decomposition allows polarization properties, such as diattenuation and retardance, to be extracted from Jones matrices or Mueller matrices. This interpretation scheme is then applied to Mueller matrix spectra for mica and ferroelectric

Shih-Yau Lu

1995-01-01

273

Use and Interpretation of Radar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This undergraduate meteorology tutorial from Texas A&M University discusses the basic principles of operation of weather radars, describes how to interpret radar mosaics, and discusses the use of radar in weather forecasting. Students learn the relationship between range and elevation and how to use radar images and mosaics in short-range forecasting.

John Nielsen-Gammon

1996-01-01

274

Interpreter Training Program: Program Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes in detail the deaf interpreter training program offered at Mott Community College (Flint, Michigan). The program features field-based learning experiences, internships, team teaching, a field practicum, the goal of having students meet certification standards, and proficiency examinations. The program has special…

Massoud, LindaLee

275

Smartberries: Interpreting Erdrich's Love Medicine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The structure of "Love Medicines" interpreted by Hertha D. Sweet Wong who claims that the book's "multiple narrators confound conventional Western expectations of an autonomous protagonist, a dominant narrative voice, and a consistently chronological narrative". "Love Medicine" is a brilliant use of the Western literary tactics that create the…

Treuer, David

2005-01-01

276

Design Document. EKG Interpretation Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching plan is designed to assist nursing instructors assigned to advanced medical surgical nursing courses in acquainting students with the basic skills needed to perform electrocardiographic (ECG or EKG) interpretations. The first part of the teaching plan contains a statement of purpose; audience recommendations; a flow chart detailing…

Webb, Sandra M.

277

EKG Interpretation Program. Trainers Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This trainer's manual is designed to assist nursing instructors assigned to advanced medical surgical nursing courses in teaching students how to make basic interpretations of their patients' electrocardiographic (EKG) strips. Included in the manual are pre- and posttests and instructional units dealing with the following topics: EKG indicators,…

Webb, Sandra M.

278

How to Interpret Circuit Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents an explanation of how to interpret circuit diagrams. Two diagrams show the difference between a "short hand" circuit diagram and a more detailed one. The detailed circuit diagram is useful for those first learning circuits in an effort to eventually understand the "short hand" diagram without difficulty.

Lesurf, Jim

279

Stupid statistics!  

PubMed

The method of least squares is probably the most powerful data analysis tool available to scientists. Toward a fuller appreciation of that power, this work begins with an elementary review of statistics fundamentals, and then progressively increases in sophistication as the coverage is extended to the theory and practice of linear and nonlinear least squares. The results are illustrated in application to data analysis problems important in the life sciences. The review of fundamentals includes the role of sampling and its connection to probability distributions, the Central Limit Theorem, and the importance of finite variance. Linear least squares are presented using matrix notation, and the significance of the key probability distributions-Gaussian, chi-square, and t-is illustrated with Monte Carlo calculations. The meaning of correlation is discussed, including its role in the propagation of error. When the data themselves are correlated, special methods are needed for the fitting, as they are also when fitting with constraints. Nonlinear fitting gives rise to nonnormal parameter distributions, but the 10% Rule of Thumb suggests that such problems will be insignificant when the parameter is sufficiently well determined. Illustrations include calibration with linear and nonlinear response functions, the dangers inherent in fitting inverted data (e.g., Lineweaver-Burk equation), an analysis of the reliability of the van't Hoff analysis, the problem of correlated data in the Guggenheim method, and the optimization of isothermal titration calorimetry procedures using the variance-covariance matrix for experiment design. The work concludes with illustrations on assessing and presenting results. PMID:17964948

Tellinghuisen, Joel

2008-01-01

280

Interpreting Sky-Averaged 21-cm Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the first ~billion years after the Big Bang, the intergalactic medium (IGM) underwent a remarkable transformation, from a uniform sea of cold neutral hydrogen gas to a fully ionized, metal-enriched plasma. Three milestones during this epoch of reionization -- the emergence of the first stars, black holes (BHs), and full-fledged galaxies -- are expected to manifest themselves as extrema in sky-averaged ("global") measurements of the redshifted 21-cm background. However, interpreting these measurements will be complicated by the presence of strong foregrounds and non-trivialities in the radiative transfer (RT) modeling required to make robust predictions.I have developed numerical models that efficiently solve the frequency-dependent radiative transfer equation, which has led to two advances in studies of the global 21-cm signal. First, frequency-dependent solutions facilitate studies of how the global 21-cm signal may be used to constrain the detailed spectral properties of the first stars, BHs, and galaxies, rather than just the timing of their formation. And second, the speed of these calculations allows one to search vast expanses of a currently unconstrained parameter space, while simultaneously characterizing the degeneracies between parameters of interest. I find principally that (1) physical properties of the IGM, such as its temperature and ionization state, can be constrained robustly from observations of the global 21-cm signal without invoking models for the astrophysical sources themselves, (2) translating IGM properties to galaxy properties is challenging, in large part due to frequency-dependent effects. For instance, evolution in the characteristic spectrum of accreting BHs can modify the 21-cm absorption signal at levels accessible to first generation instruments, but could easily be confused with evolution in the X-ray luminosity star-formation rate relation. Finally, (3) the independent constraints most likely to aide in the interpretation of global 21-cm signal measurements are detections of Lyman Alpha Emitters at high redshifts and constraints on the midpoint of reionization, both of which are among the primary science objectives of ongoing or near-future experiments.

Mirocha, Jordan

2015-01-01

281

Exact global fault collapsing can be easily applied locally at the logic gates, however, it is often ignored for large cir-  

E-print Network

1 ABSTRACT Exact global fault collapsing can be easily applied locally at the logic gates, however, we present AGFC, an approximate global fault collapsing tool for combinational circuits. Experimental results show that (i) AGFC reduces the num- ber of faults drastically with feasible resources and (ii

Al-Asaad, Hussain

282

An easily installable groundwater lysimeter to determine water balance components and hydraulic properties of peat soils Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(1), 2332 (2003) EGU  

E-print Network

installable groundwater lysimeter to determine water balance components and hydraulic properties of peat soils. Moreover, they should allow the in situ determination of the hydraulic properties (water retentionAn easily installable groundwater lysimeter to determine water balance components and hydraulic

Boyer, Edmond

283

The city is easily reached via the M58, M56 and M62 motorways. Liverpool city centre is approximately 45 minutes  

E-print Network

campusmap ROAD The city is easily reached via the M58, M56 and M62 motorways. Liverpool city centre operates between Pier Head in Liverpool and Birkenhead and Wallasey in Wirral. You can also sail to Liverpool from Belfast, Dublin and the Isle of Man. On arrival in the city, follow signs for Lime Street

Diggle, Peter J.

284

Pyrite is a mineral that is sometimes mistaken for gold, hence the nickname "fool's gold." By comparing the physical properties, one can easily distinguish  

E-print Network

Pyrite is a mineral that is sometimes mistaken for gold, hence the nickname "fool's gold." By comparing the physical properties, one can easily distinguish between the two minerals. Pyrite is less dense, harder, and more brittle than gold. In addition, pyrite will tarnish when exposed to acid, whereas gold

Polly, David

285

Statistical study of Saturn electrostatic discharges  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Voyager Saturn mission the Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) experiment observed sporadic broadband emissions (20 KHz to at least 40 MHz) during a few days around the Voyager 1 and 2 closest approaches to the planet. These emissions are interpreted to arise from short-lived electrostatic discharges in the vicinity of Saturn. A statistical study has been made of their

P. Zarka; B. M. Pedersen

1983-01-01

286

Godel's Functional ("Dialectica") Interpretation Jeremy Avigad  

E-print Network

interpretations In 1958, Kurt G¨odel published in the journal Dialectica an interpretation of intuitionisticCHAPTER VI G¨odel's Functional ("Dialectica") Interpretation Jeremy Avigad Department of Philosophy to be known as G¨odel's functional or Dialectica interpretation. When combined with G¨odel's double

Avigad, Jeremy

287

Understanding AOP through the Study of Interpreters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I return to the question of what distinguishes AOP languages by considering how the interpreters of AOP languages differ from conventional interpreters. Key elements for static transformation are seen to be redefinition of the set and lookup operators in the interpretation of the language. This analysis also yields a definition of crosscutting in terms of interlacing of interpreter actions.

Filman, Robert E.

2004-01-01

288

Phonological Interpretation into Preordered Algebras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel architecture for categorial grammar that clarifies the relationship between semantically relevant combinatoric reasoning and semantically inert reasoning that only affects surface-oriented phonological form. To this end, we employ a level of structured phonology that mediates between syntax (abstract combinatorics) and phonology proper (strings). To notate structured phonologies, we employ a lambda calculus analogous to the ?-terms of [8]. However, unlike Oehrle's purely equational ?-calculus, our phonological calculus is inequational, in a way that is strongly analogous to the functional programming language LCF [10]. Like LCF, our phonological terms are interpreted into a Henkin frame of posets, with degree of definedness ('height' in the preorder that interprets the base type) corresponding to degree of pronounceability; only maximal elements are actual strings and therefore fully pronounceable. We illustrate with an analysis (also new) of some complex constituent-order phenomena in Japanese.

Kubota, Yusuke; Pollard, Carl

289

Interpretative modelling of a geological cross section from boreholes: sources of uncertainty and their quantification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conducted a designed experiment to quantify sources of uncertainty in geologists' interpretations of a geological cross section. A group of 28 geologists participated in the experiment. Each interpreted borehole record included up to three Palaeogene bedrock units, including the target unit for the experiment: the London Clay. The set of boreholes was divided into batches from which validation boreholes had been withheld; as a result, we obtained 129 point comparisons between the interpreted elevation of the base of the London Clay and its observed elevation in a borehole not used for that particular interpretation. Analysis of the results showed good general agreement between the observed and interpreted elevations, with no evidence of systematic bias. Between-site variation of the interpretation error was spatially correlated, and the variance appeared to be stationary. The between-geologist component of variance was smaller overall, and depended on the distance to the nearest borehole. There was also evidence that the between-geologist variance depends on the degree of experience of the individual. We used the statistical model of interpretation error to compute confidence intervals for any one interpretation of the base of the London Clay on the cross section, and to provide uncertainty measures for decision support in a hypothetical route-planning process. The statistical model could also be used to quantify error propagation in a full 3-D geological model produced from interpreted cross sections.

Lark, R. M.; Thorpe, S.; Kessler, H.; Mathers, S. J.

2014-11-01

290

Interpreting T-X Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short problem set works well as a group activity that can be completed in class. The purpose of the exercise is for students to begin to think about T-X phase diagrams and how they are interpreted. Along the way, students learn that text book authors sometimes make mistakes. The figure in the handout is from Winter's Petrology. But, Winter goofed and left some reactions off of the phase diagram.

Perkins, Dexter

291

Interpreting the Benchmark Comparisons Report  

E-print Network

are not included. Mean The mean is the weighted arithmetic average of student level benchmark scores. Bar ChartsInterpreting the Benchmark Comparisons Report Class Mean a Sig b Effect Size c Mean a Sig b Effect Size c Mean a Sig b Effect Size c First-Year 51.6 .05 50.4 * .14 51.8 .04 Senior 55.9 -.01 55.6 .02 55

Rhode Island, University of

292

Operational interpretations of quantum discord  

SciTech Connect

Quantum discord quantifies nonclassical correlations beyond the standard classification of quantum states into entangled and unentangled. Although it has received considerable attention, it still lacks any precise interpretation in terms of some protocol in which quantum features are relevant. Here we give quantum discord its first information-theoretic operational meaning in terms of entanglement consumption in an extended quantum-state-merging protocol. We further relate the asymmetry of quantum discord with the performance imbalance in quantum state merging and dense coding.

Cavalcanti, D.; Modi, K. [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Aolita, L. [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Boixo, S. [Institute for Quantum Information, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Piani, M. [Institute for Quantum Computing and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Winter, A. [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Department of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TW (United Kingdom)

2011-03-15

293

Interpreting Chemical Labels Learning Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Southwest Center for Microsystems Education is a Regional Advanced Technology Education Center funded in part by the National Science Foundation. This safety learning module covers the content and interpretation of chemical labels and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Diamond ratings. It contains an Instructor Guide, Participant Guide and supporting presentations. Visitors are encouraged to create an account and login in order to access the full set of resources.

2011-09-23

294

Probabilistic Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics is based on Born's 1926 papers and von Neumann's formal account of quantum\\u000a mechanics in ? Hilbert space. According to Max Born (1882–1970), the quantum mechanical ? wave function ? does not have any\\u000a direct physical meaning, whereas its square ???2 is a probability [1] ? Born rule, probability in quantum mechanics. According to

Brigitte Falkenburg; Peter Mittelstaedt

295

Abstract Interpretation of Mobile Ambients  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate that abstract interpretation is useful for analysing calculi of computation such as the ambient calculus (which\\u000a is based on the ?-calculus); more importantly, we show that the entire development can be expressed in a constraint-based\\u000a formalism that is becoming exceedingly popular for the analysis of functional and object-oriented languages.\\u000a \\u000a The first step of the development is an analysis

René Rydhof Hansen; Jacob Grydholt Jensen; Flemming Nielson; Hanne Riis Nielson

1999-01-01

296

Consistent interpretations of quantum mechanics  

SciTech Connect

Within the last decade, significant progress has been made towards a consistent and complete reformulation of the Copenhagen interpretation (an interpretation consisting in a formulation of the experimental aspects of physics in terms of the basic formalism; it is consistent if free from internal contradiction and complete if it provides precise predictions for all experiments). The main steps involved decoherence (the transition from linear superpositions of macroscopic states to a mixing), Griffiths histories describing the evolution of quantum properties, a convenient logical structure for dealing with histories, and also some progress in semiclassical physics, which was made possible by new methods. The main outcome is a theory of phenomena, viz., the classically meaningful properties of a macroscopic system. It shows in particular how and when determinism is valid. This theory can be used to give a deductive form to measurement theory, which now covers some cases that were initially devised as counterexamples against the Copenhagen interpretation. These theories are described, together with their applications to some key experiments and some of their consequences concerning epistemology.

Omnes, R. (Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, Universite de Paris XI, Batiment 211, 91405 Orsay CEDEX (France))

1992-04-01

297

Vegetation succession on the dunes near Oostvoorne, The Netherlands, since 1934, interpreted from air photographs and vegetation maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vegetation succession on the dunes near Oostvoorne, The Netherlands has been followed by means of a novel combination of repeated large-scale vegetation mapping and air photograph interpretation. Vegetation units have been discerned on the formation level because these could be distinguished fairly easily on the photographs and because the rates of change are appropriate to the time interval chosen.

Dick van Dorp; René Boot; Eddy Maarel

1985-01-01

298

Some easily analyzable convolutional codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Convolutional codes have played and will play a key role in the downlink telemetry systems on many NASA deep-space probes, including Voyager, Magellan, and Galileo. One of the chief difficulties associated with the use of convolutional codes, however, is the notorious difficulty of analyzing them. Given a convolutional code as specified, say, by its generator polynomials, it is no easy matter to say how well that code will perform on a given noisy channel. The usual first step in such an analysis is to computer the code's free distance; this can be done with an algorithm whose complexity is exponential in the code's constraint length. The second step is often to calculate the transfer function in one, two, or three variables, or at least a few terms in its power series expansion. This step is quite hard, and for many codes of relatively short constraint lengths, it can be intractable. However, a large class of convolutional codes were discovered for which the free distance can be computed by inspection, and for which there is a closed-form expression for the three-variable transfer function. Although for large constraint lengths, these codes have relatively low rates, they are nevertheless interesting and potentially useful. Furthermore, the ideas developed here to analyze these specialized codes may well extend to a much larger class.

