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1

An Efficient Easily Adaptable System for Interpreting Natural Language Queries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives an overall account of a prototype natural language question answering system, called Chat-80. Chat-80 has been designed to be both efficient and easily adaptable to a variety of applications. The system is implemented entirely in Prolog, a programming language based on logic. With the aid of a logic-based grammar formalism called extraposition grammars, Chat-80 translates English questions

David H. D. Warren; Fernando C. N. Pereira

1982-01-01

2

Interpreting Accident Statistics  

E-print Network

Accident statistics have often been used to support the argument that an abnormally small proportion of drivers account for a large proportion of the accidents. This paper compares statistics developed from six-year data ...

Ferreira, Joseph Jr.

3

Statistical Interpretation of Entropy Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Statistical Interpretation of Entropy Launcher package is a self-contained file for teaching the basic concept of the statistical interpretation of entropy. The file contains ready-to-run Easy Java Simulations (EJS) programs and curricular materials. The curricular materials describe a simple hands-on coin flip experiment that can help student become familiar with the basic statistical ideas involved in the approach to equilibrium and the second law of thermodynamics. The materials also describe how the EJS programs can be used to extend this simple experiment and explore these concepts at a deeper level. The EJS programs include simulations of the coin flip experiment, the expansion of an ideal gas in a box, the mixing of hot and cold ideal gases, and the action of Maxwell's Demon. The materials in this resource are described in an article titled "The Statistical Interpretation of Entropy: An Activity" to be published in The Physics Teacher.

Timberlake, Todd

2010-07-03

4

The quantum state cannot be interpreted statistically  

E-print Network

Quantum states are the key mathematical objects in quantum theory. It is therefore surprising that physicists have been unable to agree on what a quantum state represents. There are at least two opposing schools of thought, each almost as old as quantum theory itself. One is that a pure state is a physical property of system, much like position and momentum in classical mechanics. Another is that even a pure state has only a statistical significance, akin to a probability distribution in statistical mechanics. Here we show that, given only very mild assumptions, the statistical interpretation of the quantum state is inconsistent with the predictions of quantum theory. This result holds even in the presence of small amounts of experimental noise, and is therefore amenable to experimental test using present or near-future technology. If the predictions of quantum theory are confirmed, such a test would show that distinct quantum states must correspond to physically distinct states of reality.

Pusey, Matthew F; Rudolph, Terry

2011-01-01

5

Interpreting Educational Research Using Statistical Software.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A live demonstration of how a typical set of educational data can be examined using quantitative statistical software was conducted. The topic of tutorial support was chosen. Setting up a hypothetical research scenario, the researcher created 300 cases from random data generation adjusted to correct obvious error. Each case represented a student…

Evans, Elizabeth A.

6

Statistical Methods for Automatic Interpretation of Digitally Scanned Fingerprints  

E-print Network

Statistical Methods for Automatic Interpretation of Digitally Scanned Fingerprints K.V. Mardia, A Scanned Fingerprints K.V. Mardia, A.J. Baczkowski, X. Feng, T.J. Hainsworth Department of Statistics field is the starting point for feature extraction in various fingerprint algorithms. In recent papers

Haase, Markus

7

Algorithms and statistics for advanced DNA analysis For the first time in history, humankind has the ability to easily read and write DNA sequence, a code  

E-print Network

to computational, statistical, and mathematical analysis are required. Meanwhile, overuse of antibiotics in hospitals and agriculture has led to widespread development of antibiotic resistant bacteria. The number the evolution of genomes and the spread of antibiotic resistance. Opportunities exist for Ph.D. students

University of Technology, Sydney

8

Statistical Analysis and Interpretation of Discrete Compositional Data  

E-print Network

of the motivating scientific problem. We present parameterization and analysis tools for improved interpretation the perturbation operation (section 2) and the LN's relevance as a limit distribution for compositions. A key

Washington at Seattle, University of

9

Combining semantic interpretation and statistical classification for improved explanation  

E-print Network

, Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS), parsing, semantic interpretation 1 Introduction In recent years, there has into account multiple factors, including the current answer diagnosis, dialogue history, and information from and instantiating it from the information gathered from the stu- dent answer (see Section 2). However, while

Moore, Johanna D.

