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Statistical Interpretation of Entropy Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Statistical Interpretation of Entropy Launcher package is a self-contained file for teaching the basic concept of the statistical interpretation of entropy. The file contains ready-to-run Easy Java Simulations (EJS) programs and curricular materials. The curricular materials describe a simple hands-on coin flip experiment that can help student become familiar with the basic statistical ideas involved in the approach to equilibrium and the second law of thermodynamics. The materials also describe how the EJS programs can be used to extend this simple experiment and explore these concepts at a deeper level. The EJS programs include simulations of the coin flip experiment, the expansion of an ideal gas in a box, the mixing of hot and cold ideal gases, and the action of Maxwell's Demon. The materials in this resource are described in an article titled "The Statistical Interpretation of Entropy: An Activity" to be published in The Physics Teacher.

Timberlake, Todd



WINKS Statistics Tutorials: Interpreting Statistical p-values  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, created by WINKS Statistics Tutorials, discusses the understanding of and interpretation of p-values for those who read articles with statistical information. The page provides an introduction to much of the statistical jargon used in scientific journals, studies, etc. While simplistic, it is a nice overview and provides answers to many basic questions needing to be answered to best understand statistical information.



Generating Statistical Language Models from Interpretation Grammars in Dialogue Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we explore statistical lan- guage modelling for a speech-enabled MP3 player application by generating a corpus from the interpretation grammar written for the application with the Gram- matical Framework (GF) (Ranta, 2004). We create a statistical language model (SLM) directly from our interpretation grammar and compare recognition per- formance of this model against a speech recognition grammar

Rebecca Jonson



Statistical Interpretation of Meniscograph Solderability Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a thick-film characterization study, a solderability test-program was initiated utilizing the meniscograph. The meniscograph test measures the changes in wetting force as a function of time, and thus affords a description of the kinematics of the wetting phenomenon. Difficulty was encountered in the derivation of unique parameters which provide consistent statistical comparisons. As an alternate to selecting

J. Jellison; D. Johnson; F. Hosking



The Statistical Interpretation of Entropy: An Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The second law of thermodynamics, which states that the entropy of an isolated macroscopic system can increase but will not decrease, is a cornerstone of modern physics. Ludwig Boltzmann argued that the second law arises from the motion of the atoms that compose the system. Boltzmann's statistical mechanics provides deep insight into the…

Timmberlake, Todd



Interpreting Assessment Data: Statistical Techniques You Can Use  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

*Available late fall 2008* Are you properly evaluating the results of the tests you give to students? Can you explain the difference between classroom assessment and standardized assessment? Are you on solid ground with your grading system? Demystify--and even use--statistics to answer these important questions and more in this clear, easy-to-use text for preservice and classroom science teachers and methods professors. The text's practical approach helps teachers understand how to interpret student assessments statistically and how to measure and explain the validity and reliability of those assessments. Included are a global history of testing to its present state and valuable instructions for using graphing calculators for easy computing. This nonthreatening framework for measuring and interpreting assessment results is a must-have for your professional development library.

Christmann, Edwin P.; Badgett, John L.



Interpreting ECG data by integrating statistical and artificial intelligence tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of an automated system integrating data conditioning, statistical methods, and artificial intelligence tools to summarize and interpret high-frequency physiological data such as the electrocardiogram is investigated. The development of a methodology and its associated tools for real-time patient monitoring and diagnosis is accomplished by using the commercial programming environments MATLAB and G2, a real-time knowledge-based system (KBS) development

E. Tatara; A. Cinar



Multiple Hypergeometric Functions: Probabilistic Interpretations and Statistical Uses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews and interprets recent mathematics of special functions, with emphasis on integral representations of multiple hypergeometric functions. B.C. Carlson's centrally important parameterized functions R and ?, initially defined as Dirichlet averages, are expressed as probability-generating functions of mixed multinomial distributions. Various nested families generalizing the Dirichlet distributions are developed for Bayesian inference in multinomial sampling and contingency tables.

James M. Dickey



A novel statistical analysis and interpretation of flow cytometry data  

PubMed Central

A recently developed class of models incorporating the cyton model of population generation structure into a conservation-based model of intracellular label dynamics is reviewed. Statistical aspects of the data collection process are quantified and incorporated into a parameter estimation scheme. This scheme is then applied to experimental data for PHA-stimulated CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells collected from two healthy donors. This novel mathematical and statistical framework is shown to form the basis for accurate, meaningful analysis of cellular behaviour for a population of cells labelled with the dye carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester and stimulated to divide.

Banks, H.T.; Kapraun, D.F.; Thompson, W. Clayton; Peligero, Cristina; Argilaguet, Jordi; Meyerhans, Andreas



A Novel Statistical Analysis and Interpretation of Flow Cytometry Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recently developed class of models incorporating the cyton model of population generation structure into a conservation-based model of intracellular label dynamics is reviewed. Statistical aspects of the data collection process are quantified and incorporated into a parameter estimation scheme. This scheme is then applied to experimental data for PHA-stimulated CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells collected from two healthy

H. T. Banks; D. F. Kapraun; W. Clayton Thompson; Cristina Peligero; Jordi Argilaguet; Andreas Meyerhans



Innovative statistical interpretation of Shewanella oneidensis microbial fuel cells data.  


The last decade of research has made significant strides toward practical applications of Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs); however, design improvements and operational optimization cannot be realized without equally considering engineering designs and biological interfacial reactions. In this study, the main factors contributing to MFCs' overall performance and their influence on MFC reproducibility are discussed. Two statistical approaches were used to create a map of MFC components and their expanded uncertainties, principal component analysis (PCA) and uncertainty of measurement results (UMR). PCA was used to identify the major factors influencing MFCs and to determine their ascendency over MFC operational characteristics statistically. UMR was applied to evaluate the factors' uncertainties and estimate their level of contribution to the final irreproducibility. In order to simplify the presentation and concentrate on the MFC components, only results from Shewanella spp. were included; however, a similar analysis could be applied for any DMRB or microbial community. The performed PCA/UMR analyses suggest that better reproducibility of MFC performance can be achieved through improved design parameters. This approach is exactly opposite to the MFC optimization and scale up approach, which should start with improving the bacteria-electrode interactions and applying these findings to well-designed systems. PMID:24691574

Babanova, Sofia; Bretschger, Orianna; Roy, Jared; Cheung, Andrea; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Atanassov, Plamen



The Anomalous Concept of Statistical Evidence: Axioms, Interpretations, and Elementary Exposition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presented some new mathematical and interpretive material on concepts of statistical evidence. The material was given a self-contained elementary expository form (restricted to the case of discrete probability distributions) suitable for early ...

A. Birnbaum



Interpretation of the results of statistical measurements. [search for basic probability model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For random processes, the calculated probability characteristic, and the measured statistical estimate are used in a quality functional, which defines the difference between the two functions. Based on the assumption that the statistical measurement procedure is organized so that the parameters for a selected model are optimized, it is shown that the interpretation of experimental research is a search for a basic probability model.

Olshevskiy, V. V.



Statistical Significance Testing from Three Perspectives and Interpreting Statistical Significance and Nonsignificance and the Role of Statistics in Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Journal editors respond to criticisms of reliance on statistical significance in research reporting. Joel R. Levin ("Journal of Educational Psychology") defends its use, whereas William D. Schafer ("Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development") emphasizes the distinction between statistically significant and important. William Asher…

Levin, Joel R.; And Others



Statistical interpretation of the Bekenstein entropy for systems with a stretched horizon.  


For the two-charge extremal holes in string theory we show that the Bekenstein entropy obtained from the area of the stretched horizon has a statistical interpretation as a "coarse graining entropy": different microstates give geometries that differ near r = 0, and the stretched horizon cuts off the metric at r = b where these geometries start to differ. PMID:12059472

Lunin, Oleg; Mathur, Samir D



Skeletons and fractals — a statistical approach to deep crustal seismic data processing and interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coherent seismic reflection events are identified using seismic skeletonization, an automatic pattern recognition technique in which waveforms are parameterized such that the attributes of each event are identified and stored in a relational database, or ‘event file’. This new approach to seismic interpretation allows statistical analyses of the attributes including estimation of scaling laws for reflectivity observed on deep seismic

Kris Vasudevan; Frederick A. Cook



A critique of Miller and Rohling's statistical interpretive method for neuropsychological test data.  


A critical review of the 24-step procedure of Miller and Rohling's (in press) proposed standardization of clinician's use of neuropsychological assessment batteries is presented. Each step is examined for statistical sources of invalidity. It was concluded that parts of the procedure are quite vulnerable to between-battery variability that cannot be easily estimated or controlled, leading to significant errors in analysis and classification. A second fatal flaw is the failure to distinguish in the procedures between standard error measurement and standard error of the estimate in calculations in several steps. The purpose of the process remains viable, however, and is an important contribution toward the improvement of clinical diagnosis. PMID:15673238

Willson, Victor L; Reynolds, Cecil R



Impact of equity models and statistical measures on interpretations of educational reform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present three models of equity and show how these, along with the statistical measures used to evaluate results, impact interpretation of equity in education reform. Equity can be defined and interpreted in many ways. Most equity education reform research strives to achieve equity by closing achievement gaps between groups. An example is given by the study by Lorenzo et al. that shows that interactive engagement methods lead to increased gender equity. In this paper, we reexamine the results of Lorenzo et al. through three models of equity. We find that interpretation of the results strongly depends on the model of equity chosen. Further, we argue that researchers must explicitly state their model of equity as well as use effect size measurements to promote clarity in education reform.

Rodriguez, Idaykis; Brewe, Eric; Sawtelle, Vashti; Kramer, Laird H.



Two Easily Made Astronomical Telescopes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The directions and diagrams for making a reflecting telescope and a refracting telescope are presented. These telescopes can be made by students out of plumbing parts and easily obtainable, inexpensive, optical components. (KR)

Hill, M.; Jacobs, D. J.




NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although nobody can question the practical efficiency of quantum mechanics, there remains the serious question of its interpretation. As Valerio Scarani puts it, "We do not feel at ease with the indistinguishability principle (that is, the superposition principle) and some of its consequences." Indeed, this principle which pervades the quantum world is in stark contradiction with our everyday experience. From the very beginning of quantum mechanics, a number of physicists--but not the majority of them!--have asked the question of its "interpretation". One may simply deny that there is a problem: according to proponents of the minimalist interpretation, quantum mechanics is self-sufficient and needs no interpretation. The point of view held by a majority of physicists, that of the Copenhagen interpretation, will be examined in Section 10.1. The crux of the problem lies in the status of the state vector introduced in the preceding chapter to describe a quantum system, which is no more than a symbolic representation for the Copenhagen school of thought. Conversely, one may try to attribute some "external reality" to this state vector, that is, a correspondence between the mathematical description and the physical reality. In this latter case, it is the measurement problem which is brought to the fore. In 1932, von Neumann was first to propose a global approach, in an attempt to build a purely quantum theory of measurement examined in Section 10.2. This theory still underlies modern approaches, among them those grounded on decoherence theory, or on the macroscopic character of the measuring apparatus: see Section 10.3. Finally, there are non-standard interpretations such as Everett's many worlds theory or the hidden variables theory of de Broglie and Bohm (Section 10.4). Note, however, that this variety of interpretations has no bearing whatsoever on the practical use of quantum mechanics. There is no controversy on the way we should use quantum mechanics!

Bellac, Michel Le



Application of machine learning and expert systems to Statistical Process Control (SPC) chart interpretation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Statistical Process Control (SPC) charts are one of several tools used in quality control. Other tools include flow charts, histograms, cause and effect diagrams, check sheets, Pareto diagrams, graphs, and scatter diagrams. A control chart is simply a graph which indicates process variation over time. The purpose of drawing a control chart is to detect any changes in the process signalled by abnormal points or patterns on the graph. The Artificial Intelligence Support Center (AISC) of the Acquisition Logistics Division has developed a hybrid machine learning expert system prototype which automates the process of constructing and interpreting control charts.

Shewhart, Mark



Merging multiple omics datasets in silico: statistical analyses and data interpretation.  


By the combinations of high-throughput analytical technologies in the fields of transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, we are now able to gain comprehensive and quantitative snapshots of the intracellular processes. Dynamic intracellular activities and their regulations can be elucidated by systematic observation of these multi-omics data. On the other hand, careful statistical analysis is necessary for such integration, since each of the omics layers as well as the specific analytical methodologies harbor different levels of noise and variations. Moreover, interpretation of such multitude of data requires an intuitive pathway context. Here we describe such statistical methods for the integration and comparison of multi-omics data, as well as the computational methods for pathway reconstruction, ID conversion, mapping, and visualization that play key roles for the efficient study of multi-omics information. PMID:23417818

Arakawa, Kazuharu; Tomita, Masaru



Misuse of statistics in the interpretation of data on low-level radiation  

SciTech Connect

Four misuses of statistics in the interpretation of data of low-level radiation are reviewed: (1) post-hoc analysis and aggregation of data leading to faulty conclusions in the reanalysis of genetic effects of the atomic bomb, and premature conclusions on the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard data; (2) inappropriate adjustment for age and ignoring differences between urban and rural areas leading to potentially spurious increase in incidence of cancer at Rocky Flats; (3) hazard of summary statistics based on ill-conditioned individual rates leading to spurious association between childhood leukemia and fallout in Utah; and (4) the danger of prematurely published preliminary work with inadequate consideration of epidemiological problems - censored data - leading to inappropriate conclusions, needless alarm at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, and diversion of scarce research funds.

Hamilton, L.D.



Data Analysis and Statistical Methods for the Assessment and Interpretation of Geochronologic Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ages are traditionally reported as a weighted mean with an uncertainty based on least squares analysis of analytical error on individual dates. This method does not take into account geological uncertainties, and cannot accommodate asymmetries in the data. In most instances, this method will understate uncertainty on a given age, which may lead to over interpretation of age data. Geologic uncertainty is difficult to quantify, but is typically greater than analytical uncertainty. These factors make traditional statistical approaches inadequate to fully evaluate geochronologic data. We propose a protocol to assess populations within multi-event datasets and to calculate age and uncertainty from each population of dates interpreted to represent a single geologic event using robust and resistant statistical methods. To assess whether populations thought to represent different events are statistically separate exploratory data analysis is undertaken using a box plot, where the range of the data is represented by a 'box' of length given by the interquartile range, divided at the median of the data, with 'whiskers' that extend to the furthest datapoint that lies within 1.5 times the interquartile range beyond the box. If the boxes representing the populations do not overlap, they are interpreted to represent statistically different sets of dates. Ages are calculated from statistically distinct populations using a robust tool such as the tanh method of Kelsey et al. (2003, CMP, 146, 326-340), which is insensitive to any assumptions about the underlying probability distribution from which the data are drawn. Therefore, this method takes into account the full range of data, and is not drastically affected by outliers. The interquartile range of each population of dates (the interquartile range) gives a first pass at expressing uncertainty, which accommodates asymmetry in the dataset; outliers have a minor affect on the uncertainty. To better quantify the uncertainty, a resistant tool that is insensitive to local misbehavior of data is preferred, such as the normalized median absolute deviations proposed by Powell et al. (2002, Chem Geol, 185, 191-204). We illustrate the method using a dataset of 152 monazite dates determined using EPMA chemical data from a single sample from the Neoproterozoic Brasília Belt, Brazil. Results are compared with ages and uncertainties calculated using traditional methods to demonstrate the differences. The dataset was manually culled into three populations representing discrete compositional domains within chemically-zoned monazite grains. The weighted mean ages and least squares uncertainties for these populations are 633±6 (2?) Ma for a core domain, 614±5 (2?) Ma for an intermediate domain and 595±6 (2?) Ma for a rim domain. Probability distribution plots indicate asymmetric distributions of all populations, which cannot be accounted for with traditional statistical tools. These three domains record distinct ages outside the interquartile range for each population of dates, with the core domain lying in the subrange 642-624 Ma, the intermediate domain 617-609 Ma and the rim domain 606-589 Ma. The tanh estimator yields ages of 631±7 (2?) for the core domain, 616±7 (2?) for the intermediate domain and 601±8 (2?) for the rim domain. Whereas the uncertainties derived using a resistant statistical tool are larger than those derived from traditional statistical tools, the method yields more realistic uncertainties that better address the spread in the dataset and account for asymmetry in the data.

Reno, B. L.; Brown, M.; Piccoli, P. M.



The statistical interpretation of pilot trials: should significance thresholds be reconsidered?  

PubMed Central

Background In an evaluation of a new health technology, a pilot trial may be undertaken prior to a trial that makes a definitive assessment of benefit. The objective of pilot studies is to provide sufficient evidence that a larger definitive trial can be undertaken and, at times, to provide a preliminary assessment of benefit. Methods We describe significance thresholds, confidence intervals and surrogate markers in the context of pilot studies and how Bayesian methods can be used in pilot trials. We use a worked example to illustrate the issues raised. Results We show how significance levels other than the traditional 5% should be considered to provide preliminary evidence for efficacy and how estimation and confidence intervals should be the focus to provide an estimated range of possible treatment effects. We also illustrate how Bayesian methods could also assist in the early assessment of a health technology. Conclusions We recommend that in pilot trials the focus should be on descriptive statistics and estimation, using confidence intervals, rather than formal hypothesis testing and that confidence intervals other than 95% confidence intervals, such as 85% or 75%, be used for the estimation. The confidence interval should then be interpreted with regards to the minimum clinically important difference. We also recommend that Bayesian methods be used to assist in the interpretation of pilot trials. Surrogate endpoints can also be used in pilot trials but they must reliably predict the overall effect on the clinical outcome.



Variability in diffusion kurtosis imaging: impact on study design, statistical power and interpretation.  


Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is an emerging technique with the potential to quantify properties of tissue microstructure that may not be observable using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). In order to help design DKI studies and improve interpretation of DKI results, we employed statistical power analysis to characterize three aspects of variability in four DKI parameters; the mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, mean kurtosis, and radial kurtosis. First, we quantified the variability in terms of the group size required to obtain a statistical power of 0.9. Second, we investigated the relative contribution of imaging and post-processing noise to the total variance, in order to estimate the benefits of longer scan times versus the inclusion of more subjects. Third, we evaluated the potential benefit of including additional covariates such as the size of the structure when testing for differences in group means. The analysis was performed in three major white matter structures of the brain: the superior cingulum, the corticospinal tract, and the mid-sagittal corpus callosum, extracted using diffusion tensor tractography and DKI data acquired in a healthy cohort. The results showed heterogeneous variability across and within the white matter structures. Thus, the statistical power varies depending on parameter and location, which is important to consider if a pathogenesis pattern is inferred from DKI data. In the data presented, inter-subject differences contributed more than imaging noise to the total variability, making it more efficient to include more subjects rather than extending the scan-time per subject. Finally, strong correlations between DKI parameters and the structure size were found for the cingulum and corpus callosum. Structure size should thus be considered when quantifying DKI parameters, either to control for its potentially confounding effect, or as a means of reducing unexplained variance. PMID:23507377

Szczepankiewicz, Filip; Lätt, Jimmy; Wirestam, Ronnie; Leemans, Alexander; Sundgren, Pia; van Westen, Danielle; Ståhlberg, Freddy; Nilsson, Markus



A Statistical Framework for the Interpretation of mtDNA Mixtures: Forensic and Medical Applications  

PubMed Central

Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation is commonly analyzed in a wide range of different biomedical applications. Cases where more than one individual contribute to a stain genotyped from some biological material give rise to a mixture. Most forensic mixture cases are analyzed using autosomal markers. In rape cases, Y-chromosome markers typically add useful information. However, there are important cases where autosomal and Y-chromosome markers fail to provide useful profiles. In some instances, usually involving small amounts or degraded DNA, mtDNA may be the only useful genetic evidence available. Mitochondrial DNA mixtures also arise in studies dealing with the role of mtDNA variation in tumorigenesis. Such mixtures may be generated by the tumor, but they could also originate in vitro due to inadvertent contamination or a sample mix-up. Methods/Principal Findings We present the statistical methods needed for mixture interpretation and emphasize the modifications required for the more well-known methods based on conventional markers to generalize to mtDNA mixtures. Two scenarios are considered. Firstly, only categorical mtDNA data is assumed available, that is, the variants contributing to the mixture. Secondly, quantitative data (peak heights or areas) on the allelic variants are also accessible. In cases where quantitative information is available in addition to allele designation, it is possible to extract more precise information by using regression models. More precisely, using quantitative information may lead to a unique solution in cases where the qualitative approach points to several possibilities. Importantly, these methods also apply to clinical cases where contamination is a potential alternative explanation for the data. Conclusions/Significance We argue that clinical and forensic scientists should give greater consideration to mtDNA for mixture interpretation. The results and examples show that the analysis of mtDNA mixtures contributes substantially to forensic casework and may also clarify erroneous claims made in clinical genetics regarding tumorigenesis.

Egeland, Thore; Salas, Antonio



MS/MS spectra interpretation as a statistical-mechanics problem.  


We describe a new method for peptide sequencing based on the mapping of the interpretation of tandem mass spectra onto the analysis of the equilibrium distribution of a suitably defined physical model, whose variables describe the positions of the fragmentation sites along a discrete mass index. The model is governed by a potential energy function that, at present, we derive ad hoc from the distribution of peaks in a data set of experimental spectra. The statistical-physics perspective prompts for a consistent and unified approach to de novo and database-search methods, which is a distinctive feature of this approach over alternative ones: the characterization of the ground state of the model allows the de novo identification of the precursor peptide; the study of the thermodynamic variables as a function of the (fictitious) temperature gives insight on the quality of the prediction, while the probability profiles at nonzero temperature reveal, on one hand, which fragments are more reliably predicted. On the other hand, they can be used as a spectrum-adapted, a posteriori score for database search. Results obtained with two different test data sets reveal a performance similar to that of other de novo and database-search methods, which is reasonable, given the lack of an aggressive optimization of the energy function at this stage. An important feature of the method is that it is quite general and can be applied with different choices of the energy function: we discuss its possible improvements and generalizations. PMID:23581525

Faccin, Mauro; Bruscolini, Pierpaolo



"What If" Analyses: Ways to Interpret Statistical Significance Test Results Using EXCEL or "R"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper aims to review two motivations to conduct "what if" analyses using Excel and "R" to understand the statistical significance tests through the sample size context. "What if" analyses can be used to teach students what statistical significance tests really do and in applied research either prospectively to estimate what sample size…

Ozturk, Elif



Application of Machine Learning and Expert Systems to Statistical Process Control (SPC) Chart Interpretation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Statistical Process Control (SPC) charts are one of several tools used in quality control. Other tools include flow charts, histograms, cause and effect diagrams, check sheets, Pareto diagrams, graphs, and scatter diagrams. A control chart is simply a gra...

M. Shewhart



Chance and Nonsense: A Conversation about Interpreting Tests of Statistical Significance, Part 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A dialog between two fictional teachers provides some basic examples of how research that uses approved methodology may provide results that are significant statistically but not significant practically. (PGD)

Shaver, James P.



Feature combination networks for the interpretation of statistical machine learning models: application to Ames mutagenicity  

PubMed Central

Background A new algorithm has been developed to enable the interpretation of black box models. The developed algorithm is agnostic to learning algorithm and open to all structural based descriptors such as fragments, keys and hashed fingerprints. The algorithm has provided meaningful interpretation of Ames mutagenicity predictions from both random forest and support vector machine models built on a variety of structural fingerprints. A fragmentation algorithm is utilised to investigate the model’s behaviour on specific substructures present in the query. An output is formulated summarising causes of activation and deactivation. The algorithm is able to identify multiple causes of activation or deactivation in addition to identifying localised deactivations where the prediction for the query is active overall. No loss in performance is seen as there is no change in the prediction; the interpretation is produced directly on the model’s behaviour for the specific query. Results Models have been built using multiple learning algorithms including support vector machine and random forest. The models were built on public Ames mutagenicity data and a variety of fingerprint descriptors were used. These models produced a good performance in both internal and external validation with accuracies around 82%. The models were used to evaluate the interpretation algorithm. Interpretation was revealed that links closely with understood mechanisms for Ames mutagenicity. Conclusion This methodology allows for a greater utilisation of the predictions made by black box models and can expedite further study based on the output for a (quantitative) structure activity model. Additionally the algorithm could be utilised for chemical dataset investigation and knowledge extraction/human SAR development.



Interpreting Assessment Data: Statistical Techniques You Can Use (e-book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are you properly evaluating the results of the tests you give to students? Can you explain the difference between classroom assessment and standardized assessment? Are you on solid ground with your grading system? Demystify--and even use--statistics to answ

Christmann, Edwin P.; Badgett, John L.



Bayesian statistical inference enhances the interpretation of contemporary randomized controlled trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveRandomized trials generally use “frequentist” statistics based on P-values and 95% confidence intervals. Frequentist methods have limitations that might be overcome, in part, by Bayesian inference. To illustrate these advantages, we re-analyzed randomized trials published in four general medical journals during 2004.

Duminda N. Wijeysundera; Peter C. Austin; Janet E. Hux; W. Scott Beattie; Andreas Laupacis



Statistics Translated: A Step-by-Step Guide to Analyzing and Interpreting Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written in a humorous and encouraging style, this text shows how the most common statistical tools can be used to answer interesting real-world questions, presented as mysteries to be solved. Engaging research examples lead the reader through a series of six steps, from identifying a researchable problem to stating a hypothesis, identifying…

Terrell, Steven R.



Interpreting our drug mortality statistics. Holes in the data on illegal drugs.  


Estimates of mortality attributable to legal and illegal drugs are often used in the debate on legalisation as an indication of the comparative harmfulness of the drugs concerned. Yet there are few data on the health impact of illegal drugs and mortality figures are not adjusted for prevalence of drug use. The estimates therefore indicate only currently statistically assessable harm; they do not reliably express either the comparative incidence of drug-caused mortality, or their innate harmfulness. PMID:7968763

Sullivan, L G



Plant-soil feedback: Experimental approaches, statistical analyses and biological interpretations  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?Feedback between plants and soil organisms has become widely recognized as a driving force of community composition and ecosystem functioning. However, there is little uniformity in quantification and analysis of plant–soil feedback effects. Meta-analysis suggested that the various experimental methods tend to result in different feedback values. Yet, a direct comparison of the different experimental approaches and their statistical analyses

E. P. Brinkman; Putten van der W. H; E. J. Bakker; K. J. F. Verhoeven



Statistical analyses to support forensic interpretation for a new ten-locus STR profiling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new ten-locus STR (short tandem repeat) profiling system was recently introduced into casework by the Forensic Science\\u000a Service (FSS) and statistical analyses are described here based on data collected using this new system for the three major\\u000a racial groups of the UK: Caucasian, Afro-Caribbean and Asian (of Indo-Pakistani descent). Allele distributions are compared\\u000a and the FSS position with regard

L. A. Foreman; I. W. Evett



A statistical approach to the interpretation of molecular dynamics simulations of calmodulin equilibrium dynamics.  


A sample of 35 independent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of calmodulin (CaM) equilibrium dynamics was prepared from different but equally plausible initial conditions (20 simulations of the wild-type protein and 15 simulations of the D129N mutant). CaM's radius of gyration and backbone mean-square fluctuations were analyzed for the effect of the D129N mutation, and simulations were compared with experiments. Statistical tests were employed for quantitative comparisons at the desired error level. The computational model predicted statistically significant compaction of CaM relative to the crystal structure, consistent with the results of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments. This effect was not observed in several previously reported studies of (Ca2+)(4)-CaM, which relied on a single MD run. In contrast to radius of gyration, backbone mean-square fluctuations showed a distinctly non-normal and positively skewed distribution for nearly all residues. Furthermore, the D129N mutation affected the backbone dynamics in a complex manner and reduced the mobility of Glu123, Met124, Ile125, Arg126, and Glu127 located in the adjacent alpha-helix G. The implications of these observations for the comparisons of MD simulations with experiments are discussed. The proposed approach may be useful in studies of protein equilibrium dynamics where MD simulations fall short of properly sampling the conformational space, and when the comparison with experiments is affected by the reproducibility of the computational model. PMID:16322577

Likic, Vladimir A; Gooley, Paul R; Speed, Terence P; Strehler, Emanuel E



A statistical approach to the interpretation of molecular dynamics simulations of calmodulin equilibrium dynamics  

PubMed Central

A sample of 35 independent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of calmodulin (CaM) equilibrium dynamics was prepared from different but equally plausible initial conditions (20 simulations of the wild-type protein and 15 simulations of the D129N mutant). CaM’s radius of gyration and backbone mean-square fluctuations were analyzed for the effect of the D129N mutation, and simulations were compared with experiments. Statistical tests were employed for quantitative comparisons at the desired error level. The computational model predicted statistically significant compaction of CaM relative to the crystal structure, consistent with the results of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments. This effect was not observed in several previously reported studies of (Ca2+)4-CaM, which relied on a single MD run. In contrast to radius of gyration, backbone mean-square fluctuations showed a distinctly non-normal and positively skewed distribution for nearly all residues. Furthermore, the D129N mutation affected the backbone dynamics in a complex manner and reduced the mobility of Glu123, Met124, Ile125, Arg126, and Glu127 located in the adjacent ?-helix G. The implications of these observations for the comparisons of MD simulations with experiments are discussed. The proposed approach may be useful in studies of protein equilibrium dynamics where MD simulations fall short of properly sampling the conformational space, and when the comparison with experiments is affected by the reproducibility of the computational model.

Likic, Vladimir A.; Gooley, Paul R.; Speed, Terence P.; Strehler, Emanuel E.



Improving interpretation of real-time monitoring data using a novel combination of numerical models of magma ascent and statistical analysis tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to use real-time volcano monitoring data to interpret subsurface dynamics and predict future eruptive activity the sensitivity of forward model outcomes to uncertain or variable input parameters and processes must be assessed and corresponding uncertainty quantified systematically. In response to this issue, we have developed a framework that couples a new numerical model of magma ascent with statistical analysis tools. The model solves multiphase compressible equations governing magma movement through a subsurface pathway (from chamber to surface, for example), and represents a significant advance in terms of its quantitative description of the magma system in that it: 1) is capable of treating both dilute and dense flow regimes; 2) describes flow above and below the fragmentation level; 3) quantifies the interaction between two phases with two pressures and two velocities; 4) accounts for disequilibrium crystallization and degassing; and 5) allows for open-system degassing. We have chosen to consider these complexities because of their potential significance in controlling eruption rate and transitions in eruption regime and style. The code can be run on nearly any cluster, desktop or laptop in 1D and 2D/3D and for both transient and steady problems. Furthermore, the code is highly modular so that interested future users can easily adapt it to other multiphase fluid systems such as mud volcanoes, geysers, and petroleum industry systems. The code has been interfaced with the freeware DAKOTA system analysis toolkit, allowing effective and realistic comparisons between outcomes of models and volcano monitoring data, resulting in a probabilistic interpretation of the data in terms of subsurface dynamics and future volcanic activity. We present preliminary uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis results obtained for several well-documented periods of the ongoing eruption of the Soufrière Hills volcano in order to demonstrate the power of the approach.

De'Michieli Vitturi, M.; Clarke, A. B.; La Spina, G.; Neri, A.



An interpretation of the drop ball test in terms of a statistical model for fracture.  


Some well known statistical models for fracture were applied to the problem of impact of glass ophthalmic lenses. Parameters for a flaw distribution function were chosen to fit some previously published results of drop ball testing. The concept of an impact-resistant lens was reformulated in terms of minimizing the most severe flaws. Formulas were derived for the detection parameter, a convenient measure of the ability of any mechanical test to identify those lenses with the worst flaws. It was shown that the fraction of such lenses identified by the drop ball test is very small. As a side note, it was found that it is not significantly more difficult to expose "bad" lenses when they are tested in plastic bags. A method of obtaining useful information from the results of drop ball testing was outlined. PMID:984164

Berger, R



A statistical approach to the interpretation of aliphatic hydrocarbon distributions in marine sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Q-mode factor analysis was used to quantitate the distribution of the major aliphatic hydrocarbon (n-alkanes, pristane, phytane) systems in sediments from a variety of marine environments. The compositions of the pure end members of the systems were obtained from factor scores and the distribution of the systems within each sample was obtained from factor loadings. All the data, from the diverse environments sampled (estuarine (San Francisco Bay), fresh-water (San Francisco Peninsula), polar-marine (Antarctica) and geothermal-marine (Gorda Ridge) sediments), were reduced to three major systems: a terrestrial system (mostly high molecular weight aliphatics with odd-numbered-carbon predominance), a mature system (mostly low molecular weight aliphatics without predominance) and a system containing mostly high molecular weight aliphatics with even-numbered-carbon predominance. With this statistical approach, it is possible to assign the percentage contribution from various sources to the observed distribution of aliphatic hydrocarbons in each sediment sample. ?? 1991.

Rapp, J. B.



Double precision errors in the logistic map: Statistical study and dynamical interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of the round-off errors that occur in the usual double precision computation of the logistic map is studied in detail. Different iterative regimes from the whole panoply of behaviors exhibited in the bifurcation diagram are examined, histograms of errors in trajectories given, and for the case of fully developed chaos an explicit formula is found. It is shown that the statistics of the largest double precision error as a function of the map parameter is characterized by jumps whose location is determined by certain boundary crossings in the bifurcation diagram. Both jumps and locations seem to present geometric convergence characterized by the two first Feigenbaum constants. Eventually, a comparison with Benford’s law for the distribution of the leading digit of compilation of numbers is discussed.

Oteo, J. A.; Ros, J.



Alcohol induced region-dependent alterations of hemodynamic response: implications for the statistical interpretation of pharmacological fMRI studies  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, ethanol abuse causes thousands of fatal accidents annually as well as innumerable social dysfunctions and severe medical disorders. Yet, few studies have used the blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging method (BOLD fMRI) to map how alcohol alters brain functions, as fMRI relies on neurovascular coupling, which may change due to the vasoactive properties of alcohol. We monitored the hemodynamic response function (HRF) with a high temporal resolution. In both motor cortices and the visual cortex, alcohol prolonged the time course of the HRF, indicating an overall slow-down of neurovascular coupling rather than an isolated reduction in neuronal activity. However, in the supplementary motor area, alcohol-induced changes to the HRF suggest a reduced neuronal activation. This may explain why initiating and coordinating complex movements, including speech production, are often impaired earlier than executing basic motor patterns. Furthermore, the present study revealed a potential pitfall associated with the statistical interpretation of pharmacological fMRI studies based on the general linear model: if the functional form of the HRF is changed between the conditions data may be erroneously interpreted as increased or decreased neuronal activation. Thus, our study not only presents an additional key to how alcohol affects the network of brain functions but also implies that potential changes to neurovascular coupling have to be taken into account when interpreting BOLD fMRI. Therefore, measuring individual drug-induced HRF changes is recommended for pharmacological fMRI.

Jachau, K.; Tempelmann, C.



A Comprehensive Statistically-Based Method to Interpret Real-Time Flowing Measurements  

SciTech Connect

With the recent development of temperature measurement systems, continuous temperature profiles can be obtained with high precision. Small temperature changes can be detected by modern temperature measuring instruments such as fiber optic distributed temperature sensor (DTS) in intelligent completions and will potentially aid the diagnosis of downhole flow conditions. In vertical wells, since elevational geothermal changes make the wellbore temperature sensitive to the amount and the type of fluids produced, temperature logs can be used successfully to diagnose the downhole flow conditions. However, geothermal temperature changes along the wellbore being small for horizontal wells, interpretations of a temperature log become difficult. The primary temperature differences for each phase (oil, water, and gas) are caused by frictional effects. Therefore, in developing a thermal model for horizontal wellbore, subtle temperature changes must be accounted for. In this project, we have rigorously derived governing equations for a producing horizontal wellbore and developed a prediction model of the temperature and pressure by coupling the wellbore and reservoir equations. Also, we applied Ramey's model (1962) to the build section and used an energy balance to infer the temperature profile at the junction. The multilateral wellbore temperature model was applied to a wide range of cases at varying fluid thermal properties, absolute values of temperature and pressure, geothermal gradients, flow rates from each lateral, and the trajectories of each build section. With the prediction models developed, we present inversion studies of synthetic and field examples. These results are essential to identify water or gas entry, to guide flow control devices in intelligent completions, and to decide if reservoir stimulation is needed in particular horizontal sections. This study will complete and validate these inversion studies.

Keita Yoshioka; Pinan Dawkrajai; Analis A. Romero; Ding Zhu; A. D. Hill; Larry W. Lake




SciTech Connect

In this project, we are developing new methods for interpreting measurements in complex wells (horizontal, multilateral and multi-branching wells) to determine the profiles of oil, gas, and water entry. These methods are needed to take full advantage of ''smart'' well instrumentation, a technology that is rapidly evolving to provide the ability to continuously and permanently monitor downhole temperature, pressure, volumetric flow rate, and perhaps other fluid flow properties at many locations along a wellbore; and hence, to control and optimize well performance. In this first year, we have made considerable progress in the development of the forward model of temperature and pressure behavior in complex wells. In this period, we have progressed on three major parts of the forward problem of predicting the temperature and pressure behavior in complex wells. These three parts are the temperature and pressure behaviors in the reservoir near the wellbore, in the wellbore or laterals in the producing intervals, and in the build sections connecting the laterals, respectively. Many models exist to predict pressure behavior in reservoirs and wells, but these are almost always isothermal models. To predict temperature behavior we derived general mass, momentum, and energy balance equations for these parts of the complex well system. Analytical solutions for the reservoir and wellbore parts for certain special conditions show the magnitude of thermal effects that could occur. Our preliminary sensitivity analyses show that thermal effects caused by near-wellbore reservoir flow can cause temperature changes that are measurable with smart well technology. This is encouraging for the further development of the inverse model.

Pinan Dawkrajai; Analis A. Romero; Keita Yoshioka; Ding Zhu; A.D. Hill; Larry W. Lake



Chemical and statistical interpretation of sized aerosol particles collected at an urban site in Thessaloniki, Greece.  


The size distribution of aerosol particles (PM0.015-PM18) in relation to their soluble inorganic species and total water soluble organic compounds (WSOC) was investigated at an urban site of Thessaloniki, Northern Greece. The sampling period was from February to July 2007. The determined compounds were compared with mass concentrations of the PM fractions for nano (N: 0.015 < Dp < 0.06), ultrafine (UFP: 0.015 < Dp < 0.125), fine (FP: 0.015 < Dp < 2.0) and coarse particles (CP: 2.0 < Dp < 8.0) in order to perform mass closure of the water soluble content for the respective fractions. Electrolytes were the dominant species in all fractions (24-27%), followed by WSOC (16-23%). The water soluble inorganic and organic content was found to account for 53% of the nanoparticle, 48% of the ultrafine particle, 45% of the fine particle and 44% of the coarse particle mass. Correlations between the analyzed species were performed and the effect of local and long-range transported emissions was examined by wind direction and backward air mass trajectories. Multivariate statistical analysis (cluster analysis and principal components analysis) of the collected data was performed in order to reveal the specific data structure. Possible sources of air pollution were identified and an attempt is made to find patterns of similarity between the different sized aerosols and the seasons of monitoring. It was proven that several major latent factors are responsible for the data structure despite the size of the aerosols - mineral (soil) dust, sea sprays, secondary emissions, combustion sources and industrial impact. The seasonal separation proved to be not very specific. PMID:24007436

Tsitouridou, Roxani; Papazova, Petia; Simeonova, Pavlina; Simeonov, Vasil



An Efficient, Easily Constructed Cell Homogenizing Press  

PubMed Central

An easily constructed, highly efficient cell homogenizing press is described which should be available to laboratories at moderate cost. The press allows the preparation of homogenates from up to 20 g of packed cell paste in a single batch without danger of damage to the press. Cell breakage and recovery of cell homogenates is accomplished at temperatures which maintain the material in the frozen state. The press may be assembled, disassembled, and cleaned with minimal effort. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3

Sagers, Richard D.