Mceliece, R.; Dolinar, S.; Pollara, F.; Vantilborg, H.

1989-01-01

299

Renyi statistics in equilibrium statistical mechanics  

E-print Network

The Renyi statistics in the canonical and microcanonical ensembles is examined in the general case and in particular for the ideal gas. In the microcanonical ensemble the Renyi statistics is equivalent with the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics. By the exact analytical results for the ideal gas, it is shown that in the canonical ensemble in the thermodynamic limit the Renyi statistics is also equivalent with the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics. Furthermore it satisfies the requirements of the equilibrium thermodynamics, i.e. the thermodynamical potential of the statistical ensemble is a homogeneous function of degree 1 of its extensive variables of state. We conclude that the Renyi statistics duplicates the thermodynamical relations stemming from the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics in the thermodynamical limit.

A. S. Parvan; T. S. Biro

2009-10-16

300

FISHERY STATISTICS UNITED STATES  

E-print Network

FISHERY STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES 1972 STATISTICAL DIGEST NO. 66 Prepared by STATISTICS;ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The data in this edition of "Fishery Statistics of the United States" were collected in co- operation with the various States and tabulated by the staff of the Statistics and Market News Division

301

Interpretation of a compositional time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Common methods for multivariate time series analysis use linear operations, from the definition of a time-lagged covariance/correlation to the prediction of new outcomes. However, when the time series response is a composition (a vector of positive components showing the relative importance of a set of parts in a total, like percentages and proportions), then linear operations are afflicted of several problems. For instance, it has been long recognised that (auto/cross-)correlations between raw percentages are spurious, more dependent on which other components are being considered than on any natural link between the components of interest. Also, a long-term forecast of a composition in models with a linear trend will ultimately predict negative components. In general terms, compositional data should not be treated in a raw scale, but after a log-ratio transformation (Aitchison, 1986: The statistical analysis of compositional data. Chapman and Hill). This is so because the information conveyed by a compositional data is relative, as stated in their definition. The principle of working in coordinates allows to apply any sort of multivariate analysis to a log-ratio transformed composition, as long as this transformation is invertible. This principle is of full application to time series analysis. We will discuss how results (both auto/cross-correlation functions and predictions) can be back-transformed, viewed and interpreted in a meaningful way. One view is to use the exhaustive set of all possible pairwise log-ratios, which allows to express the results into D(D - 1)/2 separate, interpretable sets of one-dimensional models showing the behaviour of each possible pairwise log-ratios. Another view is the interpretation of estimated coefficients or correlations back-transformed in terms of compositions. These two views are compatible and complementary. These issues are illustrated with time series of seasonal precipitation patterns at different rain gauges of the USA. In this data set, the proportion of annual precipitation falling in winter, spring, summer and autumn is considered a 4-component time series. Three invertible log-ratios are defined for calculations, balancing rainfall in autumn vs. winter, in summer vs. spring, and in autumn-winter vs. spring-summer. Results suggest a 2-year correlation range, and certain oscillatory behaviour in the last balance, which does not occur in the other two.

Tolosana-Delgado, R.; van den Boogaart, K. G.

2012-04-01

302

Changing philosophies and tools for statistical inferences in behavioral ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in ecological statistics have reached behavioral ecology, and an increasing number of studies now apply analytical tools that incorporate alternatives to the conventional null hypothesis testing based on significance levels. However, these approaches continue to receive mixed support in our field. Because our statistical choices can influence research design and the interpretation of data, there is a compelling

László Zsolt Garamszegi; Sara Calhim; Ned Dochtermann; Gergely Hegyi; Peter L. Hurd; Christian Jørgensen; Nobuyuki Kutsukake; Marc J. Lajeunesse; Kimberly A. Pollard; Holger Schielzeth; Matthew R. E. Symonds; Shinichi Nakagawal

2009-01-01

303

The Power of Teaching Activities: Statistical and Methodological Recommendations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers rarely mention statistical power in "Teaching of Psychology" teaching activity studies. Insufficiently powered tests promote uncertainty in the decision to accept or reject the tested null hypothesis and influence the interpretation of results. We analyzed the a priori power of statistical tests from 197 teaching activity effectiveness…

Tomcho, Thomas J.; Foels, Rob

2009-01-01

304

UNSUPERVISED MINING OF STATISTICAL TEMPORAL STRUCTURES IN VIDEO  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present algorithms for unsupervised mining of struc- tures in video using multi-scale statistical models. Video structure are repetitive segments in a video stream with consistent statistical charac- teristics. Such structures can often be interpreted in relation to distinc- tive semantics, particularly in structured domains like sports. While much work in the literature explores the link between

Lexing Xie; Shih-Fu Chang; Ajay Divakaran; Huifang Sun

2003-01-01

305

Norman Lierhaus Natural Scene Statistics at Monkey's Center of Gaze  

E-print Network

Norman Lierhaus Natural Scene Statistics at Monkey's Center of Gaze PICS Publications of Cognitive Science #12;Natural Scene Statistics at Monkeys' Center of Gaze Bachelor's Thesis Cognitive;1 Introduction 2 Abstract Overt visual attention is studied both in humans and monkeys. Yet, for interpreting

Kallenrode, May-Britt

306

ALISE Library and Information Science Education Statistical Report, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume is the twentieth annual statistical report on library and information science (LIS) education published by the Association for Library and Information Science Education (ALISE). Its purpose is to compile, analyze, interpret, and report statistical (and other descriptive) information about library/information science programs offered by…

Daniel, Evelyn H., Ed.; Saye, Jerry D., Ed.

307

Comparison of a Novel Computerized Analysis Program and Visual Interpretation of Cardiotocography  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare a novel computerized analysis program with visual cardiotocography (CTG) interpretation results. Methods Sixty-two intrapartum CTG tracings with 20- to 30-minute sections were independently interpreted using a novel computerized analysis program, as well as the visual interpretations of eight obstetricians, to evaluate the baseline fetal heart rate (FHR), baseline FHR variability, number of accelerations, number/type of decelerations, uterine contraction (UC) frequency, and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) 3-Tier FHR classification system. Results There was no significant difference in interobserver variation after adding the components of computerized analysis to results from the obstetricians' visual interpretations, with excellent agreement for the baseline FHR (ICC 0.91), the number of accelerations (ICC 0.85), UC frequency (ICC 0.97), and NICHD category I (kappa statistic 0.91); good agreement for baseline variability (kappa statistic 0.68), the numbers of early decelerations (ICC 0.78) and late decelerations (ICC 0.67), category II (kappa statistic 0.78), and overall categories (kappa statistic 0.80); and moderate agreement for the number of variable decelerations (ICC 0.60), and category III (kappa statistic 0.50). Conclusions This computerized analysis program is not inferior to visual interpretation, may improve interobserver variations, and could play a vital role in prenatal telemedicine. PMID:25437442

Chen, Chen-Yu; Yu, Chun; Chang, Chia-Chen; Lin, Chii-Wann

2014-01-01

308

Arthritis: Data and Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... About CDC.gov . Arthritis Share Compartir Data and Statistics National Statistics Based on 2010-2012 data from the National ... survey conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics. Each year, the NHIS samples U.S. households and ...

309

Mental Illness Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... at NIMH News About Us Home > Health & Education Statistics Prevalence Disability Suicide Cost Global More Prevalence Disability ... those affected receive treatment. The information on these statistics pages includes the best statistics currently available on ...

310

An Interpretation of Quantum Logic  

E-print Network

It is argued that the orthodox interpretation of quantum mechanics is in conflict with the objective existence of space-time, and suggested that kets are labels which name real states of matter but do not directly describe them. Position is a relationship between particles which necessarily contains uncertainty. The principle of superposition is seen as a definitional truism in the naming of states. The description of space in quantum logic resolves the measurement problem of quantum mechanics and related paradoxes such as Schrodinger's cat by attributing the collapse of the wave function to information.

Charles Francis

2014-05-11

311

Testing photons' Bose-Einstein statistics with Compton scattering  

SciTech Connect

It is an empirical question whether photons always obey Bose-Einstein statistics, but devising and interpreting experimental tests of photon statistics can be a challenge. The nonrelativistic cross section for Compton scattering illustrates how a small admixture {nu} of wrong-sign statistics leads to a loss of gauge invariance; there is a large anomalous amplitude for scattering timelike photons. Nevertheless, one can interpret the observed transparency of the solar wind plasma at low frequencies as a bound {nu}<10{sup -25} if Lorentz symmetry is required. If there is instead a universal preferred frame, the bound is {nu}<10{sup -14}, still strong compared with previous results.

Altschul, Brett [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States)

2010-11-15

312

Finding One Variable Statistics With a Graphing Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This quick YouTube video from high school statistics teacher Roger W. Davis explains how to find one variable statistics using the TI-84 graphing calculator. The demonstration goes through three steps: entering the data, finding one variable statistics using the STAT menu, and interpreting the results. The data created includes mean, sum, median and more. Flash player is required to view this video, and the running time for the clip is 3:12.

Davis, Roger W.

2009-02-12

313

Biostratinomic utility of Archimedes in environmental interpretation  

SciTech Connect

Biostratinomic information from the bryozoan Archimedes can be used to infer paleocurrent senses when other more traditional sedimentary structures are lacking. As with other elongate particles, Archimedes zooaria become oriented in the current and, upon settling, preserve a sense of the flow direction. Orientations and lengths were measured on over 200 individuals from bedding plane exposures in the Upper Mississippian Union Limestone (Greenbrier Group) of West Virginia. These were separated into long and short populations and plotted on rose diagrams. The results show that long and short segments become preferentially oriented in the current and the bimodally distributed long segments can be used to infer the current sense. The current sense is defined by the line which bisects the obtuse angle created by the two maxima in the rose diagram for long segments. Statistical evaluation of the long and short populations indicate they are significant to the 99.9 percent level. Elongate fossils such as Archimedes can be used in paleocurrent evaluations and can add more detail to the interpretation of paleodepositional conditions.

Wulff, J.I. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (USA))

1990-04-01

314

Statistics (Program Description)  

NSF Publications Database

... for developing and improving statistical theory and methods, including research in statistical ... Supported areas include frequentist and Bayesian inference in parametric, semi-parametric, and ...

315

Autologistic models with interpretable parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecologists are interested in characterizing succession processes, in particular monitoring the spread of invasive species\\u000a and their effect on resident species. In situations for which binary response variables representing presence or absence of\\u000a plants are observed over a spatial lattice, it may be desirable to use a model that accounts for the statistical dependence\\u000a in the data, as well as

Petru?a C. Caragea; Mark S. Kaiser

2009-01-01

316

When interpretation masquerades as explanation.  

PubMed

The principal goal of the clinical interpretation (and of the larger clinical narrative) is to bring about insight and change in the patient, and not to present a reasoned argument that relies on public data and shared rules of evidence and logic. When the clinical account is transposed to the public domain and presented as a form of explanation, it is no longer designed for the benefit of one individual but must now be accessible to all. We are still under the shadow of Freud's five famous cases which are literary landmarks of exposition and persuasion. As a result, we are less sensitive to what happens when interpretations are substituted for explanations. The time has come to develop a new genre and a new mode of clinical reporting that would allow the reader to participate in the argument, allow him to evaluate the proposed links between evidence and conclusion (instead of relying on the authority of the analyst-author), and open up the clinical report to the possibilities of refutation, disconfirmation, and falsification. PMID:3519739

Spence, D P

1986-01-01

317

CONTEMPORARY ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Aerial Photographic Interpretation is a timed-tested technique for extracting landscape- level information from aerial photographs and other types of remotely sensed images. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) has a 2...

318

Interpretation and clustering of handwritten student responses  

E-print Network

This thesis presents an interpretation and clustering framework for handwritten student responses on tablet computers. The ink analysis system is able to capture and interpret digital ink strokes for many types of classroom ...

Von Tish, Kelsey Leigh

2012-01-01

319

12 CFR 609.920 - Interpretations.  

...FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Interpretations...handwritten signatures in business, consumer, or...recognized. Generally, an electronic record or signature...interpreted to permit electronic transmissions, communications...and submissions in business, consumer, or...

2014-01-01

320

12 CFR 609.920 - Interpretations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Interpretations...handwritten signatures in business, consumer, or...recognized. Generally, an electronic record or signature...interpreted to permit electronic transmissions, communications...and submissions in business, consumer, or...

2013-01-01

321

12 CFR 609.920 - Interpretations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Interpretations...handwritten signatures in business, consumer, or...recognized. Generally, an electronic record or signature...interpreted to permit electronic transmissions, communications...and submissions in business, consumer, or...

2012-01-01

322

12 CFR 609.920 - Interpretations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Interpretations...handwritten signatures in business, consumer, or...recognized. Generally, an electronic record or signature...interpreted to permit electronic transmissions, communications...and submissions in business, consumer, or...

2011-01-01

323

The Interpreted Executive: Theory, Models, and Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes the interpreter's role in international business ventures. Presents descriptive models of the role, highlights major implications executives should consider before hiring an interpreter, and poses research questions based on these implications. (SR)

Sussman, Lyle; Johnson, Denise M.

1993-01-01

324

American Statistical Association: Statistics in Sports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section of the American Statistical Association website covers Statistics in Sports. Available here are a few older articles dealing with sports statistics and links to websites containing data for several professional and amateur sports, as well as websites with general news and information about sports, and a listing of official team websites for pro teams. A section called Statistics on the Web provides links to academic departments, conferences, and employers, while another section answers some frequently asked questions about sports statistics as a career. The website also provides an explanation of the Player Game Percentage (PGP) technique and uses the 2004 World Series as an example to demonstrate the technique. Educators will find a link to a website that offers suggestions of ways to incorporate sports statistics in the classroom.

325

Trichlorophenyl formate: highly reactive and easily accessible crystalline CO surrogate for palladium-catalyzed carbonylation of aryl/alkenyl halides and triflates.  