10

A novel statistical analysis and interpretation of flow cytometry data  

PubMed Central

A recently developed class of models incorporating the cyton model of population generation structure into a conservation-based model of intracellular label dynamics is reviewed. Statistical aspects of the data collection process are quantified and incorporated into a parameter estimation scheme. This scheme is then applied to experimental data for PHA-stimulated CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells collected from two healthy donors. This novel mathematical and statistical framework is shown to form the basis for accurate, meaningful analysis of cellular behaviour for a population of cells labelled with the dye carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester and stimulated to divide. PMID:23826744

Banks, H.T.; Kapraun, D.F.; Thompson, W. Clayton; Peligero, Cristina; Argilaguet, Jordi; Meyerhans, Andreas

2013-01-01

11

Statistical Interpretation of the Local Field Inside Dielectrics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares several derivations of the Clausius-Mossotti relation to analyze consistently the nature of approximations used and their range of applicability. Also presents a statistical-mechanical calculation of the local field for classical system of harmonic oscillators interacting via the Coulomb potential. (Author/SK)

Berrera, Ruben G.; Mello, P. A.

1982-01-01

12

A statistical model for interpreting computerized dynamic posturography data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) is widely used for assessment of altered balance control. CDP trials are quantified using the equilibrium score (ES), which ranges from zero to 100, as a decreasing function of peak sway angle. The problem of how best to model and analyze ESs from a controlled study is considered. The ES often exhibits a skewed distribution in repeated trials, which can lead to incorrect inference when applying standard regression or analysis of variance models. Furthermore, CDP trials are terminated when a patient loses balance. In these situations, the ES is not observable, but is assigned the lowest possible score--zero. As a result, the response variable has a mixed discrete-continuous distribution, further compromising inference obtained by standard statistical methods. Here, we develop alternative methodology for analyzing ESs under a stochastic model extending the ES to a continuous latent random variable that always exists, but is unobserved in the event of a fall. Loss of balance occurs conditionally, with probability depending on the realized latent ES. After fitting the model by a form of quasi-maximum-likelihood, one may perform statistical inference to assess the effects of explanatory variables. An example is provided, using data from the NIH/NIA Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging.

Feiveson, Alan H.; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Paloski, William H.

2002-01-01

13

Sense-based Interpretation of Logical Metonymy Using a Statistical Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of figurative language is ubiqui- tous in natural language texts and it is a serious bottleneck in automatic text un- derstanding. We address the problem of interpretation of logical metonymy, using a statistical method. Our approach origi- nates from that of Lapata and Lascarides (2003), which generates a list of non- disambiguated interpretations with their likelihood derived from

Ekaterina Shutova

2009-01-01

14

Wavelet-Based fMRI Statistical Analysis and Spatial Interpretation: A Unifying Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wavelet-based statistical analysis methods for fMRI are able to detect brain activity without smoothing the data. Typically, the statistical inference is performed in the wavelet domain by testing the t-values of each wavelet coef- ficient; subsequently, an activity map is reconstructed from the significant coefficients. The limitation of this approach is that there is no direct statistical interpretation of the

Dimitri Van De Ville; Thierry Blu; Michael Unser

2004-01-01

15

Facies control on sandstone composition (and influence of statistical methods on interpretations) in the John Henry Member, Straight Cliffs Formation,  

E-print Network

Facies control on sandstone composition (and influence of statistical methods on interpretations and setting of the John Henry Member. Three statistical methods were utilized: univariate standard deviation facies using estimation of means. Both univariate statistical methods have some inherent problems

Johnson, Cari

16

A statistical interpretation of surface ocean temperature trends during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum  

E-print Network

! "! A statistical interpretation of surface ocean temperature trends during the Paleocene 90 Myr (Tjalsma and Lohmann, 1983; Thomas, 1990). Organisms inhabiting the sea surface, including of single-specimen surface-dwelling foraminifera at Southern Ocean ODP Site 690. We use Monte Carlo samples

Haran, Murali

17

Prostate Cancer Screening: Facts, Statistics, and Interpretation in Response to the US Preventive  

E-print Network

Prostate Cancer Screening: Facts, Statistics, and Interpretation in Response to the US Preventive-cause mortality."1(p764) It is a basic misunderstanding to believe that the screening trials such as ERSPCortheProstate,Lung,ColorectalandOvarianCancer Services Task Force Review Sigrid Carlsson, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY

El Zarki, Magda

18

Interpreting Statistical Significance Test Results: A Proposed New "What If" Method.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the 1994 publication manual of the American Psychological Association emphasized, "p" values are affected by sample size. As a result, it can be helpful to interpret the results of statistical significant tests in a sample size context by conducting so-called "what if" analyses. However, these methods can be inaccurate unless "corrected" effect…

Kieffer, Kevin M.; Thompson, Bruce

19

Statistical interpretation of the Bekenstein entropy for systems with a stretched horizon.  