Periodontal Research: Basics and beyond - Part III (Data presentation, statistical testing, interpretation and writing of a report)  

PubMed Central

Statistical analysis is the backbone of research and however befuddling it is to a clinician, it is crucial for a researcher to understand the various assumptions underlying the statistical methods. This paper aims at simplifying the various statistical methods that are routinely used in periodontal research. Data presentation, the relevance of clinical as against statistical significance and writing of a report are also discussed.

Avula, Haritha



Easily missed injuries around the knee.  


Most fractures around the knee are easily detected on high-quality radiographs. However, some fractures and musculotendinous and ligamentous injuries have subtle findings and may be difficult to detect even with optimal images; these injuries include tibial plateau fractures, Segond fractures, stress fractures, fibular head fractures and dislocations, injuries to the patella and extensor mechanism, and Salter type fractures. Clinically suspected tibial plateau fractures unseen on standard views may be seen on tangential or tunnel projections. Segond fractures usually have a characteristic appearance on anteroposterior radiographs but occasionally are seen only on tunnel views. Stress fractures of the proximal tibia may be accompanied by a vague band of increased sclerosis or endosteal callus on either side of the epiphyseal scar. Correct diagnosis of fibular head dislocations requires clinical suspicion, since these injuries often are not recognized on initial radiographs. Careful evaluation of the congruity of the tibiofibular joint on the lateral projection is the key to diagnosis. Vertical patellar fractures are often nondisplaced and are best evaluated with sunrise or Merchant views; avulsion fractures from the proximal or distal poles, with lateral views; and osteochondral fractures, with sunrise or internal oblique views. Salter I injuries can be visualized on oblique and anteroposterior views obtained with stress applied to the knee. Some occult Salter I fractures are diagnosed on follow-up radiographs, which show periosteal reaction. Imaging modalities other than radiography are rarely needed to diagnose fractures but are useful for evaluating the extent of displacement or confirming soft-tissue injuries. PMID:7855335

Capps, G W; Hayes, C W



Easily retrievable objects among the NEO population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asteroids and comets are of strategic importance for science in an effort to understand the formation, evolution and composition of the Solar System. Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are of particular interest because of their accessibility from Earth, but also because of their speculated wealth of material resources. The exploitation of these resources has long been discussed as a means to lower the cost of future space endeavours. In this paper, we consider the currently known NEO population and define a family of so-called Easily Retrievable Objects (EROs), objects that can be transported from accessible heliocentric orbits into the Earth's neighbourhood at affordable costs. The asteroid retrieval transfers are sought from the continuum of low energy transfers enabled by the dynamics of invariant manifolds; specifically, the retrieval transfers target planar, vertical Lyapunov and halo orbit families associated with the collinear equilibrium points of the Sun-Earth Circular Restricted Three Body problem. The judicious use of these dynamical features provides the best opportunity to find extremely low energy Earth transfers for asteroid material. A catalogue of asteroid retrieval candidates is then presented. Despite the highly incomplete census of very small asteroids, the ERO catalogue can already be populated with 12 different objects retrievable with less than 500 m/s of ? v. Moreover, the approach proposed represents a robust search and ranking methodology for future retrieval candidates that can be automatically applied to the growing survey of NEOs.

García Yárnoz, D.; Sanchez, J. P.; McInnes, C. R.



Quantum of area {Delta}A=8{pi}l{sub P}{sup 2} and a statistical interpretation of black hole entropy  

SciTech Connect

In contrast to alternative values, the quantum of area {Delta}A=8{pi}l{sub P}{sup 2} does not follow from the usual statistical interpretation of black hole entropy; on the contrary, a statistical interpretation follows from it. This interpretation is based on the two concepts: nonadditivity of black hole entropy and Landau quantization. Using nonadditivity a microcanonical distribution for a black hole is found and it is shown that the statistical weight of a black hole should be proportional to its area. By analogy with conventional Landau quantization, it is shown that quantization of a black hole is nothing but the Landau quantization. The Landau levels of a black hole and their degeneracy are found. The degree of degeneracy is equal to the number of ways to distribute a patch of area 8{pi}l{sub P}{sup 2} over the horizon. Taking into account these results, it is argued that the black hole entropy should be of the form S{sub bh}=2{pi}{center_dot}{Delta}{Gamma}, where the number of microstates is {Delta}{Gamma}=A/8{pi}l{sub P}{sup 2}. The nature of the degrees of freedom responsible for black hole entropy is elucidated. The applications of the new interpretation are presented. The effect of noncommuting coordinates is discussed.

Ropotenko, Kostiantyn [State Administration of Communications, Ministry of Transport and Communications of Ukraine, 22, Khreschatyk, 01001, Kyiv (Ukraine)



Inversion for the statistical structure of subsurface water content from ground-penetrating radar reflection data: Initial results and interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of subsurface water content can be an excellent indicator of soil texture, which strongly influences the unsaturated hydraulic properties controlling vadose zone contaminant transport. Characterizing the heterogeneity in subsurface water content for use in numerical transport models, however, is an extremely difficult task as conventional hydrological measurement techniques do not offer the combined high spatial resolution and coverage required for accurate simulations. A number of recent studies have shown that ground-penetrating radar (GPR) reflection images may contain useful information regarding the statistical structure of subsurface water content. Comparisons of the horizontal correlation structures of radar images and those obtained from water content measurements have shown that, in some cases, the statistical characteristics are remarkably similar. However, a key issue in these studies is that a reflection GPR image is primarily related to changes in subsurface water content, and not the water content distribution directly. As a result, statistics gathered on the reflection image have a very complex relationship with the statistics of the underlying water content distribution, this relationship depending on a number of factors including the frequency of the GPR antennas used. In this work, we attempt to address the above issue by posing the estimation of the statistical structure of water content from reflection GPR data as an inverse problem. Using a simple convolution model for a radar image, we first derive a forward model relating the statistical structure of a radar image to that of the underlying water content distribution. We then use this forward model to invert for the spatial statistics of the water content distribution, given the spatial statistics of the GPR reflection image as data. We do this within a framework of uncertainty, such that realistic statistical bounds can be placed on the information that is inferred. In other words, we attempt to address the question "what can we infer about the water-content statistical structure, given the GPR data?", rather than "what is the water content statistical structure?". Results of applying our estimation technique to simple synthetic models are positive, and give us hope that reflection GPR data can be used in practice to better constrain knowledge of the nature of subsurface water content heterogeneity. If successful, this type of approach could also be used with seismic reflection data to infer the statistical nature of velocity heterogeneities.

Irving, J.; Knight, R.; Holliger, K.



A Note on the Calculation and Interpretation of the Delta-p Statistic for Categorical Independent Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

This methodological note illustrates how a commonly used calculation of the Delta-p statistic is inappropriate for categorical\\u000a independent variables, and this note provides users of logistic regression with a revised calculation of the Delta-p statistic\\u000a that is more meaningful when studying the differences in the predicted probability of an outcome between two or more groups.\\u000a Although one cannot fully document

Ty M. Cruce



On Item Mappings and Statistical Rules for Selecting Binary Items for Criterion-Referenced Interpretation and Bookmark Standard Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Item mappings are widely used in educational assessment for applications such as test administration (through test form assembly and computer assisted testing) and for criterion-referenced (CR) interpretation of test scores or scale anchoring. Item mappings are also used to construct ordered item booklets in the CTB/McGraw Hill Bookmark standard…

Huyhn, Huynh


Statistical factor analysis technique for characterizing basalt through interpreting nuclear and electrical well logging data (case study from Southern Syria).  


Factor analysis technique is proposed in this research for interpreting the combination of nuclear well logging, including natural gamma ray, density and neutron-porosity, and the electrical well logging of long and short normal, in order to characterize the large extended basaltic areas in southern Syria. Kodana well logging data are used for testing and applying the proposed technique. The four resulting score logs enable to establish the lithological score cross-section of the studied well. The established cross-section clearly shows the distribution and the identification of four kinds of basalt which are hard massive basalt, hard basalt, pyroclastic basalt and the alteration basalt products, clay. The factor analysis technique is successfully applied on the Kodana well logging data in southern Syria, and can be used efficiently when several wells and huge well logging data with high number of variables are required to be interpreted. PMID:24296157

Asfahani, Jamal



Multivariate Statistical Process Control Charts and the Problem of Interpretation: A Short Overview and Some Applications in Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Woodall and Montgomery [35] in a discussion paper, state that multivariate process control is one of the most rapidly developing sections of statistical process control. Nowadays, in industry, there are many situations in which the simultaneous monitoring or control, of two or more related quality - process characteristics is necessary. Process monitoring problems in which several related variables are of

S. Bersimis; J. Panaretos; S. Psarakis




Microsoft Academic Search

Multivariate statistical analysis and Cs normalization were used to test methodologies to determine background and anthropogenic influence of metals on river sediments. Total concentrations of nine trace metals (Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, As, Co and Hg) and four reference elements (Cs, Fe, Al and Mn) of sediments in the estuaries of Lan-yang River and Erh-jen River were examined.

Meei-Ling Chang; Yun-Chang Sun; Ruey-An Doong; Shian-Chee Wu; Chung-Te Fu


Areas beneath the relative operating characteristics (ROC) and relative operating levels (ROL) curves: Statistical signié cance and interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The areas beneath the relative (or receiver) operating characteristics (ROC) and relative operating levels (ROL) curves can be used as summary measures of forecast quality, but statistical signié cance tests for these areas are conducted infrequently in the atmospheric sciences. A development of signal-detection theory, the ROC curve has been widely applied in the medical and psychology é elds



Analysis of the procedures used to evaluate suicide crime scenes in Brazil: A statistical approach to interpret reports.  


This study uses statistical techniques to evaluate reports on suicide scenes; it utilizes 80 reports from different locations in Brazil, randomly collected from both federal and state jurisdictions. We aimed to assess a heterogeneous group of cases in order to obtain an overall perspective of the problem. We evaluated variables regarding the characteristics of the crime scene, such as the detected traces (blood, instruments and clothes) that were found and we addressed the methodology employed by the experts. A qualitative approach using basic statistics revealed a wide distribution as to how the issue was addressed in the documents. We examined a quantitative approach involving an empirical equation and we used multivariate procedures to validate the quantitative methodology proposed for this empirical equation. The methodology successfully identified the main differences in the information presented in the reports, showing that there is no standardized method of analyzing evidences. PMID:25066170

Bruni, Aline Thaís; Velho, Jesus Antonio; Ferreira, Arthur Serra Lopes; Tasso, Maria Júlia; Ferrari, Raíssa Santos; Yoshida, Ricardo Luís; Dias, Marcos Salvador; Leite, Vitor Barbanti Pereira



Qualitative interpretation of physico-chemical and isotopic parameters in the Krka River (Croatia) assessed by multivariate statistical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multivariate statistical analyses were applied on the measured physico-chemical (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mg, Ca, O2, alkalinity, temperature, pH, SAS, DOC and DIC) and isotopic parameters (?C and ?O) to estimate and distinguish anthropogenic from natural influences to the water system of the Krka River. Analyses were conducted on the data collected during six years from twelve sampling sites. On

Neven Cukrov; Nataša Tepi?; Dario Omanovi?; Sonja Lojen; Elvira Bura-Naki?; Vjero?ka Vojvodi?; Ivanka Pižeta



Qualitative interpretation of physico-chemical and isotopic parameters in the Krka River (Croatia) assessed by multivariate statistical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multivariate statistical analyses were applied on the measured physico-chemical (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mg, Ca, O2, alkalinity, temperature, pH, SAS, DOC and DIC) and isotopic parameters (?C and ?O) to estimate and distinguish anthropogenic from natural influences to the water system of the Krka River. Analyses were conducted on the data collected during six years from twelve sampling sites. On

Neven Cukrov; Nataša Tepi?; Dario Omanovi?; Sonja Lojen; Elvira Bura-Naki?; Vjero?ka Vojvodi?; Ivanka Pižeta



Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Late Mississippian Paleosol Trace Element Chemistry and Application to Interpreting Pedogenic Processes and Climate Through Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleosol geochemistry has primarily focused upon bulk analyses of major elements and stable isotopes. Trace elements in bulk samples, in contrast, are rarely studied, primarily due to very low concentrations and a fundamental lack of knowledge of chemical behavior in analogous modern soil-forming environments. Late Mississippian (Chesterian) paleosols of the US Appalachian region serve as a case-study to investigate temporal relationships in paleosol trace element chemistry as a function of changing climatic conditions. Both linear (coorelation matrices) and multivariate statistical techniques (cluster, principal components and canonical variates) were employed to identify statistically significant relationships between trace elements, including Ti, Ga, Ge, Y, Zr, Nb, Cs, La, Hf, Ta, W, Ce, Th. Results indicate that trace element chemistry of this Late Mississippian suite of paleosols is controlled by either organic matter content or lessivage (clay formation and accumulation by feldspar weathering). Mean annual precipitation (MAP), estimated using the CIA-K geochemical proxy, controls soil hydrology, redox chemistry, and organic matter accumulation, in addition to clay accumulation. Soil orders through time are statistically separable, with variable success in discriminating between changes in soil drainage. Our results provide a new tool to evaluate pedogenic processes and to draw inferences regarding intensity of chemical weathering and its relationship to climate change.

Kahmann, J. A.; Seaman, J.; Driese, S. G.



Voltage controlled oscillator is easily aligned, has low phase noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Voltage Controlled Oscillator /VCO/, represented by an equivalent RF circuit, is easily adjusted for optimum performance by varying the circuit parameter. It contains a crystal drive level which is also easily adjusted to obtain minimum phase noise.

Sydnor, R. L.



Skew-Laplace and Cell-Size Distribution in Microbial Axenic Cultures: Statistical Assessment and Biological Interpretation  

PubMed Central

We report a skew-Laplace statistical analysis of both flow cytometry scatters and cell size from microbial strains primarily grown in batch cultures, others in chemostat cultures and bacterial aquatic populations. Cytometry scatters best fit the skew-Laplace distribution while cell size as assessed by an electronic particle analyzer exhibited a moderate fitting. Unlike the cultures, the aquatic bacterial communities clearly do not fit to a skew-Laplace distribution. Due to its versatile nature, the skew-Laplace distribution approach offers an easy, efficient, and powerful tool for distribution of frequency analysis in tandem with the flow cytometric cell sorting.

Julia, Olga; Vidal-Mas, Jaume; Panikov, Nicolai S.; Vives-Rego, Josep



Application of a Multivariate Statistical Technique to Interpreting Data from Multichannel Equipment for the Example of the KLEM Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

A multivariate statistical procedure for solving problems of estimating physical parameters on the basis of data from measurements with multichannel equipment is described. Within the multivariate procedure, an algorithm is constructed for estimating the energy of primary cosmic rays and the exponent in their power-law spectrum. They are investigated by using the KLEM spectrometer (NUCLEON project) as a specific example of measuring equipment. The results of computer experiments simulating the operation of the multivariate procedure for this equipment are given, the proposed approach being compared in these experiments with the one-parameter approach presently used in data processing.

Podorozhnyi, D.M.; Postnikov, E.B.; Sveshnikova, L.G.; Turundaevsky, A.N. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Vorob'evy gory, Moscow, 119899 (Russian Federation)



On the use of statistical methods to interpret electrical resistivity data from the Eumsung basin (Cretaceous), Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical resistivity mapping was conducted to delineate boundaries and architecture of the Eumsung Basin Cretaceous. Basin boundaries are effectively clarified in electrical dipole-dipole resistivity sections as high-resistivity contrast bands. High resistivities most likely originate from the basement of Jurassic granite and Precambrian gneiss, contrasting with the lower resistivities from infilled sedimentary rocks. The electrical properties of basin-margin boundaries are compatible with the results of vertical electrical soundings and very-low-frequency electromagnetic surveys. A statistical analysis of the resistivity sections is tested in terms of standard deviation and is found to be an effective scheme for the subsurface reconstruction of basin architecture as well as the surface demarcation of basin-margin faults and brittle fracture zones, characterized by much higher standard deviation. Pseudo three-dimensional architecture of the basin is delineated by integrating the composite resistivity structure information from two cross-basin E-W magnetotelluric lines and dipole-dipole resistivity lines. Based on statistical analysis, the maximum depth of the basin varies from about 1 km in the northern part to 3 km or more in the middle part. This strong variation supports the view that the basin experienced pull-apart opening with rapid subsidence of the central blocks and asymmetric cross-basinal extension.

Kim, Ji-Soo; Han, Soo-Hyung; Ryang, Woo-Hun



Chemical data and statistical interpretations for rocks and ores from the Ranger uranium mine, Northern Territory, Australia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analytical results for 61 elements in 370 samples from the Ranger Mine area are reported. Most of the rocks come from drill core in the Ranger No. 1 and Ranger No. 3 deposits, but 20 samples are from unmineralized drill core more than 1 km from ore. Statistical tests show that the elements Mg, Fe, F, Be, Co, Li, Ni, Pb, Sc, Th, Ti, V, CI, As, Br, Au, Ce, Dy, La Sc, Eu, Tb, Yb, and Tb have positive association with uranium, and Si, Ca, Na, K, Sr, Ba, Ce, and Cs have negative association. For most lithologic subsets Mg, Fe, Li, Cr, Ni, Pb, V, Y, Sm, Sc, Eu, and Yb are significantly enriched in ore-bearing rocks, whereas Ca, Na, K, Sr, Ba, Mn, Ce, and Cs are significantly depleted. These results are consistent with petrographic observations on altered rocks. Lithogeochemistry can aid exploration, but for these rocks requires methods that are expensive and not amenable to routine use.

Nash, J. Thomas; Frishman, David



Making the right conclusions based on wrong results and small sample sizes: interpretation of statistical tests in ecotoxicology.  


In environmental risk assessments statistical tests are a standard tool to evaluate the significance of effects by pesticides. While it has rarely been assessed how likely it is to detect effects given a specific sample size, it was never analysed how reliable results are if the test preconditions, particularly of parametric tests, are not fulfilled or how likely it is to detect deviations from these preconditions. Therefore, we analyse the performance of a parametric and a non-parametric test using Monte Carlo simulation, focussing on typical data used in ecotoxicological risk assessments. We show that none of the data distributions are normal and that for typical sample sizes of N<20 it is very unlikely to detect deviations from normality. Non-parametric tests performed markedly better than parametric tests, except when data were in fact normally distributed. We finally discuss the impact of using different tests on pesticide risk assessments. PMID:21035855

Wang, Magnus; Riffel, Michael



Chemometric approach to visualize and easily interpret data from sequential extraction procedures applied to sediment samples.  


The aim of this study was to assess metal mobility/availability in coastal surface (oxic) sediment samples from the Bahía Blanca estuary. Particularly, two sequential extraction procedures able to discriminate metals associated to amorphous Fe and Mn oxides and those associated with crystalline oxides of Fe were applied. Sequential procedures differ in the number of steps, type of reagents used, and in the order in which metals associated to organic matter are extracted. The studied metals were Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn because of their hazardous potential and relative abundance in the estuary. Tucker4 model with three factors describes appropriately the data sets (explained variance of 64.05%). This model made it possible to visualize and explain the information underlying in the data set. From the multivariate analysis, it was possible to evaluate the metal behaviour and their availability. In this way, Cd and Zn are associated to the more available fractions whereas Ni, Cr, Cu and Pb are mainly associated to the unavailable fractions. On the other hand, Zn and Cu are associated to organic matter fraction. Despite the fact that the two-fractionation schemes are quite different, the results obtained with both schemes are comparable. PMID:24813665

Alvarez, Mónica B; Quintas, Pamela Y; Domini, Claudia E; Garrido, Mariano; Fernández Band, Beatriz S



Easily disassembled electrical connector for high voltage, high frequency connections  


An easily accessible electrical connector capable of rapid assembly and disassembly is described wherein a wide metal conductor sheet may be evenly contacted over the entire width of the conductor sheet by opposing surfaces on the connector which provide an even clamping pressure against opposite surfaces of the metal conductor sheet using a single threaded actuating screw. 13 figures.

Milner, J.R.



Easily disassembled electrical connector for high voltage, high frequency connections  


An easily accessible electrical connector capable of rapid assembly and disassembly wherein a wide metal conductor sheet may be evenly contacted over the entire width of the conductor sheet by opposing surfaces on the connector which provide an even clamping pressure against opposite surfaces of the metal conductor sheet using a single threaded actuating screw.

Milner, Joseph R. (Livermore, CA)



Modular thermoelectric cell is easily packaged in various arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modular thermoelectric cells are easily packaged in various arrays to form power supplies and have desirable voltage and current output characteristics. The cells employ two pairs of thermoelectric elements, each pair being connected in parallel between two sets of aluminum plates. They can be used as solar energy conversion devices.

Epstein, J.



[Easily implemented cognitive behaviour techniques in primary care (part 2)].  


Cognitive behavioural therapy has shown to be very effective for treating the vast majority of mental health disorders. In this second part of the article, we continue commenting on those techniques that can be easily used in the Primary Care setting. PMID:24210520

Ibáñez-Tarín, C; Manzanera-Escartí, R



Easily melting glass for assembly of optical fiber into connectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The easily melting fluorine containing borophosphate glasses for construction knots have been obtained and investigated. The unique optical properties i.e. low refractive index - nD equals 1.41-1.45, wide spectral transparency region from 200 to 2000 nm as well as extended temperature application range from - 70 to +300 degree(s)C, thermostability and mechanical properties determine possibility to use fluorine containing borophosphate

Yanina Setina; Juris J. Auzans; J. J. Zolotarjova



Rescue of easily shocked mutant seizure sensitivity in Drosophila adults.  


Genetic factors that influence seizure susceptibility can act transiently during the development of neural circuits or might be necessary for the proper functioning of existing circuits. We provide evidence that the Drosophila seizure-sensitive mutant easily shocked (eas) represents a neurological disorder in which abnormal functioning of existing neural circuits leads to seizure sensitivity. The eas(+) gene encodes for the protein Ethanolamine Kinase, involved in phospholipid biosynthesis. We show that induction of eas(+) in adult mutant flies rescues them from seizure sensitivity despite previously known developmental defects in brain morphology. Additionally, through cell-type-specific rescue, our results suggest a specific role for eas(+) in excitatory rather than inhibitory neural transmission. Overall, our findings emphasize an important role for proper phospholipid metabolism in normal brain function and suggest that certain classes of epilepsy syndromes could have the potential to be treated with gene therapy techniques. PMID:23682034

Kroll, Jason R; Tanouye, Mark A



Easily melting glass for assembly of optical fiber into connectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The easily melting fluorine containing borophosphate glasses for construction knots have been obtained and investigated. The unique optical properties i.e. low refractive index - nD equals 1.41-1.45, wide spectral transparency region from 200 to 2000 nm as well as extended temperature application range from - 70 to +300 degree(s)C, thermostability and mechanical properties determine possibility to use fluorine containing borophosphate glass as optical glue. The process of structure formation within temperature range 20-1000 degree(s)C has been investigated in details. It has been determined by IR and X-ray methods that the development of glass network begins with decomposition of components at 500 degree(s)C with further formation of glass elements within temperature range 625-675 degree(s)C. The stable glassforming area is determined by P-O-B groups. The role of fluorine in structure development depends on its depolymerizator behavior, on the other hand it has some glassforming ability. Latter is based on ability of fluorine to move from boron to phosphorus coordination sphere. For the compositions under research the formation of monofluorophosphate groups at higher temperatures have been determined. The ratio P:B equals 1, 2:2 defines obtaining of stable glass without devitrification within the temperature range from 300 to 700 degree(s)C. The interfacial processes between fluorine containing melts and quartz fiber have been investigated.

Setina, Yanina; Auzans, Juris J.; Zolotarjova, J. J.



Gomez-Lopez-Hernandez syndrome: an easily missed diagnosis.  


Gomez-Lopez-Hernandez syndrome (GLHS) is a rare syndrome comprising the triad rhombencephalosynapsis (RS), parietal alopecia, and trigeminal anesthesia. Other typical findings are skull abnormalities, craniofacial dysmorphic signs, and short stature. Intellectual impairment is typical but cases with normal cognitive functions have also been reported. Only 15 cases of GLHS have been described so far, all sporadic. We report four further patients with GLHS: one neonate, two children and a middle aged man. In all cases the diagnosis was made only in retrospect; one child died as neonate due to esophageal atresia. All patients presented RS and parietal alopecia, three intermittent head stereotypies, two had obvious trigeminal anesthesia, and one normal cognition. Alopecia and also trigeminal anesthesia can be very mild and can be easily missed. However, the dysmorphic signs including bilateral alopecia are already present in the neonatal period and are highly suggestive of GLHS. RS should be looked for in this situation. It is important to mention that neuroimaging does not allow distinguishing between isolated RS and GLHS. If RS is diagnosed the clinical signs of GLHS should be sought. The diagnosis of GLHS can only be made by the combination of the typical dysmorphic signs and neuroimaging in the neonatal period, but not prenatally. PMID:18342593

Poretti, Andrea; Bartholdi, Deborah; Gobara, Sonja; Alber, Fabienne Dietrich; Boltshauser, Eugen



Metview and VAPOR: Exploring ECMWF forecasts easily in four dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) is an international organisation providing its member states and co-operating states with forecasts in the medium time range of up to 15 days as well as other forcasts and analysis. As part of its mission, ECMWF generates an increasing number of forecast data products for its users. To support the work of forecasters and researchers and to let them make best use of ECMWF forecasts, the Centre also provides tools and interfaces to visualise their products. This allows users to make use of and explore forecasts without having to transfer large amounts of raw data. This is especially true for products based on ECMWF's 50 member ensemble forecast. Users can choose to explore ECMWF's forecasts from the web or through visualisation tools installed locally or at ECMWF. ECMWF also develops in co-operation with INPE, Brazil, the Metview meteorological workstation and batch system. Metview enables users to easily analyse and visualise forecasts, and is routinely used by scientists and forecasters at ECMWF and other institutions. While Metview offers high quality visualisation in two-dimensional plots and animations, it uses external tools to visualise data in four dimensions. VAPOR is the Visualization and Analysis Platform for Ocean, Atmosphere, and Solar Researchers. VAPOR provides an interactive 3D visualisation environment that runs on most UNIX and Windows systems equipped with modern 3D graphics cards. VAPOR development is led by the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Scientific Computing Division in collaboration with U.C. Davis and Ohio State University. In this paper we will give an overview of how users, with Metview and access to ECMWF's archive, can visualise forecast data in four dimensions within VAPOR. The process of preparing the data in Metview is the key step and described in detail. The benefits to researchers are highlighted with a case study analysing a given weather scenario.

Siemen, Stephan; Kertesz, Sandor; Carver, Glenn



Interpreting the concordance statistic of a logistic regression model: relation to the variance and odds ratio of a continuous explanatory variable  

PubMed Central

Background When outcomes are binary, the c-statistic (equivalent to the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve) is a standard measure of the predictive accuracy of a logistic regression model. Methods An analytical expression was derived under the assumption that a continuous explanatory variable follows a normal distribution in those with and without the condition. We then conducted an extensive set of Monte Carlo simulations to examine whether the expressions derived under the assumption of binormality allowed for accurate prediction of the empirical c-statistic when the explanatory variable followed a normal distribution in the combined sample of those with and without the condition. We also examine the accuracy of the predicted c-statistic when the explanatory variable followed a gamma, log-normal or uniform distribution in combined sample of those with and without the condition. Results Under the assumption of binormality with equality of variances, the c-statistic follows a standard normal cumulative distribution function with dependence on the product of the standard deviation of the normal components (reflecting more heterogeneity) and the log-odds ratio (reflecting larger effects). Under the assumption of binormality with unequal variances, the c-statistic follows a standard normal cumulative distribution function with dependence on the standardized difference of the explanatory variable in those with and without the condition. In our Monte Carlo simulations, we found that these expressions allowed for reasonably accurate prediction of the empirical c-statistic when the distribution of the explanatory variable was normal, gamma, log-normal, and uniform in the entire sample of those with and without the condition. Conclusions The discriminative ability of a continuous explanatory variable cannot be judged by its odds ratio alone, but always needs to be considered in relation to the heterogeneity of the population.




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




"Spin" in wound care research: the reporting and interpretation of randomized controlled trials with statistically non-significant primary outcome results or unspecified primary outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background Spin in the reporting of randomized controlled trials, where authors report research in a way that potentially misrepresents results and mislead readers, has been demonstrated in the broader medical literature. We investigated spin in wound care trials with (a) no statistically significant result for the primary outcome and (b) no clearly specified primary outcome. Methods We searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register of Trials for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Eligible studies were: Parallel-group RCTs of interventions for foot, leg or pressure ulcers published in 2004 to 2009 (inclusive) with either a clearly identified primary outcome for which there was a statistically non-significant result (Cohort A) or studies that had no clear primary outcome (Cohort B). We extracted general study details. For both Cohorts A and B we then assessed for the presence of spin. For Cohort A we used a pre-defined process to assess reports for spin. For Cohort B we aimed to assess spin by recording the number of positive treatment effect claims made. We also compared the number of statistically significant and non-significant results reported in the main text and the abstract looking specifically for spin in the form of selective outcome reporting. Results Of the 71 eligible studies, 28 were eligible for Cohort A; of these, 71% (20/28) contained spin. Cohort B contained 43 studies; of these, 86% (37/43) had abstracts that claimed a favorable treatment claim. Whilst 74% (32/43) of main text results in Cohort B included at least one statistically non-significant result, this was not reflected in the abstract where only 28% contained (12/43) at least one statistically non-significant result. Conclusions Spin is a frequent phenomenon in reports of RCTs of wound treatments. Studies without statistically significant results for the primary outcome used spin in 71% of cases. Furthermore, 33% (43/132) of reports of wound RCTs did not specify a primary outcome and there was evidence of spin and selective outcome reporting in the abstracts of these. Readers should be wary of only reading the abstracts of reports of RCTs of wound treatments since they are frequently misleading regarding treatment effects.



Interpreting Math  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is to give you practice preparing for and interpreting in math education settings. 1. Activate your extra linguistic knowledge (ELK) in preparation for interpreting a math lesson. Visit the Solving Equations website and familiarize yourself with the steps for solving linear equations. Clarify any concepts you do not understand. (Remember that you cannot interpret what you do not understand.) Solving Equations 2. Begin working on ...



Statistics Clinic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Do you have elevated p-values? Is the data analysis process getting you down? Do you experience anxiety when you need to respond to criticism of statistical methods in your manuscript? You may be suffering from Insufficient Statistical Support Syndrome (ISSS). For symptomatic relief of ISSS, come for a free consultation with JSC biostatisticians at our help desk during the poster sessions at the HRP Investigators Workshop. Get answers to common questions about sample size, missing data, multiple testing, when to trust the results of your analyses and more. Side effects may include sudden loss of statistics anxiety, improved interpretation of your data, and increased confidence in your results.

Feiveson, Alan H.; Foy, Millennia; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fiedler, James



Statistical Analysis and Interpretation of Building Characterization, Indoor Environmental Quality Monitoring and Energy Usage Data from Office Buildings and Classrooms in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Three independent tasks had been performed (Stetzenbach 2008, Stetzenbach 2008b, Stetzenbach 2009) to measure a variety of parameters in normative buildings across the United States. For each of these tasks 10 buildings were selected as normative indoor environments. Task 1 focused on office buildings, Task 13 focused on public schools, and Task 0606 focused on high performance buildings. To perform this task it was necessary to restructure the database for the Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) data and the Sound measurement as several issues were identified and resolved prior to and during the transfer of these data sets into SPSS. During overview discussions with the statistician utilized in this task it was determined that because the selection of indoor zones (1-6) was independently selected within each task; zones were not related by location across tasks. Therefore, no comparison would be valid across zones for the 30 buildings so the by location (zone) data were limited to three analysis sets of the buildings within each task. In addition, differences in collection procedures for lighting were used in Task 0606 as compared to Tasks 01 & 13 to improve sample collection. Therefore, these data sets could not be merged and compared so effects by-day data were run separately for Task 0606 and only Task 01 & 13 data were merged. Results of the statistical analysis of the IEQ parameters show statistically significant differences were found among days and zones for all tasks, although no differences were found by-day for Draft Rate data from Task 0606 (p>0.05). Thursday measurements of IEQ parameters were significantly different from Tuesday, and most Wednesday measures for all variables of Tasks 1 & 13. Data for all three days appeared to vary for Operative Temperature, whereas only Tuesday and Thursday differed for Draft Rate 1m. Although no Draft Rate measures within Task 0606 were found to significantly differ by-day, Temperature measurements for Tuesday and Thursday showed variation. Moreover, Wednesday measurements of Relative Humidity within Task 0606 varied significantly from either Tuesday or Thursday. The majority of differences in IEQ measurements by-zone were highly significant (p<0.001), with the exception of Relative Humidity in some buildings. When all task data were combined (30 buildings) neither the airborne culturable fungi nor the airborne non-culturable spore data differed in the concentrations found at any indoor location in terms of day of collection. However, the concentrations of surface-associated fungi varied among the day of collection. Specifically, there was a lower concentration of mold on Tuesday than on Wednesday, for all tasks combined. As expected, variation was found in the concentrations of both airborne culturable fungi and airborne non-culturable fungal spores between indoor zones (1-6) and the outdoor zone (zone 0). No variation was found among the indoor zones of office buildings for Task 1 in the concentrations of airborne culturable fungi. However, airborne non-culturable spores did vary among zones in one building in Task 1 and variation was noted between zones in surface-associated fungi. Due to the lack of multiple lighting measurements for Tasks 13 and 0606, by-day comparisons were only performed for Task 1. No statistical differences were observed in lighting with respect to the day of collection. There was a wide range of variability by-zone among seven of the office buildings. Although few differences were found for the brightest illumination of the worksurface (IllumWkSfcBrtst) and the darkest illumination of the worksurface (IllumWkSfcDrkst) in Task 1, there was considerable variation for these variables in Task 13 and Task 0606 (p < 0.001). Other variables that differed by-zone in Task 13 include CombCCT and AmbCCT1 for S03, S07, and S08. Additionally, AmbChromX1, CombChromY, and CombChromX varied by-zone for school buildings S02, S04, and S05, respectively. Although all tasks demonstrated significant differences in sound measurements by zone, some of the buil

Linda Stetzenbach; Lauren Nemnich; Davor Novosel



Landslides triggered by the 12 January 2010 Mw 7.0 Port-au-Prince, Haiti, earthquake: visual interpretation, inventory compiling and spatial distribution statistical analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 12 January 2010 Port-au-Prince, Haiti, earthquake (Mw 7.0) triggered tens of thousands of landslides. The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlations of the occurrence of landslides and their erosion thicknesses with topographic factors, seismic parameters, and their distance from roads. A total of 30 828 landslides triggered by the earthquake covered a total area of 15.736 km2, distributed in an area more than 3000 km2, and the volume of landslide accumulation materials is estimated to be about 29 700 000 m3. These landslides are of various types, mostly belonging to shallow disrupted landslides and rock falls, but also include coherent deep-seated landslides and rock slides. These landslides were delineated using pre- and post-earthquake high-resolutions satellite images. Spatial distribution maps and contour maps of landslide number density, landslide area percentage, and landslide erosion thickness were constructed in order to analyze the spatial distribution patterns of co-seismic landslides. Statistics of size distribution and morphometric parameters of co-seismic landslides were carried out and were compared with other earthquake events in the world. Four proxies of co-seismic landslide abundance, including landslides centroid number density (LCND), landslide top number density (LTND), landslide area percentage (LAP), and landslide erosion thickness (LET) were used to correlate co-seismic landslides with various landslide controlling parameters. These controlling parameters include elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, slope curvature, topographic position, distance from drainages, lithology, distance from the epicenter, distance from the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault, distance along the fault, and peak ground acceleration (PGA). A comparison of these impact parameters on co-seismic landslides shows that slope angle is the strongest impact parameter on co-seismic landslide occurrence. Our co-seismic landslide inventory is much more detailed than other inventories in several previous publications. Therefore, we carried out comparisons of inventories of landslides triggered by the Haiti earthquake with other published results and proposed possible reasons of any differences. We suggest that the empirical functions between earthquake magnitude and co-seismic landslides need to update on the basis of the abundant and more complete co-seismic landslide inventories recently available.

Xu, C.; Shyu, J. B. H.; Xu, X.-W.



The Transterpreter: A Transputer Interpreter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the Transterpreter: a virtual machine for executing the Transputer instruction set. This interpreter is a small, portable, efficient and ex- tensible run-time. It is intended to be easily ported to handheld computers, mobile phones, and other embedded contexts. In striving for this level of portability, occam programs compiled to Transputer byte-code can currently be run on

Christian L. JACOBSEN; Matthew C. JADUD



Interpretive Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)

DeHaan, Frank, Ed.



Quantum interpretations  

SciTech Connect

Four interpretations of quantum theory are compared: the Copenhagen interpretation (C.I.) with the additional assumption that the quantum description also applies to the mental states of the observer, and three recent ones, by Kochen, Deutsch, and Cramer. Since they interpret the same mathematical structure with the same empirical predictions, it is assumed that they formulate only different linguistic expressions of one identical theory. C.I. as a theory on human knowledge rests on a phenomenological description of time. It can be reconstructed from simple assumptions on predictions. Kochen shows that mathematically every composite system can be split into an object and an observer. Deutsch, with the same decomposition, describes futuric possibilities under the Everett term worlds. Cramer, using four-dimensional action at a distance (Wheeler-Feynman), describes all future events like past facts. All three can be described in the C.I. frame. The role of abstract nonlocality is discussed.

Goernitz, T.; Weizsaecker, C.F.V.