PubMed

The high utility of 2,4,6-trichlorophenyl formate, a highly reactive and easily accessible crystalline CO surrogate, is demonstrated. The decarbonylation with NEt(3) to generate CO proceeded rapidly at rt, thereby allowing external-CO-free Pd-catalyzed carbonylation of aryl/alkenyl halides and triflates. The high reactivity of the CO surrogate enabled carbonylation at rt and significantly reduced the quantities of formate to near-stoichiometric levels. The obtained trichlorophenyl esters can be readily converted to a variety of carboxylic acid derivatives in high yields. PMID:23020164

Ueda, Tsuyoshi; Konishi, Hideyuki; Manabe, Kei

2012-10-19

326

Techniques to Enhance Images for Mokkan Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigate several methods for enhancing scanned mokkan images to aid archeologists and historians in the interpretation of mokkans. Mokkans are wooden tablets with handwritten characters used in 8th century Japan. Due to damages and natural deterioration, the interpretation of the text on mokkans is difficult even for archeologists and historians. The automatic interpretation of mokkan text

Jun Takakura; Akihito Kitadai; Masaki Nakagawa; Hajime Baba; Akihiro Watanabe

2010-01-01

327

AERIAL PHOTO INTERPRETATION NATIONAL INVENTORY OF LANDSCAPES  

E-print Network

MANUAL FOR AERIAL PHOTO INTERPRETATION IN THE NATIONAL INVENTORY OF LANDSCAPES IN SWEDEN NILS YEAR for aerial photo interpretation 1 www-nils.slu.se SLU, Department of Forest Resource Management and Geomatics. 901 83 Umeå, Sweden #12;NILS ­ manual for aerial photo interpretation 2 Table of contents 1 About NILS

328

An Online Synchronous Test for Professional Interpreters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is based on an experiment designed to conduct an interpreting test for multiple candidates online, using web-based synchronous cyber classrooms. The test model was based on the accreditation test for Professional Interpreters produced by the National Accreditation Authority of Translators and Interpreters (NAATI) in Australia.…

Chen, Nian-Shing; Ko, Leong

2010-01-01

329

The Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article introduces the interpretation of the formalism of quantum mechanics, the Transactional Interpretation (TI) which addresses some issues raised by recent tests of Bell's inequalities. TI is non-local, relativistically invariant, and fully causal. A detailed comparison is made with the Copenhagen interpretation. Also, there is a link providing articles that have cited this one.

Cramer, John

2013-11-08

330

Statistical Reference Datasets  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

Statistical Reference Datasets (Web, free access)   The Statistical Reference Datasets is also supported by the Standard Reference Data Program. The purpose of this project is to improve the accuracy of statistical software by providing reference datasets with certified computational results that enable the objective evaluation of statistical software.

331

Sampling in Statistical Inference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, presented by the Department of Statistics at Yale University, gives an explanation, a definition and an example of sampling in statistical inference. Topics include parameters, statistics, sampling distributions, bias, and variability. Overall, this is a great resource for any mathematics classroom studying statistics.

Lacey, Michelle

2008-12-23

332

Computer-interpretable Guideline Formalisms  

PubMed Central

Implementing Computer-Interpretable Guidelines (CIGs) in active computer-based decision support systems promises to improve the acceptance and application of guidelines in daily practice. The model and underlying language are the core characteristics of every CIG approach. However, currently no standard model or language has been accepted by the CIG community. This aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of well-known approaches and to formulate a set of (minimal) requirements that can be used in the process of developing new CIG approaches or improving existing ones. It presents five CIG approaches (the Arden Syntax, GLIF, PROforma, Asbru and EON), followed by a general discussion of the strong points of each approach as well as their implications for future research. PMID:18806319

CLERCQ, Paul DE; KAISER, Katharina; HASMAN, Arie

2010-01-01

333

Proverb interpretation changes in aging.  

PubMed

Recent investigations have emphasized the involvement of fronto-subcortical networks to proverb comprehension. Although the prefrontal cortex is thought to be affected by normal aging, relatively little work has been carried out to investigate potential effects of aging on proverb comprehension. In the present investigation participants in three age groups were assessed on a proverb comprehension task and a range of executive function tasks. The older group showed impairment in selecting correct interpretations from alternatives. They also showed executive function deficits, as reflected by reduced working memory and deficient set shifting and inhibition abilities. The findings of the present investigation showed proverb comprehension deficits in normal aging which appeared to be related to reduced executive skills. PMID:18164527

Uekermann, Jennifer; Thoma, Patrizia; Daum, Irene

2008-06-01

334

Worlds in the Everett Interpretation  

E-print Network

This is a discussion of how we can understand the world-view given to us by the Everett interpretation of quantum mechanics, and in particular the role played by the concept of `world'. The view presented is that we are entitled to use `many-worlds' terminology even if the theory does not specify the worlds in the formalism; this is defended by means of an extensive analogy with the concept of an `instant' or moment of time in relativity, with the lack of a preferred foliation of spacetime being compared with the lack of a preferred basis in quantum theory. Implications for identity of worlds over time, and for relativistic quantum mechanics, are discussed.

David Wallace

2001-03-16

335

Interpreting neurodynamics: concepts and facts  

PubMed Central

The dynamics of neuronal systems, briefly neurodynamics, has developed into an attractive and influential research branch within neuroscience. In this paper, we discuss a number of conceptual issues in neurodynamics that are important for an appropriate interpretation and evaluation of its results. We demonstrate their relevance for selected topics of theoretical and empirical work. In particular, we refer to the notions of determinacy and stochasticity in neurodynamics across levels of microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic descriptions. The issue of correlations between neural, mental and behavioral states is also addressed in some detail. We propose an informed discussion of conceptual foundations with respect to neurobiological results as a viable step to a fruitful future philosophy of neuroscience. PMID:19003452

Rotter, Stefan

2008-01-01

336

Interpretation of rapidly rotating pulsars  

SciTech Connect

The minimum possible rotational period of pulsars, which are interpreted as rotating neutron stars, is determined by applying a representative collection of realistic nuclear equations of state. It is found that none of the selected equations of state allows for neutron star rotation at periods below 0.8--0.9 ms. Thus, this work strongly supports the suggestion that if pulsars with shorter rotational periods were found, these are likely to be strange-quark-matter stars. The conclusion that the confined hadronic phase of nucleons and nuclei is only metastable would then be almost inescapable, and the plausible ground-state in that event is the deconfined phase of (3-flavor) strange-quark-matter.

Weber, F. (Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik); Glendenning, N.K. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

1992-08-05

337

QUALITATIVE INTERPRETATION OF GALAXY SPECTRA  

SciTech Connect

We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is for general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means-based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to H II galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. We compare the mean ages of the stellar populations with those inferred using the code STARLIGHT. We also examine the estimated gas-phase metallicity with the metallicities obtained using electron-temperature-based methods. A number of byproducts follow from the analysis. There is a tight correlation between the age of the stellar population and the metallicity of the gas, which is stronger than the correlations between galaxy mass and stellar age, and galaxy mass and gas metallicity. The galaxy spectra are known to follow a one-dimensional sequence, and we identify the luminosity-weighted mean stellar age as the affine parameter that describes the sequence. All ASK classes happen to have a significant fraction of old stars, although spectrum-wise they are outshined by the youngest populations. Old stars are metal-rich or metal-poor depending on whether they reside in passive galaxies or in star-forming galaxies.

Sanchez Almeida, J.; Morales-Luis, A. B. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Terlevich, R.; Terlevich, E. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Cid Fernandes, R., E-mail: jos@iac.es, E-mail: abml@iac.es, E-mail: rjt@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: eterlevi@inaoep.mx, E-mail: cid@astro.ufsc.br [Departamento de Fisica-CFM, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

2012-09-10

338

Local kinetic interpretation of entropy production through reversed diffusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time reversal of stochastic diffusion processes is revisited with emphasis on the physical meaning of the time-reversed drift and the noise prescription in the case of multiplicative noise. The local kinematics and mechanics of free diffusion are linked to the hydrodynamic description. These properties also provide an interpretation of the Pope-Ching formula for the steady-state probability density function along with a geometric interpretation of the fluctuation-dissipation relation. Finally, the statistics of the local entropy production rate of diffusion are discussed in the light of local diffusion properties, and a stochastic differential equation for entropy production is obtained using the Girsanov theorem for reversed diffusion. The results are illustrated for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process.

Porporato, A.; Kramer, P. R.; Cassiani, M.; Daly, E.; Mattingly, J.

2011-10-01

339

Using continuous DNA interpretation methods to revisit likelihood ratio behaviour.  

PubMed

Continuous DNA interpretation systems make use of more information from DNA profiles than analysts have previously been able to with binary, threshold based systems. With these new continuous DNA interpretation systems and a new, more powerful, DNA profiling kit (GlobalFiler) there is an opportunity to re-examine the behaviour of a commonly used statistic in forensic science, the likelihood ratio (LR). The theoretical behaviour of the LR has been known for some time, although in many instances the behaviour has not been able to be thoroughly demonstrated due to limitations of the biological and mathematical models being used. In this paper the effects of profile complexity, replicate amplifications, assuming contributors, adding incorrect information, and adding irrelevant information to the calculation of the LR are explored. The empirical results are compared to theoretical expectations and explained. The work finishes with the results being used to dispel common misconceptions around reliability, accuracy, informativeness and reproducibility. PMID:24727432

Taylor, Duncan

2014-07-01

340

Local kinetic interpretation of entropy production through reversed diffusion.  

PubMed

The time reversal of stochastic diffusion processes is revisited with emphasis on the physical meaning of the time-reversed drift and the noise prescription in the case of multiplicative noise. The local kinematics and mechanics of free diffusion are linked to the hydrodynamic description. These properties also provide an interpretation of the Pope-Ching formula for the steady-state probability density function along with a geometric interpretation of the fluctuation-dissipation relation. Finally, the statistics of the local entropy production rate of diffusion are discussed in the light of local diffusion properties, and a stochastic differential equation for entropy production is obtained using the Girsanov theorem for reversed diffusion. The results are illustrated for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. PMID:22181122

Porporato, A; Kramer, P R; Cassiani, M; Daly, E; Mattingly, J

2011-10-01

341

Useful effect size interpretations for single case research.  

PubMed

An obstacle to broader acceptability of effect sizes in single case research is their lack of intuitive and useful interpretations. Interpreting Cohen's d as "standard deviation units difference" and R2 as "percent of variance accounted for" do not resound with most visual analysts. In fact, the only comparative analysis widely supported in single case research (SCR) is "percent of nonoverlapping data." This article explores five alternative interpretations of Cohen's d and R2 effect sizes that may be more acceptable to the SCR field. They are: (a) Cohen's (Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum) "Percent of Nonoverlapping Data" (CPND), (b) Parker et al.'s (Parker, R.I., Cryer, J., Byrns, G., 2006. Controlling trend in single case research. School Psychology Quarterly, 21, 418-440, Parker, R.I., Hagan-Burke, S., Vannest, K., in press. Percent of all non-overlapping data (PAND): An alternative to PND. Journal of Special Education) "Percent of All Nonoverlapping Data" (PAND), (c) Rosenthal et al. (Rosenthal, R., Rosnow, R., & Rubin, D. (2000). Contrasts and effect sizes in behavioral research: A correlational approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.) "Binomial Effect Size Display" (BESD), (d) "Percentile Rank in Control Group" (PR), and (e) McGraw and Wong's (McGraw, K. O., & Wong, S. P. (1992). A common language effect-size statistic. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 361-365) "Common Language Effect Size" (CLES). Each of the five interpretation schemes are applied to a published data set and are evaluated according to (a) intuitive appeal, (b) relevance to visual analysis, (c) ease of calculation, and (d) technical adequacy. Three of the five appear to be improvements over prevailing practice. PMID:17292698

Parker, Richard I; Hagan-Burke, Shanna

2007-03-01

342

Statistics and probability. Grades 6-8  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This MathPARTNERS unit contains seven lessons with hands-on learning activities for exploring statistics and probability with students in grades 6-8. The lessons, designed for mentoring situations, may also be helpful for teachers and parents. Each lesson with reproducible student materials, features an overview of the mathematics, preparation guidelines, teaching tips, and suggestions for how to use each activity to develop specific mathematics concepts. Statistics activities focus on posing questions, data gathering, identifying bias, understanding measures of central tendency, representing data with graphs, and interpreting data. Probability activities introduce fairness in games and the computation of probability. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Center, Education D.

2003-01-01

343

International Statistical Institute - Glossary of Statistical Terms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site shows the International Statistical Institutes alphabetical list of technical terms showing the translation in a number of languages. The page covers a myriad of different terms and our translated into many languages such as: English, French, German, Dutch, Italian, Spanish, Catalan, Portuguese, Romanian, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, Greek and many more. This is a nice reference site for anyone interested in statistics.

344

Equilibrium statistical mechanics for incomplete nonextensive statistics  

E-print Network

The incomplete nonextensive statistics in the canonical and microcanonical ensembles is explored in the general case and in a particular case for the ideal gas. By exact analytical results for the ideal gas it is shown that taking the thermodynamic limit, with $z=q/(1-q)$ being an extensive variable of state, the incomplete nonextensive statistics satisfies the requirements of equilibrium thermodynamics. The thermodynamical potential of the statistical ensemble is a homogeneous function of the first degree of the extensive variables of state. In this case, the incomplete nonextensive statistics is equivalent to the usual Tsallis statistics. If $z$ is an intensive variable of state, i.e. the entropic index $q$ is a universal constant, the requirements of the equilibrium thermodynamics are violated.

A. S. Parvan; T. S. Biro

2010-03-29

345

An empirical approach to interpreting card-sorting data  

E-print Network

Since it was first published 30 years ago, Chi et al.'s seminal paper on expert and novice categorization of introductory problems led to a plethora of follow-up studies within and outside of the area of physics [Chi et al. Cognitive Science 5, 121 - 152 (1981)]. These studies frequently encompass "card-sorting" exercises whereby the participants group problems. While this technique certainly allows insights into problem solving approaches, simple descriptive statistics more often than not fail to find significant differences between experts and novices. In moving beyond descriptive statistics, we describe a novel microscopic approach that takes into account the individual identity of the cards and uses graph theory and models to visualize, analyze, and interpreting problem categorization experiments. We apply these methods to an introductory physics (mechanics) problem categorization experiment, and find that most of the variation in sorting outcome is not due to the sorter being an expert versus a novice, b...

Wolf, Steven F; Kortemeyer, Gerd

2012-01-01

346

Photon statistics of coherent harmonic radiation of a linac free electron laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of statistical fluctuations in a free electron laser (FEL) is both fundamental and significant to the understanding of FEL radiation. This dissertation deals with two relevant issues in this regard: the photon statistics of the visible coherent spontaneous harmonic radiation (CSHR); and the examination of the electron shot-noise interpretation of the observed statistical fluctuations. In this dissertation, we

Teng Chen

1999-01-01

347

Surveys Assessing Students' Attitudes toward Statistics: A Systematic Review of Validity and Reliability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students with positive attitudes toward statistics are likely to show strong academic performance in statistics courses. Multiple surveys measuring students' attitudes toward statistics exist; however, a comparison of the validity and reliability of interpretations based on their scores is needed. A systematic review of relevant electronic…

Nolan, Meaghan M.; Beran, Tanya; Hecker, Kent G.

2012-01-01

348

Testing quantum mechanics: a statistical approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As experiments continue to push the quantum-classical boundary using increasingly complex dynamical systems, the interpretation of experimental data becomes more and more challenging: when the observations are noisy, indirect, and limited, how can we be sure that we are observing quantum behavior? This tutorial highlights some of the difficulties in such experimental tests of quantum mechanics, using optomechanics as the central example, and discusses how the issues can be resolved using techniques from statistics and insights from quantum information theory.