PubMed

For the two-charge extremal holes in string theory we show that the Bekenstein entropy obtained from the area of the stretched horizon has a statistical interpretation as a "coarse graining entropy": different microstates give geometries that differ near r = 0, and the stretched horizon cuts off the metric at r = b where these geometries start to differ. PMID:12059472

Lunin, Oleg; Mathur, Samir D

2002-05-27

20

New physicochemical interpretations for the adsorption of food dyes on chitosan films using statistical physics treatment.  

PubMed

In this work, statistical physics treatment was employed to study the adsorption of food dyes onto chitosan films, in order to obtain new physicochemical interpretations at molecular level. Experimental equilibrium curves were obtained for the adsorption of four dyes (FD&C red 2, FD&C yellow 5, FD&C blue 2, Acid Red 51) at different temperatures (298, 313 and 328K). A statistical physics formula was used to interpret these curves, and the parameters such as, number of adsorbed dye molecules per site (n), anchorage number (n'), receptor sites density (NM), adsorbed quantity at saturation (Nasat), steric hindrance (?), concentration at half saturation (c1/2) and molar adsorption energy (?E(a)) were estimated. The relation of the above mentioned parameters with the chemical structure of the dyes and temperature was evaluated and interpreted. PMID:25308634

Dotto, G L; Pinto, L A A; Hachicha, M A; Knani, S

2015-03-15

21

Menzerath-Altmann Law: Statistical Mechanical Interpretation as Applied to a Linguistic Organization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution behavior described by the empirical Menzerath-Altmann law is frequently encountered during the self-organization of linguistic and non-linguistic natural organizations at various structural levels. This study presents a statistical mechanical derivation of the law based on the analogy between the classical particles of a statistical mechanical organization and the distinct words of a textual organization. The derived model, a transformed (generalized) form of the Menzerath-Altmann model, was termed as the statistical mechanical Menzerath-Altmann model. The derived model allows interpreting the model parameters in terms of physical concepts. We also propose that many organizations presenting the Menzerath-Altmann law behavior, whether linguistic or not, can be methodically examined by the transformed distribution model through the properly defined structure-dependent parameter and the energy associated states.

Eroglu, Sertac

2014-10-01

22

Easily-wired toggle switch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crimp-type connectors reduce assembly and disassembly time. With design, no switch preparation is necessary and socket contracts are crimped to wires inserted in module attached to back of toggle switch engaging pins inside module to make electrical connections. Wires are easily removed with standard detachment tool. Design can accommodate wires of any gage and as many terminals can be placed on switch as wire gage and switch dimensions will allow.

Dean, W. T.; Stringer, E. J.

1979-01-01

23

Application of machine learning and expert systems to Statistical Process Control (SPC) chart interpretation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Statistical Process Control (SPC) charts are one of several tools used in quality control. Other tools include flow charts, histograms, cause and effect diagrams, check sheets, Pareto diagrams, graphs, and scatter diagrams. A control chart is simply a graph which indicates process variation over time. The purpose of drawing a control chart is to detect any changes in the process signalled by abnormal points or patterns on the graph. The Artificial Intelligence Support Center (AISC) of the Acquisition Logistics Division has developed a hybrid machine learning expert system prototype which automates the process of constructing and interpreting control charts.

Shewhart, Mark

1991-01-01

24

Interpretations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although nobody can question the practical efficiency of quantum mechanics, there remains the serious question of its interpretation. As Valerio Scarani puts it, "We do not feel at ease with the indistinguishability principle (that is, the superposition principle) and some of its consequences." Indeed, this principle which pervades the quantum world is in stark contradiction with our everyday experience. From the very beginning of quantum mechanics, a number of physicists--but not the majority of them!--have asked the question of its "interpretation". One may simply deny that there is a problem: according to proponents of the minimalist interpretation, quantum mechanics is self-sufficient and needs no interpretation. The point of view held by a majority of physicists, that of the Copenhagen interpretation, will be examined in Section 10.1. The crux of the problem lies in the status of the state vector introduced in the preceding chapter to describe a quantum system, which is no more than a symbolic representation for the Copenhagen school of thought. Conversely, one may try to attribute some "external reality" to this state vector, that is, a correspondence between the mathematical description and the physical reality. In this latter case, it is the measurement problem which is brought to the fore. In 1932, von Neumann was first to propose a global approach, in an attempt to build a purely quantum theory of measurement examined in Section 10.2. This theory still underlies modern approaches, among them those grounded on decoherence theory, or on the macroscopic character of the measuring apparatus: see Section 10.3. Finally, there are non-standard interpretations such as Everett's many worlds theory or the hidden variables theory of de Broglie and Bohm (Section 10.4). Note, however, that this variety of interpretations has no bearing whatsoever on the practical use of quantum mechanics. There is no controversy on the way we should use quantum mechanics!