Performing Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Utilizing a/r/tographic methodology to interrogate interpretive acts in museums, multiple areas of inquiry are raised in this paper, including: which knowledge is assigned the greatest value when preparing a gallery talk; what lies outside of disciplinary knowledge; how invitations to participate invite and disinvite in the same gesture; and what…

Kothe, Elsa Lenz; Berard, Marie-France



Relativistic Statistical Thermodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bergmann has generalized Gibbs' classical statistical mechanics so as to make it applicable to both relativistic and quantum-mechanical systems. His method, however, involves some complicated differential geometry, and the resulting formulas are not easily manageable. A different method for obtaining a relativistic and quantized statistical thermodynamics is proposed which avoids the differential geometry and gives simpler final formulas. The end

A. E. Scheidegger; R. V. Krotkov



An Easily Accessible Web-Based Minimization Random Allocation System for Clinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Background Minimization as an adaptive allocation technique has been recommended in the literature for use in randomized clinical trials. However, it remains uncommonly used due in part to a lack of easily accessible implementation tools. Objective To provide clinical trialists with a robust, flexible, and readily accessible tool for implementing covariate-adaptive biased-coin randomization. Methods We developed a Web-based random allocation system, MinimRan, that applies Pocock–Simon (for trials with 2 or more arms) and 2-way (currently limited to 2-arm trials) minimization methods for trials using only categorical prognostic factors or the symmetric Kullback–Leibler divergence minimization method for trials (currently limited to 2-arm trials) using continuous prognostic factors with or without categorical factors, in covariate-adaptive biased-coin randomization. Results In this paper, we describe the system’s essential statistical and computer programming features and provide as an example the randomization results generated by it in a recently completed trial. The system can be used in single- and double-blind trials as well as single-center and multicenter trials. Conclusions We expect the system to facilitate the translation of the 3 validated random allocation methods into broad, efficient clinical research practice.

Xiao, Lan; Huang, Qiwen; Yank, Veronica



Interpretations of Entanglement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The peculiar statistical correlations between spatially separated systems which arise in quantum mechanics, and which the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paper of 1935 thrust into the limelight, have been the focus of much interpretive speculation and disagreement in the years since then. Amongst the questions raised along the way have been questions about the possibility of superluminal causation, the limits of quantum mechanics and its relation to relativity theory, the nature of and need for causal explanation, realism, determinism, and the presence of holism in quantum mechanics. This talk will provide an historically structured overview of these debates including discussion of the Bohm theory, the many worlds interpretation, and more recent developments and will suggest a way of dividing many of the interpretations of entanglement into clusters of like-minded views.

Jones, Martin



Interpretive Medicine  

PubMed Central

Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the recognition of quality in interpretation and knowledge generation within the qualitative research field, I propose a framework by which to evaluate the quality of knowledge generated within generalist, interpretive clinical practice. I describe three priorities for research in developing this model further, which will strengthen and preserve core elements of the discipline of general practice, and thus promote and support the health needs of the public.

Reeve, Joanne



CT Colonography: Pitfalls in Interpretation  

PubMed Central

Synopsis As with any radiologic imaging test, there are a number of potential interpretive pitfalls at CT colonography (CTC) that need to be recognized and handled appropriately. Perhaps the single most important step in learning to avoid most of these diagnostic traps is simply to be aware of their existence. With a little experience, most of these potential pitfalls will be easily recognized. This review will systematically cover the key pitfalls confronting the radiologist at CTC interpretation, primarily dividing them into those related to technique and those related to underlying anatomy. Tips and pointers for how to effectively handle these potential pitfalls are included.

Pickhardt, Perry J.; Kim, David H.



Time Resolved Thermal Diffusivity of Seasonal Snow Determined from Inexpensive, Easily-Implemented Temperature Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal diffusivity of snow is an important physical property associated with key hydrological phenomena such as snow melt and heat and water vapor exchange with the atmosphere. These phenomena have broad implications in studies of climate and heat and water budgets on many scales. However, direct measurements of snow thermal diffusivity require coupled point measurements of thermal conductivity and density, which are nonstationary due to snow metamorphism. Furthermore, thermal conductivity measurements are typically obtained with specialized heating probes or plates and snow density measurements require digging snow pits. Therefore, direct measurements are difficult to obtain with high enough temporal resolution such that direct comparisons with atmospheric conditions can be made. This study uses highly resolved (7.5 to 10 cm for depth and 1min for time) temperature measurements from the Plaine Morte glacier in Switzerland as initial and boundary conditions to numerically solve the 1D heat equation and iteratively optimize for thermal diffusivity. The method uses flux boundary conditions to constrain thermal diffusivity such that spuriously high values in thermal diffusivity are eliminated. Additionally, a t-test ensuring statistical significance between solutions of varied thermal diffusivity result in further constraints on thermal diffusivity that eliminate spuriously low values. The results show that time resolved (1 minute) thermal diffusivity can be determined from easily implemented and inexpensive temperature measurements of seasonal snow with good agreement to widely used parameterizations based on snow density. This high time resolution further affords the ability to explore possible turbulence-induced enhancements to heat and mass transfer in the snow.

Oldroyd, H. J.; Higgins, C. W.; Huwald, H.; Selker, J. S.; Parlange, M. B.




PubMed Central

Methodological consequences of population heterogeneity for the sequential logit model in studies of education transitions are now well understood. There are two main mechanisms by which heterogeneity may cause biases to parameter estimates in sequential logit models: outcome incommensurability and population incommensurability. These methodological problems are intrinsic to the substantive research question and thus are not easily remediable with better statistical models. All statistical solutions require extra information in the form of additional data or additional assumptions. In some settings, the researcher may explicitly introduce a form of heterogeneity into the sequential logit model and then evaluate the model. In other settings, the researcher may wish to stay with the conventional sequential logit model and interpret the results descriptively.

Xie, Yu



Statistical Applets: Statistical Significance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by authors Duckworth, McCabe, Moore and Sclove for W.H. Freeman of Co., this applet is designed to help students visualize the rejection region of a statistical test by allowing them to set null and alternate hypotheses, population parameters, sample statistics, and significance level. It accompanies "ÃÂÃÂPractice of Business Statistics," but can be used without this text. Even though brief, this is a nice interactive resource for an introductory statistics course.

Duckworth, William; Mccabe, George; Moore, David; Sclove, Stanley



Over-Interpreting Functional Neuroimages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive neuroscientists use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure properties of a participant's brain during a cognitive task. These imaging results are transformed into compelling pictures of brain activity using statistical models. I will argue that, for a broad class of experiments, neuroimaging experts have a tendency to over-interpret the functional significance of their data. This over-interpretation appears to

Marc A. Burock



Interpreter's Interpretation: Sign Language Interpreters' View of Musculoskeletal Disorders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sign language interpreters are at increased risk for musculoskeletal disorders. This study used content analysis to obtain detailed information about these disorders from the interpreters' point of view. Risk factors for the initiation and/or exacerbation...

W. L. Johnson



[Correspondence analysis: a theoretical basis for categorical data interpretation in health sciences].  


Categorical variables are common in the biomedical field, and many descriptive methods have been proposed for revealing intrinsic patterns in data. Correspondence Analysis is an especially useful method for categorical data analysis of large contingency tables. Although numerous studies have been published on this method, most Portuguese-language articles have failed to explore its full potential, focusing only on graphical interpretation. The current paper reviews the method, showing that graphical analysis can be enriched by the right statistics. The article presents the mathematical basis for correspondence analysis and its most frequently used statistics. The procedure has shown that such statistics enrich symmetric map evaluation, that a low relative frequency category can be represented by supplementary category points, and that inertia contributions are highly related to residual analysis of contingency tables, not easily visualized by symmetric maps. Correspondence Analysis has proven advantageous when compared to principal components analysis. PMID:24714938

Infantosi, Antonio Fernando Catelli; Costa, João Carlos da Gama Dias; Almeida, Renan Moritz Varnier Rodrigues de



Determining the concentration of easily assimilable organic carbon in drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method for determining the potential of a water for supporting microbial regrowth in a drinking water distribution system. The method is based on the growth of fluorescent pseudomonads as a function of the concentration of easily assimilable organic carbon (AOC) in water. Using this method, the authors analyzed water samples from various stages of water treatment

Dirk van der Kooij; A. Visser; W. A. M. Hijnen



Making On-Line Science Course Materials Easily Translatable and Accessible Worldwide: Challenges and Solutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The PhET Interactive Simulations Project partnered with the Excellence Research Center of Science and Mathematics Education at King Saud University with the joint goal of making simulations useable worldwide. One of the main challenges of this partnership is to make PhET simulations and the website easily translatable into any language. The PhET…

Adams, Wendy K.; Alhadlaq, Hisham; Malley, Christopher V.; Perkins, Katherine K.; Olson, Jonathan; Alshaya, Fahad; Alabdulkareem, Saleh; Wieman, Carl E.



Injury Statistics  


... Data Consumer Opinion Surveys Home / Research & Statistics Injury Statistics This is the statistic reports page for scientific ... Home Appliances, Maintenance and Construction Injury Statistics Injury Statistics September 30, 2012 Submersions Related to Non-Pool ...


Health Statistics  


... a medical procedure. These are all types of health statistics. Health statistics are numbers about some aspect of health. Statistics about births, deaths, marriages, and divorces are sometimes ...


Adoption Statistics  


... Role Our Leadership Newsroom Publications Statistics Contact Us Statistics All statistics correspond with the U.S. Government fiscal year, which ... and ends on September 30. For example, adoption statistics for FY2013 show the period from October 1, ...


Cancer Statistics  


... 1975-2010 Did You Know? Video Series Cancer Statistics Understanding Cancer Statistics Learn definitions of statistical terms, ... and software tools. Did You Know? Colorectal Cancer Statistics You will need Adobe Flash Player 8 or ...


Synthesis, Characterization, to application of water soluble and easily removable cationic pressure sensitive adhesives  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, the world has expressed an increasing interest in the recycling of waste paper to supplement the use of virgin fiber as a way to protect the environment. Statistics show that major countries are increasing their use of recycled paper. For example, in 1991 to 1996, the U.S. increased its recovered paper utilization rate from 31% to 39%, Germany went from 50% to 60%, the UK went from 60% to 70%, France increased from 46% to 49%, and China went from 32% to 35% [1]. As recycled fiber levels and water system closures both increase, recycled product quality will need to improve in order for recycled products to compete with products made from virgin fiber [2]. The use of recycled fiber has introduced an increasing level of metal, plastic, and adhesive contamination into the papermaking process which has added to the complexity of the already overwhelming task of providing a uniform and clean recycle furnish. The most harmful of these contaminates is a mixture of adhesives and polymeric substances that are commonly known as stickies. Stickies, which enter the mill with the pulp furnish, are not easily removed from the repulper and become more difficult the further down the system they get. This can be detrimental to the final product quality. Stickies are hydrophobic, tacky, polymeric materials that are introduced into the papermaking system from a mixture of recycled fiber sources. Properties of stickies are very similar to the fibers used in papermaking, viz. size, density, hydrophobicity, and electrokinetic charge. This reduces the probability of their removal by conventional separation processes, such as screening and cleaning, which are based on such properties. Also, their physical and chemical structure allows for them to extrude through screens, attach to fibers, process equipment, wires and felts. Stickies can break down and then reagglomerate and appear at seemingly any place in the mill. When subjected to a number of factors including changes in pH, temperature, concentration, charge, and shear forces, stickies can deposit [3]. These deposits can lead to decreased runnability, productivity and expensive downtime. If the stickie remains in the stock, then machine breaks can be common. Finally, if the stickie is not removed or deposited, it will either leave in the final product causing converting and printing problems or recirculate within the mill. It has been estimated that stickies cost the paper industry between $600 and $700 million a year due to the cost of control methods and lost production attributed to stickies [3]. Also, of the seven recycling mills opened in the United States between 1994 and 1997, four have closed citing stickies as the main reason responsible for the closure [4]. Adhesives are widely used throughout the paper and paperboard industry and are subsequently found in the recycled pulp furnish. Hodgson stated that even the best stock preparation process can only remove 99% of the contaminants, of which the remaining 1% is usually adhesives of various types which are usually 10-150 microns in effective diameter [5]. The large particles are removed by mechanical means such as cleaners and screens, and the smaller, colloidal particles can be removed with washing. The stickies that pass through the cleaning and screening processes cause 95% of the problems associated with recycling [6]. The cleaners will remove most of the stickies that have a density varying from the pulp slurry ({approx}1.0 g/cm3) and will accept stickies with densities ranging from 0.95-1.05 g/cm3 [2]. The hydrophobicity of the material is also an important characteristic of the stickie [7]. The hydrophobicity causes the stickies to agglomerate with other hydrophobic materials such as other stickies, lignin, and even pitch. The tacky and viscous nature of stickies contributes to many product and process problems, negatively affecting the practicality of recycled fiber use. The source of stickies that evade conventional removal techniques are usually synthetic polymers, including acrylates, styrene butadiene rub

Institute of Paper Science Technology



Interpreting Results in Mental Health Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often difficult to interpret the clinical or policy significance of findings from mental health research when results are presented only in terms of statistical significance. Results expressed in terms of p values or as a metric corresponding to a mental health status scale are seldom intuitively meaningful. To help interpret the significance of research results, we demonstrate a

Jeffrey S. Harman; Willard G. Manning; Nicole Lurie; Chuan-Fen Liu



Easily accessible and highly tunable bisphosphine ligands for asymmetric hydroformylation of terminal and internal alkenes.  


An efficient methodology for synthesizing a small library of easily tunable and sterically bulky ligands for asymmetric hydroformylation (AHF) has been reported. Five groups of alkene substrates have been tested with excellent conversions, moderate-to-excellent regio- and enantioselectivities. Among the best result of the reported literature, application of ligand 1?c in the highly selective AHF of the challenging substrate 2,5-dihydrofuran yielded almost one isomer in up to 99?% conversion along with enantiomeric excesses (ee) of up to 92?%. Highly enantioselective AHF of dihydropyrrole substrates is achieved using the same ligand, with up to 95?%?ee and up to >1:50 ?-isomer/?-isomer ratio. PMID:24573699

Xu, Kun; Zheng, Xin; Wang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xumu



Spider phobics more easily see a spider in morphed schematic pictures  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Individuals with social phobia are more likely to misinterpret ambiguous social situations as more threatening, i.e. they show an interpretive bias. This study investigated whether such a bias also exists in specific phobia. METHODS: Individuals with spider phobia or social phobia, spider aficionados and non-phobic controls saw morphed stimuli that gradually transformed from a schematic picture of a flower

Iris-Tatjana Kolassa; Arlette Buchmann; Romy Lauche; Stephan Kolassa; Ivailo Partchev; Wolfgang HR Miltner; Frauke Musial



A fuzzy cooperative fusion system for seismic image interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper concerns a seismic attribute fusion based on a cooperative approach between the interpreters and the system. A graphical user interface has been developed in order to allow geologists to use the system easily. It provides an original way to adjust some of the fusion system parameters which are understandable and close to the interpreters' language. The numerical aspect

L. Valet; G. Mauris; P. Bolon; N. Keskes



Statistical Reform in School Psychology Research: A Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistical reform in school psychology research is discussed in terms of research designs, measurement issues, statistical modeling and analysis procedures, interpretation and reporting of statistical results, and finally statistics education.

Swaminathan, Hariharan; Rogers, H. Jane



Multiobjective optimization in quantitative structure-activity relationships: deriving accurate and interpretable QSARs.  


Deriving quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models that are accurate, reliable, and easily interpretable is a difficult task. In this study, two new methods have been developed that aim to find useful QSAR models that represent an appropriate balance between model accuracy and complexity. Both methods are based on genetic programming (GP). The first method, referred to as genetic QSAR (or GPQSAR), uses a penalty function to control model complexity. GPQSAR is designed to derive a single linear model that represents an appropriate balance between the variance and the number of descriptors selected for the model. The second method, referred to as multiobjective genetic QSAR (MoQSAR), is based on multiobjective GP and represents a new way of thinking of QSAR. Specifically, QSAR is considered as a multiobjective optimization problem that comprises a number of competitive objectives. Typical objectives include model fitting, the total number of terms, and the occurrence of nonlinear terms. MoQSAR results in a family of equivalent QSAR models where each QSAR represents a different tradeoff in the objectives. A practical consideration often overlooked in QSAR studies is the need for the model to promote an understanding of the biochemical response under investigation. To accomplish this, chemically intuitive descriptors are needed but do not always give rise to statistically robust models. This problem is addressed by the addition of a further objective, called chemical desirability, that aims to reward models that consist of descriptors that are easily interpretable by chemists. GPQSAR and MoQSAR have been tested on various data sets including the Selwood data set and two different solubility data sets. The study demonstrates that the MoQSAR method is able to find models that are at least as good as models derived using standard statistical approaches and also yields models that allow a medicinal chemist to trade statistical robustness for chemical interpretability. PMID:12408718

Nicolotti, Orazio; Gillet, Valerie J; Fleming, Peter J; Green, Darren V S



Statistics and the Art of Model Construction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Behavioral models should be based on reliable knowledge. Reliable knowledge is achieved when a scientific community reaches consensus on the interpretation of available evidence. When properly used and interpreted, statistical models can aid in the proces...

R. R. Vickers



High-power CO2 electric discharge laser with easily ionized substances added  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimization of the parameters of a transverse-discharge CO2 laser as described in a previous study by the authors is investigated. The output characteristics of the laser are optimized by investigating the radiated energy as a function of the length of the active medium as well as the coefficient of reflection of the exit mirror. It is found that by selecting the easily ionized substances and pumping mode properly, and optimizing the cavity, it is possible to obtain efficiencies and unit energy yields from an externally-driven O2 laser that are as good as those of corresponding electroionization systems. The laser used in the study employs an extremely compact electrode design, and requires no low-inductance capacitors in the pumping circuit. Specific output energy of 51 J/1 and electric energy-to-light conversion efficiency of 22% are achieved.

Apollonov, V. V.; Vaskovskiy, Y. M.; Zhavoronkov, M. I.; Prokhorov, A. M.; Rovinskiy, R. Y.; Rogalin, V. Y.; Ustinov, N. D.; Firsov, K. N.; Tsenina, I. S.; Yamshchikov, V. A.



OFFSTATS: Official Statistics on the Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by International Commerce & Statistics Librarian Rainer Wolcke at the University of Aukland Library, OFFSTATS: Official Statistics on the Web offers "free and easily accessible social, economic and general data from official sources." The site lists international statistical centers by country or topic with detailed navigation and downloading instructions.


Statistics of genome architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main statistical distributions applicable to the analysis of genome architecture and genome tracks are briefly discussed and critically assessed. Although the observed features in distributions of element lengths can be equally well fitted by the different statistical approximations, the interpretation of observed regularities may strongly depend on the chosen scheme. We discuss the possible evolution scenarios and describe the main characteristics obtained with different distributions. The expression for the assessment of levels in hierarchical chromatin folding is derived and the quantitative measure of genome architecture inhomogeneity is suggested. This theory provides the ground for the regular statistical study of genome architecture and genome tracks.

Chechetkin, V. R.



Usage Statistics  


... Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Cool Tools ESPAÑOL MedlinePlus Statistics To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Quarterly User Statistics Graph | Quarterly User Statistics Table | Number of Health ...


Model Output Statistics Forecast Guidance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication describes data in the National Weather Services's Model Output Statistics Final Forecast Guidance teletype bulletins. It is intended to serve as a comprehensive guide to the interpretation and use of the forecast bulletins by AWS forecast...

H. Hughes



GoCxx: a tool to easily leverage C++ legacy code for multicore-friendly Go libraries and frameworks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current HENP libraries and frameworks were written before multicore systems became widely deployed and used. From this environment, a ‘single-thread’ processing model naturally emerged but the implicit assumptions it encouraged are greatly impairing our abilities to scale in a multicore/manycore world. Writing scalable code in C++ for multicore architectures, while doable, is no panacea. Sure, C++11 will improve on the current situation (by standardizing on std::thread, introducing lambda functions and defining a memory model) but it will do so at the price of complicating further an already quite sophisticated language. This level of sophistication has probably already strongly motivated analysis groups to migrate to CPython, hoping for its current limitations with respect to multicore scalability to be either lifted (Grand Interpreter Lock removal) or for the advent of a new Python VM better tailored for this kind of environment (PyPy, Jython, …) Could HENP migrate to a language with none of the deficiencies of C++ (build time, deployment, low level tools for concurrency) and with the fast turn-around time, simplicity and ease of coding of Python? This paper will try to make the case for Go - a young open source language with built-in facilities to easily express and expose concurrency - being such a language. We introduce GoCxx, a tool leveraging gcc-xml's output to automatize the tedious work of creating Go wrappers for foreign languages, a critical task for any language wishing to leverage legacy and field-tested code. We will conclude with the first results of applying GoCxx to real C++ code.

Binet, Sébastien



Radiologist Uncertainty and the Interpretation of Screening  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine radiologists’ reactions to uncertainty when interpreting mammography and the extent to which radiologist uncertainty explains variability in interpretive performance. Methods The authors used a mailed survey to assess demographic and clinical characteristics of radiologists and reactions to uncertainty associated with practice. Responses were linked to radiologists’ actual interpretive performance data obtained from 3 regionally located mammography registries. Results More than 180 radiologists were eligible to participate, and 139 consented for a response rate of 76.8%. Radiologist gender, more years interpreting, and higher volume were associated with lower uncertainty scores. Positive predictive value, recall rates, and specificity were more affected by reactions to uncertainty than sensitivity or negative predictive value; however, none of these relationships was statistically significant. Conclusion Certain practice factors, such as gender and years of interpretive experience, affect uncertainty scores. Radiologists’ reactions to uncertainty do not appear to affect interpretive performance.

Carney, Patricia A.; Elmore, Joann G.; Abraham, Linn A.; Gerrity, Martha S.; Hendrick, R. Edward; Taplin, Stephen H.; Barlow, William E.; Cutter, Gary R.; Poplack, Steven P.; D'Orsi, Carl J.



Open window: when easily identifiable genomes and traits are in the public domain.  


"One can't be of an enquiring and experimental nature, and still be very sensible."--Charles Fort. As the costs of personal genetic testing "self-quantification" fall, publicly accessible databases housing people's genotypic and phenotypic information are gradually increasing in number and scope. The latest entrant is openSNP, which allows participants to upload their personal genetic/genomic and self-reported phenotypic data. I believe the emergence of such open repositories of human biological data is a natural reflection of inquisitive and digitally literate people's desires to make genomic and phenotypic information more easily available to a community beyond the research establishment. Such unfettered databases hold the promise of contributing mightily to science, science education and medicine. That said, in an age of increasingly widespread governmental and corporate surveillance, we would do well to be mindful that genomic DNA is uniquely identifying. Participants in open biological databases are engaged in a real-time experiment whose outcome is unknown. PMID:24647311

Angrist, Misha



Efficient transformation of grease to biodiesel using highly active and easily recyclable magnetic nanobiocatalyst aggregates.  


Green and efficient production of biodiesel (FAME) from waste grease containing high amount of free fatty acid (FFA) was achieved by using novel magnetic nanobiocatalyst aggregates (MNA). Thermomyces lanuginosus Lipase (TLL) and Candida antarctica Lipase B (CALB) were covalently immobilized on core-shell structured iron oxide magnetic nanoparticle (80 nm), respectively, followed by freeze-dry to give MNA (13-17 ?m) with high yield (80-89%) and high enzyme loading (61 mg TLL or 22 mg CALB per gram MNA). MNA TL showed the best performance among immobilized enzymes known thus for the production of FAME from grease (17 wt.% FFA) with methanol, giving 99% yield in 12 h (3.3 wt.% catalyst). MNA TL was easily separated under magnetic field and reused, retaining 88% productivity in 11th cycle. MNA CA converted >97% FFA in grease (17 wt.% FFA) to FAME in 12 h (0.45 wt.% catalyst), being useful in two-step transformation of grease to biodiesel. PMID:23298767

Ngo, Thao P N; Li, Aitao; Tiew, Kang W; Li, Zhi



Why can organic liquids move easily on smooth alkyl-terminated surfaces?  


The dynamic dewettability of a smooth alkyl-terminated sol-gel hybrid film surface against 17 probe liquids (polar and nonpolar, with high and low surface tensions) was systematically investigated using contact angle (CA) hysteresis and substrate tilt angle (TA) measurements, in terms of their physicochemical properties such as surface tension, molecular weight/volume, dielectric constant, density, and viscosity. We found that the dynamic dewettability of the hybrid film markedly depended not on the surface tensions but on the dielectric constants of the probe liquids, displaying lower resistance to liquid drop movement with decreasing dielectric constant (? < 30). Interfacial analysis using the sum-frequency generation (SFG) technique confirmed that the conformation of surface-tethered alkyl chains was markedly altered before and after contact with the different types of probe liquids. When probe liquids with low dielectric constants were in contact with our surface, CH3 groups were preferentially exposed at the solid/liquid interface, leading to a reduction in surface energy. Because of such local changes in surface energy at the three-phase contact line of the probe liquid, the contact line can move continuously from low-surface-energy (solid/liquid) areas to surrounding high-surface-energy (solid/air) areas without pinning. Consequently, the organic probe liquids with low dielectric constants can move easily and roll off when tilted only slightly, independent of the magnitude of CAs, without relying on conventional surface roughening and perfluorination. PMID:24660770

Urata, Chihiro; Masheder, Benjamin; Cheng, Dalton F; Miranda, Daniel F; Dunderdale, Gary J; Miyamae, Takayuki; Hozumi, Atsushi



Easily regenerable solid adsorbents based on polyamines for carbon dioxide capture from the air.  


Adsorbents prepared easily by impregnation of fumed silica with polyethylenimine (PEI) are promising candidates for the capture of CO2 directly from the air. These inexpensive adsorbents have high CO2 adsorption capacity at ambient temperature and can be regenerated in repeated cycles under mild conditions. Despite the very low CO2 concentration, they are able to scrub efficiently all CO2 out of the air in the initial hours of the experiments. The influence of parameters such as PEI loading, adsorption and desorption temperature, particle size, and PEI molecular weight on the adsorption behavior were investigated. The mild regeneration temperatures required could allow the use of waste heat available in many industrial processes as well as solar heat. CO2 adsorption from the air has a number of applications. Removal of CO2 from a closed environment, such as a submarine or space vehicles, is essential for life support. The supply of CO2 -free air is also critical for alkaline fuel cells and batteries. Direct air capture of CO2 could also help mitigate the rising concerns about atmospheric CO2 concentration and associated climatic changes, while, at the same time, provide the first step for an anthropogenic carbon cycle. PMID:24644023

Goeppert, Alain; Zhang, Hang; Czaun, Miklos; May, Robert B; Prakash, G K Surya; Olah, George A; Narayanan, S R



Statistics Explained  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains 100 modules designed to introduce concepts in statistics. The modules are divided into categories such as descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, related measures, enumeration statistics and ANOVA. Click the green button on the side to start the modules, then click "Main Menu" at the top to see a list of topics. Topics include: describing numbers, normal curve, sampling distributions, hypothesis testing, regression and Chi-Square. The site also includes a glossary, statistical tables and simulations, and a personalized progress report.

Hoffman, Howard



Translation and Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines recent trends in the fields of translation and interpretation, focusing on translation and interpretation theory and practice, language-specific challenges, computer-assisted translation, machine translation, subtitling, and translator and interpreter training. An annotated bibliography discusses seven important works in the field. (112…

Nicholson, Nancy Schweda



An easily made, low-cost phantom for ultrasound airway exam training and assessment  

PubMed Central

Background: Recent manuscripts have described the use of ultrasound imaging to evaluate airway structures. Ultrasound training tools are necessary for practitioners to become proficient at obtaining and interpreting images. Few training tools exist and those that do can often times be expensive and rendered useless with repeated needle passes. Methods: We utilised inexpensive and easy to obtain materials to create a gel phantom model for ultrasound-guided airway examination training. Results: Following creation of the gel phantom model, images were successfully obtained of the thyroid and cricoid cartilages, cricothyroid membrane and tracheal rings in both the sagittal transverse planes. Conclusion: The gel phantom model mimics human airway anatomy and may be used for ultrasound-guided airway assessment and intervention training. This may have important safety implications as ultrasound imaging is increasingly used for airway assessment.

Schroeder, Kristopher M; Ramamoorthy, Jagan; Galgon, Richard E



The emergent Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a new and conceptually simple interpretation of quantum mechanics based on reduced density matrices of sub-systems from which the standard Copenhagen interpretation emerges as an effective description of macroscopically large systems. This interpretation describes a world in which definite measurement results are obtained with probabilities that reproduce the Born rule. Wave function collapse is seen to be a useful but fundamentally unnecessary piece of prudent book keeping which is only valid for macro-systems. The new interpretation lies in a class of modal interpretations in that it applies to quantum systems that interact with a much larger environment. However, we show that it does not suffer from the problems that have plagued similar modal interpretations like macroscopic superpositions and rapid flipping between macroscopically distinct states. We describe how the interpretation fits neatly together with fully quantum formulations of statistical mechanics and that a measurement process can be viewed as a process of ergodicity breaking analogous to a phase transition. The key feature of the new interpretation is that joint probabilities for the ergodic subsets of states of disjoint macro-systems only arise as emergent quantities. Finally we give an account of the EPR–Bohm thought experiment and show that the interpretation implies the violation of the Bell inequality characteristic of quantum mechanics but in a way that is rather novel. The final conclusion is that the Copenhagen interpretation gives a completely satisfactory phenomenology of macro-systems interacting with micro-systems.

Hollowood, Timothy J.



OntologyWidget - a reusable, embeddable widget for easily locating ontology terms  

PubMed Central

Background Biomedical ontologies are being widely used to annotate biological data in a computer-accessible, consistent and well-defined manner. However, due to their size and complexity, annotating data with appropriate terms from an ontology is often challenging for experts and non-experts alike, because there exist few tools that allow one to quickly find relevant ontology terms to easily populate a web form. Results We have produced a tool, OntologyWidget, which allows users to rapidly search for and browse ontology terms. OntologyWidget can easily be embedded in other web-based applications. OntologyWidget is written using AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) and has two related elements. The first is a dynamic auto-complete ontology search feature. As a user enters characters into the search box, the appropriate ontology is queried remotely for terms that match the typed-in text, and the query results populate a drop-down list with all potential matches. Upon selection of a term from the list, the user can locate this term within a generic and dynamic ontology browser, which comprises the second element of the tool. The ontology browser shows the paths from a selected term to the root as well as parent/child tree hierarchies. We have implemented web services at the Stanford Microarray Database (SMD), which provide the OntologyWidget with access to over 40 ontologies from the Open Biological Ontology (OBO) website [1]. Each ontology is updated weekly. Adopters of the OntologyWidget can either use SMD's web services, or elect to rely on their own. Deploying the OntologyWidget can be accomplished in three simple steps: (1) install Apache Tomcat [2] on one's web server, (2) download and install the OntologyWidget servlet stub that provides access to the SMD ontology web services, and (3) create an html (HyperText Markup Language) file that refers to the OntologyWidget using a simple, well-defined format. Conclusion We have developed OntologyWidget, an easy-to-use ontology search and display tool that can be used on any web page by creating a simple html description. OntologyWidget provides a rapid auto-complete search function paired with an interactive tree display. We have developed a web service layer that communicates between the web page interface and a database of ontology terms. We currently store 40 of the ontologies from the OBO website [1], as well as a several others. These ontologies are automatically updated on a weekly basis. OntologyWidget can be used in any web-based application to take advantage of the ontologies we provide via web services or any other ontology that is provided elsewhere in the correct format. The full source code for the JavaScript and description of the OntologyWidget is available from .

Beauheim, Catherine C; Wymore, Farrell; Nitzberg, Michael; Zachariah, Zachariah K; Jin, Heng; Skene, JH Pate; Ball, Catherine A; Sherlock, Gavin



Threshold concentration of easily assimilable organic carton in feedwater for biofouling of spiral-wound membranes.  


One of the major impediments in the application of spiral-wound membranes in water treatment or desalination is clogging of the feed channel by biofouling which is induced by nutrients in the feedwater. Organic carbon is, under most conditions, limiting the microbial growth. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between the concentration of an easily assimilable organic compound such as acetate in the feedwater and the pressure drop increase in the feed channel. For this purpose the membrane fouling simulator (MFS) was used as a model for the feed channel of a spiral-wound membrane. This MFS unit was supplied with drinking water enriched with acetate at concentrations ranging from 1 to 1000 microg C x L(-1). The pressure drop (PD) in the feed channel increased at all tested concentrations but not with the blank. The PD increase could be described by a first order process based on theoretical considerations concerning biofilm formation rate and porosity decline. The relationship between the first order fouling rate constant R(f) and the acetate concentration is described with a saturation function corresponding with the growth kinetics of bacteria. Under the applied conditions the maximum R(f) (0.555 d(-1)) was reached at 25 microg acetate-C x L(-1) and the half saturation constant k(f) was estimated at 15 microg acetate-C x L(-1). This value is higher than k(s) values for suspended bacteria grown on acetate, which is attributed to substrate limited growth conditions in the biofilm. The threshold concentration for biofouling of the feed channel is about 1 microg acetate-C x L(-1). PMID:19673281

Hijnen, W A M; Biraud, D; Cornelissen, E R; van der Kooij, D



Synchronized Drumming Enhances Activity in the Caudate and Facilitates Prosocial Commitment - If the Rhythm Comes Easily  

PubMed Central

Why does chanting, drumming or dancing together make people feel united? Here we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying interpersonal synchrony and its subsequent effects on prosocial behavior among synchronized individuals. We hypothesized that areas of the brain associated with the processing of reward would be active when individuals experience synchrony during drumming, and that these reward signals would increase prosocial behavior toward this synchronous drum partner. 18 female non-musicians were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they drummed a rhythm, in alternating blocks, with two different experimenters: one drumming in-synchrony and the other out-of-synchrony relative to the participant. In the last scanning part, which served as the experimental manipulation for the following prosocial behavioral test, one of the experimenters drummed with one half of the participants in-synchrony and with the other out-of-synchrony. After scanning, this experimenter “accidentally” dropped eight pencils, and the number of pencils collected by the participants was used as a measure of prosocial commitment. Results revealed that participants who mastered the novel rhythm easily before scanning showed increased activity in the caudate during synchronous drumming. The same area also responded to monetary reward in a localizer task with the same participants. The activity in the caudate during experiencing synchronous drumming also predicted the number of pencils the participants later collected to help the synchronous experimenter of the manipulation run. In addition, participants collected more pencils to help the experimenter when she had drummed in-synchrony than out-of-synchrony during the manipulation run. By showing an overlap in activated areas during synchronized drumming and monetary reward, our findings suggest that interpersonal synchrony is related to the brain's reward system.

Kokal, Idil; Engel, Annerose; Kirschner, Sebastian; Keysers, Christian



SOCR: Statistics Online Computational Resource  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need for hands-on computer laboratory experience in undergraduate and graduate statistics education has been firmly established in the past decade. As a result a number of attempts have been undertaken to develop novel approaches for problem-driven statistical thinking, data analysis and result interpretation. In this paper we describe an…

Dinov, Ivo D.



Statistics of paleomagnetic inclination data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The statistical method of Briden and Ward is reconsidered to derive an easy but exact method to calculate true mean inclination and precision parameter when the data consist of only inclinations. Expectations of sin I, sin2 I, etc. are obtained for samples of following the Fisher distribution. The best estimate of the mean inclination and precision parameter can easily be

Masaru Kono



EÄective writing in mathematical statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Care should be taken in the writing of papers in mathematical statistics for two reasons. First this enhances a paper's chances to be accepted for publication in a top journal. Second the contributions of a paper will reach a wider audience if the main ideas are easily accessible. This paper gives suggestions for improvement in two directions: presentation of mathematics

J. S. Marron



Histoplasmosis Statistics  


... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Histoplasmosis Statistics Between 50% and 80% of people who live ... Prevention Sources Diagnosis & Testing Treatment & Outcomes Health Professionals Statistics Additional Information Blastomycosis Definition Symptoms People at Risk & ...


Caregiving Statistics  


Statistics on Family Caregivers and Family Caregiving Caregiving Population Economics of Caregiving Impact on Family Caregiver's Health ... Identified Family Caregivers, 2001. Top State by State Statistics The economic value of family caregiving is detailed ...


Mathematical Statistics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The areas of research included were graph theory, error-correcting codes, information retrieval, large-sample statistical tests, design of experiments, asymptotic behavior of linear rank statistics, approximation theory, nonparametric tests, fitting frequ...

N. L. Johnson



Descriptive statistics.  


In this article, we introduced basic concepts of statistics, type of distributions, and descriptive statistics. A few examples were also provided. The basic concepts presented herein are only a fraction of the concepts related to descriptive statistics. Also, there are many commonly used distributions not presented herein, such as Poisson distributions for rare events and exponential distributions, F distributions, and logistic distributions. More information can be found in many statistics books and publications. PMID:19891281

Shi, Runhua; McLarty, Jerry W



Statistical Diversions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a branch of knowledge, Statistics is ubiquitous and its applications can be found in (almost) every field of human endeavour. In this article, the authors track down the possible source of the link between the "Siren song" and applications of Statistics. Answers to their previous five questions and five new questions on Statistics are presented.

Petocz, Peter; Sowey, Eric



Health Statistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Overview of federal collection of health statistics highlights federal budgets; the National Center for Health Statistics (role, periodicity report); vital statistics (surveys of physicians, hospitals, nursing homes); household surveys (National Health Interview Survey); and proposed reorganization of the Office of the Assistant Secretary of…

Melnick, Daniel; Huckabee, David



Statistical Diversions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term "data snooping" refers to the practice of choosing which statistical analyses to apply to a set of data after having first looked at those data. Data snooping contradicts a fundamental precept of applied statistics, that the scheme of analysis is to be planned in advance. In this column, the authors shall elucidate the statistical

Petocz, Peter; Sowey, Eric



Prepraring to Interpret: AA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn about Alcoholics Anonymous and prepare to interpret for a deaf member at a traditional AA meeting. Interpreting for Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) requires that the interpreter have an understanding of the purpose of the meetings, prepares adequately for frozen text and informal register that will be used, and has respect for the organization and its members. It can be a difficult, but rewarding assignment. Preparing to ...



Preparation and Use of an Easily Constructed, Inexpensive Chamber for Viewing Courtship Behaviors of Fruit Flies, Drosophila sp.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details the construction of a viewing chamber for fruit flies that connects to a dissecting microscope and features a design that enables students to easily move fruit flies in and out of the chamber. (DDR)

Christensen, Timothy J.; Labov, Jay B.



Implementing clinical practice guidelines while taking account of changing evidence: ATHENA DSS, an easily modifiable decision-support system for managing hypertension in primary care.  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the ATHENA Decision Support System (DSS), which operationalizes guidelines for hypertension using the EON architecture. ATHENA DSS encourages blood pressure control and recommends guideline-concordant choice of drug therapy in relation to comorbid diseases. ATHENA DSS has an easily modifiable knowledge base that specifies eligibility criteria, risk stratification, blood pressure targets, relevant comorbid diseases, guideline-recommended drug classes for patients with comorbid disease, preferred drugs within each drug class, and clinical messages. Because evidence for best management of hypertension evolves continually, ATHENA DSS is designed to allow clinical experts to customize the knowledge base to incorporate new evidence or to reflect local interpretations of guideline ambiguities. Together with its database mediator Athenaeum, ATHENA DSS has physical and logical data independence from the legacy Computerized Patient Record System (CPRS) supplying the patient data, so it can be integrated into a variety of electronic medical record systems.