Tsang, Mankei

2013-12-01

349

Normativity, interpretation, and Bayesian models  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that evaluative normativity should be expunged from the psychology of reasoning. A broadly Davidsonian response to these arguments is presented. It is suggested that two distinctions, between different types of rationality, are more permeable than this argument requires and that the fundamental objection is to selecting theories that make the most rational sense of the data. It is argued that this is inevitable consequence of radical interpretation where understanding others requires assuming they share our own norms of reasoning. This requires evaluative normativity and it is shown that when asked to evaluate others’ arguments participants conform to rational Bayesian norms. It is suggested that logic and probability are not in competition and that the variety of norms is more limited than the arguments against evaluative normativity suppose. Moreover, the universality of belief ascription suggests that many of our norms are universal and hence evaluative. It is concluded that the union of evaluative normativity and descriptive psychology implicit in Davidson and apparent in the psychology of reasoning is a good thing. PMID:24860519

Oaksford, Mike

2014-01-01

350

Guide to Magellan image interpretation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of Magellan Mission requirements, radar system characteristics, and methods of data collection is followed by a description of the image data, mosaic formats, areal coverage, resolution, and pixel DN-to-dB conversion. The availability and sources of image data are outlined. Applications of the altimeter data to estimate relief, Fresnel reflectivity, and surface slope, and the radiometer data to derive microwave emissivity are summarized and illustrated in conjunction with corresponding SAR image data. Same-side and opposite-side stereo images provide examples of parallax differences from which to measure relief with a lateral resolution many times greater than that of the altimeter. Basic radar interactions with geologic surfaces are discussed with respect to radar-imaging geometry, surface roughness, backscatter modeling, and dielectric constant. Techniques are described for interpreting the geomorphology and surface properties of surficial features, impact craters, tectonically deformed terrain, and volcanic landforms. The morphologic characteristics that distinguish impact craters from volcanic craters are defined. Criteria for discriminating extensional and compressional origins of tectonic features are discussed. Volcanic edifices, constructs, and lava channels are readily identified from their radar outlines in images. Geologic map units are identified on the basis of surface texture, image brightness, pattern, and morphology. Superposition, cross-cutting relations, and areal distribution of the units serve to elucidate the geologic history.

Ford, John P.; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Weitz, Catherine M.; Farr, Tom G.; Senske, David A.; Stofan, Ellen R.; Michaels, Gregory; Parker, Timothy J.; Fulton, D. (editor)

1993-01-01

351

Young child with severe brain volume loss easily passes the word memory test and medical symptom validity test: implications for mild TBI.  

PubMed

The Word Memory Test (WMT) and Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT) are two commonly used free-standing measures of test-taking effort. The use of any test as a measure of effort is enhanced when evidence shows that it can be easily passed by patients with severe neurological conditions. The opportunity arose to administer the WMT and MSVT to a 9-year-old girl (referred to as CJ) with severe congenital bilateral brain tissue loss (shown via a compelling brain MRI image), chronic epilepsy, an extremely low Full Scale IQ, extremely low adaptive functioning, developmental delays, numerous severe cognitive impairments, and treatment with multiple high-dose benzodiazepines. She received extensive early intervention services and numerous academic accommodations. Despite this set of problems, CJ passed the WMT and MSVT at perfect to near perfect levels. Implications for failure on these tests among patients with known or alleged mild traumatic brain injury are discussed. PMID:24266623

Carone, Dominic A

2014-01-01

352

Blood Facts and Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... About Blood > Blood Facts and Statistics Printable Version Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts ... about American Red Cross Blood Services Facts about blood needs Every two seconds someone in the U.S. ...

353

Developments in Statistical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current status of statistics education at the secondary level is reviewed, with particular attention focused on the various instructional programs in England. A description and preliminary evaluation of the Schools Council Project on Statistical Education is included. (MP)

Kapadia, Ramesh

1980-01-01

354

Brain Tumor Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... updates Please leave this field empty Brain Tumor Statistics SHARE Share on Facebook Preview your comments Share ... Close Finish Home > About Us > News > Brain Tumor Statistics Listen Brain Tumors do not discriminate. Primary brain ...

355

Uterine Cancer Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... Research AMIGAS Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed Statistics for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal ( ... Skin Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer Home Uterine Cancer Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir Uterine cancer ...

356

Data and Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... page: About CDC.gov . Hemophilia Share Compartir Data & Statistics In the United States [ Read article ] Hemophilia affects ... HTC Directory Update Contact Info (Password Required) Data & Statistics Training & Education Research CHAMP Universal Data Collection Blood ...

357

Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis) Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... gov . Fungal Diseases Share Compartir Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis) Statistics How common is valley fever? In states where ... Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & Testing Treatment Health Professionals Statistics More Resources Blastomycosis Definition Symptoms People at Risk & ...

358

Pneumocystis Pneumonia Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... CDC.gov . Fungal Diseases Share Compartir Pneumocystis pneumonia Statistics Before the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic ... Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & Testing Treatment Health Professionals Statistics More Resources Blastomycosis Definition Symptoms People at Risk & ...

359

Listeria (Listeriosis) Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... page: About CDC.gov . Listeria (Listeriosis) Share Compartir Statistics Estimates CDC estimates that approximately 1600 illnesses and ... 12, 2011 Case Count Map Epi Curve Surveillance Statistics People at Risk Prevention Sources of Infection Diagnosis & ...

360

Immigration and Naturalization Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Immigration and Naturalizations Service Statistics site provides "comprehensive annual immigration statistics from 1994-1996, as well as state estimates of the United States' illegal alien resident and foreign-born populations."

Service., United S.

1997-01-01

361

Assessing the Montevideo Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics  

E-print Network

This paper gives a philosophical assessment of the Montevideo interpretation of quantum theory, advocated by Gambini, Pullin and co-authors. This interpretation has the merit of linking its proposal about how to solve the measurement problem to the search for quantum gravity: namely by suggesting that quantum gravity makes for fundamental limitations on the accuracy of clocks, which imply a type of decoherence that "collapses the wave-packet". I begin (Section 2) by sketching the topics of decoherence, and quantum clocks, on which the interpretation depends. Then I expound the interpretation, from a philosopher's perspective (Sections 3, 4 and 5). Finally, in Section 6, I argue that the interpretation, at least as developed so far, is best seen as a form of the Everett interpretation: namely with an effective or approximate branching, that is induced by environmental decoherence of the familiar kind, and by the Montevideans' "temporal decoherence".

Jeremy Butterfield

2014-06-17

362

A bird's eye view: the cognitive strategies of experts interpreting seismic profiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geoscience is perhaps unique in its reliance on incomplete datasets and building knowledge from their interpretation. This interpretation basis for the science is fundamental at all levels; from creation of a geological map to interpretation of remotely sensed data. To teach and understand better the uncertainties in dealing with incomplete data we need to understand the strategies individual practitioners deploy that make them effective interpreters. The nature of interpretation is such that the interpreter needs to use their cognitive ability in the analysis of the data to propose a sensible solution in their final output that is both consistent not only with the original data but also with other knowledge and understanding. In a series of experiments Bond et al. (2007, 2008, 2011, 2012) investigated the strategies and pitfalls of expert and non-expert interpretation of seismic images. These studies focused on large numbers of participants to provide a statistically sound basis for analysis of the results. The outcome of these experiments showed that techniques and strategies are more important than expert knowledge per se in developing successful interpretations. Experts are successful because of their application of these techniques. In a new set of experiments we have focused on a small number of experts to determine how they use their cognitive and reasoning skills, in the interpretation of 2D seismic profiles. Live video and practitioner commentary were used to track the evolving interpretation and to gain insight on their decision processes. The outputs of the study allow us to create an educational resource of expert interpretation through online video footage and commentary with associated further interpretation and analysis of the techniques and strategies employed. This resource will be of use to undergraduate, post-graduate, industry and academic professionals seeking to improve their seismic interpretation skills, develop reasoning strategies for dealing with incomplete datasets, and for assessing the uncertainty in these interpretations. Bond, C.E. et al. (2012). 'What makes an expert effective at interpreting seismic images?' Geology, 40, 75-78. Bond, C. E. et al. (2011). 'When there isn't a right answer: interpretation and reasoning, key skills for 21st century geoscience'. International Journal of Science Education, 33, 629-652. Bond, C. E. et al. (2008). 'Structural models: Optimizing risk analysis by understanding conceptual uncertainty'. First Break, 26, 65-71. Bond, C. E. et al., (2007). 'What do you think this is?: "Conceptual uncertainty" In geoscience interpretation'. GSA Today, 17, 4-10.

Bond, C. E.; Butler, R.

2012-12-01

363

The modern Prometheus and the interpretive communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein is a text read by completely different groups of readers, and therefore it may be a tempting medium for research on interpretive\\u000a communities. The paper analyses the possible strategies of elite and popular interpretations. For a typical elite strategy\\u000a it uses the myth of Prometheus as interpretive subtext of the novel, while as an example of typical

Péter Hajdu

2007-01-01

364

The ACS Statistical Analyzer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document provides guidance for using the ACS Statistical Analyzer. It is an Excel-based template for users of estimates from the American Community Survey (ACS) to assess the precision of individual estimates and to compare pairs of estimates for their statistical differences. The ACS Statistical Analyzer covers the following four functions and fifteen sub-functions (not listed): (1) To derive other

Xuehao Chu

2010-01-01

365

Glossary of Statistical Terms  

Cancer.gov

Defines common statistical terms, NCI terminology, and the five key statistical measures of cancer: incidence, mortality, survival, prevalence, and lifetime risk. NCI monitors these cancer statistics to assess progress and to identify population subgroups and geographic areas in which cancer control efforts need to be concentrated.

366

Giovanni Gallavotti STATISTICAL MECHANICS  

E-print Network

Giovanni Gallavotti STATISTICAL MECHANICS Short Treatise Roma 1999 #12; . #12; Short treatise of Statistical Mechanics Giovanni Gallavotti Dipartimento di Fisica Universitâ??a di Roma La Sapienza 00185 Roma that started with my involvement as Coordinator of the Statistical Mechanics section of the Italian Encyclo

Roma "La Sapienza", Università di

367

Statistical Mechanics its applications  

E-print Network

Statistical Mechanics and its applications Dr A. Alavi Part II Chemistry 2007-2008 1 #12;I. INTRODUCTION Statistical Mechanics is concerned with how to describe the behaviour of systems containing large, and how this is done, as well as its theoretical justification, is the subject of Statistical Mechanics. A

Alavi, Ali

368

Giovanni Gallavotti STATISTICAL MECHANICS  

E-print Network

Giovanni Gallavotti STATISTICAL MECHANICS Short Treatise Roma 1999 #12;. #12;Short treatise of Statistical Mechanics Giovanni Gallavotti Dipartimento di Fisica Universit`a di Roma La Sapienza 00185 Roma that started with my involvement as Coordinator of the Statistical Mechanics section of the Italian Encyclo

Roma "La Sapienza", Università di

369

Statistics Statistique Canada Canada  

E-print Network

Statistics Statistique Canada Canada Human Resources and Ressources humaines et Skills Development Canada Développement des compétences Canada Culture,Tourism and the Centre for Education Statistics about this product or the wide range of services and data available from Statistics Canada, visit our

Sinnamon, Gordon J.

370

Applied Statistics Spring 2010  

E-print Network

, statistical process control, contingency tables and nonparametric methods. Use of statistical computer package Statistical process control 17.1-17.5 11 12 Chi-square tests and Contingency tables 10.14-10.16 12 13 · Design of experiments · Analysis of variance (ANOVA) · Analysis of discrete data (contingency tables

Langseth, Helge

371

Observations & Interpretations: Engaging Students in Classroom Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used to introduce or reinforce in students the importance of differentiating between observations and interpretations and quantitative and qualitative observations during classroom experimentation or demonstrations

372

Statistical Abstract: USA Statistics in Brief  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page, authored by the United State Census Bureau, contains statistics about the current population. Some of these statistics include: sex, age, state population, births, deaths, households, housing, construction, education, government, social welfare, law enforcement, employment, income, poverty, prices, energy, transportation, communications, agriculture, business, finance and foreign commerce. As demonstrated this is a fairly comprehensive data set. The sets are contained in both html or Excel format.

2009-02-09

373

Introduction to Statistics 1.1 What is statistics?  

E-print Network

facts: Social statistics, sports statistics, crime statistics. (2) Field or discipline of study: That is) Inferential statistics consists of methods that use sample results to help make decisions or predictions aboutChapter 1 Introduction to Statistics 1.1 What is statistics? Statistics means numerical

Cho, Hokwon

374

Statistical Convergence and Convergence in Statistics  

E-print Network

Statistical convergence was introduced in connection with problems of series summation. The main idea of the statistical convergence of a sequence l is that the majority of elements from l converge and we do not care what is going on with other elements. We show (Section 2) that being mathematically formalized the concept of statistical convergence is directly connected to convergence of such statistical characteristics as the mean and standard deviation. At the same time, it known that sequences that come from real life sources, such as measurement and computation, do not allow, in a general case, to test whether they converge or statistically converge in the strict mathematical sense. To overcome limitations induced by vagueness and uncertainty of real life data, neoclassical analysis has been developed. It extends the scope and results of the classical mathematical analysis by applying fuzzy logic to conventional mathematical objects, such as functions, sequences, and series. The goal of this work is the further development of neoclassical analysis. This allows us to reflect and model vagueness and uncertainty of our knowledge, which results from imprecision of measurement and inaccuracy of computation. In the context on the theory of fuzzy limits, we develop the structure of statistical fuzzy convergence and study its properties.

Mark Burgin; Oktay Duman

2006-12-07

375

Distributed data collection for a database of radiological image interpretations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Library of Medicine, in collaboration with the National Center for Health Statistics and the National Institute for Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, has built a system for collecting radiological interpretations for a large set of x-ray images acquired as part of the data gathered in the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. This system is capable of delivering across the Internet 5- and 10-megabyte x-ray images to Sun workstations equipped with X Window based 2048 X 2560 image displays, for the purpose of having these images interpreted for the degree of presence of particular osteoarthritic conditions in the cervical and lumbar spines. The collected interpretations can then be stored in a database at the National Library of Medicine, under control of the Illustra DBMS. This system is a client/server database application which integrates (1) distributed server processing of client requests, (2) a customized image transmission method for faster Internet data delivery, (3) distributed client workstations with high resolution displays, image processing functions and an on-line digital atlas, and (4) relational database management of the collected data.

Long, L. Rodney; Ostchega, Yechiam; Goh, Gin-Hua; Thoma, George R.

1997-01-01

376

Analogs of de Finetti's theorem and interpretative problems of quantum mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is argued that the characterization of the states of an infinite system of indistinguishable particles satisfying Bose-Einstein statistics which follows from the quantum-mechanical analog of de Finetti's theorem (2) can be used to interpret the nonuniqueness of the resolution into a convex combination of pure states of a quantum-mechanical mixed state.

Hudson, R. L.

1981-10-01

377

Interpreting Hierarchical Linear and Hierarchical Generalized Linear Models with Slopes as Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current descriptions of results from hierarchical linear models (HLM) and hierarchical generalized linear models (HGLM), usually based only on interpretations of individual model parameters, are incomplete in the presence of statistically significant and practically important "slopes as outcomes" terms in the models. For complete description of…

Tate, Richard

2004-01-01

378

Transformation of probability distribution into fuzzy set interpretable with likelihood view  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research agrees on the utility of fuzzy reasoning for the development of Decision Support Systems, which help to classify clinical data. In this context, methods or techniques for representing fuzzy terms in the form of interpretable fuzzy sets obtained from numerical data are strongly required. Typically, in medical settings, statistical data are available or can be obtained from rough

M. Pota; M. Esposito; G. De Pietro

2011-01-01

379

VAMPIRE microarray suite: a web-based platform for the interpretation of gene expression data  

E-print Network

VAMPIRE microarray suite: a web-based platform for the interpretation of gene expression data of analysis, collectively known as variance-modeled posterior inference with regional exponentials (VAMPIRE, associate related samples and identify differentially expressed features using the VAMPIRE statistical

380

Middle Grade Students' Interpretations of Contourmaps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined eighth graders' approach to three tasks implemented to assist students with learning to interpret contour maps. Students' approach to and interpretation of these three tasks were analyzed qualitatively. When students were rank ordered according to their scores on a standardized test of spatial ability, the Minnesota Paper Form…

Carter, Glenda; Cook, Michelle; Park, John C.; Wiebe, Eric N.; Butler, Susan M.

2008-01-01

381

Bounded Functional Interpretation Fernando Ferreira a,1  

E-print Network

Introduction In 1958 Kurt G¨odel presented an interpretation of Heyting Arithmetic HA into a quantifier assignment of formulas. In contrast with G¨odel's functional "Dialectica" interpretation, the new interpre of first-order arithmetic to quantifier-free formulas of the language of T. G¨odel's so-called functional

Oliva, Paulo

382

[Interpreting Historic Sites & the Built Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue focuses on the interpretation of built environments, from Washington Irving's 19th century home in Tarrytown, New York, to structures in contemporary Chicago. Barbara Carson, Margaret Piatt, and Renee Friedman discuss the interpretation of interior and exterior spaces and explain how to teach history with objects instead of teaching the…

Yellis, Ken, Ed.

1985-01-01

383

Interface Problems: Structural Constraints on Interpretation?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five experiments investigated the interpretation of quantified noun phrases in relation to discourse structure. They demonstrated, using questionnaire and on-line reading techniques, that readers in English prefer to give a quantified noun phrase in (VP-external) subject position a presuppositional interpretation, in which the noun phrase limits…

Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles; Rayner, Keith; Deevy, Patricia; Koh, Sungryong; Bader, Markus

2005-01-01

384

Zur synchronischen und diachronischen Interpretation althochdeutscher Schreibungen  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to W. G. Moulton’s critical review of the book by Penzl, published in 1971, the author stresses the importance of graphemic and distributional analysis in the phonetic interpretation of historical spellings and of a careful distinction between phonotactic rules, individual phonemic systems, abstract overall patterns. He explains his interpretation of Old High German digraph and geminate spellings as

H. Penzl

1973-01-01

385

Tolman's interpretation of vicarious trial and error  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reply to the objections of Taylor and Reichlin to Tolman's interpretation of vicarious trial and error (VTE) behavior. Tolman's sowbug schema forms an integral part of his theory of behavior, the theory accounts for the facts of VTE, and VTE may be interpreted as an aid to learning. 16 references.

George A. Austin

1953-01-01

386

Oral Interpretation of Literature: Readers' Theater  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pedagogical principle of experiential learning embodied in the oral interpretation of literature through Readers' Theater provides an avenue to accomplish a seemingly daunting task. Students' participation in reading, interpreting, discussing, writing, assessing, and performing their own creative responses to a literary work promotes a…

Kennedy, Joan

2011-01-01

387

Interpretation of drill cuttings from geothermal wells  

SciTech Connect

Problems in interpreting drill cuttings, as opposed to drill cores, and methods to solve these problems are outlined. The following are covered: identification of lithology; recognition of faults and fractures; interpretation of hydrothermal alteration; geochemistry; sample collection; sample preparple examination; and sample storage. (MHR)

Hulen, J.B.; Sibbett, B.S.

1981-06-01

388

Bernard Williams's Internalism: A New Interpretation  

E-print Network

H interpretation. To explain the new interpretation I make a distinction between there being a reason to perform an action (a reasonE) and an agent having a reason to perform an action (a reasonH). For an agent to have a reason to perform an action, it must...

Baize, Micah J.

2012-05-31

389

Basic Interpretation of EKG's. N203.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description is provided of an associate degree in nursing science course, "Rapid Interpretation of Electrocardiograms (EKG's)," designed to emphasize the nurse's role in the interpretation of the basic EKG and the medical interventions necessary to treat arrythmias. The first section of the course description provides information on curricular…

Hall, Laura T.

390

Achieving incremental semantic interpretation through contextual representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

While much work has been done investigating the role of context in the incremental processing of syntactic indeterminacies, relatively little is known about online semantic interpretation. The experiments in this article made use of the eye-tracking paradigm with spoken language and visual contexts in order to examine how, and when listeners make use of contextually-defined contrast in interpreting simple prenominal

Julie C. Sedivy; Michael K. Tanenhaus; Craig G. Chambers; Gregory N. Carlson

1999-01-01

391

Psychological Testing of Sign Language Interpreters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-eight sign language interpreters participated in a battery of tests to determine if a profile of cognitive, motor, attention, and personality attributes might distinguish them as a group and at different credential levels. Eight interpreters held Level II and nine held Level III Virginia Quality Assurance Screenings (VQAS); the other 11…

Seal, Brenda C.

2004-01-01

392

Firmware approach to fast Lisp interpreter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The approach to speed up a Lisp interpreter by implementing it in firmware seems promising. A microcoded Lisp interpreter shows good performance for very simple benchmarks, while it often fails to provide good performance for larger benchmarks and applications unless speedup techniques are devised for it. This was the case for the TAO\\/ELIS system. This paper describes various techniques devised

Hiroshi G. Okuno; Nobuyasu Osato; Ikuo Takeuchi

1987-01-01

393

A Method for Teaching Topographic Map Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students learn how to read and interpret topographic maps by using a set of simplified map exercise cards. Students learn in the field as opposed to a traditional classroom. Map symbols, distance, direction, form, and relief are among the map interpretation topics taught with this method. The multiple-choice format of the exercise also allows for…

Schuit, Walter

2011-01-01

394

A PDESolve Interpreter in Python Chris Myers  

E-print Network

A PDESolve Interpreter in Python Chris Myers Beam Technologies, Inc., 110 N. Cayuga St., Ithaca, NY environment that Beam is developing. Recently, we have begun building an interpreted Python interface to PDESolve by wrapping pieces of the library using Beazley's SWIG package 2] to build a Python extension

Myers, Chris

395

Medical Interpreting: Improving Communication with Your Patients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guide is designed for physicians and other medical practitioners who need to work with medical interpreters to improve communication with patients. Special attention is given to the Australian context. An introductory section discusses the need for medical interpreters and explains the guide's organization. Subsequent sections address these…

Tebble, Helen

396

The Interpretation of Enceladus Gravity (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The determination of the gravity field by Cassini is challenging because of the small mass and short duration of the gravitational interaction, even with data from three encounters. E19 data have been successfully integrated into the multiarc analysis, providing a stable and consistent gravity field. This required inclusion of the effect of atmospheric drag due to Enceladus' plumes. This presentation will deal only with the interpretation of these data. The dominant features of the non-central gravity are large values for the harmonic coefficients J2 and C22 and a much smaller but statistically significant negative J3. The value of J2/C22=3.55×0.05 is moderately in excess of the value of 10/3 that applies to a synchronously rotating body with no lateral variation in material properties. Given the obvious latitudinal variation of Enceladus' physical characteristics, primarily expressed by the activity centered on the South Pole, it is plausible that the deviation from 10/3 arises primarily because of a positive anomaly in J2 rather than any anomaly in C22. However, applying Radau-Darwin to the value of C22/q (where q is the usual dimensionless measure of the centrifugal effect on gravity) implies that the moment of inertia is about 0.34MR^2. The high heat output and indirect inference for liquid water suggests a fully differentiated Enceladus. For the known mean density and any plausible mantle density, this would require an unreasonably low core density of 2.5 g/cc or less. A more realistic interpretation is that both J2 and C22 are modestly non-hydrostatic, but that J2 is affected more because of a negative mass anomaly in the Southern hemisphere, consistent with the observed negative J3. One non-unique way to reconcile the observed gravity with a realistic MOI of 0.32 to 0.33MR^2 is to assume that the rocky core of Enceladus has retained some memory of a previous faster rotational state. Even if the ice shell is perfectly relaxed, this reconciles the data for a core shape corresponding to a rotation that is only a few to 10% larger then the current value, small compared to the total change expected for the expansion of the assumed synchronous orbit over the age of the Saturnian system. Other possibilities will be discussed. We assume that the only source of additional gravity beyond that from rotation and tides, past and present, is a mass anomaly centered at the South pole. A negative point mass anomaly then predicts a contribution to J2 that is of the same magnitude but opposite sign to J3. The inferred J2 anomaly is of the right sign but about a factor of two larger than this point mass prediction. This can be understood by assuming that that the mass anomaly is extended in latitude away from the pole, consistent with the observed extent of the South pole topographic depression. A physically plausible explanation that explains both the J2 anomaly and J3 is to invoke this observed depression of nearly 1km as a negative mass anomaly. A compensating ocean of around 10km in thickness at the base of the ice (depth ~50km) is not essential to explain the gravity but is consistent with the gravity and plausible based on other geophysical considerations. More precise topography and gravity in a future mission could strengthen the case for an ocean but ambiguity will always be present because of the uncertain nature and shape of the core.

Stevenson, D. J.; Iess, L.; Parisi, M.; Ducci, M.; Asmar, S. W.

2013-12-01

397

The atomic-scale unit, entity: key to a direct and easily understood definition of the SI base unit for amount of substance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atomic-scale unit, entity (ent), is defined as the number-specific amount of substance, n/N, the amount of substance of a single entity. This unit is an invariant physical quantity (the reciprocal of the Avogadro constant) that serves as the basis for redefining the SI base unit for amount of substance in a direct and easily understood manner. It is argued here that the kilomole should be the base unit in order to avoid factors of 10-3 or 103 appearing in relationships involving both mass and amount of substance expressed in base units. Since, in a compatible formulation, the amount-specific number of entities, N/n (= NA), is equal to Mu/Da, exactly, where Mu = kg kmol-1 = g mol-1 = Da ent-1, exactly, then NA = (kg/Da) kmol-1 = (g/Da) mol-1 = 1 ent-1, exactly. The kilomole can thus be defined very simply as: kmol = \\cal N^{\\ast}\\,ent , exactly, where \\cal N^{\\ast} , the exact kilomole-to-entity amount ratio, is identical to the kilogram-to-dalton mass ratio: \\cal N^{\\ast} \\equiv kmol/ent\\equiv kg/Da . The Avogadro constant, N_A = \\cal N^{\\ast}\\,kmol^{-1} , does not appear explicitly in the defining equation, its reciprocal having been replaced by one entity. Like the dalton, the entity would be categorized as a unit in use with SI.

Leonard, B. P.

2007-10-01

398

Real World Interpretations of Quantum Theory  

E-print Network

I propose a new class of interpretations, {\\it real world interpretations}, of the quantum theory of closed systems. These interpretations postulate a preferred factorization of Hilbert space and preferred projective measurements on one factor. They give a mathematical characterisation of the different possible worlds arising in an evolving closed quantum system, in which each possible world corresponds to a (generally mixed) evolving quantum state. In a realistic model, the states corresponding to different worlds should be expected to tend towards orthogonality as different possible quasiclassical structures emerge or as measurement-like interactions produce different classical outcomes. However, as the worlds have a precise mathematical definition, real world interpretations need no definition of quasiclassicality, measurement, or other concepts whose imprecision is problematic in other interpretational approaches. It is natural to postulate that precisely one world is chosen randomly, using the natural probability distribution, as the world realised in Nature, and that this world's mathematical characterisation is a complete description of reality.

Adrian Kent

2007-08-28

399

Web-based parallel corpora for statistical machine translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical machine translation is the state-of-the- art technique based on sentence-level aligned parallel corpora. The improvement of this kind of technique is constrained by the lack of parallel corpora publicly available. The booming of the World Wide Web stands a fair chance that we can construct parallel corpora in a big scale more easily. In this paper, we summarize the

Bo Li; Juan Liu; Wenjuan Shi

2007-01-01

400

Geographic Variability of the Lithospheric Magnetic Power Spectra on Earth and Mars: Theory, Observation, Interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We elucidate "myths and truths concerning the estimation of power spectra", to paraphrase a paper written by G. Efstathiou. A complete theory and software are available to construct and interpret localized power spectral densities from noisy and incomplete data observed on a spherical surface, but such knowledge has not made it into mainstream geophysical practice. Key are the doubly-orthogonal spherical Slepian functions, and their Cartesian and vectorial relatives. There is confusion in the community on whether to use the Slepian functions as a basis for data approximation, as windows for regularization of power spectral estimates, or hybridly. Each of these choices is legitimate but carries consequences to be characterized statistically. We review the options and present them tutorially, to motivate the scientific analysis of the terrestrial magnetic power spectrum, and that of Mars, which follows. The power spectral density of the lithospheric magnetic field on Earth is broken down in to portions that are geographically limited to the oceans, the continents, and various portions thereof. The different overall power levels and varying character of the power spectra contain much diagnostic information about the generation and preservation of magnetic signatures in the Earth's crust. On Mars, we conducted a parameterized inversion for magnetization strength and decorrelation depth, and compared this to independent, gravity-based estimates for crustal thickness. Both the terrestrial and martian examples are different manifestations of how Slepian functions can be used for power-spectral localization, and in both cases, the uncertainty of the spectral estimates, both on the horizontal axis (degree resolution) and the vertical axis (estimation variance), is easily computed via exact and also approximate relationships. The analytical expressions that are involved may look off-puttingly complex, but the result of the theoretical analysis is a set of simple routines that should be at the fingertips of Earth and planetary scientists interested in utilizing power-spectral information of potential fields for the study and characterization of terrestrial and planetary processes.Breakdown of the magnetic field model MF7 into geographical domains, using Slepian functions (left), and the corresponding Lowes-Mauersberger power spectral densities (right).

Simons, F. J.; Beggan, C.; Saarimaki, J.; Whaler, K. A.; Lewis, K. W.; Plattner, A.

2012-12-01

401

Exploratory Data Analysis Case Studies (Engineering Statistics Handbook)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This part of the NIST Engineering Statistics Handbook, created by authors James Filliben and Alan Heckart, contains case studies for Exploratory Data Analysis. Some of the topics include normal and uniform random numbers, reliability using airplane glass failure times, and analysis of primary factors using ceramic strength. Each different lesson contains background information, interpretation methods and even example to work through. This is a nice collection of interactive statistics lessons.

Filliben, James; Heckert, Alan

2009-06-26

402

BS in STATISTICS: Statistical Science Emphasis (695220) MAP Sheet Department of Statistics  

E-print Network

BS in STATISTICS: Statistical Science Emphasis (695220) MAP Sheet Department of Statistics the following: Stat 121 Principles of Statistics Stat 151 Introduction to Bayesian Statistics Stat 201 Statistics for Engineers & Scientists Stat 301 Statistics & Probability for Sec Ed Note: Students who have

Olsen Jr., Dan R.

403

Environmental statistics and optimal regulation.  