Goldstein, M. K.; Hoffman, B. B.; Coleman, R. W.; Musen, M. A.; Tu, S. W.; Advani, A.; Shankar, R.; O'Connor, M.



Virtual seismic interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an application of the virtual reality paradigm to scientific visualization. We describe how the seismic interpretation task performed in oil and gas companies can be facilitated by using immersion techniques inherent to virtual reality. The feeling of immersion allows an easier and better understanding and manipulation of the three-dimensional data associated with seismic interpretation. Volume rendering is

L. A. Lima; R. Bastos



An Interpreter’s Interpretation: Sign Language Interpreters’ View of Musculoskeletal Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Sign language interpreters are at increased risk for musculoskeletal disorders associated with work. Previous studies have used survey techniques to identify potential risk factors and approaches to their medical management. Little is known about risk factors and management of symptoms in this group from the perspective of the interpreter. Such qualitative information should help inform future research related to

William L. Johnson; Michael Feuerstein



Prosody and Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prosody is a means for "reading with expression" and is one aspect of oral reading competence. This theoretical inquiry asserts that prosody is central to interpreting text, and draws distinctions between "syntactic" prosody (for phrasing) and "emphatic" prosody (for interpretation). While reading with expression appears as a criterion in major…

Erekson, James A.



Statistical Significance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article may help the user understand the concept of statistical significance and the meaning of the numbers produced by The Survey System. This article is presented in two parts. The first part simplifies the concept of statistical significance as much as possible; so that non-technical readers can use the concept to help make decisions based on their data. The second part provides more technical readers with a fuller discussion of the exact meaning of statistical significance numbers.



Crying without a cause and being easily upset in two-year-olds: heritability and predictive power of behavioral problems.  


In order to estimate the influence of genetic and environmental factors on 'crying without a cause' and 'being easily upset' in 2-year-old children, a large twin study was carried out. Prospective data were available for ~18,000 2-year-old twin pairs from the Netherlands Twin Register. A bivariate genetic analysis was performed using structural equation modeling in the Mx software package. The influence of maternal personality characteristics and demographic and lifestyle factors was tested to identify specific risk factors that may underlie the shared environment of twins. Furthermore, it was tested whether crying without a cause and being easily upset were predictive of later internalizing, externalizing and attention problems. Crying without a cause yielded a heritability estimate of 60% in boys and girls. For easily upset, the heritability was estimated at 43% in boys and 31% in girls. The variance explained by shared environment varied between 35% and 63%. The correlation between crying without a cause and easily upset (r = .36) was explained both by genetic and shared environmental factors. Birth cohort, gestational age, socioeconomic status, parental age, parental smoking behavior and alcohol use during pregnancy did not explain the shared environmental component. Neuroticism of the mother explained a small proportion of the additive genetic, but not of the shared environmental effects for easily upset. Crying without a cause and being easily upset at age 2 were predictive of internalizing, externalizing and attention problems at age 7, with effect sizes of .28-.42. A large influence of shared environmental factors on crying without a cause and easily upset was detected. Although these effects could be specific to these items, we could not explain them by personality characteristics of the mother or by demographic and lifestyle factors, and we recognize that these effects may reflect other maternal characteristics. A substantial influence of genetic factors was found for the two items, which are predictive of later behavioral problems. PMID:21962130

Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M; Middeldorp, Christel M; M van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E; Boomsma, Dorret I



Theory Interpretations in PVS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this task was to provide a mechanism for theory interpretations in a prototype verification system (PVS) so that it is possible to demonstrate the consistency of a theory by exhibiting an interpretation that validates the axioms. The mechanization makes it possible to show that one collection of theories is correctly interpreted by another collection of theories under a user-specified interpretation for the uninterpreted types and constants. A theory instance is generated and imported, while the axiom instances are generated as proof obligations to ensure that the interpretation is valid. Interpretations can be used to show that an implementation is a correct refinement of a specification, that an axiomatically defined specification is consistent, or that a axiomatically defined specification captures its intended models. In addition, the theory parameter mechanism has been extended with a notion of theory as parameter so that a theory instance can be given as an actual parameter to an imported theory. Theory interpretations can thus be used to refine an abstract specification or to demonstrate the consistency of an axiomatic theory. In this report we describe the mechanism in detail. This extension is a part of PVS version 3.0, which will be publicly released in mid-2001.

Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan; Butler, Ricky W. (Technical Monitor)



Statistics Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide outlines an Option Y course, which has seven learner objectives geared to providing students with an introduction to the concerns and methods of statistics and equipping pupils to deal with the many statistical matters of importance in society. Topics included in the course are graphs and charts, collection and organization of data,…

Singer, Arlene; And Others


Integrated 3-D quality control of geological interpretation through the use of simple methods and programs  

SciTech Connect

Integrating different petroleum geology disciplines gives insight and help in analyzing data and in checking the quality of different interpretations. Simple approaches and affordable programs allow rapid visualization of data in 3-D. Displaying geological data from stratigraphy, diagenesis, and structural geology together, allows identification of anomalies (i.e. development targets) and often gives clues of the controlling processes. Four case studies from world class fields are used to illustrate the vital need to integrate quality control of interpretation across disciplines. Distribution of diagenetic alterations is revealed by visualizing diagenetic and petrographic data against faults in a 3-D statistical program. Faults are transferred from 3-D seismic into such a program and then analyzed against other data. Fault intersections wrongly correlated are also easily picked. Other powerful tools include a modified use of the Bischke Plots that allow the identification of missing sections previously identified as fault cut-outs. The quality of interpretation has sometimes been assessed from the presence of stacked anomalies of various expression. In other cases repeated unexpected isopach trends revealed subtle faults such as riedels sealing and compartmentizing the reservoirs. Occasionally the timing of fault reactivation was assessed precisely whereas all other techniques failed even to identify these hidden features. Unrecognized porosity-depth trends were identified after filtering data for stratigraphy or sedimentology and studying it in its geographical and tectonic context. Three dimensional visualization was needed in cases of quartz overgrowth where grain size, depth, stratigraphy and location with respect to faults were all important.

Chatellier, J.Y.; Gustavo, F.; Magaly, Q. (Intevep, Caracas (Venezuela))



Interpretation of Bernoulli's Equation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses Bernoulli's equation with regards to: horizontal flow of incompressible fluids, change of height of incompressible fluids, gases, liquids and gases, and viscous fluids. Provides an interpretation, properties, terminology, and applications of Bernoulli's equation. (MVL)

Bauman, Robert P.; Schwaneberg, Rolf



Interpretation of Biosphere Reserves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) to monitor the 193 biogeographical provinces of the Earth and the creation of biosphere reserves. Highlights the need for interpreters to become familiar or involved with MAB program activities. (LZ)

Merriman, Tim



Interpreting cointegrated models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Error-correction models for cointegrated economic variables are commonly interpreted as reflecting partial adjustment of one variable to another. We show that error-correction models may also arise because one variable forecasts another. Reduced-form estimates of error-correction models cannot be used to distinguish these interpretations. In an application, we show that the estimated coefficients in the Marsh-Merton (1987) error-correction model of dividend

John Y. Campbell; Robert J. Shiller



Foundations of arrhythmia interpretation.  


Basic arrhythmia monitoring is being used with increasing frequency in both inpatient and outpatient care settings. Nurses are being asked to interpret cardiac rhythms and develop critical thinking skills that assist in evaluating the significance of the rhythms identified for individual patients. The foundations needed for nurses to evaluate cardiac rhythms and assess the significance of the rhythms identified are provided. Cardiac anatomy, physiology, and cardiac properties are used to provide a framework for interpreting and understanding rhythms. PMID:9313546

Scrima, D A



Interpreting the radon transform using Prolog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radon transform is an important method for identifying linear features in a digital image. However, the images which the Radon transform generates are complex and require intelligent interpretation, to identify lines in the input image correctly. This article describes how the images can be pre-processed to make the spots in the Radon transform image more easily identified and describes Prolog programs which can recognize constellations of points in the Radon transform image and thereby identify geometric figures within the input image.

Batchelor, Bruce G.



Clay Minerals in Mixtures: Sample Preparation, Analysis, and Statistical Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of clay mineral sample preparation for electron microprobe analysis has been devel- oped in which a film of clay plus 10-12 wt. % colloidal graphite is deposited on a porous ceramic disc using a specially designed suction device. Correction procedures are used to obtain quantitative elemental anal- yses representing the average chemical composition of the prepared sample. A

C. M. Gold; P. A. CAVELL; D. G. W. SMITH



Collaborative Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Collaborative Statistics was written by Barbara Illowsky and Susan Dean, faculty members at De Anza College in Cupertino, California. The textbook was developed over several years and has been used in regular and honors-level classroom settings and in distance learning classes. This textbook is intended for introductory statistics courses being taken by students at twoâ and fourâÂÂyear colleges who are majoring in fields other than math or engineering. Intermediate algebra is the only prerequisite. The book focuses on applications of statistical knowledge rather than the theory behind it.

Dean, Susan; Illowsky, Barbara



Statistical Software,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This article is a detailed discussion of several classes of statistical software including subroutine libraries, software systems, languages and software/hardware combinations. A comparison of a large number of packages is made across 16 classes of statis...

A. R. Hayes E. J. Wegman



Live weight assessment based on easily accessible morphometric characteristics in the double-muscled Belgian Blue beef breed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Live weight is an important trait in cattle farming. Weighing is not always feasible and therefore live weight is often estimated from easily accessible data. In this study, data on live weight, age and gender, and four body measurements, withers height (WH), heart girth (HG) and width of the shoulders (SW) and hind quarters (BcW) of double-muscled Belgian Blue beef

Frank Coopman; Stefaan De Smet; Hans Laevens; Alex Van Zeveren; Luc Duchateau



Easily prepared high-quantum-yield CdS quantum dots in water using hyperbranched polyethylenimine as modifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some research has reported interaction between polyamidoamine dendrimers or polyethylenimine and quantum dots causing a quantum yield decrease of quantum dots. In this work, however, polyethylenimines of different molecular weight that were used to modify CdS quantum dots gave rise to the enhancement of CdS quantum yield to nearly 100%. Herein, we present the synthesis of a kind of easily

Jie Mao; Jun-Na Yao; Li-Na Wang; Wei-Sheng Liu



Geological interpretation of a Gemini photo  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Study of the Gemini V photograph of the Salt Range and Potwar Plateau, West Pakistan, indicates that small-scale orbital photographs permit recognition of the regional continuity of some geologic features, particularly faults and folds that could he easily overlooked on conventional air photographs of larger scale. Some stratigraphic relationships can also be recognized on the orbital photograph, but with only minimal previous geologic knowledge of the area, these interpretations are less conclusive or reliable than the interpretation of structure. It is suggested that improved atmospheric penetration could be achieved through the use of color infrared film. Photographic expression of topography could also be improved by deliberately photographing some areas during periods of low sun angle.

Hemphill, William R.; Danilchik, Walter



Mathematical Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Richard Dudley of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, this lesson, Mathematical Statistics, is a graduate-level course featuring book chapters and sections presented as lecture notes, problem sets, exams, and a description for an optional term-paper. The course covers: decision theory, estimation, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, asymptotic efficiency of estimates, exponential families, sequential analysis, and large sample theory. This is a comprehensive overview of this upper level statistics course.

Dudley, Richard



Statistical Mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review and further develop a mathematical framework for non-equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics recently proposed in (JP4, JP5, JP6, Ru3, Ru4, Ru5, Ru6). In the alge- braic formalism of quantum statistical mechanics we introduce notions of non-equilibrium steady states, entropy production and heat fluxes, and study their properties. Our basic paradigm is a model of a small (finite) quantum system

V. Jaksi ´; C.-A. Pillet



Practical Seismic Interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book provides something of a manual or “how-to” guide to the derivation of stratigraphic and structural information from multichannel seismic reflection profiles. Its emphasis is, as the title suggests, the practical business of just how one goes about extracting this information. I believe the intent is that one should be able to first read the book, then place it on the work table next to a reflection profile to be interpreted, and by examining the profile while thumbing through the book, find interpreted examples of features similar to those to be interpreted and hence be guided toward a geological interpretation of the data. The book is replete with examples—I counted more than 130 individual reflection profile segments illustrating commonly observed structural and stratigraphic features. Beyond this, the reader also gets a large amount of practical advice, such as the type of colored pencils and eraser to use, what phase of the reflecting event should be marked, how to fold the profiles to check for ties at line intersections, how to mark faults, the various types of unconformity, and many, many other intensely practical aspects of data interpretation.

Mutter, John C.


Statistical application of groundwater monitoring data at the Hanford Site.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Effective use of groundwater monitoring data requires both statistical and geohydrologic interpretations. At the Hanford Site in south-central Washington state such interpretations are used for (1) detection monitoring, assessment monitoring, and/or corre...

C. J. Chou V. G. Johnson F. N. Hodges



Hospitals as interpretation systems.  

PubMed Central

In this study of 162 hospitals, it was found that the chief executive officer's (CEO's) interpretation of strategic issues is related to the existing hospital strategy and the hospital's information processing structure. Strategy was related to interpretation in terms of the extent to which a given strategic issue was perceived as controllable or uncontrollable. Structure was related to the extent to which an issue was defined as positive or negative, was labeled as controllable or uncontrollable, and was perceived as leading to a gain or a loss. Together, strategy and structure accounted for a significant part of the variance in CEO interpretations of strategic events. The theoretical and managerial implications of these findings are discussed.

Thomas, J B; McDaniel, R R; Anderson, R A



Nationally consistent and easily-implemented approach to evaluate littoral-riparian habitat quality in lakes and reservoirs  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Lakes Assessment (NLA) and other lake survey and monitoring efforts increasingly rely upon biological assemblage data to define lake condition. Information concerning the multiple dimensions of physical and chemical habitat is necessary to interpret this biological ...


Highly concentrated synthesis of copper-zinc-tin-sulfide nanocrystals with easily decomposable capping molecules for printed photovoltaic applications.  


Among various candidate materials, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a promising earth-abundant semiconductor for low-cost thin film solar cells. We report a facile, less toxic, highly concentrated synthetic method utilizing the heretofore unrecognized, easily decomposable capping ligand of triphenylphosphate, where phase-pure, single-crystalline, and well-dispersed colloidal CZTS nanocrystals were obtained. The favorable influence of the easily decomposable capping ligand on the microstructural evolution of device-quality CZTS absorber layers was clarified based on a comparative study with commonly used oleylamine-capped CZTS nanoparticles. The resulting CZTS nanoparticles enabled us to produce a dense and crack-free absorbing layer through annealing under a N2 + H2S (4%) atmosphere, demonstrating a solar cell with an efficiency of 3.6% under AM 1.5 illumination. PMID:24057000

Kim, Youngwoo; Woo, Kyoohee; Kim, Inhyuk; Cho, Yong Soo; Jeong, Sunho; Moon, Jooho



Statistics in Support of Legislation for Libraries, USA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistics are basic to the legislative process and must be available in a form quickly and easily perceived to support library legislation. There should be a sound statistical base, fleshed out with practical examples, to impress legislators and lay persons. Communication of statistical data to decision makers requires a sound public information…

Cooke, Eileen D.


Miami Interpretive Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid growth and diversity of the City of Miami has left its inhabitants somewhat lost in a city with much to offer. The challenge of this thesis is to provide Miami with an architectural proposal that enhances an understanding of its own urban context through both its form and function. Specifically, the Miami Interpretive Center (M.I.C.) will offer the

Raul Esteban Bejel



Interpretation as Abduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hobbs, J.R., M.E. Stickel, D.E. Appelt and P. Martin, Interpretation as abduction, Artificial Intelligence 63 (1993) 69-142. Abduction is inference to the best explanation. In the TACITUS project at SRI we have developed an approach to abductive inference, called \\

Jerry R. Hobbs; Mark E. Stickel; Douglas E. Appelt; Paul A. Martin



Interpreting the Constitution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

Brennan, William J., Jr.



Interpreting & Biomechanics. PEPNet Tipsheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) refers to a collection of disorders associated with nerves, muscles, tendons, bones, and the neurovascular (nerves and related blood vessels) system. CTD symptoms may involve the neck, back, shoulders, arms, wrists, or hands. Interpreters with CTD may experience a variety of symptoms including: pain, joint…

PEPNet-Northeast, 2001



Interpretation of space photolineaments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A definite pattern of space photolineaments exists, most have northeasterly and northwesterly strikes. The two main systems are traced in all platform regions. Seismic observations along regional profiles help in solving the fracture, the results of interpretation of space survey data should be compared with seismogeological sections along regional profiles. The comparisons show that space photolineaments coincide well with faults

L. N. Rozanov; I. N. Kalinina



Explaining the Interpretive Mind  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussions of the epistemological foundations of psychology reflect two prominent positions, one invoking the causal-explanatory claims of the Piagetian tradition and the other the hermeneutic-interpretive claims of the Vygotskian tradition. Both traditions need to be placed in their wider philosophical contexts. The danger of causally explaining the cultural practices by which human beings construct and understand the meanings of their

Jens Brockmeier



Explaining the Interpretive Mind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines two prominent positions in the epistemological foundations of psychology--Piaget's causal explanatory claims and Vygotsky's interpretive understanding; contends that they need to be placed in their wider philosophical contexts. Argues that the danger of causally explaining cultural practices through which human beings construct and…

Brockmeier, Jens



Easily denaturing nucleic acids derived from intercalating nucleic acids: thermal stability studies, dual duplex invasion and inhibition of transcription start  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bulged insertions of (R )-1-O-(pyren-1-ylmethyl)- glycerol (monomer P) in two complementary 8mer DNA strands (intercalating nucleic acids) opposite to each other resulted in the formation of an easily denaturing duplex, which had lower thermal stability (21.0? C) than the wild-type double-stranded DNA (dsDNA, 26.0? C), but both modified oligodeoxy- nucleotides had increased binding affinity toward complementary single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)

Vyacheslav V. Filichev; Birte Vester; Lykke H. Hansen; Erik B. Pedersen



Statistics Revelations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use, and misuse, of statistics is commonplace, yet in the printed format data representations can be either over simplified, supposedly for impact, or so complex as to lead to boredom, supposedly for completeness and accuracy. In this article the link to the video clip shows how dynamic visual representations can enliven and enhance the…

Chicot, Katie; Holmes, Hilary



Statistical malpractice.  


Statistical malpractice is an insidious, and indeed prestige-laden and grant-rewarded, activity. Brilliantly clever, but fundamentally wrong-headed, number-crunchers are encouraged to devise inappropriate applications of mathematical methods to health problems. This species of misdirected zealot has so far been immune from criticism. PMID:8709054

Charlton, B G



Effects of Antecedent Distance and Intervening Text Structure in the Interpretation of Ellipses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the availability of surface representations for the interpretation of verb-phrase ellipsis. Results show that an elliptical verb phrase is most easily interpreted if its antecedent is in the immediately preceding sentence and that this can not be explained in terms of the unnaturalness of the passages with distant antecedents. (MM)

Garnham, A.



Interpreting Carnivore Scent-Station Surveys  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) has placed online a 1998 scientific publication from the Journal of Wildlife Management (Vol 62(4):1235-1245) entitled "Interpreting Carnivore Scent-Station Surveys." In it, the authors analyze a subset of data from the Minnesota carnivore scent-station survey collected during 1986-93, "to determine statistical properties and to examine analyses of scent-station data." This resource, of interest to wildlife managers, may be downloaded as a .zip files.


Interpreting the Urinalysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial is designed to aid first and second year medical students learn interpretation of the urinalysis. It includes material on how the test is done, its general application and pitfalls in interpretation. General introductory material is followed by a series of short clinical vignettes illustrating diagnostic application of the test with various medical conditions. QuickTime movie player and Java script runtime plug-in scripts are required for some pages. The tutorial concludes with a short self-help quiz covering the major points developed. The plug-ins noted above are available free at the following sites: and Questions should be directed to Dr. Mark Braun (

Braun, Mark



National Association for Interpretation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NAI promotes the advancement of the profession of interpretation, a communication process used in on-site informal education programs at parks, zoos, nature centers, historic sites, museums, and aquaria. This site announces national and regional NAI conferences, workshops on diverse topics, skill certification programs, networking opportunities and job listing service. Includes membership information and application; can order newsletters, professional journals and books. Membership, program and publication fees apply.


Learning Statistics By Doing Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, created by Gary Smith of Pomona College, discusses a project-based approach to teaching statistics. The article focuses on the team aspect of learning, it introduces concepts such as: working with data, learning by doing, learning by writing, learning by speaking, and authentic assessment of material. An appendix contains a list of twenty projects that have been successfully assigned.

Smith, Gary



Tips for Mental Health Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers tips for working with interpreters in mental health settings. These tips include: (1) Using trained interpreters, not bilingual staff or community members; (2) Explaining "interpreting procedures" to the providers and clients; (3) Addressing the stigma associated with mental health that may influence interpreters; (4) Defining…

Whitsett, Margaret



Statistical Shorts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this statistics and probability activity students must determine whether each statement is always true, sometimes true, sometimes false, or always false. Students must have a basic understanding of probability statements and the foundation for understanding mean, median, and mode in order to complete this activity for all twelve statements. In addition to the task, tips for getting started, possible solutions, a teacher resource page, and a printable page are provided.




Statistics I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will encounter the concept of a distribution, along with parameters that describe a distribution's "typical" values (average) and a distribution's spread (variance). To understand simple distributions and uncertainty propagation in the coming sections, it is necessary to be familiar with the concept of statistical independence. When two variables fluctuate independently, their covariance vanishes, and the variance of their sum is the sum of their variances.

Liao, David


Synthesis, characterization and application of water-soluble and easily removable cationic pressure-sensitive adhesives. Quarterly technical report  

SciTech Connect

The Institute studied the adsorption of cationic pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) on wood fiber, and the buildup of PSA in a closed water system during paper recycling; the results are presented. Georgia Tech worked to develop an environmentally friendly polymerization process to synthesize a novel re-dispersible PSA by co-polymerizing an oil-soluble monomer (butyl acrylate) and a cationic monomer MAEPTAC; results are presented. At the University of Georgia at Athens the project focused on the synthesis of water-soluble and easily removable cationic polymer PSAs.




Highly concentrated synthesis of copper-zinc-tin-sulfide nanocrystals with easily decomposable capping molecules for printed photovoltaic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among various candidate materials, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a promising earth-abundant semiconductor for low-cost thin film solar cells. We report a facile, less toxic, highly concentrated synthetic method utilizing the heretofore unrecognized, easily decomposable capping ligand of triphenylphosphate, where phase-pure, single-crystalline, and well-dispersed colloidal CZTS nanocrystals were obtained. The favorable influence of the easily decomposable capping ligand on the microstructural evolution of device-quality CZTS absorber layers was clarified based on a comparative study with commonly used oleylamine-capped CZTS nanoparticles. The resulting CZTS nanoparticles enabled us to produce a dense and crack-free absorbing layer through annealing under a N2 + H2S (4%) atmosphere, demonstrating a solar cell with an efficiency of 3.6% under AM 1.5 illumination.Among various candidate materials, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a promising earth-abundant semiconductor for low-cost thin film solar cells. We report a facile, less toxic, highly concentrated synthetic method utilizing the heretofore unrecognized, easily decomposable capping ligand of triphenylphosphate, where phase-pure, single-crystalline, and well-dispersed colloidal CZTS nanocrystals were obtained. The favorable influence of the easily decomposable capping ligand on the microstructural evolution of device-quality CZTS absorber layers was clarified based on a comparative study with commonly used oleylamine-capped CZTS nanoparticles. The resulting CZTS nanoparticles enabled us to produce a dense and crack-free absorbing layer through annealing under a N2 + H2S (4%) atmosphere, demonstrating a solar cell with an efficiency of 3.6% under AM 1.5 illumination. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental methods for CZTS nanocrystal synthesis, device fabrication, and characterization; the size distribution and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra of the synthesized CZTS nanoparticles; UV-vis spectra of the CZTS films; isothermal analysis of triphenylphosphate (TPP) and oleylamine (OLA); microstructural SEM images of annealed CZTS nanocrystal films. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03104g

Kim, Youngwoo; Woo, Kyoohee; Kim, Inhyuk; Cho, Yong Soo; Jeong, Sunho; Moon, Jooho



Sorting chromatic sextupoles for easily and effectively correcting second order chromaticity in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider  

SciTech Connect

Based on the contributions of the chromatic sextupole families to the half-integer resonance driving terms, we discuss how to sort the chromatic sextupoles in the arcs of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to easily and effectively correct the second order chromaticities. We propose a method with 4 knobs corresponding to 4 pairs of chromatic sextupole families to online correct the second order chromaticities. Numerical simulation justifies this method, showing that this method reduces the unbalance in the correction strengths of sextupole families and avoids the reversal of sextupole polarities. Therefore, this method yields larger dynamic apertures for the proposed RHIC 2009 100GeV polarized proton run lattices.

Luo,Y.; Tepikian, S.; Fischer, W.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Trbojevic, D.



Riemannian elasticity: a statistical regularization framework for non-linear registration.  


In inter-subject registration, one often lacks a good model of the transformation variability to choose the optimal regularization. Some works attempt to model the variability in a statistical way, but the re-introduction in a registration algorithm is not easy. In this paper, we interpret the elastic energy as the distance of the Green-St Venant strain tensor to the identity, which reflects the deviation of the local deformation from a rigid transformation. By changing the Euclidean metric for a more suitable Riemannian one, we define a consistent statistical framework to quantify the amount of deformation. In particular, the mean and the covariance matrix of the strain tensor can be consistently and efficiently computed from a population of non-linear transformations. These statistics are then used as parameters in a Mahalanobis distance to measure the statistical deviation from the observed variability, giving a new regularization criterion that we called the statistical Riemannian elasticity. This new criterion is able to handle anisotropic deformations and is inverse-consistent. Preliminary results show that it can be quite easily implemented in a non-rigid registration algorithms. PMID:16686051

Pennec, X; Stefanescu, R; Arsigny, V; Fillard, P; Ayache, N



Data Interpretation: Using Probability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experimental data are analysed statistically to allow researchers to draw conclusions from a limited set of measurements. The hard fact is that researchers can never be certain that measurements from a sample will exactly reflect the properties of the entire group of possible candidates available to be studied (although using a sample is often the…

Drummond, Gordon B.; Vowler, Sarah L.



Development and validation of a quick easily used biochemical assay for evaluating the viability of small immobile arthropods.  


Quickly, accurately, and easily assessing the efficacy of treatments to control sessile arthropods (e.g., scale insects) and stationary immature life stages (e.g., eggs and pupae) is problematic because it is difficult to tell whether treated organisms are alive or dead. Current approaches usually involve either maintaining organisms in the laboratory to observe them for development, gauging their response to physical stimulation, or assessing morphological characters such as turgidity and color. These can be slow, technically difficult, or subjective, and the validity of methods other than laboratory rearing has seldom been tested. Here, we describe development and validation of a quick easily used biochemical colorimetric assay for measuring the viability of arthropods that is sufficiently sensitive to test even very small organisms such as white fly eggs. The assay was adapted from a technique for staining the enzyme hexokinase to signal the presence of adenosine triphosphate in viable specimens by reducing a tetrazolium salt to formazan. Basic laboratory facilities and skills are required for production of the stain, but no specialist equipment, expertise, or facilities are needed for its use. PMID:24224241

Phillips, Craig B; Iline, Ilia I; Richards, Nicola K; Novoselov, Max; McNeill, Mark R



Autoadaptivity and optimization in distributed ECG interpretation.  


This paper addresses principal issues of the ECG interpretation adaptivity in a distributed surveillance network. In the age of pervasive access to wireless digital communication, distributed biosignal interpretation networks may not only optimally solve difficult medical cases, but also adapt the data acquisition, interpretation, and transmission to the variable patient's status and availability of technical resources. The background of such adaptivity is the innovative use of results from the automatic ECG analysis to the seamless remote modification of the interpreting software. Since the medical relevance of issued diagnostic data depends on the patient's status, the interpretation adaptivity implies the flexibility of report content and frequency. Proposed solutions are based on the research on human experts behavior, procedures reliability, and usage statistics. Despite the limited scale of our prototype client-server application, the tests yielded very promising results: the transmission channel occupation was reduced by 2.6 to 5.6 times comparing to the rigid reporting mode and the improvement of the remotely computed diagnostic outcome was achieved in case of over 80% of software adaptation attempts. PMID:20064764

Augustyniak, Piotr



Interpretation of Conventional Mass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conventional mass is not a precise physical quantity but useful virtual one in mass metrology. Because the precise level of conventional mass is related to the OIML class, it is necessary to check if the assignment of weight class is under control. The documents of OIML (International Organization of Legal Metrology) D 28 and R 111 describe the limitation of the quantity in real application. In this presentation, we are trying to interpret and review the concept of conventional mass, for example, by estimating buoyancy deviation and maximum permissible error, in weight calibrations in Korea. Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract only.

Lee, Sungjun; Kim, Kwang Pyo


Interpreting Paleoenvironments with Microfossils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is constructed to help students gain a better understanding of how scientists can use foraminifera to interpret past environments. Specifically, they will have the opportunity to understand one of the basic tenets of geology: the present is the key to the past, a principle otherwise known as uniformitarianism. Objectives include: distinguishing between planktonic, benthic, hyaline, porcelaneous, and agglutinated foraminifera, calculating the proportion of planktonic specimens in a sample, establishing the species diversity of a sample, establishing the shell-type ratio of a sample, and reconstructing the environment of deposition of the sample.

Culver, Stephen


Graphs: Interpret Line Plots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website application provides practice interpreting line plots. The format of the website makes it available to use with individual students on one computer or with an entire class on an interactive white board. Each practice problem is submitted to determine if it is correct, when an incorrect answer is submitted the correct answer and an option for an explanation appears. Each problem set is also timed and the user is provided with a percent correct. This website does have a membership option for a fee which would enable the teacher to track the progress of multiple students over time.




EPA Science Inventory

A brief survey of basic ideas in statistical power analysis demonstrates the advantages and ease of using power analysis throughout the design, analysis, and interpretation of research. he power of a statistical test is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis of the test...


Screencast Tutorials Enhance Student Learning of Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the use of computer-assisted instruction has rapidly increased, there is little empirical research evaluating these technologies, specifically within the context of teaching statistics. The authors assessed the effect of screencast tutorials on learning outcomes, including statistical knowledge, application, and interpretation. Students…

Lloyd, Steven A.; Robertson, Chuck L.



Second order image statistics in computer graphics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The class of all natural images is an extremely small fraction of all possible images. Some of the structure of natural images can be modeled statistically, revealing striking regularities. Moreover, the human visual system appears to be optimized to view natural images. Images that do not behave statistically as natural images are harder for the human visual system to interpret.

Erik Reinhard; Michael Ashikhminá; SUNY Stony Brook; Tom Troscianko


Structural interpretation of seismic data and inherent uncertainties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geoscience is perhaps unique in its reliance on incomplete datasets and building knowledge from their interpretation. This interpretation basis for the science is fundamental at all levels; from creation of a geological map to interpretation of remotely sensed data. To teach and understand better the uncertainties in dealing with incomplete data we need to understand the strategies individual practitioners deploy that make them effective interpreters. The nature of interpretation is such that the interpreter needs to use their cognitive ability in the analysis of the data to propose a sensible solution in their final output that is both consistent not only with the original data but also with other knowledge and understanding. In a series of experiments Bond et al. (2007, 2008, 2011, 2012) investigated the strategies and pitfalls of expert and non-expert interpretation of seismic images. These studies focused on large numbers of participants to provide a statistically sound basis for analysis of the results. The outcome of these experiments showed that a wide variety of conceptual models were applied to single seismic datasets. Highlighting not only spatial variations in fault placements, but whether interpreters thought they existed at all, or had the same sense of movement. Further, statistical analysis suggests that the strategies an interpreter employs are more important than expert knowledge per se in developing successful interpretations. Experts are successful because of their application of these techniques. In a new set of experiments a small number of experts are focused on to determine how they use their cognitive and reasoning skills, in the interpretation of 2D seismic profiles. Live video and practitioner commentary were used to track the evolving interpretation and to gain insight on their decision processes. The outputs of the study allow us to create an educational resource of expert interpretation through online video footage and commentary with associated further interpretation and analysis of the techniques and strategies employed. This resource will be of use to undergraduate, post-graduate, industry and academic professionals seeking to improve their seismic interpretation skills, develop reasoning strategies for dealing with incomplete datasets, and for assessing the uncertainty in these interpretations. Bond, C.E. et al. (2012). 'What makes an expert effective at interpreting seismic images?' Geology, 40, 75-78. Bond, C. E. et al. (2011). 'When there isn't a right answer: interpretation and reasoning, key skills for 21st century geoscience'. International Journal of Science Education, 33, 629-652. Bond, C. E. et al. (2008). 'Structural models: Optimizing risk analysis by understanding conceptual uncertainty'. First Break, 26, 65-71. Bond, C. E. et al., (2007). 'What do you think this is?: "Conceptual uncertainty" In geoscience interpretation'. GSA Today, 17, 4-10.

Bond, Clare



An easily integrative and efficient micromixer and its application to the spectroscopic detection of glucose-catalyst reactions.  


The focus of this paper is on the fabrication of a PDMS-based passive efficient micromixer to be easily integrated into the other on-chip microfluidic system. The mixing is achieved by "strong stretching and folding," which employs a three-dimensional microchannel structure. By the simultaneously vertical and transversal dispersion of fluids, strong advection is developed. Owing to this powerful mixing performance (more than 70% of the mixing is accomplished within 2.3 mm over a wide range of Reynold number (Re)), the smaller integrative mixer can be realized. The feasibility and the potential usefulness of an integrative micromixer were evaluated by incorporating two mixers into the microchannel for the spectroscopic detection of a glucose-catalyst reaction. The results demonstrate a promising performance for diverse applications in the assay or synthesis of biological or chemical materials. PMID:15724156

Kim, D J; Oh, H J; Park, T H; Choo, J B; Lee, S H



Clustering of the SOM easily reveals distinct gene expression patterns: results of a reanalysis of lymphoma study  

PubMed Central

Background A method to evaluate and analyze the massive data generated by series of microarray experiments is of utmost importance to reveal the hidden patterns of gene expression. Because of the complexity and the high dimensionality of microarray gene expression profiles, the dimensional reduction of raw expression data and the feature selections necessary for, for example, classification of disease samples remains a challenge. To solve the problem we propose a two-level analysis. First self-organizing map (SOM) is used. SOM is a vector quantization method that simplifies and reduces the dimensionality of original measurements and visualizes individual tumor sample in a SOM component plane. Next, hierarchical clustering and K-means clustering is used to identify patterns of gene expression useful for classification of samples. Results We tested the two-level analysis on public data from diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. The analysis easily distinguished major gene expression patterns without the need for supervision: a germinal center-related, a proliferation, an inflammatory and a plasma cell differentiation-related gene expression pattern. The first three patterns matched the patterns described in the original publication using supervised clustering analysis, whereas the fourth one was novel. Conclusions Our study shows that by using SOM as an intermediate step to analyze genome-wide gene expression data, the gene expression patterns can more easily be revealed. The "expression display" by the SOM component plane summarises the complicated data in a way that allows the clinician to evaluate the classification options rather than giving a fixed diagnosis.



Interpreting bruises at necropsy  

PubMed Central

The accurate interpretation of bruising at necropsy is essential to understanding how a victim has been injured and assists the pathologist in a reliable reconstruction of the events leading to death. It is essential not only to assess the mechanism of production of a bruise, taking into account the type of impacting surface and the magnitude of force used, but also to estimate when the injury was caused. An account is given of the various methods used in the examination of bruises, particularly with respect to aging, as well as the factors that may affect their appearance. Differentiation from artefacts resulting from postmortem changes is also discussed in some detail. Key Words: bruising • necropsy • time of death • cause of death

Vanezis, P



Interpretation of genetic variants.  


Sequencing of the human genome and introduction of clinical next-generation sequencing enable discovery of all DNA variants carried by an individual. Variants may be solely responsible for disease, may contribute to disease, or may have no influence on the development of disease. Interpreting the effect of these variants upon disease is a major challenge for medicine. Although the process is still evolving, certain methods are useful in discriminating the effect of variants upon phenotype. These methods have been employed to the greatest extent in Mendelian disorders where deleterious changes in one gene can cause disease. Here, we briefly review the relative merits of these methods, with emphasis on using a comprehensive approach modelled after the analysis of variants that causes cystic fibrosis. PMID:24343785

Sosnay, Patrick R; Cutting, Garry R



Statistical theories of success.  


The Pareto and the log-normal distributions are commonly used to describe the statistical distribution of success. A detailed comparison of these distributions is made with Lotka's extensive observations on success as measured by rate of publication. These distributions are found to adequately describe the observed distribution only for low and moderate success. Contrariwise, the flat factor analysis of performance recently developed by the author in these Proceedings (59, 1078 (1968)) is shown to give an excellent agreement over the whole range of success. Lotka's data allows a determination of the number of environmental factors.The Pareto distribution does give an excellent agreement with the tail of the success distribution where success is defined as income. An interpretation of this distribution is here presented based upon the expected behavior of entrepreneurs. PMID:16591832

Zener, C



Easily denaturing nucleic acids derived from intercalating nucleic acids: thermal stability studies, dual duplex invasion and inhibition of transcription start  

PubMed Central

The bulged insertions of (R)-1-O-(pyren-1-ylmethyl)glycerol (monomer P) in two complementary 8mer DNA strands (intercalating nucleic acids) opposite to each other resulted in the formation of an easily denaturing duplex, which had lower thermal stability (21.0°C) than the wild-type double-stranded DNA (dsDNA, 26.0°C), but both modified oligodeoxynucleotides had increased binding affinity toward complementary single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) (41.5 and 39.0°C). Zipping of pyrene moieties in an easily denaturing duplex gave formation of a strong excimer band at 480 nm upon excitation at 343 nm in the steady-state fluorescence spectra. The excimer band disappeared upon addition of a similar short dsDNA, but remained when adding a 128mer dsDNA containing the same sequence. When P was inserted into 2?-OMe-RNA strands, the duplex with zipping P was found to be more stable (42.0°C) than duplexes with the complementary ssDNAs (31.5 and 19.5°C). The excimer band observed in the ds2?-OMe-RNA with zipping P had marginal changes upon addition of both 8 and 128mer dsDNA. Synthesized oligonucleotides were tested in a transcriptional inhibition assay for targeting of the open complex formed by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase with the lac UV-5 promoter using the above mentioned 128mer dsDNA. Inhibition of transcription was observed for 8mer DNAs possessing pyrene intercalators and designed to target both template and non-template DNA strands within the open complex. The observed inhibition was partly a result of unspecific binding of the modified DNAs to the RNA polymerase. Furthermore, the addition of 8mer DNA with three bulged insertions of P designed to be complementary to the template strand at the +36 to +43 position downstream of the transcription start resulted in a specific halt of transcription producing a truncated RNA transcript. This is to our knowledge the first report of an RNA elongation stop mediated by a small DNA sequence possessing intercalators. The insertions of P opposite to each other in ds2?-OMe-RNA showed inhibition efficiency of 96% compared with 25% for unmodified ds2?-OMe-RNA.