PubMed

Any organism is embedded in an environment that changes over time. The timescale for and statistics of environmental change, the precision with which the organism can detect its environment, and the costs and benefits of particular protein expression levels all will affect the suitability of different strategies--such as constitutive expression or graded response--for regulating protein levels in response to environmental inputs. We propose a general framework-here specifically applied to the enzymatic regulation of metabolism in response to changing concentrations of a basic nutrient-to predict the optimal regulatory strategy given the statistics of fluctuations in the environment and measurement apparatus, respectively, and the costs associated with enzyme production. We use this framework to address three fundamental questions: (i) when a cell should prefer thresholding to a graded response; (ii) when there is a fitness advantage to implementing a Bayesian decision rule; and (iii) when retaining memory of the past provides a selective advantage. We specifically find that: (i) relative convexity of enzyme expression cost and benefit influences the fitness of thresholding or graded responses; (ii) intermediate levels of measurement uncertainty call for a sophisticated Bayesian decision rule; and (iii) in dynamic contexts, intermediate levels of uncertainty call for retaining memory of the past. Statistical properties of the environment, such as variability and correlation times, set optimal biochemical parameters, such as thresholds and decay rates in signaling pathways. Our framework provides a theoretical basis for interpreting molecular signal processing algorithms and a classification scheme that organizes known regulatory strategies and may help conceptualize heretofore unknown ones. PMID:25254493

Sivak, David A; Thomson, Matt

2014-09-01

404

Springer Series in Statistics Springer Series in Statistics  

E-print Network

Springer Series in Statistics Springer Series in Statistics Inference in Hidden Markov Models class of statistical models with applications in diverse areas such as communications engineering models, including both algo- rithms and statistical theory. Topics range from filtering and smoothing

Cappé, Olivier

405

NewMINT interpretation assistance system: United States Constitution First Amendment's initial 1344 interpretations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe and illustrate a new refinement in the MINT (Multiple INTerpretation) Assistance System that has Arrow Diagrams in the left margin of interpretations of legal text that indicates the sentential logical relationships of the constituent sentences of the interpretations. The new version is called NewMINT. An example of the use of NewMINT is presented in detail

Layman E. Allen; Adam W. Tury

2007-01-01

406

Knowledge Based Interpretation of Aerial Images and Maps Using a Digital Landscape Model as Partial Interpretation  

E-print Network

by Constraints Segmented Image Raster Data INTERPRETATION Symbolic Processing: Image Processing: SEGMENTATIONKnowledge Based Interpretation of Aerial Images and Maps Using a Digital Landscape Model as Partial@tnt.uni­hannover.de Abstract The methods for the interpretation of aerial images and maps are usually different although both

407

Application of Demand-Control Theory to Sign Language Interpreting: Implications for Stress and Interpreter Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article uses the framework of demand-control theory to examine the occupation of sign language interpreting. It discusses the environmental, interpersonal, and intrapersonal demands that impinge on the interpreter's decision latitude and notes the prevalence of cumulative trauma disorders, turnover, and burnout in the interpreting profession.…

Dean, Robyn K.; Pollard, Robert Q., Jr.

2001-01-01

408

Court Interpretation: The Need for a Certification Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of the role of court interpreters looks at the need for competent interpreters, the kinds and demands of court interpretation, and New Jersey's leadership in recognizing the necessity for court interpretation. Demographic and legal reasons for providing interpreters in today's courts are outlined. Three court interpreting functions…

Barnwell, David

409

Looking at tardigrades in a new light: using epifluorescence to interpret structure.  

PubMed

The use of epifluorescence microscopy coupled with ultraviolet (UV) autofluorescence is suggested as a means to view and interpret tardigrade structures. Endogenous fluorochromes are a known component of tardigrade cuticle, claws and bucco-pharyngeal apparatus. By imaging the autofluorescence from tardigrades, it is possible to document these structures in detail, including the subdivisions and boundaries of echiniscid (heterotardigrade) plates and the nature and spatial relationships of the texture (pores, granules, papillae and tubercles) on the various plates. This allows the determination of taxonomic features not easily seen with other microscopic techniques. PMID:25354652

Perry, E S; Miller, W R; Lindsay, S

2015-02-01

410

1 Statistics Statistics plays an important role throughout society, providing  

E-print Network

1 Statistics STATISTICS Statistics plays an important role throughout society, providing data. They also explore how those skills can be applied to develop new initiatives. Statistics is one. UNDERGRADUATE Bachelor's program · Bachelor of Science with a major in statistics (http:// bulletin.gwu.edu/arts-sciences/statistics

Vertes, Akos

411

Statistics for Ecologists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Website, maintained by Carlos Herrera of the Donana Biological Station in Seville, Spain, is "a collection of links to sites with mathematical and statistical material (software, documents) which may be useful to ecologists and evolutionary ecologists." Organized into eight sections, the site points users to resources from Ecologically-oriented software to General Statistical Libraries. For graduate students and researchers alike, this statistics resource is sure to come in handy.

412

Statistics on the Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, by SPSS statistician Clay Helberg, is a broad resource containing statistical information, brief descriptions of professional organizations, lists of email discussion groups, and links to online textbooks and courses. The heart of the site is the Educational Resources section, which offers links to valuable Websites that describe and demonstrate statistical techniques. For graduate students and researchers alike, this statistics resource is sure to come in handy.

413

Statistics and Graphing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Statistics play a vital role in the scientific enterprise. This activity provides background information and tutorials on basic statistics (mean, median, standard deviation, etc.) used in science. Topics include descriptive statistics (measures of central tendency and dispersion) and presenting data (tables, figures, and graphs). Sample datasets from actual scientific experiments are used to illustrate points. Links to an online statisitical tool and an online graphing application are also provided.

Laposata, Matt

414

Agricultural Statistics 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 1998 issue of this annual United States Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Statistics Service compendium is available (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only) from the Agricultural Statistics site. Its fifteen chapters consist of time series tables covering all aspects of the US agricultural economy, including crops, livestock, farm income and expenses, price-support, and fertilizer and pesticides. Time series and geographic coverage vary. The site also contains national and state tables and an archive of Agricultural Statistics back to 1994.

415

Visualization of Statistical Contents.  

E-print Network

?? Our project presents the research on visualization of statistical contents. Here wewill introduce the concepts of visualization, software quality metrics andproposed visualization technique (line… (more)

MEHMOOD, RAJA MAJID

2009-01-01

416

Visualization of Statistical Contents.  

E-print Network

?? Our project presents the research on visualization of statistical contents. Here wewill introduce the concepts of visualization, software quality metrics andproposed visualization technique (line… (more)

Mehmood, Raja Majid

2010-01-01

417

Statistics Canada = Statistique Canada  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Statistics Canada, a national statistical agency, offers this excellent collection on the economic and social conditions in Canada. Statistical information is divided into four broad topics: The Land, The People, The Economy, and the State. Within each are a number of sub-topics which offer lists of statistical tables. Newly released data, research papers, downloadable publications (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only), and notices of seminars and conferences are featured in addition to The Daily, a collection of the latest news releases and publications from the agency. This site can be viewed in English or French. Note that there is a combination of free and fee based material available.

1997-01-01

418

Federal Law Enforcement Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Supplies census statistics about federal employees with law enforcement authority. Provides additional information about the functionality, budget, expenditures, and staffing of federal crime labs and police departments.

U.S. Department of Justice

419

Adoption and Foster Care Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... Research » Adoption & Foster Care Statistics Adoption & Foster Care Statistics Listen The Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and ... accurately. State-by-State Adoption and Foster Care Statistics State-Specific Adoption Statistics 2013 2012 2011 2010 ...

420

Statistical Mechanics with focus on  

E-print Network

Statistical Mechanics with focus on Liquids, Solutions and Colloidal Systems Course contents A. Foundations of statistical mechanics Classical dynamics ­ Hamilton's and Liouville's equations The concept thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. B. Liquid state theory; Equilibrium statistical mechanics for liquids

Johannesson, Henrik

421

Stellar Evolution A Statistical Model  

E-print Network

Stellar Evolution A Statistical Model Statistical Computation Analysis of the Hyades Cluster Statistical Analysis of Stellar Evolution David A. van Dyk1 Steven DeGennaro2 Nathan Stein2 William H Statistical Analysis of Stellar Evolution #12;Stellar Evolution A Statistical Model Statistical Computation

van Dyk, David

422

R for Statistics Rafal Kulik  

E-print Network

R for Statistics Rafal Kulik Department of Mathematics and Statistics University of Ottawa Statistical Society of Ottawa 23 September 2011 Rafal Kulik #12;R for Statistics SSO meeting Plan Rafal Kulik 1 #12;R for Statistics SSO meeting Plan What is R? Rafal Kulik 1 #12;R for Statistics SSO meeting

Kulik, Rafal

423

Interpretation of Coulomb breakup of 31Ne in terms of deformation  

E-print Network

The recent experimental data on Coulomb breakup of the nucleus $^{31}$Ne are interpreted in terms of deformation. The measured large one-neutron removal cross-section indicates that the ground state of $^{31}$Ne is either s- or p-halo. The data can be most easily interpreted as the spin of the ground state being 3/2$^-$ coming from either the Nilsson level [330 1/2] or [321 3/2] depending on the neutron separation energy $S_n$. However, the possibility of 1/2$^{+}$ coming from [200 1/2] is not excluded. It is suggested that if the large ambiguity in the measured value of $S_n$ of $^{31}$Ne, 0.29$\\pm1.64$ MeV, can be reduced by an order of magnitude, say to be $\\pm$100 keV, one may get a clear picture of the spin-parity of the halo ground state.

Ikuko Hamamoto

2009-12-23

424

Interpretation of Coulomb breakup of 31Ne in terms of deformation  

E-print Network

The recent experimental data on Coulomb breakup of the nucleus $^{31}$Ne are interpreted in terms of deformation. The measured large one-neutron removal cross-section indicates that the ground state of $^{31}$Ne is either s- or p-halo. The data can be most easily interpreted as the spin of the ground state being 3/2$^-$ coming from either the Nilsson level [330 1/2] or [321 3/2] depending on the neutron separation energy $S_n$. However, the possibility of 1/2$^{+}$ coming from [200 1/2] is not excluded. It is suggested that if the large ambiguity in the measured value of $S_n$ of $^{31}$Ne, 0.29$\\pm1.64$ MeV, can be reduced by an order of magnitude, say to be $\\pm$100 keV, one may get a clear picture of the spin-parity of the halo ground state.

Hamamoto, Ikuko

2009-01-01

425

Renaissance Versus Revelation - The Timescale of the Interpretation and Assimilation of a Message from ETI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The speed with which data received from an ETI (extraterrestrial intelligence) is interpreted and assimilated by humanity will probably have a significant impact on its societal and other consequences. It is often assumed that a lengthy decryption and interpretation process would cushion the consequent shock to human culture. It is argued here that slowness of decryption may not be a safe assumption. For example, a signal could be specifically designed by the ETI for rapid decryption. The lengthy analysis of a heavily encrypted message might be analogous to the normal processes of science - a Renaissance - but an easily decrypted message might have an immediate impact - akin to a religious revelation - and would thereby be more likely to be destabilising.

Baxter, S.

426

Interpreting response time effects in functional imaging studies  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that differential neural activity in imaging studies is most informative if it is independent of response time (RT) differences. However, others view RT as a behavioural index of key cognitive processes, which is likely linked to underlying neural activity. Here, we reconcile these views using the effort and engagement framework developed by Taylor, Rastle, and Davis (2013) and data from the domain of reading aloud. We propose that differences in neural engagement should be independent of RT, whereas, differences in neural effort should co-vary with RT. We illustrate these different mechanisms using data from an fMRI study of neural activity during reading aloud of regular words, irregular words, and pseudowords. In line with our proposals, activation revealed by contrasts designed to tap differences in neural engagement (e.g., words are meaningful and therefore engage semantic representations more than pseudowords) survived correction for RT, whereas activation for contrasts designed to tap differences in neural effort (e.g., it is more difficult to generate the pronunciation of pseudowords than words) correlated with RT. However, even for contrasts designed to tap neural effort, activity remained after factoring out the RT–BOLD response correlation. This may reveal unpredicted differences in neural engagement (e.g., learning phonological forms for pseudowords > words) that could further the development of cognitive models of reading aloud. Our framework provides a theoretically well-grounded and easily implemented method for analysing and interpreting RT effects in neuroimaging studies of cognitive processes. PMID:24904992

Taylor, J.S.H.; Rastle, Kathleen; Davis, Matthew H.

2014-01-01

427

15 CFR 770.2 - Item interpretations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (a) Interpretation 1: Anti-friction bearing or bearing systems and specially designed parts. (1) Anti-friction bearings or bearing systems...applies to separate shipments of anti-friction bearings or bearing systems and...

2011-01-01

428

15 CFR 770.2 - Item interpretations.  

... (a) Interpretation 1: Anti-friction bearing or bearing systems and specially designed parts. (1) Anti-friction bearings or bearing systems...applies to separate shipments of anti-friction bearings or bearing systems and...

2014-01-01

429

How to Interpret Abnormal Pap Smear Results  

MedlinePLUS

... Cervical Cancer | How to Interpret Abnormal Pap Smear Results What does an abnormal Pap smear mean? A ... are located in your cervix or uterus. These results mean that some of your glandular cells are ...

430

Recreation/Tourism/Interpretation Graduate Schools  

E-print Network

Recreation/Tourism/Interpretation Graduate Schools Brigham Young University Provo, Utah, Recreation and Tourism Management http://www.hehd.clemson.edu/PRTM/mprtm.htm Colorado State University Programs: Natural Resource Recreation Tourism and Commercial Recreation Campus Recreation, Programming

431

14 CFR 240.1 - Interpretation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...Interpretation. 240.1 Section 240.1 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... United States of America, Civil Aeronautics Board, Washington, D.C....

2013-01-01

432

14 CFR 240.1 - Interpretation.  

14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01...Interpretation. 240.1 Section 240.1 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... United States of America, Civil Aeronautics Board, Washington, D.C....

2014-01-01

433

14 CFR 240.1 - Interpretation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...Interpretation. 240.1 Section 240.1 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... United States of America, Civil Aeronautics Board, Washington, D.C....

2010-01-01

434

14 CFR 240.1 - Interpretation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...Interpretation. 240.1 Section 240.1 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... United States of America, Civil Aeronautics Board, Washington, D.C....

2012-01-01

435

Interpretation of the ankle in UHECR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ankle is a flattening in CR spectrum observed first in Volcano Ranch experiment in 1963 at E _{a} ˜ 10 EeV, and it was interpreted as transition from galactic to extragalactic CRs. Since that time the ankle was observed in all large UHECR detectors and most recently in HiRes, TA and Auger detectors at E _{a} ˜ 4 - 5 EeV. At present there are two interpretations of the ankle: as transition from galactic to extragalactic CRs (the conventional interpretation) and as a part of the dip, produced by extragalactic protons interacting with the CMB photons. These two interpretations will be discussed in the light of recent observations and models of UHECR origin.

Berezinsky, Veniamin

436

Translational disease interpretation with molecular networks  

PubMed Central

Molecular networks are being used to reconcile genotypes and phenotypes by integrating medical information. In this context, networks will be instrumental for the interpretation of disease at the personalized medicine level. PMID:19591646

Baudot, Anaïs; Gómez-López, Gonzalo; Valencia, Alfonso

2009-01-01

437

10 CFR 62.4 - Interpretations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Interpretations. 62.4 Section 62.4 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CRITERIA AND...EMERGENCY ACCESS TO NON-FEDERAL AND REGIONAL LOW-LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES General Provisions § 62.4...

2010-01-01

438

10 CFR 63.5 - Interpretations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA General Provisions § 63.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in...

2013-01-01

439

10 CFR 63.5 - Interpretations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA General Provisions § 63.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in...

2011-01-01

440

12 CFR 609.920 - Interpretations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...business, consumer, or commercial transactions. E-SIGN requires that statutes and regulations be interpreted to allow E-commerce as long as the safeguards of E-SIGN are met and its exceptions recognized. Generally, an electronic record...

2010-01-01

441

Applied photo interpretation for airbrush cartography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New techniques of cartographic portrayal have been developed for the compilation of maps of lunar and planetary surfaces. Conventional photo interpretation methods utilizing size, shape, shadow, tone, pattern, and texture are applied to computer processed satellite television images. The variety of the image data allows the illustrator to interpret image details by inter-comparison and intra-comparison of photographs. Comparative judgements are affected by illumination, resolution, variations in surface coloration, and transmission or processing artifacts. The validity of the interpretation process is tested by making a representational drawing by an airbrush portrayal technique. Production controls insure the consistency of a map series. Photo interpretive cartographic portrayal skills are used to prepare two kinds of map series and are adaptable to map products of different kinds and purposes.

Inge, J. L.; Bridges, P. M.

1976-01-01

442

10 CFR 75.5 - Interpretations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 75.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT General Provisions § 75.5 Interpretations. Except as authorized specifically by the Commission in...

2010-01-01

443

Statistical Reference Datasets: Archives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The datasets on this page are classified by analysis techniqueand by level of difficulty (lower, average, higher). They were originally intended to test statistical software. The sets cover these topics: ANOVA, linear regression, Markov Chain Monte Carlo, nonlinear regression, and univariate summary statistics. This is a nice collection as it not only contains raw data but also helps explain the different methods and tests.

444

Statistical Science Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains links in several statistical categories, including other meta-sites (catalogs), universities, statistics departments, software, journals, data sets, methodology, conferences, and teaching, among others. It has an Australian flavor, but is international in scope. Gordon K. Smyth, Research scientist and mathematician, maintains this site.

1998-01-01

445

Explorations in Statistics: Correlation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This sixth installment of "Explorations in Statistics" explores correlation, a familiar technique that estimates the magnitude of a straight-line relationship between two variables. Correlation is meaningful only when the…

Curran-Everett, Douglas

2010-01-01

446

China's poverty statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's official poverty statistics show a dramatic reduction in poverty from 31% of the rural population in 1978 to 3% in 2000. We evaluate possible sources of bias in these estimates and conclude that the official statistics underestimate rural poverty and overstate the speed of poverty reduction. Direct measures of nutritional outcomes support the contention that poverty is more widespread

Albert PARKa

447

China's poverty statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's official poverty statistics show a dramatic reduction in poverty from 31% of the rural population in 1978 to 3% in 2000. We evaluate possible sources of bias in these estimates and conclude that the official statistics underestimate rural poverty and overstate the speed of poverty reduction. Direct measures of nutritional outcomes support the contention that poverty is more widespread

Albert Park; Sangui Wang

2001-01-01

448

Transportation Statistics Annual Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Department of Transportation's Bureau of Transportation Statistics provides Transportation Statistics Annual Report (TSAR), a companion to NTS, in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format, from 1994 to the present at this time. Transportation in the United States: A Review, summarizing these four reports, is also available.

449

What is Statistics?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These pages from the University of Melbourne explain statistical concepts using various examples from medicine, science, sports, and finance. The intent is not computational skill but conceptual understanding. Some pages also contain data. This is a great example of how students can apply what they learn in the classroom to real world events. This is a great resource for any classroom studying statistics.

Malone, Fiona

450

Explorations in Statistics: Power  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This fifth installment of "Explorations in Statistics" revisits power, a concept fundamental to the test of a null hypothesis. Power is the probability that we reject the null hypothesis when it is false. Four things affect…

Curran-Everett, Douglas

2010-01-01

451

Reform in Statistical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two questions are considered in this article: (a) What should professionals in school psychology do in an effort to stay current with developments in applied statistics? (b) What should they do with their existing knowledge to move from surface understanding of statistics to deep understanding? Written for school psychologists who have completed…

Huck, Schuyler W.

2007-01-01

452

Application Statistics, 1974.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistics on application and registration patterns of applicants wishing to pursue full-time study in first-year places in the Ontario universities were obtained throughout the admission cycle from the processing of applicants by the Center and from the universities themselves. All application and registration statistics presented refer to…

Payton, L. C.

453

Application Statistics 1987.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summary statistics on application and registration patterns of applicants wishing to pursue full-time study in first-year places in Ontario universities (for the fall of 1987) are given. Data on registrations were received indirectly from the universities as part of their annual submission of USIS/UAR enrollment data to Statistics Canada and MCU.…

Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

454

Multidimensional Visual Statistical Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies of visual statistical learning (VSL) have demonstrated that statistical regularities in sequences of visual stimuli can be automatically extracted, even without intent or awareness. Despite much work on this topic, however, several fundamental questions remain about the nature of VSL. In particular, previous experiments have not…

Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.; Isola, Phillip J.; Scholl, Brian J.; Treat, Teresa A.

2008-01-01

455

Issues in Labor Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics collects "succinct, up-to-the-minute background papers on current topics" at the Issues in Labor Statistics publication page. Each two-page edition addresses labor topics as diverse as auto dealer employment and highway fatalities with graphical summaries and BLS contacts for additional information.

456

Applied Statistics with SPSS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accessibly written and easy to use, "Applied Statistics Using SPSS" is an all-in-one self-study guide to SPSS and do-it-yourself guide to statistics. What is unique about Eelko Huizingh's approach is that this book is based around the needs of undergraduate students embarking on their own research project, and its self-help style is designed to…

Huizingh, Eelko K. R. E.

2007-01-01

457

Statistical Hadronization and Holography  

E-print Network

In this paper we consider some issues about the statistical model of the hadronization in a holographic approach. We introduce a Rindler like horizon in the bulk and we understand the string breaking as a tunneling event under this horizon. We calculate the hadron spectrum and we get a thermal, and so statistical, shape for it.

Jacopo Bechi

2009-12-14

458

Finite Order Statistic Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet is a simulation of the experiment of selecting n objects at random from the first m positive integers. The random variables of interest are the order statistics. The applet illustrates the distributions of the order statistics.

Siegrist, Kyle

459

Weakly sufficient quantum statistics  

E-print Network

Some aspects of weak sufficiency of quantum statistics are investigated. In particular, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a weakly sufficient statistic for a given family of vector states, investigate the problem of its minimality, and find the relation between weak sufficiency and other notions of sufficiency employed so far.

Katarzyna Lubnauer; Andrzej ?uczak; Hanna Pods?dkowska

2009-11-23

460

Elementary Concepts in Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This introductory statistics introduction, by StatSoft, gives an overview of variables, classifications, measurements, relations, and other basic statistical concepts. There are also two animated graphs illustrating density and distribution functions, as well as how sample size influences sampling distribution.

2008-12-25

461

Overhead Image Statistics  

SciTech Connect

Statistical properties of high-resolution overhead images representing different land use categories are analyzed using various local and global statistical image properties based on the shape of the power spectrum, image gradient distributions, edge co-occurrence, and inter-scale wavelet coefficient distributions. The analysis was performed on a database of high-resolution (1 meter) overhead images representing a multitude of different downtown, suburban, commercial, agricultural and wooded exemplars. Various statistical properties relating to these image categories and their relationship are discussed. The categorical variations in power spectrum contour shapes, the unique gradient distribution characteristics of wooded categories, the similarity in edge co-occurrence statistics for overhead and natural images, and the unique edge co-occurrence statistics of downtown categories are presented in this work. Though previous work on natural image statistics has showed some of the unique characteristics for different categories, the relationships for overhead images are not well understood. The statistical properties of natural images were used in previous studies to develop prior image models, to predict and index objects in a scene and to improve computer vision models. The results from our research findings can be used to augment and adapt computer vision algorithms that rely on prior image statistics to process overhead images, calibrate the performance of overhead image analysis algorithms, and derive features for better discrimination of overhead image categories.

Vijayaraj, Veeraraghavan [ORNL; Cheriyadat, Anil M [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL; Bright, Eddie A [ORNL

2008-01-01

462

DISABILITY STATISTICS CENTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the Disability Statistics Center is to produce and disseminate statistical information on disability and the status of people with disabilities in American society and to establish and monitor indicators of how conditions are changing over time to meet their health...

463

Confound Those Speculative Statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speculative statistics are model-based statistics. These include deaths attributable to being in a group (deaths linked to a distant cause). Such deaths are those due to primary smoke, second-hand smoke, obesity and radon. This paper reviews the epidemiological model used and introduces a graphical technique to present three big ideas: that a confounder can influence (1) an association in an

Milo Schield

2009-01-01

464

FISHERY STATISTICS UNITED STATES  

E-print Network

a review of the fishery statistics for the year 1973 . These statistics include data on the volume of the production of processed fishery products, data on free zings and cold storage holdings, and on foreign trade in fishery commodities. Data on employment of fishermen, fishing craft and gear in the fisheries

465

Explorations in Statistics: Regression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This seventh installment of "Explorations in Statistics" explores regression, a technique that estimates the nature of the relationship between two things for which we may only surmise a mechanistic or predictive connection.…

Curran-Everett, Douglas

2011-01-01

466

Estimating and Interpreting Probability Density Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 294-page document from the Bank for International Settlements stems from the Estimating and Interpreting Probability Density Functions workshop held on June 14, 1999. The conference proceedings, which may be downloaded as a complete document or by chapter, are divided into two sections: "Estimation Techniques" and "Applications and Economic Interpretation." Both contain papers presented at the conference. Also included are a list of the program participants with their affiliations and email addresses, a forward, and background notes.

467

Interpretive Moral Wrongs and Radical Theorising  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The account of objectification offered in Chapter 5 raises a number of questions concerning the relationship between the analysis\\u000a of interpretive moral wrongs and radical theorising. This chapter aims to show, via a range of examples (Martha Nussbaum’s\\u000a reformist attempt to analyse sexual objectification; Marx’s analysis of commodification; and the ethics of genetic databases),\\u000a that an ethic of self-interpretation, suited

Peter Lucas

468

Crime scene interpretation: back to basics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation is a review of the basics involved in the interpretation of the crime scene based on facts derived from the physical and testimonial evidence obtained from the scene. This presentation will demonstrate the need to thoroughly document the scene to prove the interpretation. Part of this documentation is based on photography and crime scene sketches. While the methodology is simple and well demonstrated in this presentation this aspect is one of the tasks least completed by most law enforcement agencies.

Baldwin, Hayden B.

1999-02-01

469

Environmental affect and participation in interpretation  

E-print Network

ENVIRONMENTAL AFFECT AND PARTICIPATION IN INTERPRETATION A Thesis by MARTHA ANN GILES Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major... Subject: Recreation and Resources Development ENVIRONMENTAL AFFECT AND PARTICIPATION IN INTERPRETATION A Thesis by MARTHA ANN GILES Approved as to sty1e and content by: Chairman of Committee Member Member Head of Department August 1982 ABSTRACT...

Giles, Martha Ann

2012-06-07

470

A Bipolar Interpretation of Fuzzy Decision Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decision tree construction is a popular approach in data mining and machine learning, and some variants of decision tree algorithms\\u000a have been proposed to deal with different types of data. In this paper, we present a bipolar interpretation of fuzzy decision\\u000a trees. With the interpretation, various types of decision trees can be represented in a unified form. The edges of

Tuan-fang Fan; Churn-jung Liau; Duen-ren Liu

2008-01-01

471

Basic Statistical Concepts and Methods for Earth Scientists  

USGS Publications Warehouse

INTRODUCTION Statistics is the science of collecting, analyzing, interpreting, modeling, and displaying masses of numerical data primarily for the characterization and understanding of incompletely known systems. Over the years, these objectives have lead to a fair amount of analytical work to achieve, substantiate, and guide descriptions and inferences.

Olea, Ricardo A.

2008-01-01

472

Riemannian geometry for the statistical analysis of diffusion tensor data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tensors produced by diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT- MRI) represent the covariance in a Brownian motion model of water diffusion. Under this physical interpretation, diffusion tensors are required to be symmetric, positive-definite. However, current approaches to statistical analysis of diffusion tensor data, which treat the tensors as linear entities, do not take this positive- definite constraint into account.

P. Thomas Fletcher; Sarang C. Joshi

2007-01-01

473

BEING CRITICAL ABOUT APPROACHES TO RESEARCH IN STATISTICS EDUCATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teachers undertaking educational research for the first time usually begin their explorations by evaluating some aspect of their practice. By contrast, experienced researchers will start from an argued research question supported by a defined theoretical framework. In this paper, we use a critical discourse approach to explore various interpretive research paradigms that are commonly used to investigate aspects of statistics

Anna Reid; Peter Petocz

2006-01-01

474

Statistical Analysis of Protein Folding Kinetics Aaron R. Dinner  

E-print Network

Statistical Analysis of Protein Folding Kinetics Aaron R. Dinner , Sung-Sau So ¡ , and Martin and theoretical studies over several years have led to the emergence of a unified general mechanism for protein folding that serves as a framework for the design and interpretation of research in this area [1

Dinner, Aaron

475

Statistics and Scientific Method: an Introduction for Students and Researchers.  

E-print Network

Statistics and Scientific Method: an Introduction for Students and Researchers. Peter J. Diggle and interpreting data. This makes it relevant to al- most every kind of scientific investigation. In practice, most scientific data involve some degree of imprecision or uncertainty, and one consequence of this is that data

Diggle, Peter J.

476

Applying Descriptive Statistics to Teaching the Regional Classification of Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an exercise for college and high school students that relates descriptive statistics to the regional climatic classification. The exercise introduces students to simple calculations of central tendency and dispersion, the construction and interpretation of scatterplots, and the definition of climatic regions. Forces students to engage…

Lindquist, Peter S.; Hammel, Daniel J.

1998-01-01

477

Australian Bureau of Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those looking for statistical information on a broad set of themes and geographical areas within Australia, they should visit the Australian Bureau of Statistics Web site. From the main page, visitors can view recent statistical reports, such as the Australian Consumer Price Index, information about the labor force (e.g., employment rates), and a series of occasional papers. Particularly helpful to the casual user will be the Themes section, which provides summary statistics about the environment, tourism, transportation, economic well-being, and education. Additionally, the Bureau publishes reports organized by administrative and regional divisions of the country, a feature that will be helpful to students doing research on a particular area of the country. If users are seeking to learn more about the organization, history, and mission of the Australian Bureau of Statistics, they will find this material located under the About the ABS section of the site.

2000-01-01

478

Economic Statistics Briefing Room  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While more than a few curmudgeons have offered their honest opinions about statistics, we here at the Scout Report like to provide our readers with the facts and let them decide on their own. Fortunately, there are sites like the Economic Statistics Briefing Room provided by the White House. Here, visitors can peruse sections that offer information on income, output, transportation, and prices. Drawing on the research and statistical databases of several dozen federal agencies (including the National Agricultural Statistics Services), visitors can view tables and charts that offer such timely material as crude oil prices, poverty rates, and household wealth. Within each section, visitors can view summary statistics, and then if they wish, they can proceed to the homepage of the agency that provided each set of information.

479

The statistical efficiency of filtered backprojection in emission tomography  

SciTech Connect

While there has been much interest in developing tomographic reconstruction algorithms that are more statistically efficient than filtered backprojection (FB), the degree of improvement possible has not been well understood. We present an algorithm-independent theory of statistical accuracy attainable in emission tomography that provides a geometrical interpretation of the statistical efficiency of FB. Our analysis shows that, in general, one can build unbiased estimators with smaller variance than FB. The improvement in performance is obtained by exploiting the range properties of the Radon transform.