Filichev, Vyacheslav V.; Vester, Birte; Hansen, Lykke H.; Pedersen, Erik B.



Reading and Interpreting Tables and Graphs Involving Rates and Percentages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This survey, created by Milo Schield of Augsburg College, assesses statistical literacy. The survey focuses on the general use of informal statistics in everyday situations: reading and interpreting tables and graphs involving rates and percentages. The survey itself takes between thirty and forty minutes. The author does apologize for the length, but insists that it is due to how comprehensive the survey is. Sixty-nine questions in length, almost every topic concerning statistics is covered. The survey was funded by the W.M. Keck Statistical Literacy Project.

Schield, Milo



Easily Modified Factors Contribute to Delays in Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile Infection: a Cohort Study and Intervention  

PubMed Central

Although rapid laboratory tests are available for diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), delays in completion of CDI testing are common in clinical practice. We conducted a cohort study of 242 inpatients tested for CDI to determine the timing of different steps involved in diagnostic testing and to identify modifiable factors contributing to delays in diagnosis. The average time from test order to test result was 1.8 days (range, 0.2 to 10.6), with time from order to stool collection accounting for most of the delay (mean, 1.0 day; range, 0 to 10). Several modifiable factors contributed to delays, including not providing stool collection supplies to patients in a timely fashion, rejection of specimens due to incorrect labeling or leaking from the container, and holding samples in the laboratory for batch processing. Delays in testing contributed to delays in initiation of treatment for patients diagnosed with CDI and to frequent prescription of empirical CDI therapy for patients with mild to moderate symptoms whose testing was ultimately negative. An intervention that addressed several easily modified factors contributing to delays resulted in a significant decrease in the time required to complete CDI testing. These findings suggest that health care facilities may benefit from a review of their processes for CDI testing to identify and address modifiable factors that contribute to delays in diagnosis and treatment of CDI.

Kundrapu, Sirisha; Jury, Lucy A.; Sitzlar, Brett; Sunkesula, Venkata C. K.; Sethi, Ajay K.



Easily implementable field programmable gate array-based adaptive optics system with state-space multichannel control.  


In this paper, an easily implementable adaptive optics system (AOS) based on a real-time field programmable gate array (FPGA) platform with state-space multichannel control programmed by LabVIEW has been developed, and also integrated into a laser focusing system successfully. To meet the requirements of simple programming configuration and easy integration with other devices, the FPGA-based AOS introduces a standard operation procedure including AOS identification, computation, and operation. The overall system with a 32-channel driving signal for a deformable mirror (DM) as input and a Zernike polynomial via a lab-made Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) as output is optimally identified to construct a multichannel state-space model off-line. In real-time operation, the FPGA platform first calculates the Zernike polynomial of the optical wavefront measured from the SHWS as the feedback signal. Then, a state-space multichannel controller according to the feedback signal and the identified model is designed and implemented in the FPGA to drive the DM for phase distortion compensation. The current FPGA-based AOS is capable of suppressing low-frequency thermal disturbances with a steady-state phase error of less than 0.1 ? within less than 10 time steps when the control loop is operated at a frequency of 30 Hz. PMID:24089871

Chang, Chia-Yuan; Ke, Bo-Ting; Su, Hung-Wei; Yen, Wei-Chung; Chen, Shean-Jen



Development of a simple chromatographic method for distinguishing between two easily confused species, Hedyotis diffusa and Hedyotis corymbosa.  


Hedyotis diffusa Willd. and Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam. are closely related species of Rubiaceae family and they can be easily confused. Although previous reports have been found in which ultraviolet spectrum, convolution spectrometry or X-ray diffraction are reported to be used for distinguishing between the two species, these methods require specialised equipment. Hence, this study aims to develop a simple chromatographic method for the purpose. Our results illustrate the use of a thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) profile to differentiate between the two species, with a blue zone appearing at around an R(f) of 0.36 in H. corymbosa but not in H. diffusa. The compound corresponding to this blue zone was later found to be hedyotiscone A. LC-MS with multiple reaction monitoring was used as a tool to identify and quantify hedyotiscone A in the test samples. In conclusion, a quick and simple TLC assay was conducted to distinguish between the two species H. diffusa and H. corymbosa. PMID:21988612

Lau, Clara B S; Cheng, Ling; Cheng, Bobby W H; Yue, Grace G L; Wong, Eric C W; Lau, Ching-Po; Leung, Ping-Chung; Fung, Kwok-Pui



Statistical Modeling of SAR Images: A Survey  

PubMed Central

Statistical modeling is essential to SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) image interpretation. It aims to describe SAR images through statistical methods and reveal the characteristics of these images. Moreover, statistical modeling can provide a technical support for a comprehensive understanding of terrain scattering mechanism, which helps to develop algorithms for effective image interpretation and creditable image simulation. Numerous statistical models have been developed to describe SAR image data, and the purpose of this paper is to categorize and evaluate these models. We first summarize the development history and the current researching state of statistical modeling, then different SAR image models developed from the product model are mainly discussed in detail. Relevant issues are also discussed. Several promising directions for future research are concluded at last.

Gao, Gui



Video National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale criteria survey results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Video National Imagery Interpretability Rating Standard (V-NIIRS) consists of a ranked set of subjective criteria to assist analysts in assigning an interpretability quality level to a motion imagery clip. The V-NIIRS rating standard is needed to support the tasking, retrieval, and exploitation of motion imagery. A criteria survey was conducted to yield individual pair-wise criteria rankings and scores. Statistical

Darrell Young; James Yen; Fred Petitti; Tariq Bakir; Michelle Brennan; Robert Butto Jr.



Enhancing the Teaching of Statistics: Portfolio Theory, an Application of Statistics in Finance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we present an application of statistics using real stock market data. Most, if not all, students have some familiarity with the stock market (or at least they have heard about it) and therefore can understand the problem easily. It is the real data analysis that students find interesting. Here we explore the building of efficient…

Christou, Nicolas



Input of easily available organic C and N stimulates microbial decomposition of soil organic matter in arctic permafrost soil  

PubMed Central

Rising temperatures in the Arctic can affect soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition directly and indirectly, by increasing plant primary production and thus the allocation of plant-derived organic compounds into the soil. Such compounds, for example root exudates or decaying fine roots, are easily available for microorganisms, and can alter the decomposition of older SOM (“priming effect”). We here report on a SOM priming experiment in the active layer of a permafrost soil from the central Siberian Arctic, comparing responses of organic topsoil, mineral subsoil, and cryoturbated subsoil material (i.e., poorly decomposed topsoil material subducted into the subsoil by freeze–thaw processes) to additions of 13C-labeled glucose, cellulose, a mixture of amino acids, and protein (added at levels corresponding to approximately 1% of soil organic carbon). SOM decomposition in the topsoil was barely affected by higher availability of organic compounds, whereas SOM decomposition in both subsoil horizons responded strongly. In the mineral subsoil, SOM decomposition increased by a factor of two to three after any substrate addition (glucose, cellulose, amino acids, protein), suggesting that the microbial decomposer community was limited in energy to break down more complex components of SOM. In the cryoturbated horizon, SOM decomposition increased by a factor of two after addition of amino acids or protein, but was not significantly affected by glucose or cellulose, indicating nitrogen rather than energy limitation. Since the stimulation of SOM decomposition in cryoturbated material was not connected to microbial growth or to a change in microbial community composition, the additional nitrogen was likely invested in the production of extracellular enzymes required for SOM decomposition. Our findings provide a first mechanistic understanding of priming in permafrost soils and suggest that an increase in the availability of organic carbon or nitrogen, e.g., by increased plant productivity, can change the decomposition of SOM stored in deeper layers of permafrost soils, with possible repercussions on the global climate.

Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Jorg; Alves, Ricardo J. Eloy; Barsukov, Pavel; Barta, Jiri; Capek, Petr; Gentsch, Norman; Gittel, Antje; Guggenberger, Georg; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Mikutta, Robert; Rusalimova, Olga; Santruckova, Hana; Shibistova, Olga; Urich, Tim; Watzka, Margarete; Zrazhevskaya, Galina; Richter, Andreas



Rapid quantitative analysis of microcystins in raw surface waters with MALDI MS utilizing easily synthesized internal standards.  


The freshwater cyanotoxins, microcystins (MCs), pose a global public health threat as potent hepatotoxins in cyanobacterial blooms; their persistence in drinking and recreational water has been associated with potential chronic effects in addition to acute intoxications. Rapid and accurate detection of the over 80 structural congeners is challenged by the rigorous and time consuming clean up required to overcome interference found in raw water samples. MALDI-MS has shown promise for rapid quantification of individual congeners in raw water samples, with very low operative cost, but so far limited sensitivity and lack of available and versatile internal standards (ISs) has limited its use. Two easily synthesized S-hydroxyethyl-Cys(7)-MC-LR and -RR ISs were used to generate linear standard curves in a reflectron MALDI instrument, reproducible across several orders of magnitude for MC-LR, -RR and -YR. Minimum quantification limits in direct water samples with no clean up or concentration step involved were consistently below 7 ?g/L, with recoveries from spiked samples between 80 and 119%. This method improves sensitivity by 30 fold over previous reports of quantitative MALDI-TOF applications to MCs and provides a salient option for rapid throughput analysis for multiple MC congeners in untreated raw surface water blooms as a means to identify source public health threats and target intervention strategies within a watershed. As demonstrated by analysis of a set of samples from Uruguay, utilizing the reaction of different MC congeners with alternate sulfhydryl compounds, the m/z of the IS can be customized to avoid overlap with interfering compounds in local surface water samples. PMID:24388801

Roegner, Amber F; Schirmer, Macarena Pírez; Puschner, Birgit; Brena, Beatriz; Gonzalez-Sapienza, Gualberto



Statistics (Program Description)  

NSF Publications Database

... of Mathematical Sciences Statistics Description The Statistics Program supports research for ... robust methods, experimental design, spatial statistics, resampling methods, and the analysis of ...


Video National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale criteria survey results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Video National Imagery Interpretability Rating Standard (V-NIIRS) consists of a ranked set of subjective criteria to assist analysts in assigning an interpretability quality level to a motion imagery clip. The V-NIIRS rating standard is needed to support the tasking, retrieval, and exploitation of motion imagery. A criteria survey was conducted to yield individual pair-wise criteria rankings and scores. Statistical analysis shows good agreement with expectations across the 9-levels of interpretability, for each of the 7 content domains.

Young, Darrell; Yen, James; Petitti, Fred; Bakir, Tariq; Brennan, Michelle; Butto, Robert, Jr.



An interpretation of banded magnetospheric radio emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently published Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers/Ion Release Module (AMPTE/IRM) banded magnetospheric emissions, commonly referred to as ``(n+1/2)fce'' emissions, where fce is the electron gyrofrequency, are analyzed by treating them as analogous to sounder-stimulated ionospheric emissions. We show that both individual spectra of magnetospheric banded emissions and a statistically derived spectra observed over the 2-year lifetime of the mission can be interpreted in a self-consistent manner. The analysis, which predicts all spectral peaks within 4% of the observed peaks, interprets the higher-frequency emissions as due to low group velocity Bernstein-mode waves and interprets the lower-frequency emissions as eigenmodes of cylindrical-electromagnetic plasma oscillations. The demarcation between these two classes of emissions is the electron plasma frequency fpe where an emission is often observed. This fpe emission is not necessarily the strongest. None of the observed banded emissions were attributed to the upper hybrid frequency. We present Alouette 2 and ISIS 1 plasma resonance data and model electron temperature (Te) values to support the argument that the frequency spectrum of ionospheric sounder-stimulated emissions is not strongly temperature dependent and thus that the interpretation of these emissions in the ionosphere is relevant to other plasmas (such as the magnetosphere) where Ne and Te can be quite different but where the ratio fpe/fce is identical. The Ne values deduced from the spectral interpretation do not agree with the values determined from the AMPTE/IRM three-dimensional plasma instrument. The latter, which represent a lower bound, are found to be higher than the former by a factor of 3.2-3.5. All values were less than 1 cm-3, a domain known for measurement difficulties. One possible explanation is that the wave and plasma techniques respond to different components of a non-Maxwellian magneto-spheric electron distribution.

Benson, R. F.; Osherovich, V. A.; Fainberg, J.; Vinas, A.-F.; Ruppert, D. R.



On the interpretation and interpretability of quantitative structure-activity relationship models.  


The goal of a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model is to encode the relationship between molecular structure and biological activity or physical property. Based on this encoding, such models can be used for predictive purposes. Assuming the use of relevant and meaningful descriptors, and a statistically significant model, extraction of the encoded structure-activity relationships (SARs) can provide insight into what makes a molecule active or inactive. Such analyses by QSAR models are useful in a number of scenarios, such as suggesting structural modifications to enhance activity, explanation of outliers and exploratory analysis of novel SARs. In this paper we discuss the need for interpretation and an overview of the factors that affect interpretability of QSAR models. We then describe interpretation protocols for different types of models, highlighting the different types of interpretations, ranging from very broad, global, trends to very specific, case-by-case, descriptions of the SAR, using examples from the training set. Finally, we discuss a number of case studies where workers have provide some form of interpretation of a QSAR model. PMID:18784976

Guha, Rajarshi



Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first working draft of the World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C) Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition is now available. The document "defines the process of Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition and the syntax and semantics of semantic interpretation tags that can be added to speech recognition grammars." The document is a draft, open for suggestions from W3C members and other interested users.

Lernout & Hauspie Speech Products.; Tichelen, Luc V.



Statistical Literacy of Obstetrics-Gynecology Residents  

PubMed Central

Background Residents' ability to interpret statistics is important for scholarly pursuits and understanding evidence-based medicine. Yet there is limited research assessing residents' statistical literacy and their training in statistics. Methods In 2011 we surveyed US obstetrics-gynecology residents participating in the Council for Resident Education in Obstetrics and Gynecology In-Training Examination about their statistical literacy and statistical literacy training. Results Our response rate was 95% (4713 of 4961). About two-thirds (2980 of 4713) of the residents rated their statistical literacy training as adequate. Female respondents were more likely to rate their statistical literacy training poorly, with 25% (897 of 3575) indicating inadequate literacy compared with 17% (141 of 806) of the male respondents (P?statistical literacy questions, with only 26% (1222 of 4713) correctly answering a positive predictive value question and 42% (1989 of 4173) correctly defining a P value. A total of 51% (2391 of 4713) of respondents reported receiving statistical literacy training through a journal club, 29% (1359 of 4713) said they had informal training, 15% (711 of 4713) said that they had statistical literacy training as part of a course, and 11% (527 of 4713) said that they had no training. Conclusions The findings suggest that statistical literacy training for residents could still be improved. A total of 37% (1743 of 4713) of obstetrics-gynecology residents have received no formal statistical literacy training in residency. Fewer residents answered the 2 statistical literacy questions correctly compared with previous studies.

Anderson, Britta L.; Williams, Sterling; Schulkin, Jay



Generating Statistical Tables with Canned Statistical Software.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method of generating common statistical tables using canned statistical computer software is presented. This method allows instructors to provide statistical tables for their students, tailored to their needs. The four most common tables used in elementary college statistics courses are z (standard normal), t, F, and chi square. Specific "p"…

McLean, James E.; Hebbler, Stephen W.


Bare Minimum Knowledge for Understanding Statistical Research Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for language teachers who find reading statistical research difficult but necessary, this article focuses on the minimal knowledge needed about statistical techniques for interpreting research findings. It first examines the statistical reasoning underlying quantitative, empirical studies, including normal distribution, standard…

Hiroto, Nagato


EIA publications manual: Statistical graphs  

SciTech Connect

Statistical graphs both illustrate a set of data and provide an analytical perspective. The distinction between these two functions is one of emphasis. Where the purpose of a graph is to dramatize or highlight a set of data, its primary function is illustration. Where the purpose of a graph is to explore, measure, calculate, and derive relationships, the primary function of the graph is analytical. In general practice, these two functions can be so interdependent as to be indistinguishable. The following guidelines are intended to aid in resolving problems common to the presentation of data in statistical graphs. The variety and complexity of data to be presented call for a flexible approach; therefore, the following examples are intended not as inflexible specifications but rather as guides to the design of graphs that are attractive and easily understood. All the types of graphs discussed here have appeared in EIA publications. A list of references that provides further examples is included. Also included is a glossary of statistical terms used in discussing the statistical properties of different types of graphs. 11 refs., 24 figs.

Not Available



An easily accessible sulfated saccharide mimetic inhibits in vitro human tumor cell adhesion and angiogenesis of vascular endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

Summary Oligosaccharides aberrantly expressed on tumor cells influence processes such as cell adhesion and modulation of the cell’s microenvironment resulting in an increased malignancy. Schmidt’s imidate strategy offers an effective method to synthesize libraries of various oligosaccharide mimetics. With the aim to perturb interactions of tumor cells with extracellular matrix proteins and host cells, molecules with 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan as core structure were synthesized and screened in biological assays for their abilities to interfere in cell adhesion and other steps of the metastatic cascade, such as tumor-induced angiogenesis. The most active compound, (4-{[(?-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]methyl}furan-3-yl)methyl hydrogen sulfate (GSF), inhibited the activation of matrix-metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) as well as migration of the human melanoma cells of the lines WM-115 and WM-266-4 in a two-dimensional migration assay. GSF inhibited completely the adhesion of WM-115 cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, fibrinogen and fibronectin. In an in vitro angiogenesis assay with human endothelial cells, GSF very effectively inhibited endothelial tubule formation and sprouting of blood vessels, as well as the adhesion of endothelial cells to ECM proteins. GSF was not cytotoxic at biologically active concentrations; neither were 3,4-bis{[(?-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]methyl}furan (BGF) nor methyl ?-D-galactopyranoside nor 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan, which were used as controls, eliciting comparable biological activity. In silico modeling experiments, in which binding of GSF to the extracellular domain of the integrin ?v?3 was determined, revealed specific docking of GSF to the same binding site as the natural peptidic ligands of this integrin. The sulfate in the molecule coordinated with one manganese ion in the binding site. These studies show that this chemically easily accessible molecule GSF, synthesized in three steps from 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan and benzoylated galactose imidate, is nontoxic and antagonizes cell physiological processes in vitro that are important for the dissemination and growth of tumor cells in vivo.

Marano, Grazia; Gronewold, Claas; Frank, Martin; Merling, Anette; Kliem, Christian; Sauer, Sandra; Wiessler, Manfred; Frei, Eva



An easily accessible sulfated saccharide mimetic inhibits in vitro human tumor cell adhesion and angiogenesis of vascular endothelial cells.  


Oligosaccharides aberrantly expressed on tumor cells influence processes such as cell adhesion and modulation of the cell's microenvironment resulting in an increased malignancy. Schmidt's imidate strategy offers an effective method to synthesize libraries of various oligosaccharide mimetics. With the aim to perturb interactions of tumor cells with extracellular matrix proteins and host cells, molecules with 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan as core structure were synthesized and screened in biological assays for their abilities to interfere in cell adhesion and other steps of the metastatic cascade, such as tumor-induced angiogenesis.The most active compound, (4-{[(?-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]methyl}furan-3-yl)methyl hydrogen sulfate (GSF), inhibited the activation of matrix-metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) as well as migration of the human melanoma cells of the lines WM-115 and WM-266-4 in a two-dimensional migration assay. GSF inhibited completely the adhesion of WM-115 cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, fibrinogen and fibronectin.In an in vitro angiogenesis assay with human endothelial cells, GSF very effectively inhibited endothelial tubule formation and sprouting of blood vessels, as well as the adhesion of endothelial cells to ECM proteins. GSF was not cytotoxic at biologically active concentrations; neither were 3,4-bis{[(?-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]methyl}furan (BGF) nor methyl ?-D-galactopyranoside nor 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan, which were used as controls, eliciting comparable biological activity. In silico modeling experiments, in which binding of GSF to the extracellular domain of the integrin ?(v)?(3) was determined, revealed specific docking of GSF to the same binding site as the natural peptidic ligands of this integrin. The sulfate in the molecule coordinated with one manganese ion in the binding site.These studies show that this chemically easily accessible molecule GSF, synthesized in three steps from 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan and benzoylated galactose imidate, is nontoxic and antagonizes cell physiological processes in vitro that are important for the dissemination and growth of tumor cells in vivo. PMID:23015827

Marano, Grazia; Gronewold, Claas; Frank, Martin; Merling, Anette; Kliem, Christian; Sauer, Sandra; Wiessler, Manfred; Frei, Eva; Schwartz-Albiez, Reinhard



MQSA National Statistics  


... MQSA) Scorecard Articles MQSA National Statistics MQSA National Statistics In this section of the MQSA Scorecard, we present the most commonly requested national statistics regarding the MQSA program. These statistics are updated ...


Geochemical Interpretation of Collision Volcanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collision volcanism can be defined as volcanism that takes place during an orogeny from the moment that continental subduction starts to the end of orogenic collapse. Its importance in the Geological Record is greatly underestimated as collision volcanics are easily misinterpreted as being of volcanic arc, extensional or mantle plume origin. There are many types of collision volcanic province: continent-island arc collision (e.g. Banda arc); continent-active margin collision (e.g. Tibet, Turkey-Iran); continent-rear-arc collision (e.g. Bolivia); continent-continent collision (e.g. Tuscany); and island arc-island arc collision (e.g. Taiwan). Superimposed on this variability is the fact that every orogeny is different in detail. Nonetheless, there is a general theme of cyclicity on different time scales. This starts with syn-collision volcanism resulting from the subduction of an ocean-continent transition and continental lithosphere, and continues through post-collision volcanism. The latter can be subdivided into orogenic volcanism, which is related to thickened crust, and post-orogenic, which is related to orogenic collapse. Typically, but not always, collision volcanism is preceded by normal arc volcanism and followed by normal intraplate volcanism. Identification and interpretation of collision volcanism in the Geologic Record is greatly facilitated if a dated stratigraphic sequence is present so that the petrogenic evolution can be traced. In any case, the basis of fingerprinting collision terranes is to use geochemical proxies for mantle and subduction fluxes, slab temperatures, and depths and degrees of melting. For example, syn-collision volcanism is characterized by a high subduction flux relative to mantle flux because of the high input flux of fusible sediment and crust coupled with limited mantle flow, and because of high slab temperatures resulting from the decrease in subduction rate. The resulting geochemical patterns are similar regardless of collision type with extreme LILE and significant HFSE enrichment relative to MORB and with large negative Nb-Ta and Ti anomalies. Post-collision volcanism is usually ascribed to combinations of slab detachment, delamination, and slab roll back (orogenic) and extension (post-orogenic). The magma source is typically conductively-heated, sub-continental mantle lithosphere with composition and depth of melting depending on the nature and evolution of the collision zone in question. Geochemical patterns may be similar to those of syn-collision basalts or of intraplate, continental basalts - or transitional between these. This variability in space and time, though problematic for geochemical fingerprinting, can give clues to the polarity and development of the collision zone, for example by highlighting the distribution of subduction-modified mantle lithosphere and hence of pre-collision subduction zones. One characteristic common to this setting is a high crustal input resulting from the presence of a hot, thick 'crustal chemical filter' which is evident on geochemical projections that highlight AFC-type processes. Using this, and other, geochemical features it is possible to develop methodologies to at least partly see through the complexity of collision terranes.

Pearce, Julian



Internet For Social Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, created by the University of Bristol, is a tutorial that lets you practice your internet information skills in searching and researching statistics in the social sciences. This site has indexed other statistics resources into five main categories: official statistics, published statistics, timely statistics, datasets for secondary analysis and statistical help and teaching materials. This is a nice overview of this broad topic.



Curriculum Guide for Interpreter Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a curriculum guide for the training of interpreters for the deaf consisting of 15 sections to be used as individual units or comprising a two part, 1 year course. The full course uses the text, Interpreting for Deaf People, as a guide and includes laboratory and practicum experiences. Curriculum guidelines include specific aims such…

Sternberg, Martin L. A.; And Others


Museum Docents' Understanding of Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore docents' perceptions of their interpretive role in art museums and determine how those perceptions shape docents' practice. The objective was to better understand how docents conceive of their role and what shapes the interpretation they give on tours to the public. The conceptual…

Neill, Amanda C.



A Pathway for Interpretive Phenomenology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, a qualitative method for research is offered that clearly incorporates Heideggerian philosophy into an interpretive phenomenological research design. Several unique contributions to interpretive research are provided. Tested Hermeneutical Principles for Research (HPR) are outlined. These frame the design and method, and practically integrate the underlying philosophy.

Sherrill A. Conroy



Photo Interpreter Data Systems Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analysis is reported of the need for, and use of, data processing equipment to support the photo interpreter in a field environment, a review of the existing Image Interpretation Central AN/MSQ-58A system operation, and an analysis of the photo interpr...

A. W. Muoio



Analysis and Interpretation of Findings Using Multiple Regression Techniques  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple regression and correlation (MRC) methods form a flexible family of statistical techniques that can address a wide variety of different types of research questions of interest to rehabilitation professionals. In this article, we review basic concepts and terms, with an emphasis on interpretation of findings relevant to research questions…

Hoyt, William T.; Leierer, Stephen; Millington, Michael J.



Genetic considerations for interpreting molecular microbial forensic evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic analyses of microbial evidence will be employed to assist in attribution of perpetrators of bioterrorism and biocrimes. There are some similarities and differences between human forensic and microbial forensic DNA analysis practices to consider. These population genetic and statistical interpretation issues center on the different genetic make-up, different inheritance mechanisms, different regulation mechanisms, and lineage-based analyses. In some cases,

B Budowle; R Chakraborty



Random evolution approach to universal conductance statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that the Dorokhov-Mello-Pereyra-Kumar equation can be solved by propagating an ordinary stochastic differential equation. Such a random evolution approach allows any transport statistics to be easily calculated from the ballistic to localization regime for an arbitrary number of channels. As an example, a disordered wire with reflectionless contacts is considered. The conductance distribution, transmission channel density, and shot-noise suppression are fully analyzed.

Mil'nikov, Gennady; Mori, Nobuya



Philosophical perspectives on quantum chaos: Models and interpretations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of quantum chaos is a special case of the larger problem of understanding how the classical world emerges from quantum mechanics. While we have learned that chaos is pervasive in classical systems, it appears to be almost entirely absent in quantum systems. The aim of this dissertation is to determine what implications the interpretation of quantum mechanics has for attempts to explain the emergence of classical chaos. There are three interpretations of quantum mechanics that have set out programs for solving the problem of quantum chaos: the standard interpretation, the statistical interpretation, and the deBroglie-Bohm causal interpretation. One of the main conclusions of this dissertation is that an interpretation alone is insufficient for solving the problem of quantum chaos and that the phenomenon of decoherence must be taken into account. Although a completely satisfactory solution of the problem of quantum chaos is still outstanding, I argue that the deBroglie-Bohm interpretation with the help of decoherence outlines the most promising research program to pursue. In addition to making a contribution to the debate in the philosophy of physics concerning the interpretation of quantum mechanics, this dissertation reveals two important methodological lessons for the philosophy of science. First, issues of reductionism and intertheoretic relations cannot be divorced from questions concerning the interpretation of the theories involved. Not only is the exploration of intertheoretic relations a central part of the articulation and interpretation of an individual theory, but the very terms used to discuss intertheoretic relations, such as `state' and `classical limit', are themselves defined by particular interpretations of the theory. The second lesson that emerges is that, when it comes to characterizing the relationship between classical chaos and quantum mechanics, the traditional approaches to intertheoretic relations, namely reductionism and theoretical pluralism, are inadequate. The fruitful ways in which models have been used in quantum chaos research point to the need for a new framework for addressing intertheoretic relations that focuses on models rather than laws.

Bokulich, Alisa Nicole



Statistical Methods for Material Characterization and Qualification  

SciTech Connect

This document describes a suite of statistical methods that can be used to infer lot parameters from the data obtained from inspection/testing of random samples taken from that lot. Some of these methods will be needed to perform the statistical acceptance tests required by the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) Program. Special focus has been placed on proper interpretation of acceptance criteria and unambiguous methods of reporting the statistical results. In addition, modified statistical methods are described that can provide valuable measures of quality for different lots of material. This document has been written for use as a reference and a guide for performing these statistical calculations. Examples of each method are provided. Uncertainty analysis (e.g., measurement uncertainty due to instrumental bias) is not included in this document, but should be considered when reporting statistical results.

Kercher, A.K.



Statistical methods for material characterization and qualification  

SciTech Connect

This document describes a suite of statistical methods that can be used to infer lot parameters from the data obtained from inspection/testing of random samples taken from that lot. Some of these methods will be needed to perform the statistical acceptance tests required by the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) Program. Special focus has been placed on proper interpretation of acceptance criteria and unambiguous methods of reporting the statistical results. In addition, modified statistical methods are described that can provide valuable measures of quality for different lots of material. This document has been written for use as a reference and a guide for performing these statistical calculations. Examples of each method are provided. Uncertainty analysis (e.g., measurement uncertainty due to instrumental bias) is not included in this document, but should be considered when reporting statistical results.

Hunn, John D [ORNL; Kercher, Andrew K [ORNL



Royal Statistical Society Center for Statistical Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Royal Statistical Society, this website's purpose it to promote the improvement of statistical education, training and understanding. You will find activities, resources and current news to help in teaching statistics. The site breaks down its resources in this manner: for school, higher education, for all levels, problem solving and MSOR@RSSCSE. The page is quite broad in scope. For this reason, it is a great resource for those interested in almost any aspect of statistics education.




EPA Science Inventory

ABSTRACT: Total Petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as a lumped parameter can be easily and rapidly measured or monitored. Despite interpretational problems, it has become an accepted regulatory benchmark used widely to evaluate the extent of petroleum product contamination. Three cu...


Students' Interpretation of a Function Associated with a Real-Life Problem from Its Graph  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The properties of a function such as limit, continuity, derivative, growth, or concavity can be determined more easily from its graph than by doing any algebraic operation. For this reason, it is important for students of mathematics to interpret some of the properties of a function from its graph. In this study, we investigated the competence of…

Mahir, Nevin



Personalized Interpretation and Experience Enhancement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a discussion on the interpretations of museums and zoos. Introduces the applications of living history, museum theater and explains the terms interactors, explainers, and curators; keepers; and technicians. Lists the locations having the explained applications. Includes 29 references. (YDS)

West, Robert Mac




EPA Science Inventory

The report describes preliminary attempts to formulate viable models for interpreting environmental assessment data. The models are evaluated using data from the four most comprehensive environmental assessments. A format for entering environmental assessment results on FORTRAN c...



EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) in the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) of the Office of Research and Development provides remote sensing technical support including aerial photograph acquisition and interpretation to the EPA Program Offices, ORD Laboratorie...


Map Interpretation with Google Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Resources in this collection A highly effective, non-traditional approach for using Google Earth to teach strike, dip, and geologic map interpretation, with assignments and activities (Barbara Tewksbury, Hamilton ...


Discourse coherence and gesture interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In face-to-face conversation, communicators orchestrate multimodal contributions that meaning- fully combine the linguistic resources of spoken language and the visuo-spatial affordances of gesture. In this paper, we characterise this meaningful combination in terms of the COHERENCE of gesture and speech. Descriptive analyses illustrate the diverse ways gesture interpretation can supplement and extend the interpretation of prior gestures and accompanying speech.

Alex Lascarides; Matthew Stone



Statistical mechanics of combinatorial auctions.  


Combinatorial auctions are formulated as frustrated lattice gases on sparse random graphs, allowing the determination of the optimal revenue by methods of statistical physics. Transitions between computationally easy and hard regimes are found and interpreted in terms of the geometric structure of the space of solutions. We introduce an iterative algorithm to solve intermediate and large instances, and discuss competing states of optimal revenue and maximal number of satisfied bidders. The algorithm can be generalized to the hard phase and to more sophisticated auction protocols. PMID:17026006

Galla, Tobias; Leone, Michele; Marsili, Matteo; Sellitto, Mauro; Weigt, Martin; Zecchina, Riccardo



Statistical Mechanics of Combinatorial Auctions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combinatorial auctions are formulated as frustrated lattice gases on sparse random graphs, allowing the determination of the optimal revenue by methods of statistical physics. Transitions between computationally easy and hard regimes are found and interpreted in terms of the geometric structure of the space of solutions. We introduce an iterative algorithm to solve intermediate and large instances, and discuss competing states of optimal revenue and maximal number of satisfied bidders. The algorithm can be generalized to the hard phase and to more sophisticated auction protocols.

Galla, Tobias; Leone, Michele; Marsili, Matteo; Sellitto, Mauro; Weigt, Martin; Zecchina, Riccardo



Statistical Analysis of Genesis Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Syllable–word frequency pattern analysis, using the chi-square test, identifies significant differences within Genesis chs. 1–4, 6–9, 12–13, 16–21, 26, 28, 30–33, 39 and 41–43. The statistical results are interpreted to suggest that to an extended composition by an initial Yahweh writer (J2–4, 6–8, 12–13, 16) four other Yahweh writers successively added J18–19, J26, J28–33 and J39–43. In a second major

Cornelius B. Houk



Limb Loss Statistics  


... Resources by Topic / Limb Loss Statistics Limb Loss Statistics There are nearly 2 million people living with ... Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics; 1998. HCUP Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). Healthcare Cost ...


Obesity Data/Statistics  


Obesity Data/Statistics Obesity is a growing epidemic in the United States. From 1980 to 2008, the prevalence of obesity among ... likely to be obese than Non-Hispanic whites. Statistics on African Americans and Obesity . Statistics on American ...


Arthritis: Data and Statistics  


... en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Data and Statistics National Statistics Based on 2010-2012 data from the National ... survey conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics. Each year, the NHIS samples U.S. households and ...


Hirotugu Akaike, Statistical Scientist.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

(1) Change jokes; (2) Toasts; (3) History of statistics in real time: hammers and nails; (4) Akaike's career in statistical science; (5) The phases of Akaike's research; (6) Information statistical literacy.

E. Parzen



Statistical Models in Sedimentology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three stages of statistical development can be recognized in sedimentology. The first is descriptive statistics, in which the sample is the object of interest, and the second is analytical statistics, in which the population assumes major importance. The ...

W. C. Krumbein



Hormone Therapy Statistics  


... Releases Press Room Assistance Society Overview Hormone Therapy Statistics Home > Publications > Clinical Practice Materials > Hormone Therapy Statistics (Updated June 2011) HT Prescriptions: A Continued Slow ...


Methodology, Measurement, and Statistics  

NSF Publications Database

... economic, and statistical sciences. The primary goal of the fellowships are to facilitate the ... statistical sciences. In fulfillment of the primary goal, proposals must concretely demonstrate how ...


Statistics From Whom?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents arguments for offering introductory statistics courses to undergraduate sociology majors taught within departments of sociology rather than using statistics courses taught by other departments. (Author)

Caine, Robert; And Others



American Statistical Association: Statistics in Sports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section of the American Statistical Association website covers Statistics in Sports. Available here are a few older articles dealing with sports statistics and links to websites containing data for several professional and amateur sports, as well as websites with general news and information about sports, and a listing of official team websites for pro teams. A section called Statistics on the Web provides links to academic departments, conferences, and employers, while another section answers some frequently asked questions about sports statistics as a career. The website also provides an explanation of the Player Game Percentage (PGP) technique and uses the 2004 World Series as an example to demonstrate the technique. Educators will find a link to a website that offers suggestions of ways to incorporate sports statistics in the classroom.


Statistical templates for visual search.  


How do we find a target embedded in a scene? Within the framework of signal detection theory, this task is carried out by comparing each region of the scene with a "template," i.e., an internal representation of the search target. Here we ask what form this representation takes when the search target is a complex image with uncertain orientation. We examine three possible representations. The first is the matched filter. Such a representation cannot account for the ease with which humans can find a complex search target that is rotated relative to the template. A second representation attempts to deal with this by estimating the relative orientation of target and match and rotating the intensity-based template. No intensity-based template, however, can account for the ability to easily locate targets that are defined categorically and not in terms of a specific arrangement of pixels. Thus, we define a third template that represents the target in terms of image statistics rather than pixel intensities. Subjects performed a two-alternative, forced-choice search task in which they had to localize an image that matched a previously viewed target. Target images were texture patches. In one condition, match images were the same image as the target and distractors were a different image of the same textured material. In the second condition, the match image was of the same texture as the target (but different pixels) and the distractor was an image of a different texture. Match and distractor stimuli were randomly rotated relative to the target. We compared human performance to pixel-based, pixel-based with rotation, and statistic-based search models. The statistic-based search model was most successful at matching human performance. We conclude that humans use summary statistics to search for complex visual targets. PMID:24627458

Ackermann, John F; Landy, Michael S



Discourse Context Effects: Metaphorical and Literal Interpretations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Supports the hypothesis that literal and metaphorical interpretations can result from similar contextual constraints. Finds that a metaphorical interpretation may be selected because a literal interpretation would have been inappropriate and that likewise a literal interpretation may be selected because a metaphorical interpretation would have…

Keysar, Boaz



An Interpretation of Banded Magnetospheric Radio Emissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently-published Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorer/Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (AMPTE/IRM) banded magnetospheric emissions, commonly referred to as '(n + 1/2)f(sub ce)' emissions where f(sub ce) is the electron gyrofrequency, are analyzed by treating them as analogous to sounder-stimulated ionospheric emissions. We show that both individual AMPTE/IRM spectra of magnetospheric banded emissions, and a statistically-derived spectra observed over the two-year lifetime of the mission, can be interpreted in a self-consistent manner. The analysis, which predicts all spectral peaks within 4% of the observed peaks, interprets the higher-frequency emissions as due to low group-velocity Bernstein-mode waves and the lower-frequency emissions as eigen modes of cylindrical-electromagnetic-plasma-oscillations. The demarcation between these two classes of emissions is the electron plasma frequency f(sub pe), where an emission is often observed. This f(sub pe), emission is not necessarily the strongest. None of the observed banded emissions were attributed to the upper-hybrid frequency. We present Alouette-2 and ISIS-1 plasma-resonance data, and model electron temperature (T(sub e)) values, to support the argument that the frequency-spectrum of ionospheric sounder-stimulated emissions is not strongly temperature dependent and thus that the interpretation of these emissions in the ionosphere is relevant to other plasmas (such as the magnetosphere) where N(sub e) and T(sub e) can be quite different but where the ratio f(sub pe)/f(sub ce) is identical.

Benson, Robert F.; Osherovich, V. A.; Fainberg, J.; Vinas, A. F.; Ruppert, D. R.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)



Differences Help Recognition: A Probabilistic Interpretation  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a computational model to address one prominent psychological behavior of human beings to recognize images. The basic pursuit of our method can be concluded as that differences among multiple images help visual recognition. Generally speaking, we propose a statistical framework to distinguish what kind of image features capture sufficient category information and what kind of image features are common ones shared in multiple classes. Mathematically, the whole formulation is subject to a generative probabilistic model. Meanwhile, a discriminative functionality is incorporated into the model to interpret the differences among all kinds of images. The whole Bayesian formulation is solved in an Expectation-Maximization paradigm. After finding those discriminative patterns among different images, we design an image categorization algorithm to interpret how these differences help visual recognition within the bag-of-feature framework. The proposed method is verified on a variety of image categorization tasks including outdoor scene images, indoor scene images as well as the airborne SAR images from different perspectives.

Deng, Yue; Zhao, Yanyu; Liu, Yebin; Dai, Qionghai



Mud logging principles and interpretation  

SciTech Connect

This handbook on mud logging examines the physical and chemical processes affecting hydrocarbons before and during the drilling process and in transmission to the surface. Gas-show characteristics and behavior are correlated with other borehole evidence as a means of formation evaluation. Although mud logging technology has achieved significant recent advances, the basic principles underlying the logging and interpretation of a gas show remain the same. Mud logging techniques that are recognized throughout the industry are evaluated and standards for their use and interpretation are recommended. Contents include: 1. Introduction: background, mud loggings. 2. Origins of gas shows: introduction-definitions, ''gas shows'' and ''gas kicks,'' type of gas show-sources of gas in mud, sources of gas in place. 3. Factors affecting gas shows: downhole influences-formation interaction, circulating system; surface influences-surface mud system, analysis system. 4. Oil shows: reservoir description-cuttings evaluation, hydrocarbon evaluation, solid hydrocarbons. 5. Show evaluation: interpretation-methods, examples; conclusions. Index.

Whittaker, A.



The Interpretive Approach to Religious Education: Challenging Thompson's Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a recent book chapter, Matthew Thompson makes some criticisms of my work, including the interpretive approach to religious education and the research and activity of Warwick Religions and Education Research Unit. Against the background of a discussion of religious education in the public sphere, my response challenges Thompson's account,…

Jackson, Robert



Automatic interpretation of Schlumberger soundings  

SciTech Connect

The automatic interpretation of apparent resistivity curves from horizontally layered earth models is carried out by the curve-fitting method in three steps: (1) the observed VES data are interpolated at equidistant points of electrode separations on the logarithmic scale by using the cubic spline function, (2) the layer parameters which are resistivities and depths are predicted from the sampled apparent resistivity values by SALS system program and (3) the theoretical VES curves from the models are calculated by Ghosh's linear filter method using the Zhody's computer program. Two soundings taken over Takenoyu geothermal area were chosen to test the procedures of the automatic interpretation.

Ushijima, K.



Sampling in Statistical Inference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, presented by the Department of Statistics at Yale University, gives an explanation, a definition and an example of sampling in statistical inference. Topics include parameters, statistics, sampling distributions, bias, and variability. Overall, this is a great resource for any mathematics classroom studying statistics.

Lacey, Michelle



Statistical Reference Datasets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A project designed to improve the accuracy of statistical software by providing reference datasets with certified computational results that enable the objective evaluation of statistical software. Dataset archives (Analysis of Variance, Linear Regression, Nonlinear Regression, and Univariate Summary Statistics); background information; related resources and links; FAQs. A project component of of NIST's Tools for Evaluating Mathematical and Statistical Software.



Statistical Reference Datasets  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

Statistical Reference Datasets (Web, free access)   The Statistical Reference Datasets is also supported by the Standard Reference Data Program. The purpose of this project is to improve the accuracy of statistical software by providing reference datasets with certified computational results that enable the objective evaluation of statistical software.


Statistical database design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The security problem of a statistical database is to limit the use of the database so that no sequence of statistical queries is sufficient to deduce confidential or private information. In this paper it is suggested that the problem be investigated at the conceptual data model level. The design of a statistical database should utilize a statistical security management facility

Francis Y. L. Chin; Gultekin Ozsoyoglu



The Easily Learned, Easily Remembered Heuristic in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A previous study with adults [Koriat, A. (2008a). "Easy comes, easy goes? The link between learning and remembering and its exploitation in metacognition." "Memory & Cognition," 36, 416-428] established a correlation between learning and remembering: items requiring more trials to acquisition (TTA) were less likely to be recalled than those…

Koriat, Asher; Ackerman, Rakefet; Lockl, Kathrin; Schneider, Wolfgang



Calibrated Peer Review for Interpreting Linear Regression Parameters: Results from a Graduate Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biostatistics is traditionally a difficult subject for students to learn. While the mathematical aspects are challenging, it can also be demanding for students to learn the exact language to use to correctly interpret statistical results. In particular, correctly interpreting the parameters from linear regression is both a vital tool and a…

Enders, Felicity B.; Jenkins, Sarah; Hoverman, Verna



BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS: Stability of a bulk self-sustained discharge in a CO2-N2He mixture of gases with easily ionizable additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was found experimentally that the stability of a bulk self-sustained discharge ignited in a CO2- N2-He mixture at large distances from an ultraviolet radiation source could be increased by adding mixtures of easily ionizable substances with different ionization potentials and partial pressures.

A. A. Aliev; V. V. Apollonov; N. Akhunov; A. M. Prokhorov; K. N. Firsov



Implementing Clinical Practice Guidelines While Taking Account of Changing Evidence: ATHENA DSS, an Easily Modifiable Decision-Support System for Managing Hypertension in Primary Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the ATHENA Decision Support System (DSS), which operationalizes guidelines for hypertension using the EON architecture. ATHENA DSS encourages blood pressure control and recommends guideline-concordant choice of drug therapy in relation to comorbid diseases. ATHENA DSS has an easily modifiable knowledge base that specifies eligibility criteria, risk stratification, blood pressure targets, relevant comorbid diseases, guideline-recommended drug classes for

M. K. Goldstein; B. B. Hoffman; R. W. Coleman; M. A. Musen; S. W. Tu; A. Advani; R. Shankar; Martin J. O'Connor



Generalized quantum statistics  

SciTech Connect

In the paper, a non-anyonic generalization of quantum statistics is presented, in which Fermi-Dirac statistics (FDS) and Bose-Einstein statistics (BES) appear as two special cases. The new quantum statistics, which is characterized by the dimension of its single particle Fock space, contains three consistent parts, namely the generalized bilinear quantization, the generalized quantum mechanical description and the corresponding statistical mechanics.

Chou, C. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics)



Statistical tests for clonality.  


Cancer investigators frequently conduct studies to examine tumor samples from pairs of apparently independent primary tumors with a view to determine whether they share a "clonal" origin. The genetic fingerprints of the tumors are compared using a panel of markers, often representing loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at distinct genetic loci. In this article we evaluate candidate significance tests for this purpose. The relevant information is derived from the observed correlation of the tumors with respect to the occurrence of LOH at individual loci, a phenomenon that can be evaluated using Fisher's exact test. Information is also available from the extent to which losses at the same locus occur on the same parental allele. Data from these combined sources of information can be evaluated using a simple adaptation of Fisher's exact test. The test statistic is the total number of loci at which concordant mutations occur on the same parental allele, with higher values providing more evidence in favor of a clonal origin for the two tumors. The test is shown to have high power for detecting clonality for plausible models of the alternative (clonal) hypothesis, and for reasonable numbers of informative loci, preferably located on distinct chromosomal arms. The method is illustrated using studies to identify clonality in contralateral breast cancer. Interpretation of the results of these tests requires caution due to simplifying assumptions regarding the possible variability in mutation probabilities between loci, and possible imbalances in the mutation probabilities between parental alleles. Nonetheless, we conclude that the method represents a simple, powerful strategy for distinguishing independent tumors from those of clonal origin. PMID:17688504

Begg, Colin B; Eng, Kevin H; Hummer, Amanda J



Interpreting chromosomal abnormalities using Prolog.  


This paper describes an expert system for interpreting the standard notation used to represent human chromosomal abnormalities, namely, the International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature. Written in Prolog, this program is very powerful, easy to maintain, and portable. The system can be used as a front end to any database that employs cytogenetic notation, such as a patient registry. PMID:2185921

Cooper, G; Friedman, J M



Provability interpretations of modal logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider interpretations of modal logic in Peano arithmetic (P) determined by an assignment of a sentencev\\u000a * ofP to each propositional variablev. We put (?)*=“0 = 1”, (? ? ?)* = “?* ? ?*” and let (??)* be a formalization of “?)* is a theorem ofP”. We say that a modal formula, ?, isvalid if ?* is a theorem

Robert M. Solovay



Making Sense of Multiple Interpretations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some teaching innovations arise from a combination of good intentions, last-minute planning, and incredible luck. In this article, the author discusses the different interpretations of the students on Constance Curry's 'Silver Rights' and David Cecelski's 'Along Freedom Road,' the two books he assigns to the class in the history of education…

Dougherty, Jack



Operational interpretations of quantum discord  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum discord quantifies non-classical correlations going beyond the standard classification of quantum states into entangled and unentangled ones. Although it has received considerable attention, it still lacks any precise interpretation in terms of some protocol in which quantum features are relevant. Here we give quantum discord its first information-theoretic operational meaning in terms of entanglement consumption in an extended quantum

Marco Piani; Daniel Cavalcanti; Leandro Aolita; Sergio Boixo; Kavan Modi; Andreas Winter



Quantum theory needs no 'Interpretation'  

SciTech Connect

Purpose of this article is to stress the fact that Quantum Theory does not need an interpretation other than being an algorithm for computing probabilities associated with macroscopic phenomena and measurements. It does not ''describ'' reality, and the wave function is not objective entity, it only gives the evolution of our probabilities for the outcomes potential experiments. (AIP) (c)

Fuchs, Christopher A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, California (United States); Peres, Asher [Technion--Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, (Israel)



Interpretive Reproduction in Children's Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author looks at children's play from the perspective of interpretive reproduction, emphasizing the way children create their own unique peer cultures, which he defines as a set of routines, artifacts, values, and concerns that children engage in with their playmates. The article focuses on two types of routines in the peer culture of preschool…

Corsaro, William A.



Building interpreters by composing monads  

Microsoft Academic Search

We exhibit a set of functions coded in Haskell that can be used as building blocks to construct a variety of interpreters for Lisp-like languages. The building blocks are joined merely through functional composition. Each building block contributes code to support a specific feature, such as numbers, continuations, functions calls, or nondeterminism. The result of composing some number of building

Guy L. Steele Jr.



Partial discharge measurement and interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is given of partial discharge patterns, their evaluation, and determination of their origin. Some brief comparisons of test equipment considered to be of general interest are made. The intent is to assist practitioners in the interpretation of results as well as in the accurate discrimination between true partial discharges within an insulating structure and other unwanted conduction or

David A. Nattrass



The Armenian Genocide: An Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an interpretive study of the Armenian genocide of 1915 based on Israel Charny's societal-forces model. Argues genocides follow a pattern of long discriminatory relationships between a dominant and a dominated group. Cites the economic achievements of dominated groups as the basis. Shows the global pattern of genocide. (NL)

Astourian, Stephan



Interpretation of Wave Energy Spectra.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Guidelines for interpreting nondirectional wave energy spectra are presented. A simple method is given for using the spectrum to estimate a significant height and period for each major wave train in most sea states. The method allows a more detailed and a...

E. F. Thompson



Can Pediatric Residents Interpret Electrocardiograms?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation skills of pediatric residents in a controlled environment and determine if the level of residency training (intern vs senior) improves accuracy. A list of ECG diagnoses was provided to four pediatric residency educators with instructions to categorize each diagnosis as follows: I, all residents; II, the majority of

C. S. Snyder; J. T. Bricker; A. L. Fenrich; R. A. Friedman; G. L. Rosenthal; C. L. Johnsrude; C. Kertesz; N. J. Kertesz



Eleven Interpretations of Personal Suffering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document defines suffering as the affective aspect of the pain experience while the cognitive aspect of the pain experience is the sensation of pain. It considers personal suffering, which mean's one's own suffering, and not the suffering of other people. It notes that a particular interpretation of suffering may be formulated in any number…

Foley, Daniel P.


Recent Trends in Oral Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The field of oral interpretation has been influenced by both the analytical approach to literature study, with significant emphasis on understanding the literary text, and the interpersonal approach. While oral reading may utilize various performance arts or media such as dance, music, or film, the most popular movement currently is Readers…

Armstrong, Chloe



Smartberries: Interpreting Erdrich's Love Medicine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The structure of "Love Medicines" interpreted by Hertha D. Sweet Wong who claims that the book's "multiple narrators confound conventional Western expectations of an autonomous protagonist, a dominant narrative voice, and a consistently chronological narrative". "Love Medicine" is a brilliant use of the Western literary tactics that create the…

Treuer, David



Statistical Indicators of Astrophysical Parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to introduce a new tool for a simple identification of spectral types. We use methods of statistical spectroscopy, in particular the method of intensity-distribution moments. The statistical approach revealed a characteristic behavior of moments of the stellar spectra for different spectral types. The transition from one spectral type to another may be expressed as a regular function of appropriate moments of the intensity distribution of the spectra. Moment-based diagrams localize particular spectral types in different areas of the plots. Since the intensity-distribution moments may be easily derived from the observed spectra, the presented method facilitates a simple auxiliary tool for the classification of stars to specific spectral types. It is also helpful in checking the correctness of the existing classifications. The intensity-distribution moments depend on all kinds of stellar characteristics, including the metallicity and the age. Therefore, using an inverse approach, from the knowledge of moments one may predict these properties.

W??, P.; Bieliñska-W??, D.; Strobel, A.; Pleskacz, A.



Easily-assembled helical heater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rugged, compact heater is made from 0.1 mm diameter Inconel wire (125 ohms per meter). Heating element is enclosed in PTFE heat-shrink sleeve. Ends of coal pass through small ceramic spools and are silver-brazed to lead wires. Junctions are potted in epoxy or silicon and covered with crimp sleeves and heat-shrink tubing.

Pizzeck, D. E.



Conical Electrical Connectors Aline Easily  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rotational alinement not critical in design useful for remote manipulators. Plug and socket pushed together, plug rings deflect spring segments of corresponding socket ring. Particularly suitable for remote manipulators and making connections in "blind" locations.

Clark, K. H.



The Power of Teaching Activities: Statistical and Methodological Recommendations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers rarely mention statistical power in "Teaching of Psychology" teaching activity studies. Insufficiently powered tests promote uncertainty in the decision to accept or reject the tested null hypothesis and influence the interpretation of results. We analyzed the a priori power of statistical tests from 197 teaching activity effectiveness…

Tomcho, Thomas J.; Foels, Rob



Evaluation of the TV Series "Statistics" (SABC-ERTV1).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A summative evaluation of the effectiveness of the educational television series, "Statistics," that aired on South African television is presented. The two episodes chosen from the six-episode series covered pie charts, pictograms, and pictographs (episode 1); and point-of-view interpretations of statistics (episode 4). The evaluation was…

Stupart, J. D. C.; Duby, Aliza


ALISE Library and Information Science Education Statistical Report, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume is the twentieth annual statistical report on library and information science (LIS) education published by the Association for Library and Information Science Education (ALISE). Its purpose is to compile, analyze, interpret, and report statistical (and other descriptive) information about library/information science programs offered by…

Daniel, Evelyn H., Ed.; Saye, Jerry D., Ed.


Faculty Salary Equity Cases: Combining Statistics with the Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have used many statistical models to determine whether an institution's faculty pay structure is equitable, with varying degrees of success. Little attention, however, has been given to court interpretations of statistical significance or to what variables courts have acknowledged should be used in an equity model. This article…

Luna, Andrew L.



A systematic review of statistical power in software engineering experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Statistical power is an inherent part of empirical studies that employ significance testing and is essential for the planning of studies, for the interpretation of study results, and for the validity of study conclusions. This paper reports a quantitative assessment of the statistical power of empirical software engineering research based on the 103 papers on controlled experiments (of a

Tore Dybå; Vigdis By Kampenes; Dag I. K. Sjøberg



An Experimental Approach to Teaching and Learning Elementary Statistical Mechanics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introductory statistical mechanics is studied for a simple two-state system using an inexpensive and easily built apparatus. A large variety of demonstrations, suitable for students in high school and introductory university chemistry courses, are possible. This article details demonstrations for exothermic and endothermic reactions, the dynamic…

Ellis, Frank B.; Ellis, David C.



Interpretations of Interpretations: Combining Community-Based Participatory Research and Interpretive Inquiry to Improve Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Background: Latina immigrants from Mexico suffer significantly increased morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer when compared with non-Hispanic White women, largely owing to lack of screening and appropriate treatment. Objectives: To demonstrate that by combining the tools of community-based participatory research (CBPR) with the tools of interpretive inquiry, it is possible to address explicit community concerns surrounding a particular problem

Jessica Gregg; Lourdes Centurion; Julio Maldonado; Raquel Aguillon; Rosemary Celaya-Alston; Stephanie Farquhar



Securing wide appreciation of health statistics  

PubMed Central

All the authors are agreed on the need for a certain publicizing of health statistics, but do Amaral Pyrrait points out that the medical profession prefers to convince itself rather than to be convinced. While there is great utility in articles and reviews in the professional press (especially for paramedical personnel) Aubenque, de Groot, and Kohn show how appreciation can effectively be secured by making statistics more easily understandable to the non-expert by, for instance, including readable commentaries in official publications, simplifying charts and tables, and preparing simple manuals on statistical methods. Aubenque and Kohn also stress the importance of linking health statistics to other economic and social information. Benjamin suggests that the principles of market research could to advantage be applied to health statistics to determine the precise needs of the “consumers”. At the same time, Aubenque points out that the value of the ultimate results must be clear to those who provide the data; for this, Kohn suggests that the enumerators must know exactly what is wanted and why. There is general agreement that some explanation of statistical methods and their uses should be given in the curricula of medical schools and that lectures and postgraduate courses should be arranged for practising physicians.

Pyrrait, A. M. DO Amaral; Aubenque, M. J.; Benjamin, B.; DE Groot, Meindert J. W.; Kohn, R.



Interpreting population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analyses - a clinical viewpoint  

PubMed Central

The population analysis approach is an important tool for clinical pharmacology in aiding the dose individualization of medicines. However, due to their statistical complexity the clinical utility of population analyses is often overlooked. One of the key reasons to conduct a population analysis is to investigate the potential benefits of individualization of drug dosing based on patient characteristics (termed covariate identification). The purpose of this review is to provide a tool to interpret and extract information from publications that describe population analysis. The target audience is those readers who are aware of population analyses but have not conducted the technical aspects of an analysis themselves. Initially we introduce the general framework of population analysis and work through a simple example with visual plots. We then follow-up with specific details on how to interpret population analyses for the purpose of identifying covariates and how to interpret their likely importance for dose individualization.

Duffull, Stephen B; Wright, Daniel F B; Winter, Helen R



Uses and Abuses of Statistical Significance Tests and Other Statistical Resources: A Comparative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The empirical study we present here deals with a pedagogical issue that has not been thoroughly explored up until now in our field. Previous empirical studies in other sectors have identified the opinions of researchers about this topic, showing that completely unacceptable interpretations have been made of significance tests and other statistical

Monterde-i-Bort, Hector; Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Pascual-Llobell, Juan



Testing photons' Bose-Einstein statistics with Compton scattering  

SciTech Connect

It is an empirical question whether photons always obey Bose-Einstein statistics, but devising and interpreting experimental tests of photon statistics can be a challenge. The nonrelativistic cross section for Compton scattering illustrates how a small admixture {nu} of wrong-sign statistics leads to a loss of gauge invariance; there is a large anomalous amplitude for scattering timelike photons. Nevertheless, one can interpret the observed transparency of the solar wind plasma at low frequencies as a bound {nu}<10{sup -25} if Lorentz symmetry is required. If there is instead a universal preferred frame, the bound is {nu}<10{sup -14}, still strong compared with previous results.

Altschul, Brett [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States)



Inuit interpretations of sleep paralysis.  


Traditional and contemporary Inuit concepts of sleep paralysis were investigated through interviews with elders and young people in Iqaluit, Baffin Island. Sleep paralysis was readily recognized by most respondents and termed uqumangirniq (in the Baffin region) or aqtuqsinniq (Kivalliq region). Traditional interpretations of uqumangirniq referred to a shamanistic cosmology in which the individual's soul was vulnerable during sleep and dreaming. Sleep paralysis could result from attack by shamans or malevolent spirits. Understanding the experience as a manifestation of supernatural power, beyond one's control, served to reinforce the experiential reality and presence of the spirit world. For contemporary youth, sleep paralysis was interpreted in terms of multiple frameworks that incorporated personal, medical, mystical, traditional/shamanistic, and Christian views, reflecting the dynamic social changes taking place in this region. PMID:15881270

Law, Samuel; Kirmayer, Laurence J



Phonological Interpretation into Preordered Algebras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel architecture for categorial grammar that clarifies the relationship between semantically relevant combinatoric reasoning and semantically inert reasoning that only affects surface-oriented phonological form. To this end, we employ a level of structured phonology that mediates between syntax (abstract combinatorics) and phonology proper (strings). To notate structured phonologies, we employ a lambda calculus analogous to the ?-terms of [8]. However, unlike Oehrle's purely equational ?-calculus, our phonological calculus is inequational, in a way that is strongly analogous to the functional programming language LCF [10]. Like LCF, our phonological terms are interpreted into a Henkin frame of posets, with degree of definedness ('height' in the preorder that interprets the base type) corresponding to degree of pronounceability; only maximal elements are actual strings and therefore fully pronounceable. We illustrate with an analysis (also new) of some complex constituent-order phenomena in Japanese.

Kubota, Yusuke; Pollard, Carl


On the formulation of interpretations.  


The author analyses several interpretations published by different authors from the point of view of their linguistic form and the type of language used, in order to determine the therapeutic effect and the manner of working of each. Two types can be distinguished: literal-explanatory language and metaphorical language. Each performs a different function. Metaphorical language is proper to the primary process; it is related to displacement and condensation; it reactivates the most primitive levels of the mind; it serves the purpose of expressing affects and emotions. Literal-explanatory language is proper to the secondary process; it is related to logical-formal thought; it reactivates the most highly developed levels of the mind; it serves a referential, informative and explanatory purpose. A knowledge of the function of each of these forms of language allows the psychoanalyst to direct the interpretations he formulates to either the primary or the secondary process as befits the clinical requirements. PMID:2228442

Allegro, L A



Operational interpretations of quantum discord  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum discord quantifies nonclassical correlations beyond the standard classification of quantum states into entangled and unentangled. Although it has received considerable attention, it still lacks any precise interpretation in terms of some protocol in which quantum features are relevant. Here we give quantum discord its first information-theoretic operational meaning in terms of entanglement consumption in an extended quantum-state-merging protocol. We

D. Cavalcanti; L. Aolita; S. Boixo; K. Modi; M. Piani; A. Winter



Interpreting Chemical Labels Learning Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Southwest Center for Microsystems Education is a Regional Advanced Technology Education Center funded in part by the National Science Foundation. This safety learning module covers the content and interpretation of chemical labels and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Diamond ratings. It contains an Instructor Guide, Participant Guide and supporting presentations. Visitors are encouraged to create an account and login in order to access the full set of resources.



Interpreting recent carbon dioxide data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using web-accessed climate data, students will examine the latitudinal distribution of CO2 and explain how (and why) that has changed over (recent) time. They will then work in groups of two or three to download, graph, and interpret carbon dioxide concentration data from one individual location (different groups will be assigned a different site). Each student will complete a series of questions to ensure their understanding of the concepts outlined above.

Gordon, Elizabeth


Monad transformers and modular interpreters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show how a set of building blocks can be used to construct programming language interpreters, and present implementations of such building blocks capable of supporting many commonly known features, including simple expressions, three different function call mechanisms (call-by-name, call-by-value and lazy evaluation), references and assignment, nondeterminism, first-class continuations, and program tracing.The underlying mechanism of our system is monad transformers,

Sheng Liang; Paul Hudak; Mark P. Jones



Osteoporosis Facts and Statistics  


... You are here Home - Data & Publications - Facts and Statistics Printer friendly Email Share Tweet Like Osteoporosis - General ... rate of age-related bone loss ( 123 ). Key statistics for Europe Bone mineral density measurement is underutilized ...


Ehrlichiosis: Statistics and Epidemiology  


... Persons at risk Other Ehrlichiosis, Undetermined Further Reading Statistics and Epidemiology Annual Cases of Ehrlichiosis in the ... PDF - 21 pages] Ehrlichiosis Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Statistics and Epidemiology In-Depth Information Related Tick Topics ...


Overweight and Obesity Statistics  


... refers to non-Hispanic whites. top ? Physical Activity Statistics Adults Research Findings Research suggests that staying active ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Summary health statistics for U.S. adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2010. ...


Background and Statistics  


Background & Statistics FAQ About Homeless Veterans Homeless Veterans Facts Demographics of Homeless Veterans Incarcerated Veterans Research Briefs Sources FAQ ... VETERANS In May 2007, the Bureau of Justice Statistics released a special report on incarcerated veterans. The ...


Listeria (Listeriosis) Statistics  


... to... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Statistics Estimates CDC estimates that approximately 1600 illnesses and ... 12, 2011 Case Count Map Epi Curve Surveillance Statistics People at Risk Prevention Sources of Infection Diagnosis & ...


Uterine Cancer Statistics  


... Use Social Media Poster Presentation Buttons and Badges Statistics for Other Types of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal ( ... Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Cancer Home Uterine Cancer Statistics Uterine cancer is the fourth most common cancer ...


Sleep Data and Statistics  


... en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Data and Statistics Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System ( BRFSS ) Population : Adults ... Podcasts and Sleep e-Cards Fact Sheets Data & Statistics Resources Events File Formats Help: How do I ...


Immigration and Naturalization Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Immigration and Naturalizations Service Statistics site provides "comprehensive annual immigration statistics from 1994-1996, as well as state estimates of the United States' illegal alien resident and foreign-born populations."

Service., United S.



Pneumocystis Pneumonia Statistics  


... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Pneumocystis pneumonia Statistics Before the beginning of the HIV/AIDS ... Diagnosis & Testing Treatment & Outcomes Statistics Additional Information Pneumocystis pneumonia Definition Symptoms People at Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & ...


Mathematical and statistical analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the mathematical and statistical analysis component of RICIS is to research, develop, and evaluate mathematical and statistical techniques for aerospace technology applications. Specific research areas of interest include modeling, simulation, experiment design, reliability assessment, and numerical analysis.

Houston, A. Glen



Statistical Quality Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some aspects of statistical quality management are discussed. Quality has to be defined as a concrete, measurable quantity. The concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM), Statistical Process Control (SPC), and inspection are explained. In most cases SPC ...

P. Vanderlaan



Statistical Software Engineering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book identifies challenges and opportunities in the development and implementation of software that contain significant statistical content. While emphasizing the relevance of using rigorous statistical and probabilistic techniques in software engine...



Finding One Variable Statistics With a Graphing Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This quick YouTube video from high school statistics teacher Roger W. Davis explains how to find one variable statistics using the TI-84 graphing calculator. The demonstration goes through three steps: entering the data, finding one variable statistics using the STAT menu, and interpreting the results. The data created includes mean, sum, median and more. Flash player is required to view this video, and the running time for the clip is 3:12.

Davis, Roger W.



Consistent interpretations of quantum mechanics  

SciTech Connect

Within the last decade, significant progress has been made towards a consistent and complete reformulation of the Copenhagen interpretation (an interpretation consisting in a formulation of the experimental aspects of physics in terms of the basic formalism; it is consistent if free from internal contradiction and complete if it provides precise predictions for all experiments). The main steps involved decoherence (the transition from linear superpositions of macroscopic states to a mixing), Griffiths histories describing the evolution of quantum properties, a convenient logical structure for dealing with histories, and also some progress in semiclassical physics, which was made possible by new methods. The main outcome is a theory of phenomena, viz., the classically meaningful properties of a macroscopic system. It shows in particular how and when determinism is valid. This theory can be used to give a deductive form to measurement theory, which now covers some cases that were initially devised as counterexamples against the Copenhagen interpretation. These theories are described, together with their applications to some key experiments and some of their consequences concerning epistemology.

Omnes, R. (Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, Universite de Paris XI, Batiment 211, 91405 Orsay CEDEX (France))



Understanding AOP through the Study of Interpreters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I return to the question of what distinguishes AOP languages by considering how the interpreters of AOP languages differ from conventional interpreters. Key elements for static transformation are seen to be redefinition of the set and lookup operators in the interpretation of the language. This analysis also yields a definition of crosscutting in terms of interlacing of interpreter actions.

Filman, Robert E.



Interpreter in Criminal Cases: Allrounders First!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The interpreter in criminal cases generally has had a purely linguistic training with no difference from the education received by his colleague interpreters. The position of interpreters in criminal cases is vague and their role depends to a large extent on individual interpretation of officials involved in the criminal procedure. Improvements on…

Frid, Arthur



Interpreting Inexplicit Language during Courtroom Examination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Court interpreters are required to provide accurate renditions of witnesses' utterances during courtroom examinations, but the accuracy of interpreting may be compromised for a number of reasons, among which is the effect on interpretation of the limited contextual information available to court interpreters. Based on the analysis of the discourse…

Lee, Jieun



Coping with Culture in Media Interpreting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Live broadcast simultaneous interpreting on television is widely acknowledged as one of the most challenging and stressful forms of screen translation, and translational activity in general. Aside from experience-based accounts by media interprets describing the specific working conditions and constraints in TV interpreting, the literature includes some interpreter and user surveys as well as case studies of physiological stress, but

Franz Pöchhacker



Catalytic Nonoxidation Dehydrogenation of Ethane Over Fe-Ni Catalysts Supported on Mg (Al)O to Produce Hydrogen and Easily Purified Carbon Nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonoxidative decomposition of ethane was conducted over monometallic Ni and bimetallic Fe-Ni catalysts on basic Mg(Al)O support to produce H2 free of CO and CO2 and easily purified carbon nanotubes, a potentially valuable byproduct. The Mg(Al)O support was prepared by calcination of synthetic MgAl-hydrotalcite with a Mg to Al ratio of 5. The catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness with

Wenqin Shen; Yuguo Wang; Xuebei Shi; Naresh Shah; Frank Huggins; Shilpa Bollineni; Mohindar Seehra; Gerald Huffman



The [18F]2-Fluoro-1,3-thiazolyl Moiety - an Easily-Accessible Structural Motif for Prospective Molecular Imaging Radiotracers  

PubMed Central

2-Fluoro-1,3-thiazoles were rapidly and efficiently labeled with no-carrier-added fluorine-18 (t1/2 = 109.7 min) by treatment of readily prepared 2-halo precursors with cyclotron-produced [18F]fluoride ion. The [18F]2-fluoro-1,3-thiazolyl moiety constitutes a new and easily-labeled structural motif for prospective molecular imaging radiotracers.

Simeon, Fabrice G.; Wendahl, Matthew T.; Pike, Victor W.



Environment for statistical computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a short exposition on the current state of art as far as statistical software is concerned. The main aims are to take a look at current tendencies in information technologies for statistics and data analysis, especially for describing selected programs and systems.We start with statistical packages, i.e. a suite of computer programs that are specialized in statistical analysis,

Jaromír Antoch



Finding Statistical Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a search strategy for locating time-series or cross-sectional statistical data in published sources which was designed for undergraduate students who require 30 units of data for five separate variables in a statistical model. Instructional context and the broader applicability of the search strategy for general statistical research is…

Bopp, Richard E.; Van Der Laan, Sharon J.



Glossary of Statistical Terms

Defines common statistical terms, NCI terminology, and the five key statistical measures of cancer: incidence, mortality, survival, prevalence, and lifetime risk. NCI monitors these cancer statistics to assess progress and to identify population subgroups and geographic areas in which cancer control efforts need to be concentrated.


Statistics Teacher Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides links to all current and past issues of "The Statistics Teacher Network". This newsletter for K-12 teachers is published three times a year, and presents up to date articles that describe statistical activities that have been successful in the classroom. It also informs educators of statistical workshops, programs, and reviews of books, software, and calculators.



Global Library Statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

When IFLA needed reliable data about libraries and their services worldwide, it became apparent that there are no such data. Therefore, the IFLA Section on Statistics and Evaluation, the UNESCO Institute for Statistics and the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) committee TC 46 SC 8 `Quality — statistics and performance evaluation' have joined forces in order to develop and test

Simon Ellis; Michael Heaney; Pierre Meunier; Roswitha Poll



Avoiding Statistical Mistakes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Avoiding statistical mistakes is important for educators at all levels. Basic concepts will help you to avoid making mistakes using statistics and to look at data with a critical eye. Statistical data is used at educational institutions for many purposes. It can be used to support budget requests, changes in educational philosophy, changes to…

Strasser, Nora



Statistical quality management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some aspects of statistical quality management are discussed. Quality has to be defined as a concrete, measurable quantity. The concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM), Statistical Process Control (SPC), and inspection are explained. In most cases SPC is better than inspection. It can be concluded that statistics has great possibilities in the field of TQM.

Vanderlaan, Paul



Statistics Before Your Eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, created by Robert Jernigan of American University, presents several photographs from real life situations that demonstrate natural statistical concepts. Each picture shows a statistical distribution made by some pattern occurring in everyday life. An explanation of each picture tells what distribution is being represented and how. This is a fun, and different, website devoted to statistics.

Jernigan, Robert



Statistics: Power from Data!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Statistics Canada's website designed to teach secondary mathematics and information studies students statistical information. Each chapter is intended to be complete in itself, with exercises and lesson plans. The site covers a broad spectrum of topics involving statistics. Overall, it is a comprehensive view of this vast field.



Mammography Facility Characteristics Associated With Interpretive Accuracy of Screening Mammography  

PubMed Central

Background Although interpretive performance varies substantially among radiologists, such variation has not been examined among mammography facilities. Understanding sources of facility variation could become a foundation for improving interpretive performance. Methods In this cross-sectional study conducted between 1996 and 2002, we surveyed 53 facilities to evaluate associations between facility structure, interpretive process characteristics, and interpretive performance of screening mammography (ie, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value [PPV1], and the likelihood of cancer among women who were referred for biopsy [PPV2]). Measures of interpretive performance were ascertained prospectively from mammography interpretations and cancer data collected by the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses estimated the association between facility characteristics and mammography interpretive performance or accuracy (area under the ROC curve [AUC]). All P values were two-sided. Results Of the 53 eligible facilities, data on 44 could be analyzed. These 44 facilities accounted for 484?463 screening mammograms performed on 237?669 women, of whom 2686 were diagnosed with breast cancer during follow-up. Among the 44 facilities, mean sensitivity was 79.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 74.3% to 84.9%), mean specificity was 90.2% (95% CI = 88.3% to 92.0%), mean PPV1 was 4.1% (95% CI = 3.5% to 4.7%), and mean PPV2 was 38.8% (95% CI = 32.6% to 45.0%). The facilities varied statistically significantly in specificity (P < .001), PPV1 (P < .001), and PPV2 (P = .002) but not in sensitivity (P = .99). AUC was higher among facilities that offered screening mammograms alone vs those that offered screening and diagnostic mammograms (0.943 vs 0.911, P = .006), had a breast imaging specialist interpreting mammograms vs not (0.932 vs 0.905, P = .004), did not perform double reading vs independent double reading vs consensus double reading (0.925 vs 0.915 vs 0.887, P = .034), or conducted audit reviews two or more times per year vs annually vs at an unknown frequency (0.929 vs 0.904 vs 0.900, P = .018). Conclusion Mammography interpretive performance varies statistically significantly by facility.

Abraham, Linn; Barlow, William E.; Fenton, Joshua J.; Berns, Eric A.; Carney, Patricia A.; Cutter, Gary R.; Sickles, Edward A.; Carl, D'Orsi; Elmore, Joann G.



Measuring statistical heterogeneity: The Pietra index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are various ways of quantifying the statistical heterogeneity of a given probability law: Statistics uses variance - which measures the law’s dispersion around its mean; Physics and Information Theory use entropy - which measures the law’s randomness; Economics uses the Gini index - which measures the law’s egalitarianism. In this research we explore an alternative to the Gini index-the Pietra index-which is a counterpart of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic. The Pietra index is shown to be a natural and elemental measure of statistical heterogeneity, which is especially useful in the case of asymmetric and skewed probability laws, and in the case of asymptotically Paretian laws with finite mean and infinite variance. Moreover, the Pietra index is shown to have immediate and fundamental interpretations within the following applications: renewal processes and continuous time random walks; infinite-server queueing systems and shot noise processes; financial derivatives. The interpretation of the Pietra index within the context of financial derivatives implies that derivative markets, in effect, use the Pietra index as their benchmark measure of statistical heterogeneity.

Eliazar, Iddo I.; Sokolov, Igor M.



Statistics and probability. Grades 6-8  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This MathPARTNERS unit contains seven lessons with hands-on learning activities for exploring statistics and probability with students in grades 6-8. The lessons, designed for mentoring situations, may also be helpful for teachers and parents. Each lesson with reproducible student materials, features an overview of the mathematics, preparation guidelines, teaching tips, and suggestions for how to use each activity to develop specific mathematics concepts. Statistics activities focus on posing questions, data gathering, identifying bias, understanding measures of central tendency, representing data with graphs, and interpreting data. Probability activities introduce fairness in games and the computation of probability. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Center, Education D.



The Sexual Experiences Survey: interpretation and validity.  


The Sexual Experiences Survey (Koss, Gidycz, & Wisniewski, 1987) is a commonly used instrument for assessing various degrees of sexual aggression and victimization among male offenders and female victims. Rasch analysis was used to transform qualitative raw score observations into objective linear measures using the responses of a national sample of 6,159 higher education men and women across the United States, aged 18-24. This paper supports the construct validity of the survey through evaluation of the item hierarchy, fit statistics, and separation indices. Findings confirm a "dimensional" perspective on rape, suggesting that sexually aggressive behaviors can be scaled along a single continuum from normal to extreme sexual behavior. The item hierarchy reveals an arrangement of sexually aggressive acts in an order of mild to severe, which compares with the one theorized by the authors of the SES. Identity plots demonstrate the validity of using a common set of SES item calibrations to measure both male and female respondents. For interpretation of person responses to the SES, three conclusions are suggested. First, Rasch analysis must be employed to examine item responses effectively. Second, when the survey is administered to a college sample aged 18-24, the item calibrations obtained in this paper can be used to measure offenders and victims. Third, a total raw score-to-measure conversion is not always sufficient to interpret person measures. Instead, a scalogram method needs be added to the Rasch analysis to separate the measures of offenders and victims who complete the survey. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:9661726

Karabatsos, G



Artificial intelligence and statistics  

SciTech Connect

This book explores the possible applications of artificial intelligence in statistics and conversely, statistics in artificial intelligence. It is a collection of seventeen papers written by leaders in the field. Most of the papers were prepared for the Workshop on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics held in April 1985 and sponsored by ATandT Bell Laboratories. The book is divided into six parts: uncertainly propagation, clustering and learning, expert systems, environments for supporting statistical strategy, knowledge acquisition, and strategy. The editor ties the collection together in the first chapter by providing an overview of AI and statistics, discussing the Workshop, and exploring future research in the field.