Kuruc, A.

1995-09-25

480

Statistical model with a standard ? distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a statistical model consisting of N basic units which interact with each other by exchanging a physical entity, according to a given microscopic random law, depending on a parameter ? . We focus on the equilibrium or stationary distribution of the entity exchanged and verify through numerical fitting of the simulation data that the final form of the equilibrium distribution is that of a standard Gamma distribution. The model can be interpreted as a simple closed economy in which economic agents trade money and a saving criterion is fixed by the saving propensity ? . Alternatively, from the nature of the equilibrium distribution, we show that the model can also be interpreted as a perfect gas at an effective temperature T(?) , where particles exchange energy in a space with an effective dimension D(?) .

Patriarca, Marco; Chakraborti, Anirban; Kaski, Kimmo

2004-07-01

481

Myth: Fresh fruits and vegetables are healthier than frozen or canned. Fact: Research shows frozen and canned foods are as nutritious as fresh. In fact, since lycopene is more easily absorbed in  

E-print Network

Myth: Fresh fruits and vegetables are healthier than frozen or canned. Fact: Research shows frozen and canned foods are as nutritious as fresh. In fact, since lycopene is more easily absorbed in the body

Burke, Peter

482

Statistics programs1 teach individuals to apply mathematical principles to the collection, analysis, and presentation of data.  

E-print Network

Statistics programs1 teach individuals to apply mathematical principles to the collection, analysis and statistical knowledge to the design of surveys and experiments; collection, processing, and analysis of data; and interpretation of the results. Statisticians may apply their knowledge of statistical methods to a variety

Lawrence, Rick L.

483

Data Torturing and the Misuse of Statistical Tools  

SciTech Connect

Statistical concepts, methods, and tools are often used in the implementation of statistical thinking. Unfortunately, statistical tools are all too often misused by not applying them in the context of statistical thinking that focuses on processes, variation, and data. The consequences of this misuse may be ''data torturing'' or going beyond reasonable interpretation of the facts due to a misunderstanding of the processes creating the data or the misinterpretation of variability in the data. In the hope of averting future misuse and data torturing, examples are provided where the application of common statistical tools, in the absence of statistical thinking, provides deceptive results by not adequately representing the underlying process and variability. For each of the examples, a discussion is provided on how applying the concepts of statistical thinking may have prevented the data torturing. The lessons learned from these examples will provide an increased awareness of the potential for many statistical methods to mislead and a better understanding of how statistical thinking broadens and increases the effectiveness of statistical tools.

Abate, Marcey L.

1999-08-16

484

A logical framework to ballpoint ink dating interpretation.  

PubMed

Since its beginnings, the forensic field of questioned documents has been concerned with the dating of inks. Ink ageing processes follow complex paths. Disagreements about the feasibility of current methods have been voiced worldwide among the scientific and legal communities, This controversy has been the starting point of the present work. Its aim was that of evaluating the interpretation processes of such evidence, Subjective statistical data have been assigned from earlier works and illustrate the kind of data necessary to date ballpoint ink, and how to use it for this purpose. This work also suggests that the court and scientific requirements for standards of reliability are not yet fulfilled by actual ink dating methods for regulatory use in expert testimony. PMID:18953799

Weyermann, Céline; Schiffer, Beatrice; Margot, Pierre

2008-09-01

485

Parameter-less approaches for interpreting dynamic cellular response  

PubMed Central

Cellular response such as cell signaling is an integral part of information processing in biology. Upon receptor stimulation, numerous intracellular molecules are invoked to trigger the transcription of genes for specific biological purposes, such as growth, differentiation, apoptosis or immune response. How complex are such specialized and sophisticated machinery? Computational modeling is an important tool for investigating dynamic cellular behaviors. Here, I focus on certain types of key signaling pathways that can be interpreted well using simple physical rules based on Boolean logic and linear superposition of response terms. From the examples shown, it is conceivable that for small-scale network modeling, reaction topology, rather than parameter values, is crucial for understanding population-wide cellular behaviors. For large-scale response, non-parametric statistical approaches have proven valuable for revealing emergent properties. PMID:25183996

2014-01-01

486

Determination of total, commonality, and uniqueness of interpreted structural elements from remotely sensed data in Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Statistical analysis is conducted to determine the unique value of real- and synthetic-aperture side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) to detect interpreted structural elements. SLAR images were compared to standard and digitally enhanced Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) images and to aerial photographs. After interpretation of the imagery, data were cumulated by total length in miles and by frequency of counts. Maximum uniqueness is obtained first from real-aperture SLAR, 58.3% of total, and, second, from digitally enhanced Landsat MSS images, 54.1% of total. ?? 1986 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

Rosenfield, G.H.

1986-01-01

487

Groundwater recharge estimation and regionalization: the Great Bend Prairie of central Kansas and its recharge statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sophocleous, M., 1992. Groundwater recharge estimation and regionalization: the Great Bend Prairie of central Kansas and its recharge statistics. J. Hydrol., 137: 113-140. The results of a 6 year recharge st,dy in the Great Bend Prairie of t:entral Kansas are statistically analyzed to regionalize the limited number of site-specific but year-round measurements. Emphasis is placed on easily measured parameters and

Marios Sophocleous

1992-01-01

488

Statistical Estimation of Heterogeneities: A New Frontier in Well Testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Well-testing methods have traditionally relied on analytical solutions of groundwater flow equations in relatively simple domains, consisting of one or at most a few units having uniform hydraulic properties. Recently, attention has been shifting toward methods and solutions that would allow one to characterize subsurface heterogeneities in greater detail. On one hand, geostatistical inverse methods are being used to assess the spatial variability of parameters, such as permeability and porosity, on the basis of multiple cross-hole pressure interference tests. On the other hand, analytical solutions are being developed to describe the mean and variance (first and second statistical moments) of flow to a well in a randomly heterogeneous medium. Geostatistical inverse interpretation of cross-hole tests yields a smoothed but detailed "tomographic" image of how parameters actually vary in three-dimensional space, together with corresponding measures of estimation uncertainty. Moment solutions may soon allow one to interpret well tests in terms of statistical parameters such as the mean and variance of log permeability, its spatial autocorrelation and statistical anisotropy. The idea of geostatistical cross-hole tomography is illustrated through pneumatic injection tests conducted in unsaturated fractured tuff at the Apache Leap Research Site near Superior, Arizona. The idea of using moment equations to interpret well-tests statistically is illustrated through a recently developed three-dimensional solution for steady state flow to a well in a bounded, randomly heterogeneous, statistically anisotropic aquifer.

Neuman, S. P.; Guadagnini, A.; Illman, W. A.; Riva, M.; Vesselinov, V. V.

2001-12-01

489

Applied Math & Statistics: Statistics Minor Curriculum Chart: 2013-2014  

E-print Network

Applied Math & Statistics: Statistics Minor Curriculum Chart: 2013-2014 http PSYC 181 CMPE 108 SOCY 103A CMPS 142 TIM 230 Information on the Statistics Minor The statistics minor as preparation for a graduate degree in statistics or biostatistics. Course Information With permission from

Stuart, Josh

490

Statistics 36-756: Advanced Statistics II Syllabus: Fall, 2006  

E-print Network

Statistics 36-756: Advanced Statistics II Syllabus: Fall, 2006 Instructor: Stephen E. Fienberg 132G: · To consider major topics from statistical theory and the foundations of inference not covered in Statistics 36-756: Advanced Statistics I, such as exchangeability, the axiomatic foundation of subjective probability

Fienberg, Stephen E.

491

Statistics: Part 1 1. Why bother with statistics?  

E-print Network

Statistics: Part 1 1. Why bother with statistics? Why is statistics so necessary for observational. But your data just don't seem to back up their claim. Statistics allows you to determine how confidently) practical introduction to those bits of statistics most vital to observational astronomy. 2. What

Francis, Paul

492

The validity of Australian ancestry statistics.  

PubMed

"This article examines the contrast between objective and subjective perceptions of ancestry hidden in the 1986 [Australian] Census definitions which vitiates the published results and points to the limitations of validating uncertain collections by relating them to cognate series. It looks at the collection of ancestry statistics as a bold attempt at an impossible task which has yielded results that are often inaccurate, sometimes misleading and liable to abuse in their interpretation. It is suggested that some of the features of cultural structure could be more reliably ascertained by small sample surveys of perceptions and aspirations." PMID:12345430

Horn, R V

1993-11-01

493

Statistical foundations of liquid-crystal theory  

PubMed Central

Working on a state space determined by considering a discrete system of rigid rods, we use nonequilibrium statistical mechanics to derive macroscopic balance laws for liquid crystals. A probability function that satisfies the Liouville equation serves as the starting point for deriving each macroscopic balance. The terms appearing in the derived balances are interpreted as expected values and explicit formulas for these terms are obtained. Among the list of derived balances appear two, the tensor moment of inertia balance and the mesofluctuation balance, that are not standard in previously proposed macroscopic theories for liquid crystals but which have precedents in other theories for structured media. PMID:23554513

Seguin, Brian; Fried, Eliot

2013-01-01

494

UCLA Statistics Series  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of California Los Angeles Statistics Series presents a collection of more than 250 preprints covering a wide array of statistical topics, such as descriptive multivariate analysis, advanced linear models, survey construction and analysis, teaching statistics, and much more. The preprints are arranged by paper number only, hence users must browse the entire list to locate relevant items. Approximately half of the full-text preprints are accessible in HTML, .pdf, or postscript formats. To access preprints not available electronically, users must contact the authors of the papers; author addresses are provided.

495

Statistics of football dynamics  

E-print Network

We investigate the dynamics of football matches. Our goal is to characterize statistically the temporal sequence of ball movements in this collective sport game, searching for traits of complex behavior. Data were collected over a variety of matches in South American, European and World championships throughout 2005 and 2006. We show that the statistics of ball touches presents power-law tails and can be described by $q$-gamma distributions. To explain such behavior we propose a model that provides information on the characteristics of football dynamics. Furthermore, we discuss the statistics of duration of out-of-play intervals, not directly related to the previous scenario.

Mendes, R S; Anteneodo, C

2007-01-01

496

Cancer Statistics, 2003  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site contains a recent report on cancer statistics prepared by the American Cancer Society (ACS) that uses incidence data from the National Cancer Institute and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. The report offers "an up-to-date perspective on the occurrence of cancer" in the United States, including cancer frequency, incidence, mortality, and survival statistics for 2003. The Web site provides links to similar articles, the PubMed citation for the report and other bibliographic resources, and a course based on the article from ACS Online Continuing Medical Education for credit toward the Physician's Recognition Award of the American Medical Association (free registration required).

Ghafoor, Asma.; Jemal, Ahmedin.; Murray, Taylor.; Samuels, Alicia.; Thun, Michael J.; Ward, Elizabeth.

2003-01-01

497

Transit Spectroscopy: new data analysis techniques and interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary science beyond the boundaries of our Solar System is today in its infancy. Until a couple of decades ago, the detailed investigation of the planetary properties was restricted to objects orbiting inside the Kuiper Belt. Today, we cannot ignore that the number of known planets has increased by two orders of magnitude nor that these planets resemble anything but the objects present in our own Solar System. A key observable for planets is the chemical composition and state of their atmosphere. To date, two methods can be used to sound exoplanetary atmospheres: transit and eclipse spectroscopy, and direct imaging spectroscopy. Although the field of exoplanet spectroscopy has been very successful in past years, there are a few serious hurdles that need to be overcome to progress in this area: in particular instrument systematics are often difficult to disentangle from the signal, data are sparse and often not recorded simultaneously causing degeneracy of interpretation. We will present here new data analysis techniques and interpretation developed by the “ExoLights” team at UCL to address the above-mentioned issues. Said techniques include statistical tools, non-parametric, machine-learning algorithms, optimized radiative transfer models and spectroscopic line-lists. These new tools have been successfully applied to existing data recorded with space and ground instruments, shedding new light on our knowledge and understanding of these alien worlds.

Tinetti, Giovanna; Waldmann, Ingo P.; Morello, Giuseppe; Tessenyi, Marcell; Varley, Ryan; Barton, Emma; Yurchenko, Sergey; Tennyson, Jonathan; Hollis, Morgan

2014-11-01

498

Systematic interpretation of microarray data using experiment annotations  

PubMed Central

Background Up to now, microarray data are mostly assessed in context with only one or few parameters characterizing the experimental conditions under study. More explicit experiment annotations, however, are highly useful for interpreting microarray data, when available in a statistically accessible format. Results We provide means to preprocess these additional data, and to extract relevant traits corresponding to the transcription patterns under study. We found correspondence analysis particularly well-suited for mapping such extracted traits. It visualizes associations both among and between the traits, the hereby annotated experiments, and the genes, revealing how they are all interrelated. Here, we apply our methods to the systematic interpretation of radioactive (single channel) and two-channel data, stemming from model organisms such as yeast and drosophila up to complex human cancer samples. Inclusion of technical parameters allows for identification of artifacts and flaws in experimental design. Conclusion Biological and clinical traits can act as landmarks in transcription space, systematically mapping the variance of large datasets from the predominant changes down toward intricate details. PMID:17181856

Fellenberg, Kurt; Busold, Christian H; Witt, Olaf; Bauer, Andrea; Beckmann, Boris; Hauser, Nicole C; Frohme, Marcus; Winter, Stefan; Dippon, Jürgen; Hoheisel, Jörg D

2006-01-01

499

The function of interpretation as perceived by park visitors and interpreters  

E-print Network

THE FDNCTION OF INTERPRETATION AS PERCEIVED BY PAPV, VISITORS AND IN1'ERPRETERS A Thesis by UALEEN ADAMS SILVY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ABM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1977 Majo; Subject: Recreation and Resources Developmert THE FUNCTION OF INTERPRETATION AS PERCEIVED BY PARK VISITORS AND INTERPRETERS A Thesis by VALEEN ADAMS SILVY Approved as to style and content by (Chairman of Commi tte Head...

Silvy, Valeen Adams

1977-01-01

500

Alternative statistical methods for interpreting airborne Alder ( Alnus glutimosa (L.) Gaertner) pollen concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on the behaviour of Alnus glutinosa (alder) pollen grains in the atmosphere of Ponferrada (León, NW Spain) from 1995 to 2006. The study, which sought to determine the effects of various weather-related parameters on Alnus pollen counts, was performed using a volumetric method. The main pollination period for this taxon is January-February. Alder pollen is one of the eight major airborne pollen allergens found in the study area. An analysis was made of the correlation between pollen counts and major weather-related parameters over each period. In general, the strongest positive correlation was with temperature, particularly maximum temperature. During each period, peak pollen counts occurred when the maximum temperature fell within the range 9°C-14°C. Finally, multivariate analysis showed that the parameter exerting the greatest influence was temperature, a finding confirmed by Spearman correlation tests. Principal components analysis suggested that periods with high pollen counts were characterised by high maximum temperature, low rainfall and an absolute humidity of around 6 g m-3. Use of this type of analysis in conjunction with other methods is essential for obtaining an accurate record of pollen-count variations over a given period.

González Parrado, Zulima; Valencia Barrera, Rosa M.; Fuertes Rodríguez, Carmen R.; Vega Maray, Ana M.; Pérez Romero, Rafael; Fraile, Roberto; Fernández González, Delia

2009-01-01