Gale, W.A.



Measuring statistical literacy.  


This study considers the measurement of Statistical Literacy understanding that goes beyond the basic chance and data skills and knowledge in the mathematics curriculum. This understanding requires application of mathematical skills in a range of contextual situations and draws on aspects of statistics, such as variation and inference, which may not be explicit in the school curriculum. The study reports the outcomes from tests of Statistical Literacy given to 673 students from Grades 5 to 10. It confirms the nature and structure of a previously identified construct of Statistical Literacy and proposes three subgroups of items that address aspects of Statistical Literacy that might usefully be measured by classroom teachers. PMID:15701942

Callingham, Rosemary; Watson, Jane M



Cosmic inflation and big bang interpreted as explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has become common understanding that the recession of galaxies and the corresponding redshift of light received from them can only be explained by an expansion of the space between them and us. In this paper, for the presently favored case of a universe without spatial curvature, it is shown that this interpretation is restricted to comoving coordinates. It is proven by construction that within the framework of general relativity other coordinates exist in relation to which these phenomena can be explained by a motion of the cosmic substrate across space, caused by an explosionlike big bang or by inflation preceding an almost big bang. At the place of an observer, this motion occurs without any spatial expansion. It is shown that in these “explosion coordinates” the usual redshift comes about by a Doppler shift and a subsequent gravitational shift. Making use of this interpretation, it can easily be understood why in comoving coordinates light rays of short spatial extension expand and thus constitute an exemption from the rule that small objects up to the size of the solar system or even galaxies do not participate in the expansion of the universe. It is also discussed how the two interpretations can be reconciled with each other.

Rebhan, E.



Statistical mechanics of program systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the collective behaviour of a set of operators and variables that constitute a program and the emergence of meaningful computational properties in the language of statistical mechanics. This is done by appropriately modifying available Monte Carlo methods to deal with hierarchical structures. The study suggests, in analogy with simulated annealing, a method to automatically design programs. Reasonable solutions can be found, at low temperatures, when the method is applied to simple toy problems such as finding an algorithm that determines the roots of a function or one that makes a nonlinear regression. Peaks in the specific heat are interpreted as signalling phase transitions which separate regions where different algorithmic strategies are used to solve the problem.

Neirotti, Juan P.; Caticha, Nestor



Statistics for laminar flamelet modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Statistical information required to support modeling of turbulent premixed combustion by laminar flamelet methods is extracted from a database of the results of Direct Numerical Simulation of turbulent flames. The simulations were carried out previously by Rutland (1989) using a pseudo-spectral code on a three dimensional mesh of 128 points in each direction. One-step Arrhenius chemistry was employed together with small heat release. A framework for the interpretation of the data is provided by the Bray-Moss-Libby model for the mean turbulent reaction rate. Probability density functions are obtained over surfaces of the constant reaction progress variable for the tangential strain rate and the principal curvature. New insights are gained which will greatly aid the development of modeling approaches.

Cant, R. S.; Rutland, C. J.; Trouve, A.



Interpreting meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies.  


Meta-analysis is an increasingly popular tool for combining multiple genome-wide association studies in a single analysis to identify associations with small effect sizes. The effect sizes between studies in a meta-analysis may differ and these differences, or heterogeneity, can be caused by many factors. If heterogeneity is observed in the results of a meta-analysis, interpreting the cause of heterogeneity is important because the correct interpretation can lead to a better understanding of the disease and a more effective design of a replication study. However, interpreting heterogeneous results is difficult. The standard approach of examining the association p-values of the studies does not effectively predict if the effect exists in each study. In this paper, we propose a framework facilitating the interpretation of the results of a meta-analysis. Our framework is based on a new statistic representing the posterior probability that the effect exists in each study, which is estimated utilizing cross-study information. Simulations and application to the real data show that our framework can effectively segregate the studies predicted to have an effect, the studies predicted to not have an effect, and the ambiguous studies that are underpowered. In addition to helping interpretation, the new framework also allows us to develop a new association testing procedure taking into account the existence of effect. PMID:22396665

Han, Buhm; Eskin, Eleazar



Interpreting Meta-Analyses of Genome-Wide Association Studies  

PubMed Central

Meta-analysis is an increasingly popular tool for combining multiple genome-wide association studies in a single analysis to identify associations with small effect sizes. The effect sizes between studies in a meta-analysis may differ and these differences, or heterogeneity, can be caused by many factors. If heterogeneity is observed in the results of a meta-analysis, interpreting the cause of heterogeneity is important because the correct interpretation can lead to a better understanding of the disease and a more effective design of a replication study. However, interpreting heterogeneous results is difficult. The standard approach of examining the association p-values of the studies does not effectively predict if the effect exists in each study. In this paper, we propose a framework facilitating the interpretation of the results of a meta-analysis. Our framework is based on a new statistic representing the posterior probability that the effect exists in each study, which is estimated utilizing cross-study information. Simulations and application to the real data show that our framework can effectively segregate the studies predicted to have an effect, the studies predicted to not have an effect, and the ambiguous studies that are underpowered. In addition to helping interpretation, the new framework also allows us to develop a new association testing procedure taking into account the existence of effect.

Han, Buhm; Eskin, Eleazar



Radiologists' Performance and Their Enjoyment of Interpreting Screening Mammograms  

PubMed Central

Objective One might speculate that radiologists who enjoy mammography may exhibit better performance than radiologists who do not. Materials and Methods One hundred thirty-one radiologists at three Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) registries completed a survey about their characteristics, clinical practices, and attitudes related to screening mammography. Survey results were linked with BCSC performance data for 662,084 screening and 33,977 diagnostic mammograms. Using logistic regression, we modeled the odds of an abnormal interpretation, cancer detection, sensitivity, and specificity among radiologists who reported they enjoy interpreting screening mammograms compared with those who do not. Results Overall, 44.3% of radiologists reported not enjoying interpreting screening mammograms. Radiologists who reported enjoying interpreting screening mammograms were more likely to be women, spend at least 20% of their time in breast imaging, have a primary academic affiliation, read more than 2,000 mammograms per year, and be salaried. Enjoyment was not associated with screening mammography performance. Among diagnostic mammograms, there was a significant increase in sensitivity among radiologists who reported enjoyment (85.2%) compared with those who did not (78.2%). In models adjusting for radiologist characteristics, similar trends were found; however, no statistically significant associations remained. Conclusion Almost one half of radiologists actively interpreting mammograms do not enjoy that part of their job. Once we adjusted for radiologist and patient characteristics, we found that reported enjoyment was not related to performance in our study, although suggestive trends were noted.

Geller, Berta M.; Bowles, Erin J. A.; Sohng, Hee Yon; Brenner, R. James; Miglioretti, Diana L.; Carney, Patricia A.; Elmore, Joann G.



Quantum Statistical Corrections to Astrophysical Photodisintegration Rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tabulated rates for astrophysical photodisintegration reactions make use of Boltzmann statistics for the photons involved as well as the interacting nuclei. Here, we derive analytic corrections for the Planck-spectrum quantum statistics of the photon energy distribution. These corrections can be deduced directly from the detailed balance condition without the assumption of equilibrium as long as the photons are represented by a Planck spectrum. Moreover, we show that these corrections affect not only the photodisintegration rates but also modify the conditions of nuclear statistical equilibrium as represented in the Saha equation. We deduce new analytic corrections to the classical Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics which can easily be added to the reverse reaction rates of existing reaction network tabulations. We show that the effects of quantum statistics, though generally quite small, always tend to speed up photodisintegration rates and are largest for nuclei and environments for which Q/kT ~ 1. As an illustration, we examine possible effects of these corrections on the r-process, the rp-process, explosive silicon burning, the ?-process, and big bang nucleosynthesis. We find that in most cases one is quite justified in neglecting these corrections. The correction is largest for reactions near the drip line for an r-process with very high neutron density, or an rp-process at high temperature.

Mathews, G. J.; Pehlivan, Yamac; Kajino, Toshitaka; Balantekin, A. B.; Kusakabe, Motohiko



Quantum Statistics and Astrophysical Photodisintegration Rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tabulated rates for astrophysical photodisintegration reactions make use of Boltzmann statistics for the photons as well as the interacting nuclei. Here we derive analytic corrections for the Planck-spectrum quantum statistics of the photon energy distribution. These are deduced directly from the detailed-balance condition without the assumption of equilibrium. We show that these corrections affect not only the photodisintegration rates but also modify the conditions of nuclear statistical equilibrium. We deduce new analytic corrections to the classical Maxwell- Boltzmann statistics which can easily be added to existing reaction network tabulations. We show that the effects of quantum statistics, though generally small, always tend to speed up photodisintegration rates and become significant for nuclei and environments for which Q/kT 5. We examine possible effects of these corrections on the r-process, the rp-process, the ?-process, and big bang nucleosynthesis. We find that, although in most cases one is justified in neglecting these corrections, several cases arise for which significant corrections could occur. These include an r-process with very high neutron density, or an rp- process with reactions dominated by a low-lying resonances and low proton separation energies.

Mathews, Grant; Pehlivan, Yamac; Kajino, Toshitaka; Balantekin, Baha



Directionality Effects in Simultaneous Language Interpreting: The Case of Sign Language Interpreters in the Netherlands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The quality of interpretations produced by sign language interpreters was investigated. Twenty-five experienced interpreters were instructed to interpret narratives from (a) spoken Dutch to Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN), (b) spoken Dutch to Sign Supported Dutch (SSD), and (c) SLN to spoken Dutch. The quality of the interpreted narratives…

van Dijk, Rick; Boers, Eveline; Christoffels, Ingrid; Hermans, Daan



Statistical signal characterization-new help for real-time processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author presents and explains statistical signal characterization (SSC), a technique by which certain easily measured time and amplitude attributes of a signal may be extracted and used to calculate a set of SSC parameters. It is shown how the SSC parameter extraction and statistical analysis processes can be accomplished at considerable savings in computational burden, compared to waveform processing

H. L. Hirsch



Optimal Nonbipartite Matching and Its Statistical Applications  

PubMed Central

Matching is a powerful statistical tool in design and analysis. Conventional two-group, or bipartite, matching has been widely used in practice. However, its utility is limited to simpler designs. In contrast, nonbipartite matching is not limited to the two-group case, handling multiparty matching situations. It can be used to find the set of matches that minimize the sum of distances based on a given distance matrix. It brings greater flexibility to the matching design, such as multigroup comparisons. Thanks to improvements in computing power and freely available algorithms to solve nonbipartite problems, the cost in terms of computation time and complexity is low. This article reviews the optimal nonbipartite matching algorithm and its statistical applications, including observational studies with complex designs and an exact distribution-free test comparing two multivariate distributions. We also introduce an R package that performs optimal nonbipartite matching. We present an easily accessible web application to make nonbipartite matching freely available to general researchers.

Lu, Bo; Greevy, Robert; Xu, Xinyi; Beck, Cole



Biostratinomic utility of Archimedes in environmental interpretation  

SciTech Connect

Biostratinomic information from the bryozoan Archimedes can be used to infer paleocurrent senses when other more traditional sedimentary structures are lacking. As with other elongate particles, Archimedes zooaria become oriented in the current and, upon settling, preserve a sense of the flow direction. Orientations and lengths were measured on over 200 individuals from bedding plane exposures in the Upper Mississippian Union Limestone (Greenbrier Group) of West Virginia. These were separated into long and short populations and plotted on rose diagrams. The results show that long and short segments become preferentially oriented in the current and the bimodally distributed long segments can be used to infer the current sense. The current sense is defined by the line which bisects the obtuse angle created by the two maxima in the rose diagram for long segments. Statistical evaluation of the long and short populations indicate they are significant to the 99.9 percent level. Elongate fossils such as Archimedes can be used in paleocurrent evaluations and can add more detail to the interpretation of paleodepositional conditions.

Wulff, J.I. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (USA))



Statistics and Graphing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Statistics play a vital role in the scientific enterprise. This activity provides background information and tutorials on basic statistics (mean, median, standard deviation, etc.) used in science. Topics include descriptive statistics (measures of central tendency and dispersion) and presenting data (tables, figures, and graphs). Sample datasets from actual scientific experiments are used to illustrate points. Links to an online statisitical tool and an online graphing application are also provided.

Laposata, Matt


Agricultural Statistics 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 1998 issue of this annual United States Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Statistics Service compendium is available (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only) from the Agricultural Statistics site. Its fifteen chapters consist of time series tables covering all aspects of the US agricultural economy, including crops, livestock, farm income and expenses, price-support, and fertilizer and pesticides. Time series and geographic coverage vary. The site also contains national and state tables and an archive of Agricultural Statistics back to 1994.


Statistics for Ecologists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Website, maintained by Carlos Herrera of the Donana Biological Station in Seville, Spain, is "a collection of links to sites with mathematical and statistical material (software, documents) which may be useful to ecologists and evolutionary ecologists." Organized into eight sections, the site points users to resources from Ecologically-oriented software to General Statistical Libraries. For graduate students and researchers alike, this statistics resource is sure to come in handy.


Statistics and Data Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online introductory statistics textbook covers basic descriptive, statistical, and graphical procedures for analyzing data sets and contains three data sets and a practice final exam. Chapter headings include: descriptive statistics, probability, resampling, discrete probability models, continuous probability models, central limit theorem, confidence intervals, tests of hypotheses, estimation of effect: two independent samples, design of experiments, and regression. The relation to this site includes exercises.

Abebe, Asheber; Daniels, John E.; Kapenga, J. A.; Mckean, Joe W.



Simple Interactive Statistical Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Simple Interactive Statistical Analysis (SISA), designed by a research consultant in the Netherlands, "allows you to do statistical analysis directly on the Internet." The program will calculate a variety of statistical procedures, including T-Tests, Poisson Distributions, and other calculations. The ability to perform analysis online provides users an opportunity to assess the software, which is also for sale. The Guide to Procedures provides helpful explanations of the different statistical procedures and guidelines for deciding on the appropriate procedure and filling out the calculation form. Numerous spreadsheets are also available to download.


Statistical distribution sampling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Determining the distribution of statistics by sampling was investigated. Characteristic functions, the quadratic regression problem, and the differential equations for the characteristic functions are analyzed.

Johnson, E. S.



Black hole statistics  

SciTech Connect

The quantum statistics of charged, extremal black holes is investigated beginning with the hypothesis that the quantum state is a functional on the space of closed three-geometries, with each black hole connected to an oppositely charged black hole through a spatial wormhole. From this starting point a simple argument is given that a collection of extremal black holes obeys neither Bose nor Fermi statistics. Rather, they obey an exotic variety of particle statistics known as infinite statistics'' which resembles that of distinguishable particles and is realized by a [ital q] deformation of the quantum commutation relations.

Strominger, A. (Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, University of California (enSanta Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)))



Statistics Canada = Statistique Canada  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Statistics Canada, a national statistical agency, offers this excellent collection on the economic and social conditions in Canada. Statistical information is divided into four broad topics: The Land, The People, The Economy, and the State. Within each are a number of sub-topics which offer lists of statistical tables. Newly released data, research papers, downloadable publications (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only), and notices of seminars and conferences are featured in addition to The Daily, a collection of the latest news releases and publications from the agency. This site can be viewed in English or French. Note that there is a combination of free and fee based material available.



Federal Law Enforcement Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Supplies census statistics about federal employees with law enforcement authority. Provides additional information about the functionality, budget, expenditures, and staffing of federal crime labs and police departments.

Justice, U. S.


Direct interpretation of dreams: typology.  


The dream typology assorts dreams into three major categories: dreams whose origin is endogenous, exogenous, or relational. Dreams of the first type arise from somatic needs, feelings, and states that accompany organismic adjustments to system requirements. Dreams of the second type are initiated by kinetic and dispositional tendencies toward engagement and exploration of the outer world. And dreams of the third type derive from interpersonal dispositions to interaction and relationship with other people. Within each category, dreams may occur at different levels of complexity. The dream typology permits the integration of psychoanalytic observations about the dreams from a variety of perspectives within a common framework. Freud's view that a dream is a wish fulfillment finds its primary niche in endogenous need, wish fulfillment, and convenience dreams. Kohut's observations about self-state dreams and inner regulation (1971, 1977) are accommodated to the middle range of endogenous dreams, and Jung's individuation dreams (1930) occupy the advanced range. Similarly, Bonime's interpersonal approach to dream interpretation (1962) is encompassed by relational dreams of the middle level. In addition, types and modes of dreams that are only infrequently encountered in clinical psychoanalysis are accommodated. The dream typology suggests that different psychoanalytic theories are like the position papers that might have derived from the fabled committee of learned blind who were commissioned to determine the appearance of an elephant. Each individual got a hold on some part, but could not see the whole; so for each, the part became the whole. The psychoanalytic theorist is in exactly an analogous position because, in fact, he is blind to the extent of the unconscious and is constrained to what he can infer. What he can infer depends on cohort, client population, and how he calibrates his observations. The result has been procrustean interpretation, dissention, and a remarkable stasis in the psychoanalytic theory of the unconscious. The theory of the unconscious that arises from the method of direct interpretation reflects a differentiated inner world with variegated landscapes of images and frameworks. The derivatives of the unconscious are determined by complex decision rules, symbol systems, and syntax. Images and dreams possess a primary autonomy from the conscious mind and arise through the configural mind, which serves the construction and synthesis of experience and knowledge. The derivatives emerge out of common human nature conjoined with concrete human experience. For this reason, dreams and images appear universal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1489016

van den Daele, L



Glaciation of northwestern Wyoming interpreted from ERTS-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of ERTS Imagery has shown a number of alpine glacial features can be recognized and mapped successfully. Although the Wyoming mountains are generally regarded as the type locality for Rocky Mountain glaciation some areas have not been studied from a glacial standpoint because of inaccessibility or lack of topographic control. ERTS imagery provides an excellent base for this type of regional geomorphic study. A map of maximum extent of Wisconsin Ice, flow directions and major glacial features was compiled from interpretation of the ERTS imagery. Features which can be mapped are large moraines, outwash fans and terraces. Present-day glaciers and snowfields are easily discriminated and mapped. Glaciers and glacial deposits which serve as aquifers play a significant role in the hydrologic cycle and are important because of the increasing demand placed on our water resources. ERTS provides a quick and effective method for change detection and inventory of these vital resources.

Breckenridge, R. M.



The wetland continuum: a conceptual framework for interpreting biological studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We describe a conceptual model, the wetland continuum, which allows wetland managers, scientists, and ecologists to consider simultaneously the influence of climate and hydrologic setting on wetland biological communities. Although multidimensional, the wetland continuum is most easily represented as a two-dimensional gradient, with ground water and atmospheric water constituting the horizontal and vertical axis, respectively. By locating the position of a wetland on both axes of the continuum, the potential biological expression of the wetland can be predicted at any point in time. The model provides a framework useful in the organization and interpretation of biological data from wetlands by incorporating the dynamic changes these systems undergo as a result of normal climatic variation rather than placing them into static categories common to many wetland classification systems. While we developed this model from the literature available for depressional wetlands in the prairie pothole region of North America, we believe the concept has application to wetlands in many other geographic locations.

Euliss, N. H., Jr.; LaBaugh, J. W.; Fredrickson, L. H.; Mushet, D. M.; Swanson, G. A.; Winter, T. C.; Rosenberry, D. O.; Nelson, R. D.



Catalytic Nonoxidation Dehydrogenation of Ethane Over Fe-Ni Catalysts Supported on Mg (Al)O to Produce Hydrogen and Easily Purified Carbon Nanotubes  

SciTech Connect

Nonoxidative decomposition of ethane was conducted over monometallic Ni and bimetallic Fe-Ni catalysts on basic Mg(Al)O support to produce H2 free of CO and CO2 and easily purified carbon nanotubes, a potentially valuable byproduct. The Mg(Al)O support was prepared by calcination of synthetic MgAl-hydrotalcite with a Mg to Al ratio of 5. The catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness with total metal loadings of 5 wt %. The dehydrogenation of undiluted ethane was conducted at temperatures of 500, 650, and 700 C. At 500 C, the Ni/Mg(Al)O catalyst was highly active and very stable with 100% conversion of ethane to 20 vol % H2 and 80 vol % CH4. However, the bimetallic Fe-Ni/Mg(Al)O exhibited its best performance at 650 C, yielding 65 vol % H2, 10 vol % CH4, and 25 vol % unreacted ethane. The product carbon was in the form of carbon nanotubes (CNT) at all three reaction temperatures, but the morphology of the CNT depended on both the catalyst composition and reaction temperature. The CNTs were formed by a tip-growth mechanism over the Mg(Al)O supported catalysts and were easily purified by a one-step dilute nitric acid treatment. Mossbauer spectroscopy, X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, TEM, STEM, TGA, and XRD were used to characterize the catalysts and the CNT, revealing the catalytic mechanisms.

Shen,W.; Wang, Y.; Shi, X.; Shah, N.; Huggins, F.; Bollineni, S.; Seehra, M.; Huffman, G.




EPA Science Inventory

Aerial Photographic Interpretation is a timed-tested technique for extracting landscape- level information from aerial photographs and other types of remotely sensed images. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) has a 2...


Interpretation of Pulsed Eddy Current (PEC) Inspection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief description of the method of interpreting pulsed eddy current (PEC) inspection results obtained from postirradiated nuclear fuel pins is discussed. Interpretation of pulsed eddy current inspection results is based on a combination of scientific fa...

G. C. Langner



The Interpretation of Electron Microscope Fractographs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report was prepared to aid the relative newcomer to electron fractography in the interpretation of fractographs. Accurate interpretation depends on understanding the effects of electron microscope and replica variables on photographic densities in the...

C. D. Beachem



Interpreting neurodynamics: concepts and facts  

PubMed Central

The dynamics of neuronal systems, briefly neurodynamics, has developed into an attractive and influential research branch within neuroscience. In this paper, we discuss a number of conceptual issues in neurodynamics that are important for an appropriate interpretation and evaluation of its results. We demonstrate their relevance for selected topics of theoretical and empirical work. In particular, we refer to the notions of determinacy and stochasticity in neurodynamics across levels of microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic descriptions. The issue of correlations between neural, mental and behavioral states is also addressed in some detail. We propose an informed discussion of conceptual foundations with respect to neurobiological results as a viable step to a fruitful future philosophy of neuroscience.

Rotter, Stefan



Digitally interpreting traditional folk crafts.  


Preserving cultural heritage requires that objects persist throughout time and continue to communicate an intended meaning. Owing to the decreasing number of masters of folk crafts, fading technologies, and crafts losing economic ground, computer-based preservation and interpretation of such crafts is necessary. To fabricate and preserve traditional crafts, a long-term applied-research project has combined mathematics and software tools with compact, cheap, and environmentally friendly desktop fabrication tools, including 3D printers. Case studies involving the digital capture of Japanese lacquerware and Norwegian carvings illustrate the project's modeling approach and fabrication system. Besides modeling existing artifacts, the project includes Web presentations of the models, automated model fabrication, and experimental manufacturing of new designs and forms. PMID:24808155

Vilbrandt, T; Vilbrandt, C; Pasko, G I; Stamm, C; Pasko, A



Interpretation of the adult polysomnogram.  


Polysomnography provides information on the physiological changes occurring in many different organ systems in relation to sleep stages and wakefulness. It allows qualitative and quantitative documentation of abnormalities of sleep and wakefulness, of sleep-wake transition, and of physiological function of other organ systems that are influenced by sleep. Polysomnography is considered to be the "gold standard" for diagnosing sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and other sleep disorders; however, as with most other diagnostic tests, polysomnography is not ideal, but is rather the best available method to diagnose SDB. Review of clinical history, pre- and post study questionnaires, medications, and technician's comments at the time of interpreting the PSG provides a unique opportunity to correlate clinical and electrophysiological data, and is a good investment of time toward improving patient outcomes and avoidance of unnecessary testing. PMID:17606020

Kakkar, Rahul K; Hill, Gilbert K



Family Violence Statistics Including Statistics on Strangers and Acquaintances.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This compendium contains the most recent family violence statistics from these sources: surveys conducted by the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), the BJS database of Federal statistics, and two statistical databases maintained by the FBI. The sources p...



Pattern statistics on Markov chains and sensitivity to parameter estimation  

PubMed Central

Background: In order to compute pattern statistics in computational biology a Markov model is commonly used to take into account the sequence composition. Usually its parameter must be estimated. The aim of this paper is to determine how sensitive these statistics are to parameter estimation, and what are the consequences of this variability on pattern studies (finding the most over-represented words in a genome, the most significant common words to a set of sequences,...). Results: In the particular case where pattern statistics (overlap counting only) computed through binomial approximations we use the delta-method to give an explicit expression of ?, the standard deviation of a pattern statistic. This result is validated using simulations and a simple pattern study is also considered. Conclusion: We establish that the use of high order Markov model could easily lead to major mistakes due to the high sensitivity of pattern statistics to parameter estimation.

Nuel, Gregory



[Guidelines for writing biomedical articles containing statistical figures and analysis].  


Some advices are provided in order to make statistical figures and analyses more correct in biomedical articles. The sample size has an outstanding significance. Analysing different statistical relationships the requirements of biometry should be fulfilled (number and distribution of data etc.) and interpretation of statistical findings could be done only within the domain of minimal and maximal values of independent variable. Extrapolation is not recommended due to the specific nature of the biomedical system. In some cases laboratory data should be transformed mathematically and the results of subsequent statistical calculations should be retransformed back into the biomedical system. PMID:15027335

Rácz, Zoltán



Collaborative Learning and Interpretation of Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although there is abundant theoretical matter concerning the critical role that various interpretive communities play in making meanings of literary texts, most scholars do not take up the matter of the composition of these interpretive groups in their university classrooms. How may the interpretive strategies of groups of students change over the…

Mayo, Wendell


An Online Synchronous Test for Professional Interpreters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is based on an experiment designed to conduct an interpreting test for multiple candidates online, using web-based synchronous cyber classrooms. The test model was based on the accreditation test for Professional Interpreters produced by the National Accreditation Authority of Translators and Interpreters (NAATI) in Australia.…

Chen, Nian-Shing; Ko, Leong



Social phobia and interpretation of social events  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that social phobia may be characterized by two interpretation biases. First, a tendency to interpret ambiguous social events in a negative fashion. Second, a tendency to interpret unambiguous but mildly negative social events in a catastrophic fashion. To assess this possibility, patients with generalized social phobia, equally anxious patients with another anxiety disorder, and non-patient controls

Lusia Stopa; David M Clark



Negative interpretation bias in social phobia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the hypothesis that, compared to non-anxious controls (NACs) and individuals with other anxiety disorders (e.g., individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder; OCs), individuals with generalized social phobia (GSPs) would tend to interpret ambiguous social scenarios as negative when provided with various alternative interpretations. Participants were presented with 22 ambiguous scenarios each followed by three possible interpretations: positive, negative, and

Nader Amin; Edna B. Foa; Meredith E. Coles




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Comprehension and Error Monitoring in Simultaneous Interpreters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the current study we explored lexical, syntactic, and semantic processes during text comprehension in English monolinguals and Spanish/English (first language/second language) bilinguals with different experience in interpreting (nontrained bilinguals, interpreting students and professional interpreters). The participants performed an…

Yudes, Carolina; Macizo, Pedro; Morales, Luis; Bajo, M. Teresa



Statistical metrology for interlevel dielectric thickness variation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistical metrology seeks to assess the sources and magnitude of variation in semiconductor manufacturing. The methodology emphasizes electrical measurements resulting from short process flows, statistical design of experiments and analysis of data, and close coupling to technology computer aided design tools for the interpretation of data. In this paper, we apply statistical metrology to interlevel dielectric thickness variation. Capacitive test structures, in conjunction with resistive line width structures and two-dimensional capacitance simulations, are used to estimate ILD thickness for a variety of layout and process factors in a poly-metal BPSG planarization process. The methodology is successful in highlighting the key factors, including underlying structure line width spacing,and finger length that impact ILD thickness. Future work will examine other planarization processes, including chemical mechanical polishing.

Boning, Duane S.; Maung, Tinaung; Chung, James E.; Chang, Keh-Jeng; Oh, Soo-Young; Bartelink, Dirk



Statistical methods for environmental pollution monitoring  

SciTech Connect

This volume covers planning, design, and data analysis. It offers statistical methods for designing environmental sampling and monitoring programs as well as analyzing the resulting data. Statistical sample survey methods to problems of estimating average and total amounts of environmental pollution are presented in detail. The book also provides a broad array of statistical analysis methods for many purposes...numerous examples...three case studies...end-of-chapter codes (showing what output looks like along with its interpretation)...a discussion of Kriging methods for estimating pollution concentration contours over space and/or time...nomographs for determining the number of samples required to detect hot spots with specified confidence...and a description and tables for conducting Rosner's test to identify outlaying (usually large) pollution measurements in a data set.

Gilbert, R.O.



Some More Statistical Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A continuation of a previous unit, expanding to talk about standard deviation, tell some stories about statistics, show what statistics is, and provide three computer programs to demonstrate activities one may do in class, or students may use independently. In passing, it answers the question: How can you tell if the coin flips or the dice are random?

Langan, James F.



Finite Order Statistic Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet is a simulation of the experiment of selecting n objects at random from the first m positive integers. The random variables of interest are the order statistics. The applet illustrates the distributions of the order statistics.

Siegrist, Kyle



EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the Disability Statistics Center is to produce and disseminate statistical information on disability and the status of people with disabilities in American society and to establish and monitor indicators of how conditions are changing over time to meet their health...


Demonstrating Poisson Statistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an apparatus that offers a very lucid demonstration of Poisson statistics as applied to electrical currents, and the manner in which such statistics account for shot noise when applied to macroscopic currents. The experiment described is intended for undergraduate physics students. (HM)

Vetterling, William T.



Wisconsin energy statistics, 1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

The statistics in this report are organized as follows: Chapter 2 presents Wisconsin's total use of energy resources, disaggregated by fuel type and by economic sector (i.e., residential, commercial, industrial, electric utility, agricultural, and transportation sectors). Chapter 3 contains more detailed statistics grouped by fuel type (petroleum, natural gas, coal and electricity). Chapter 4 is the expanded section on renewable




Explorations in Statistics: Power  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This fifth installment of "Explorations in Statistics" revisits power, a concept fundamental to the test of a null hypothesis. Power is the probability that we reject the null hypothesis when it is false. Four things affect…

Curran-Everett, Douglas



Elementary Concepts in Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This introductory statistics introduction, by StatSoft, gives an overview of variables, classifications, measurements, relations, and other basic statistical concepts. There are also two animated graphs illustrating density and distribution functions, as well as how sample size influences sampling distribution.



Statistical Region Merging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract - This paper explores a statistical basis for a process often described in computer vision: image segmentation by region merging following a particular order in the choice of regions We exhibit a particular blend of algorithmics and statistics whose segmentation error is, as we show, limited from both the qualitative and quantitative standpoints approximated in linear time\\/space, leading to

Richard Nock; Frank Nielsen



Defence Statistics 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new UK government report are from the House of Commons Library contains statistics on defense spending and manpower and addresses "the problems involved in using such statistics, particularly when making international comparisons." The report also contains numerous graphs and tables.

Library., Great B.; Morgan, Bryn.



Issues in Labor Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics collects "succinct, up-to-the-minute background papers on current topics" at the Issues in Labor Statistics publication page. Each two-page edition addresses labor topics as diverse as auto dealer employment and highway fatalities with graphical summaries and BLS contacts for additional information.


Water Quality Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water quality experiments, especially the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of water quality, offer an ideal context for connecting statistics and science. In the STAR program for secondary students and teachers, water quality experiments were also used as a context for teaching statistics. In this article, we trace one activity that uses…

Hodgson, Ted; Andersen, Lyle; Robison-Cox, Jim; Jones, Clain



Objectivity and Multivariate Statistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Issues the author has explored in his work on the philosophy of statistics are reviewed. Indeterminacy, the place of empiricism, questions of causation and causality, and explorations of language have preceded the study of objectivity. The relationship between objectivity and multivariate statistics is examined. (SLD)

Mulaik, Stanley A.



Applied Statistics with SPSS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accessibly written and easy to use, "Applied Statistics Using SPSS" is an all-in-one self-study guide to SPSS and do-it-yourself guide to statistics. What is unique about Eelko Huizingh's approach is that this book is based around the needs of undergraduate students embarking on their own research project, and its self-help style is designed to…

Huizingh, Eelko K. R. E.



Statistical Science Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains links in several statistical categories, including other meta-sites (catalogs), universities, statistics departments, software, journals, data sets, methodology, conferences, and teaching, among others. It has an Australian flavor, but is international in scope. Gordon K. Smyth, Research scientist and mathematician, maintains this site.



Statistical mechanics of pluripotency.  


Recent reports using single-cell profiling have indicated a remarkably dynamic view of pluripotent stem cell identity. Here, we argue that the pluripotent state is not well defined at the single-cell level but rather is a statistical property of stem cell populations, amenable to analysis using the tools of statistical mechanics and information theory. PMID:23911316

MacArthur, Ben D; Lemischka, Ihor R



Bayesian statistics for parasitologists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bayesian statistical methods are increasingly being used in the analysis of parasitological data. Here, the basis of differences between the Bayesian method and the classical or frequentist approach to statistical inference is explained. This is illustrated with practical implications of Bayesian analyses using prevalence estimation of strongyloidiasis and onchocerciasis as two relevant examples. The strongyloidiasis example addresses the problem of

Mar??a-Gloria Basáñez; Clare Marshall; Hélène Carabin; Theresa Gyorkos; Lawrence Joseph



Multidimensional Visual Statistical Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies of visual statistical learning (VSL) have demonstrated that statistical regularities in sequences of visual stimuli can be automatically extracted, even without intent or awareness. Despite much work on this topic, however, several fundamental questions remain about the nature of VSL. In particular, previous experiments have not…

Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.; Isola, Phillip J.; Scholl, Brian J.; Treat, Teresa A.



Adaptive training class statistics.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Formulas are derived for updating the mean vector and covariance matrix of a training class as new training fields are included and old training fields deleted from the class. These statistics of the class are expressed in terms of the already available statistics of the fields.

Kan, E. P. F.



Statistical Reference Datasets: Archives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The datasets on this page are classified by analysis techniqueand by level of difficulty (lower, average, higher). They were originally intended to test statistical software. The sets cover these topics: ANOVA, linear regression, Markov Chain Monte Carlo, nonlinear regression, and univariate summary statistics. This is a nice collection as it not only contains raw data but also helps explain the different methods and tests.



Overhead Image Statistics  

SciTech Connect

Statistical properties of high-resolution overhead images representing different land use categories are analyzed using various local and global statistical image properties based on the shape of the power spectrum, image gradient distributions, edge co-occurrence, and inter-scale wavelet coefficient distributions. The analysis was performed on a database of high-resolution (1 meter) overhead images representing a multitude of different downtown, suburban, commercial, agricultural and wooded exemplars. Various statistical properties relating to these image categories and their relationship are discussed. The categorical variations in power spectrum contour shapes, the unique gradient distribution characteristics of wooded categories, the similarity in edge co-occurrence statistics for overhead and natural images, and the unique edge co-occurrence statistics of downtown categories are presented in this work. Though previous work on natural image statistics has showed some of the unique characteristics for different categories, the relationships for overhead images are not well understood. The statistical properties of natural images were used in previous studies to develop prior image models, to predict and index objects in a scene and to improve computer vision models. The results from our research findings can be used to augment and adapt computer vision algorithms that rely on prior image statistics to process overhead images, calibrate the performance of overhead image analysis algorithms, and derive features for better discrimination of overhead image categories.

Vijayaraj, Veeraraghavan [ORNL; Cheriyadat, Anil M [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL; Bright, Eddie A [ORNL



Explorations in Statistics: Regression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This seventh installment of "Explorations in Statistics" explores regression, a technique that estimates the nature of the relationship between two things for which we may only surmise a mechanistic or predictive connection.…

Curran-Everett, Douglas



Statistical Decision Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The foundations of a general theory of statistical decision functions, including the classical non-sequential case as well as the sequential case, was discussed by the author in a previous publication [3]. Several assumptions made in [3] appear, however, to be unnecessarily restrictive (see conditions 1-7, pp. 297 in [3]). These assumptions, moreover, are not always fulfilled for statistical problems in

Abraham Wald



Which statistics should tropical biologists learn?  


Tropical biologists study the richest and most endangered biodiversity in the planet, and in these times of climate change and mega-extinctions, the need for efficient, good quality research is more pressing than in the past. However, the statistical component in research published by tropical authors sometimes suffers from poor quality in data collection; mediocre or bad experimental design and a rigid and outdated view of data analysis. To suggest improvements in their statistical education, we listed all the statistical tests and other quantitative analyses used in two leading tropical journals, the Revista de Biología Tropical and Biotropica, during a year. The 12 most frequent tests in the articles were: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Chi-Square Test, Student's T Test, Linear Regression, Pearson's Correlation Coefficient, Mann-Whitney U Test, Kruskal-Wallis Test, Shannon's Diversity Index, Tukey's Test, Cluster Analysis, Spearman's Rank Correlation Test and Principal Component Analysis. We conclude that statistical education for tropical biologists must abandon the old syllabus based on the mathematical side of statistics and concentrate on the correct selection of these and other procedures and tests, on their biological interpretation and on the use of reliable and friendly freeware. We think that their time will be better spent understanding and protecting tropical ecosystems than trying to learn the mathematical foundations of statistics: in most cases, a well designed one-semester course should be enough for their basic requirements. PMID:22017105

Loaiza Velásquez, Natalia; González Lutz, María Isabel; Monge-Nájera, Julián



STATS: Statistical Assessment Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Statistical Assessment Service (STATS) is a "non-partisan, non-profit research organization that serves as a resource for journalists by providing timely and well-researched analysis of current statistical and scientific disputes." STATS offers articles written by statistical experts in two formats -- selections from columns published in the national press and a monthly online newsletter, VitalSTATS. STATS also features a searchable archive of previous publications. The standard STATS article addresses some statistical information that has recently been widely distributed by the press and considers the potential or already-committed fallacies of reasoning the data is subject to in the hands of headline-seeking journalists. Visitors may find the Dubious Data Awards of 2000 particularly amusing as they give the top ten "silliest, most misleading stories of the New Millennium." Some people say statistics lie, but STATS offers itself as their Joe Friday, insisting that we take from them "just the facts."


Australian Bureau of Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those looking for statistical information on a broad set of themes and geographical areas within Australia, they should visit the Australian Bureau of Statistics Web site. From the main page, visitors can view recent statistical reports, such as the Australian Consumer Price Index, information about the labor force (e.g., employment rates), and a series of occasional papers. Particularly helpful to the casual user will be the Themes section, which provides summary statistics about the environment, tourism, transportation, economic well-being, and education. Additionally, the Bureau publishes reports organized by administrative and regional divisions of the country, a feature that will be helpful to students doing research on a particular area of the country. If users are seeking to learn more about the organization, history, and mission of the Australian Bureau of Statistics, they will find this material located under the About the ABS section of the site.



Statistical application of groundwater monitoring data at the Hanford Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective use of groundwater monitoring data requires both statistical and geohydrologic interpretations. At the Hanford Site in south-central Washington state such interpretations are used for (1) detection monitoring, assessment monitoring, and\\/or corrective action at Resource Conservation and Recovery Act sites; (2) compliance testing for operational groundwater surveillance; (3) impact assessments at active liquid-waste disposal sites; and (4) cleanup decisions at

C. J. Chou; V. G. Johnson; F. N. Hodges



Surveys Assessing Students' Attitudes toward Statistics: A Systematic Review of Validity and Reliability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students with positive attitudes toward statistics are likely to show strong academic performance in statistics courses. Multiple surveys measuring students' attitudes toward statistics exist; however, a comparison of the validity and reliability of interpretations based on their scores is needed. A systematic review of relevant electronic…

Nolan, Meaghan M.; Beran, Tanya; Hecker, Kent G.



Order Statistics and Robust Inference.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper falls under two headings: Order Statistics and Nonparametric Statistics. Topics investigated include the following: robustness and estimation in the presence of outliers; inequalities for order statistics and functions of order statistics; movi...

R. A. David



Adoption and Foster Care Statistics  


... Research » Adoption & Foster Care Statistics Adoption & Foster Care Statistics The Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting ... accurately. State-by-State Adoption and Foster Care Statistics State-Specific Adoption Statistics 2012 2011 2010 2009 ...


Statistics at a glance.  


I still remember my first book on statistics: "Elementary statistics with applications in medicine and the biological sciences" by Frederick E. Croxton. For me, it has been the start of pursuing understanding statistics in daily life and in medical practice. It was the first volume in a long row of books. In his introduction, Croxton pretends that"nearly everyone involved in any aspect of medicine needs to have some knowledge of statistics". The reality is that for many clinicians, statistics are limited to a "P < 0.05 = ok". I do not blame my colleagues who omit the paragraph on statistical methods. They have never had the opportunity to learn concise and clear descriptions of the key features. I have experienced how some authors can describe difficult methods in a well understandable language. Others fail completely. As a teacher, I tell my students that life is impossible without a basic knowledge of statistics. This feeling has resulted in an annual seminar of 90 minutes. This tutorial is the summary of this seminar. It is a summary and a transcription of the best pages I have detected. PMID:21302664

Ector, Hugo



Using continuous DNA interpretation methods to revisit likelihood ratio behaviour.  


Continuous DNA interpretation systems make use of more information from DNA profiles than analysts have previously been able to with binary, threshold based systems. With these new continuous DNA interpretation systems and a new, more powerful, DNA profiling kit (GlobalFiler) there is an opportunity to re-examine the behaviour of a commonly used statistic in forensic science, the likelihood ratio (LR). The theoretical behaviour of the LR has been known for some time, although in many instances the behaviour has not been able to be thoroughly demonstrated due to limitations of the biological and mathematical models being used. In this paper the effects of profile complexity, replicate amplifications, assuming contributors, adding incorrect information, and adding irrelevant information to the calculation of the LR are explored. The empirical results are compared to theoretical expectations and explained. The work finishes with the results being used to dispel common misconceptions around reliability, accuracy, informativeness and reproducibility. PMID:24727432

Taylor, Duncan



Bioinformatics for personal genome interpretation  

PubMed Central

An international consortium released the first draft sequence of the human genome 10 years ago. Although the analysis of this data has suggested the genetic underpinnings of many diseases, we have not yet been able to fully quantify the relationship between genotype and phenotype. Thus, a major current effort of the scientific community focuses on evaluating individual predispositions to specific phenotypic traits given their genetic backgrounds. Many resources aim to identify and annotate the specific genes responsible for the observed phenotypes. Some of these use intra-species genetic variability as a means for better understanding this relationship. In addition, several online resources are now dedicated to collecting single nucleotide variants and other types of variants, and annotating their functional effects and associations with phenotypic traits. This information has enabled researchers to develop bioinformatics tools to analyze the rapidly increasing amount of newly extracted variation data and to predict the effect of uncharacterized variants. In this work, we review the most important developments in the field—the databases and bioinformatics tools that will be of utmost importance in our concerted effort to interpret the human variome.

Nehrt, Nathan L.; Kann, Maricel G.; Bromberg, Yana



Guide to Magellan image interpretation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of Magellan Mission requirements, radar system characteristics, and methods of data collection is followed by a description of the image data, mosaic formats, areal coverage, resolution, and pixel DN-to-dB conversion. The availability and sources of image data are outlined. Applications of the altimeter data to estimate relief, Fresnel reflectivity, and surface slope, and the radiometer data to derive microwave emissivity are summarized and illustrated in conjunction with corresponding SAR image data. Same-side and opposite-side stereo images provide examples of parallax differences from which to measure relief with a lateral resolution many times greater than that of the altimeter. Basic radar interactions with geologic surfaces are discussed with respect to radar-imaging geometry, surface roughness, backscatter modeling, and dielectric constant. Techniques are described for interpreting the geomorphology and surface properties of surficial features, impact craters, tectonically deformed terrain, and volcanic landforms. The morphologic characteristics that distinguish impact craters from volcanic craters are defined. Criteria for discriminating extensional and compressional origins of tectonic features are discussed. Volcanic edifices, constructs, and lava channels are readily identified from their radar outlines in images. Geologic map units are identified on the basis of surface texture, image brightness, pattern, and morphology. Superposition, cross-cutting relations, and areal distribution of the units serve to elucidate the geologic history.

Ford, John P.; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Weitz, Catherine M.; Farr, Tom G.; Senske, David A.; Stofan, Ellen R.; Michaels, Gregory; Parker, Timothy J.; Fulton, D. (editor)



Image Interpretation of Coastal Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coasts were formed with the overall shape of earth's surface. ?hey represent a landform, as determined by the science of geomorphology. Being the boundary between land and sea, they present important features - particularities such as water currents, waves, winds, estuaries, drainage network, pollution etc. Coasts are examined at various levels: continents - oceans, states - large seas, as for example Mediterranean Sea. Greece, because of its horizontal and vertical partitioning, presents great extent and variety of coasts as mainland, peninsulas and islands. Depending on geomorphology, geology, soils, hydrology, land use of the inland and the coasts themselves, these are very diverse. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (defined by Statute II of ISPRS) is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information from non-contact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and of processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation. This paper concerns critical considerations on the above. It also includes the case of Thessaloniki coasts in Greece, particularly river estuaries areas (river delta). The study of coastal areas of the wide surroundings of Thessaloniki city includes visual image interpretation - digital image processing techniques on satellite data of high spatial resolution.

Lazaridou, M. A.



Normativity, interpretation, and Bayesian models  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that evaluative normativity should be expunged from the psychology of reasoning. A broadly Davidsonian response to these arguments is presented. It is suggested that two distinctions, between different types of rationality, are more permeable than this argument requires and that the fundamental objection is to selecting theories that make the most rational sense of the data. It is argued that this is inevitable consequence of radical interpretation where understanding others requires assuming they share our own norms of reasoning. This requires evaluative normativity and it is shown that when asked to evaluate others’ arguments participants conform to rational Bayesian norms. It is suggested that logic and probability are not in competition and that the variety of norms is more limited than the arguments against evaluative normativity suppose. Moreover, the universality of belief ascription suggests that many of our norms are universal and hence evaluative. It is concluded that the union of evaluative normativity and descriptive psychology implicit in Davidson and apparent in the psychology of reasoning is a good thing.

Oaksford, Mike



Criminal Justice Statistics Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by the Attorney General of California, this site "contains more than 3,400 statistical tables, 59 reports, 26 publications as well as links to federal, state, and local agency statistics." Recently posted materials include the Report on Violent Crimes Committed Against Senior Citizens in California, 1998 and Crime 1999 in Selected California Jurisdictions, January through June, Preliminary Report. The site posts statistics on every aspect of crime and corrections in the nation's most populous state, including types of crimes, arrests, expenditures, prison populations, probation, and more. Data tables are generally in .pdf format; reports are offered in .pdf and/or HTML formats.


Weakly nonadditive Polychronakos statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-parameter fractional statistics is proposed, which can be used to model a weakly interacting Bose system. It is shown that the parameters of the introduced weakly nonadditive Polychronakos statistics can be linked to the effects of interactions as well as to finite-size corrections. Calculations are made of the specific heat and condensate fraction of the model system corresponding to harmonically trapped Rb-87 atoms. The behavior of the specific heat of three-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillators with respect tothe statistics parameters is studied in the temperature domain including the BEC-like phase-transition point.

Rovenchak, Andrij



Cancer Statistics, 2003  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site contains a recent report on cancer statistics prepared by the American Cancer Society (ACS) that uses incidence data from the National Cancer Institute and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. The report offers "an up-to-date perspective on the occurrence of cancer" in the United States, including cancer frequency, incidence, mortality, and survival statistics for 2003. The Web site provides links to similar articles, the PubMed citation for the report and other bibliographic resources, and a course based on the article from ACS Online Continuing Medical Education for credit toward the Physician's Recognition Award of the American Medical Association (free registration required).

Ghafoor, Asma.; Jemal, Ahmedin.; Murray, Taylor.; Samuels, Alicia.; Thun, Michael J.; Ward, Elizabeth.



Statistics and Probability Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial, created by Harvey Berman of Stat Trek, provides a basic introduction to many topics in statistics and probability. Topics include: sets and subsets, statistical experiments, counting, basic probability rules, Bayes' theorem, probability distributions, discrete versus continuous, binomial, negative binomial, hypergeometric, multinomial, Poisson, normal, sampling theory, central tendency, variability, sampling distributions, t-distribution, Chi-square distribution, F-distribution, estimation problems, hypothesis testing, power, survey sampling, simple random samples, stratified samples, cluster samples, sample size. This is a general overview of statistics and probability. It is geared towards a high school advanced placement level.

Berman, Harvey



Useful effect size interpretations for single case research.  


An obstacle to broader acceptability of effect sizes in single case research is their lack of intuitive and useful interpretations. Interpreting Cohen's d as "standard deviation units difference" and R2 as "percent of variance accounted for" do not resound with most visual analysts. In fact, the only comparative analysis widely supported in single case research (SCR) is "percent of nonoverlapping data." This article explores five alternative interpretations of Cohen's d and R2 effect sizes that may be more acceptable to the SCR field. They are: (a) Cohen's (Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum) "Percent of Nonoverlapping Data" (CPND), (b) Parker et al.'s (Parker, R.I., Cryer, J., Byrns, G., 2006. Controlling trend in single case research. School Psychology Quarterly, 21, 418-440, Parker, R.I., Hagan-Burke, S., Vannest, K., in press. Percent of all non-overlapping data (PAND): An alternative to PND. Journal of Special Education) "Percent of All Nonoverlapping Data" (PAND), (c) Rosenthal et al. (Rosenthal, R., Rosnow, R., & Rubin, D. (2000). Contrasts and effect sizes in behavioral research: A correlational approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.) "Binomial Effect Size Display" (BESD), (d) "Percentile Rank in Control Group" (PR), and (e) McGraw and Wong's (McGraw, K. O., & Wong, S. P. (1992). A common language effect-size statistic. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 361-365) "Common Language Effect Size" (CLES). Each of the five interpretation schemes are applied to a published data set and are evaluated according to (a) intuitive appeal, (b) relevance to visual analysis, (c) ease of calculation, and (d) technical adequacy. Three of the five appear to be improvements over prevailing practice. PMID:17292698

Parker, Richard I; Hagan-Burke, Shanna



Predictors of Outcome of Dream Interpretation Sessions: Volunteer Client Characteristics, Dream Characteristics, and Type of Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

105 volunteer clients completed single sessions of dream interpretation using the Hill (1996) model, with half randomly assigned to waking life interpretation and the other half to parts of self interpretation in the insight stage of the Hill model. No differences were found between waking life and parts of self interpretations, suggesting that therapists can use either type of dream

Clara E. Hill; Frances A. Kelley; Timothy L. Davis; Rachel E. Crook; Leslie E. Maldonado; Maria A. Turkson; Teresa L. Wonnell; V. Suthakaran; Jason S. Zack; Aaron B. Rochlen; Misty R. Kolchakian; Jamila N. Codrington



Sign Language Interpreting: The Relationship between Metalinguistic Awareness and the Production of Interpreting Omissions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the findings of the first linguistic analysis of sign language interpreting carried out in Australia. A study was conducted on 10 Australian Sign Language/English interpreters to determine the rate and occurrence of interpreting omissions and the interpreters' level of metalinguistic awareness in relation to their production…

Napier, Jemina; Barker, Roz



More Intelligent Statistical Software and Statistical Expert Systems: Future Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical computer programs are becoming increasingly accessible to people with limited statistical training. More intelligent statistical software is clearly needed. In this article, new or improved offerings—ranging from computer-based indexes of the literature to expert statistical systems—are discussed and illustrated. Three general levels of statistical software are differentiated: computerized statistical answering and referral services, expert guidance embedded in statistical programs,

Gerald J. Hahn



Statistical and the Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present environmental crises has been produced by rapid growth resulting from use of science. Problems can be solved if scientific learning process is catalyzed by appropriate use of statistics. Examples are given and emphasis is placed on proper trai...

G. E. P. Box



Statistics at Square One  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Statistics at Square One "was one of the best selling statistical text books in the UK," and it has been revised for this online edition. It was written from a medical statistics perspective, and hence many of the examples involve health related topics. Despite this recurring focus, no prior medical knowledge is required and the book can be used by anyone to learn the fundamentals of statistics. Basic concepts such as confidence intervals, correlation, and standard deviation are clearly defined and illustrated in the text. Each chapter concludes with a number of sample exercises; solutions to these problems are provided, but unfortunately there is little explanation accompanying the solutions. In most cases, however, the chapter's contents provide all the information necessary to complete the problems.

Swinscow, T. D. V. (Thomas Douglas Victor)


National Vital Statistics Needs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is an analysis of the role of the National Vital Statistics agency, with recommendations concerning the procurement and production of regular annual data, the need for special studies, provision of technical services to the States and other pol...



AP Statistics Curriculum 2007  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collaboratively built digital textbook for probability and statistics education integrates technology and pedagogical techniques, makes use of materials and instructional resources that are freely accessible over the web, and provides multi-language support (at the bottom of every chapter/section/page one may obtain a machine translation of the content into many languages). Topics include describing, exploring, and comparing data; probability and probability distributions; point and interval estimates; hypothesis testing; correlation and regression; analysis of variance; and others. The text is suitable for a general statistics curriculum, but also includes Advanced Placement materials. The E-Book was initially developed by the UCLA Statistics Online Computational Resource (SOCR), but all statistics instructors, researchers, and educators are encouraged to contribute and improve the content.


Statistics on Banking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The FDIC Statistics on Banking is a "quarterly publication that provides aggregate financial and structure information on FDIC-insured institutions, with summary totals by state and charter type." The latest figures for third quarter 1997 are now available.


Statistical Graphs and Logo.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides examples of such statistical graphs as line, bar, picture and pie. Suggests uses of Logo Turtle Graphics in graph construction. Includes several program procedures for creating designs with the computer. (RT)

Haigh, William E.



Cooperative Learning in Statistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Formal use of cooperative learning techniques proved effective in improving student performance and retention in a freshman level statistics course. Lectures interspersed with group activities proved effective in increasing conceptual understanding and overall class performance. (11 references) (Author)

Keeler, Carolyn M.; And Others



Order Statistic Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet simulates the order statistics of a random sample from a given distribution. The sample size, order, and sampling distribution can be specified.

Siegrist, Kyle


Understanding Solar Flare Statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review is presented of work aimed at understanding solar flare statistics, with emphasis on the well known flare power-law size distribution. Although avalanche models are perhaps the favoured model to describe flare statistics, their physical basis is unclear, and they are divorced from developing ideas in large-scale reconnection theory. An alternative model, aimed at reconciling large-scale reconnection models with solar flare statistics, is revisited. The solar flare waiting-time distribution has also attracted recent attention. Observed waiting-time distributions are described, together with what they might tell us about the flare phenomenon. Finally, a practical application of flare statistics to flare prediction is described in detail, including the results of a year of automated (web-based) predictions from the method.

Wheatland, M. S.



Statistical Analysis of Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Treatise on statistical analysis of data geared toward students in the advanced physics lab. Includes instructions on using Excel for linear and nonlinear regression and the "delta chi-square equals 1 rule" for finding uncertainties for nonlinear regression.

Deserio, Robert



Statistical Resampling Plans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Statistical resampling plans can be thought of as procedures for 'recycling data.' They commonly involve computer-intensive methods for the interrogation of data through repeated inspection. The procedures detailed in this document free the data analyst f...

M. S. Taylor



National Statistics Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Perhaps you have a burning desire to find detailed statistical information about agriculture in Wales, or even about poverty in London's East End. All of this information can be found on the very thorough and usable National Statistics homepage, which provides information on Britain's economy, population, and society. Given the amount of information on the site, visitors would do well to look through the UK at a Glance area. Here they will find basic information on the gross domestic product, consumer spending, unemployment, and population estimates. Along with these aggregate figures for the entire nation, visitors can visit the neighborhood statistics section, where they can retrieve summary statistics for different locales around England and Wales. A number of fine reports based on the 2001 Census are also available for the general public's consideration, and they include considerations of the state of children's dental health to the provisioning of programs for the elderly.


Playing at Statistical Mechanics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are the applications of counting techniques of a sorting game to distributions and concepts in statistical mechanics. Included are the following distributions: Fermi-Dirac, Bose-Einstein, and most probable. (RH)

Clark, Paul M.; And Others



Statistical Software Engineering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report spotlights problem areas in software engineering to which the application of modern statistical methodology can be fruitfully applied. It was produced by an expert cross-disciplinary National Research Council panel. The panel deliberated, disc...

J. R. Tucker



Quantile Statistical Data Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents some reasons why theoretical and sample quantile functions would be routinely used by contemporary statistical data analysts. Quantile methods are introduced in the context of the exponential distribution as a fit to the historically i...

E. Parzen



Statistics: Cast Your Vote!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Before entering the main portion of this interactive introduction to statistics, visitors will have to answer a few quick questions on polls. It's actually a bit fun, and it serves as a nice introduction to the site. Once visitors are in the main site, they will get the opportunity to learn about statistics through the lens of a mock election. The site contains areas such as "How Random is Random?", "Being Confident", and "What Can Go Wrong". Along with concise explanations of each element of statistics, visitors can also take part in an interactive quiz and some additional polling activities. The site also includes a number of external links for visitors who wish to explore additional topics within the field of statistics.


Data and Statistics  


... article ] Related Pages Hemophilia Treatment Center Directory Universal Data Collection (UDC) System Blood Disorders Homepage Von Willebrand Disease ... Required) Data & Statistics Training & Education Research CHAMP Universal Data Collection Blood Safety Inhibitors Articles & Key Findings Free Materials ...


Statistical reconstruction of qutrits  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss a procedure of measurement followed by the reproduction of the quantum state of a three-level optical system---a frequency---and spatially degenerate two-photon field. The method of statistical estimation of the quantum state based on solving the likelihood equation and analyzing the statistical properties of the obtained estimates is developed. Using the root approach of estimating quantum states, the initial

Yu. I. Bogdanov; M. V. Chekhova; L. A. Krivitsky; S. P. Kulik; A. N. Penin; A. A. Zhukov; L. C. Kwek; C. H. Oh; M. K. Tey



Statistical Data Sets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of datasets from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst is categorized by topic. Each dataset and its description are in text format. Topics include: analysis of variance, analysis of covariance, cluster analysis, contingency table analysis, correlation analysis, descriptive statistics, discriminant analysis, factor analysis, nonparametric analysis, multiple regression, nonlinear regression, logistic regression, survival analysis, and time series analysis. This is a large collection of data and software which can be implemented into different aspects of statistical study.



Environmental Quality Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ), this site contains updated monthly tables with statistics about United States environmental quality. The major topics covered in these tables are population, economy and the environment, public lands, ecosystems, air quality, aquatic resources, terrestrial resources, pollution prevention, energy, transportation, and the global environment. The tables indicate data sources, and an archive of statistics for earlier years is provided.


Statistical process control  

SciTech Connect

Addressing the increasing importance for firms to have a thorough knowledge of statistically based quality control procedures, this book presents the fundamentals of statistical process control (SPC) in a non-mathematical, practical way. It provides real-life examples and data drawn from a wide variety of industries. The foundations of good quality management and process control, and control of conformance and consistency during production are given. Offers clear guidance to those who wish to understand and implement modern SPC techniques.

Oakland, J.S.



Statistics Course Datasets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, created by the Department of Statistics at the University of California, Los Angeles, has data sets used by statistics classes. The html files in the second column contain descriptions of a particular data set and a link to the data at the end of the file. There are also .dat and .dta files that contain just data, with no description. The site is simple, but still contains a great deal of useful data.



Statistical topological insulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We define a class of insulators with gapless surface states protected from localization due to the statistical properties of a disordered ensemble, namely, due to the ensemble's invariance under a certain symmetry. We show that these insulators are topological, and are protected by a Z2 invariant. Finally, we prove that every topological insulator gives rise to an infinite number of classes of statistical topological insulators in higher dimensions. Our conclusions are confirmed by numerical simulations.

Fulga, I. C.; van Heck, B.; Edge, J. M.; Akhmerov, A. R.



United Nations Global Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This UN directory site allows users to quickly access national statistics through the official outlets of UN-member states and international statistics through dozens of UN programs and agencies as well as autonomous organizations such as the World Trade Organization and Eurostat. Data covered include, but are not limited to, health care, economics, politics, environment, and social demographics. The site offers a simple search engine with Boolean capabilities and is updated on a biweekly basis.

Division., United N.


Statistical Physics of Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While many scientists are familiar with fractals, fewer are familiar with the concepts of scale-invariance and universality which underly the ubiquity of their shapes. These properties may emerge from the collective behaviour of simple fundamental constituents, and are studied using statistical field theories. Based on lectures for a course in statistical mechanics taught by Professor Kardar at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, this textbook demonstrates how such theories are formulated and studied. Perturbation theory, exact solutions, renormalization groups, and other tools are employed to demonstrate the emergence of scale invariance and universality, and the non-equilibrium dynamics of interfaces and directed paths in random media are discussed. Ideal for advanced graduate courses in statistical physics, it contains an integrated set of problems, with solutions to selected problems at the end of the book. A complete set of solutions is available to lecturers on a password protected website at Based on lecture notes from a course on Statistical Mechanics taught by the author at MIT Contains 65 exercises, with solutions to selected problems Features a thorough introduction to the methods of Statistical Field theory Ideal for graduate courses in Statistical Physics

Kardar, Mehran



Concurrent behavior: Are the interpretations mutually exclusive?  

PubMed Central

The experimental literature is replete with examples of behavior which occur concurrently with a schedule of reinforcement. These concurrent behaviors, often with similar topographies and occurring under like circumstances, may be interpreted as functionally autonomous, collateral, adjunctive, superstitious or mediating behavior. The degree to which the interaction of concurrent and schedule controlled behavior is used in the interpretation of behavior illustrated the importance of distinguishing among these interpretations by experimental procedure. The present paper reviews the characteristics of these interpretations, and discusses the experimental procedures necessary to distinguish among them. The paper concludes that the interpretations are mutually exclusive and refer to distinct behaviors, but that the distinction between any two of the interpretations requires more than one experimental procedure.

Lyon, David O.



An Information Gap in DNA Evidence Interpretation  

PubMed Central

Forensic DNA evidence often contains mixtures of multiple contributors, or is present in low template amounts. The resulting data signals may appear to be relatively uninformative when interpreted using qualitative inclusion-based methods. However, these same data can yield greater identification information when interpreted by computer using quantitative data-modeling methods. This study applies both qualitative and quantitative interpretation methods to a well-characterized DNA mixture and dilution data set, and compares the inferred match information. The results show that qualitative interpretation loses identification power at low culprit DNA quantities (below 100 pg), but that quantitative methods produce useful information down into the 10 pg range. Thus there is a ten-fold information gap that separates the qualitative and quantitative DNA mixture interpretation approaches. With low quantities of culprit DNA (10 pg to 100 pg), computer-based quantitative interpretation provides greater match sensitivity.

Perlin, Mark W.; Sinelnikov, Alexander



Helping Alleviate Statistical Anxiety with Computer Aided Statistical Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study, Helping Alleviate Statistical Anxiety with Computer Aided Statistics Classes, investigated whether undergraduate students' anxiety about statistics changed when statistics is taught using computers compared to the traditional method. Two groups of students were questioned concerning their anxiety about statistics. One group was taught…

Stickels, John W.; Dobbs, Rhonda R.



A Constructivist Interpretation of Formal Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piaget’s logical model of formal operations is problematic since it is unclear how Piaget’s logic should be understood. In a recent review, Braine and Rumain conclude that neither of the two available interpretations is adequate. Under one interpretation, formulae which should be compatible are incompatible in Piaget’s logic. Under the other interpretation, formulae which should be incompatible are compatible in

Leslie Smith



Observations & Interpretations: Engaging Students in Classroom Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used to introduce or reinforce in students the importance of differentiating between observations and interpretations and quantitative and qualitative observations during classroom experimentation or demonstrations


The atomic-scale unit, entity: key to a direct and easily understood definition of the SI base unit for amount of substance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atomic-scale unit, entity (ent), is defined as the number-specific amount of substance, n/N, the amount of substance of a single entity. This unit is an invariant physical quantity (the reciprocal of the Avogadro constant) that serves as the basis for redefining the SI base unit for amount of substance in a direct and easily understood manner. It is argued here that the kilomole should be the base unit in order to avoid factors of 10-3 or 103 appearing in relationships involving both mass and amount of substance expressed in base units. Since, in a compatible formulation, the amount-specific number of entities, N/n (= NA), is equal to Mu/Da, exactly, where Mu = kg kmol-1 = g mol-1 = Da ent-1, exactly, then NA = (kg/Da) kmol-1 = (g/Da) mol-1 = 1 ent-1, exactly. The kilomole can thus be defined very simply as: kmol = \\cal N^{\\ast}\\,ent , exactly, where \\cal N^{\\ast} , the exact kilomole-to-entity amount ratio, is identical to the kilogram-to-dalton mass ratio: \\cal N^{\\ast} \\equiv kmol/ent\\equiv kg/Da . The Avogadro constant, N_A = \\cal N^{\\ast}\\,kmol^{-1} , does not appear explicitly in the defining equation, its reciprocal having been replaced by one entity. Like the dalton, the entity would be categorized as a unit in use with SI.

Leonard, B. P.



Data analysis using the Gnu R system for statistical computation  

SciTech Connect

R is a language system for statistical computation. It is widely used in statistics, bioinformatics, machine learning, data mining, quantitative finance, and the analysis of clinical drug trials. Among the advantages of R are: it has become the standard language for developing statistical techniques, it is being actively developed by a large and growing global user community, it is open source software, it is highly portable (Linux, OS-X and Windows), it has a built-in documentation system, it produces high quality graphics and it is easily extensible with over four thousand extension library packages available covering statistics and applications. This report gives a very brief introduction to R with some examples using lattice QCD simulation results. It then discusses the development of R packages designed for chi-square minimization fits for lattice n-pt correlation functions.

Simone, James; /Fermilab



Statistical Physics of Fracture  

SciTech Connect

Disorder and long-range interactions are two of the key components that make material failure an interesting playfield for the application of statistical mechanics. The cornerstone in this respect has been lattice models of the fracture in which a network of elastic beams, bonds, or electrical fuses with random failure thresholds are subject to an increasing external load. These models describe on a qualitative level the failure processes of real, brittle, or quasi-brittle materials. This has been particularly important in solving the classical engineering problems of material strength: the size dependence of maximum stress and its sample-to-sample statistical fluctuations. At the same time, lattice models pose many new fundamental questions in statistical physics, such as the relation between fracture and phase transitions. Experimental results point out to the existence of an intriguing crackling noise in the acoustic emission and of self-affine fractals in the crack surface morphology. Recent advances in computer power have enabled considerable progress in the understanding of such models. Among these partly still controversial issues, are the scaling and size-effects in material strength and accumulated damage, the statistics of avalanches or bursts of microfailures, and the morphology of the crack surface. Here we present an overview of the results obtained with lattice models for fracture, highlighting the relations with statistical physics theories and more conventional fracture mechanics approaches.

Alava, Mikko [Helsinki University of Technology, Helsinki, Finland; Nukala, Phani K [ORNL; Zapperi, Stefano [University of La Sapienza, Rome



Medical Interpreters as Tools: Dangers and Challenges in the Utilitarian Approach to Interpreters' Roles and Functions  

PubMed Central

Objective This study explores the tensions, challenges, and dangers when a utilitarian view of interpreter is constructed, imposed, and/or reinforced in health care settings. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with 26 medical interpreters from 17 different languages and cultures and 39 providers of five specialties. Grounded theory was used for data analysis. Results The utilitarian view to interpreters’ roles and functions influences providers in the following areas: (a) hierarchical structure and unidirectional communication, (b) the interpreter seen as information gatekeeper, (c) the interpreter seen as provider proxy, and (d) interpreter’s emotional support perceived as tools. Conclusion When interpreters are viewed as passive instruments, a utilitarian approach may compromise the quality of care by silencing patients’ and interpreters’ voice, objectifying interpreters’ emotional work, and exploiting patients’ needs. Practice Implications Providers need to recognize that a utilitarian approach to the interpreter’s role and functions may create interpersonal and ethical dilemmas that compromise the quality of care. By viewing interpreters as smart technology (rather than passive instruments), both providers and interpreters can learn from and co-evolve with each other, allowing them to maintain control over their expertise and to work as collaborators in providing quality care.

Kramer, Eric M.



Statistical reconstruction of qutrits  

SciTech Connect

We discuss a procedure of measurement followed by the reproduction of the quantum state of a three-level optical system--a frequency--and spatially degenerate two-photon field. The method of statistical estimation of the quantum state based on solving the likelihood equation and analyzing the statistical properties of the obtained estimates is developed. Using the root approach of estimating quantum states, the initial two-photon state vector is reproduced from the measured fourth moments in the field. The developed approach applied to quantum-state reconstruction is based on the amplitudes of mutually complementary processes. The classical algorithm of statistical estimation based on the Fisher information matrix is generalized to the case of quantum systems obeying Bohr's complementarity principle. It has been experimentally proved that biphoton-qutrit states can be reconstructed with the fidelity of 0.995-0.999 and higher.

Bogdanov, Yu.I.; Chekhova, M.V.; Krivitsky, L.A.; Kulik, S.P.; Penin, A.N.; Zhukov, A.A.; Kwek, L.C.; Oh, C.H.; Tey, M.K. [Russian Control System Agency, Angstrem', Moscow 124460 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics, Moscow M.V. Lomonosov State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Institute of Education Nanyang Technological University, 637616 Singapore (Singapore); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, 117542 Singapore (Singapore)



Statistical Understanding Made Simple  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching statistics can be tough for even experienced instructors, so it is nice to learn about the Statistical Understanding Made Simple (SUMS) website. Created by researchers at the University of Glasgow, the site helps users build "interactive, fun and highly effective tutorials designed to help students understand basic statistics." Visitors who wish to have the resource generator create tutorials will need to register on the site and provide a small data set. Of course, visitors can also check out the "Ready Made Tutorials" area, where they will discover projects that examine the relationship between height and weight and the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy on depression. Additionally, the site also contains several games which students can use to explore the effects of standard deviation and histograms.


UNESCO Institute for Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1999, the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) was designed to meet both the needs of UNESCO Member States and to provide the international community with a wide range of statistical information in order to "analyze the efficiency and effectiveness of their programmes and to inform their policy decisions." The UIC is hosted by the University of Montreal, and performs work around four primary themes, including education, literacy, culture & communication, and science & technology. Overall, the site is a remarkable source of information, including databases, working papers, country profiles, statistical tables, and methodological material about the conduct of their research. Several of these works are featured prominently on their homepage including a working paper on financing the expansion of educational opportunity in Latin America and the Caribbean and an electronic questionnaire on science and technology.


Statistical foundations of liquid-crystal theory  

PubMed Central

Working on a state space determined by considering a discrete system of rigid rods, we use nonequilibrium statistical mechanics to derive macroscopic balance laws for liquid crystals. A probability function that satisfies the Liouville equation serves as the starting point for deriving each macroscopic balance. The terms appearing in the derived balances are interpreted as expected values and explicit formulas for these terms are obtained. Among the list of derived balances appear two, the tensor moment of inertia balance and the mesofluctuation balance, that are not standard in previously proposed macroscopic theories for liquid crystals but which have precedents in other theories for structured media.

Seguin, Brian; Fried, Eliot



Heterogeneity in statistical mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of four studies is presented, each relating to a distinct statistical mechanical model that is at least partially characterized by some form of heterogeneity. The first concerns discreteness effects in interhelical interactions. The second relates to more general discreteness effects relevant to chemical and molecular interactions. The third is a dynamic renormalization group calculation of the fluctuations within a certain model of sedimenting elastic media - one in which the drag depends sensitively on any heterogeneities that develop in the system. Finally, the fourth is a study of the spherical model of a spin glass, which is a statistical mechanical model that is dominated by disorder effects.

Landy, Jonathan Steven


Education Statistics Slide Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Grace York, coordinator of the University of Michigan's Documents Center, the Education Statistics Slide Show is an online presentation demonstrating how to locate, obtain, and manipulate educational data on the Web. The presentation consists of 72 slides and offers instruction on the use of several Websites including the US Census Bureau's American Factfinder site (see the April 2, 1999 Scout Report), the Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) Census Mapping site, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) site, the FEDSTATS site (see the May 30, 1997 Scout Report), and many more. The tutorial presentation also provides ten practice questions and a detailed Webliography.


Statistical Data Mining Tutorials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These tutorial, created by Professor Andrew Moore at Carnegie-Mellon University, cover a range of topics in statistical data mining "including the foundations of probability, the foundations of statistical data analysis, and most of the classic machine learning and data mining algorithms." Decision Trees, Information Gain, and Cross-Validation are just a few of the items presented here. Each topic contains a set of tutorial slides in PDF, excellent for converting into a classroom presentation or left as they are for a classroom handout or online learning resource.

Moore, Andrew W., Ph.D.



Statistics Online Computational Resource  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Statistics Online Computational Resource (SOCR) is a collection of downloadable applets, computational and graphing tools, and instructional materials for use in online data analysis, visualization, and integration. The tools are organized into categories by use: distributions (interactive graphs and calculators); experiments (computer-generated analogs of popular games and processes); analyses (tools for statistical data analysis); games (interfaces and simulations to real-life processes); data modelers (tools for distribution, polynomial and spectral model-fitting and simulation); and graphs, plots, and charts (comprehensive web-based tools for exploratory data analysis). There is also a collaborative collection (Wiki) of activities and educational materials that use these tools.



Statistics of visual representation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experience of retinex image processing has prompted us to reconsider fundamental aspects of imaging and image processing. Foremost is the idea that a good visual representation requires a non-linear transformation of the recorded (approximately linear) image data. Further, this transformation appears to converge on a specific distribution. Here we investigate the connection between numerical and visual phenomena. Specifically the questions explored are: (1) Is there a well-defined consistent statistical character associated with good visual representations? (2) Does there exist an ideal visual image? And (3) what are its statistical properties?

Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur; Woodell, Glenn A.



A bird's eye view: the cognitive strategies of experts interpreting seismic profiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geoscience is perhaps unique in its reliance on incomplete datasets and building knowledge from their interpretation. This interpretation basis for the science is fundamental at all levels; from creation of a geological map to interpretation of remotely sensed data. To teach and understand better the uncertainties in dealing with incomplete data we need to understand the strategies individual practitioners deploy that make them effective interpreters. The nature of interpretation is such that the interpreter needs to use their cognitive ability in the analysis of the data to propose a sensible solution in their final output that is both consistent not only with the original data but also with other knowledge and understanding. In a series of experiments Bond et al. (2007, 2008, 2011, 2012) investigated the strategies and pitfalls of expert and non-expert interpretation of seismic images. These studies focused on large numbers of participants to provide a statistically sound basis for analysis of the results. The outcome of these experiments showed that techniques and strategies are more important than expert knowledge per se in developing successful interpretations. Experts are successful because of their application of these techniques. In a new set of experiments we have focused on a small number of experts to determine how they use their cognitive and reasoning skills, in the interpretation of 2D seismic profiles. Live video and practitioner commentary were used to track the evolving interpretation and to gain insight on their decision processes. The outputs of the study allow us to create an educational resource of expert interpretation through online video footage and commentary with associated further interpretation and analysis of the techniques and strategies employed. This resource will be of use to undergraduate, post-graduate, industry and academic professionals seeking to improve their seismic interpretation skills, develop reasoning strategies for dealing with incomplete datasets, and for assessing the uncertainty in these interpretations. Bond, C.E. et al. (2012). 'What makes an expert effective at interpreting seismic images?' Geology, 40, 75-78. Bond, C. E. et al. (2011). 'When there isn't a right answer: interpretation and reasoning, key skills for 21st century geoscience'. International Journal of Science Education, 33, 629-652. Bond, C. E. et al. (2008). 'Structural models: Optimizing risk analysis by understanding conceptual uncertainty'. First Break, 26, 65-71. Bond, C. E. et al., (2007). 'What do you think this is?: "Conceptual uncertainty" In geoscience interpretation'. GSA Today, 17, 4-10.

Bond, C. E.; Butler, R.



Plant-soil feedback: Experimental approaches, statistical analyses and biological interpretations  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Feedback between plants and soil organisms has become widely recognized as a driving force of community composition and ecosystem functioning. However, there is little uniformity in quantification and analysis of plant soil feedback effects. Meta-analysis suggested that the various experimental methods tend to result in different feedback values. Yet, a direct comparison of the different experimental approaches and their

E. P. Brinkman; W. H. Van der Putten; E. J. Bakker; K. J. F. Verhoeven



Importance of unraveling memory propagation effects in interpreting data on partial discharge statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significance of memory propagation in controlling the stochastic behavior of partial-discharge phenomena is demonstrated by determination of various conditional amplitude and phase-of-occurrence distributions for both measured and simulated discharge pulses. A system that can be used to measure directly a set of both conditional and unconditional pulse amplitude and phase distributions needed to reveal memory effects and quantify the

R. J. Van Brunt; E. W. Cernyar; P. von Glahn



Errors in exposure assessment, statistical power and the interpretation of residential radon studies  

SciTech Connect

To date, epidemiological studies of risk from residential radon have not convincingly demonstrated an association with lung cancer. These case-control studies, however, have inherent limitations due to errors in estimates of exposure to indoor radon. These errors take on special significance because the level of residential risk predicted from studies of underground miners is relatively low and possibly at the limit detectable by current epidemiological methods. To illustrate the problem caused by errors in exposure assessment, a series of case-control studies were simulated and resulting dose-response relationships evaluated.