Bellac, Michel Le

2014-11-01

25

Misuse of statistics in the interpretation of data on low-level radiation  

SciTech Connect

Four misuses of statistics in the interpretation of data of low-level radiation are reviewed: (1) post-hoc analysis and aggregation of data leading to faulty conclusions in the reanalysis of genetic effects of the atomic bomb, and premature conclusions on the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard data; (2) inappropriate adjustment for age and ignoring differences between urban and rural areas leading to potentially spurious increase in incidence of cancer at Rocky Flats; (3) hazard of summary statistics based on ill-conditioned individual rates leading to spurious association between childhood leukemia and fallout in Utah; and (4) the danger of prematurely published preliminary work with inadequate consideration of epidemiological problems - censored data - leading to inappropriate conclusions, needless alarm at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, and diversion of scarce research funds.

Hamilton, L.D.

1982-01-01

26

Exploring Interpretation of Complexity and Typicality in Narratives and Statistical Images about the Social Determinants of Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores public responses to narratives and statistical images, predominantly graphs and maps, designed to raise awareness of social determinants of health and health disparities. We focus particular attention on respondents' interpretation of the complexity of health causality and the typicality of the situations described. We conducted 24 focus groups with liberal and conservative adults (n?=?180 participants) living in

Helen C. Lundell; Jeff Niederdeppe; Christopher E. Clarke

2012-01-01

27

The whole is greater than the sum of the parts: on the possibility of purely statistical interpretations of quantum theory  

E-print Network

The Pusey-Barrett-Rudolph theorem (PBR) claims to rule out the possibility of a purely statistical interpretation of the quantum state under an assumption of how to represent independent operations in any hidden variable model. We show that PBR's assumption of independence encodes an assumption of local causality, which is already known to conflict with the predictions of quantum theory via Bell-type inequalities. We devise a weaker formulation of independence within a general hidden variable model that is empirically indistinguishable from the PBR assumption in situations where certain hidden variables are inaccessible. Under this weaker principle we are able to construct an explicit hidden variable model that is purely statistical and also reproduces the quantum predictions. Our results suggest that the assumption of a purely statistical interpretation is actually an innocent bystander in the PBR argument, rather than the driving force behind their contradiction.

Joseph Emerson; Dmitry Serbin; Chris Sutherland; Victor Veitch

2013-12-04

28

Signal Interpretation of Multifunction Radars: Modeling and Statistical Signal Processing With Stochastic Context Free Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multifunction radars (MFRs) are sophisticated sensors with complex dynamical modes that are widely used in surveillance and tracking. Because of their agility, a new solution to the interpretation of radar signal is critical to aircraft survivability and successful mission completion. The MFRs' three main characteristics that make their signal interpretation challenging are: i) MFRs' behavior is mission dependent, that is,

Alex Wang; Vikram Krishnamurthy

2008-01-01

29

"What If" Analyses: Ways to Interpret Statistical Significance Test Results Using EXCEL or "R"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper aims to review two motivations to conduct "what if" analyses using Excel and "R" to understand the statistical significance tests through the sample size context. "What if" analyses can be used to teach students what statistical significance tests really do and in applied research either prospectively to estimate what sample size…

Ozturk, Elif

2012-01-01

30

Attributional bias and the easily persuaded other  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tested the hypothesis that a person positively biases his assessment of the intelligence of a person whom he is able to persuade easily. 38 male and 38 female undergraduate volunteers served as Ss. In 1 condition, persuaders and observers saw an S confederate easily convinced by the persuaders' arguments. In 2 other conditions, the confederate either was not convinced by

Robert B. Cialdini; Sanford L. Braver; Stephen K. Lewis

1974-01-01

31

Boyle temperature as a point of ideal gas in gentile statistics and its economic interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boyle temperature is interpreted as the temperature at which the formation of dimers becomes impossible. To Irving Fisher's correspondence principle we assign two more quantities: the number of degrees of freedom, and credit. We determine the danger level of the mass of money M when the mutual trust between economic agents begins to fall.

Maslov, V. P.; Maslova, T. V.

2014-07-01

32

Feature combination networks for the interpretation of statistical machine learning models: application to Ames mutagenicity  

PubMed Central

Background A new algorithm has been developed to enable the interpretation of black box models. The developed algorithm is agnostic to learning algorithm and open to all structural based descriptors such as fragments, keys and hashed fingerprints. The algorithm has provided meaningful interpretation of Ames mutagenicity predictions from both random forest and support vector machine models built on a variety of structural fingerprints. A fragmentation algorithm is utilised to investigate the model’s behaviour on specific substructures present in the query. An output is formulated summarising causes of activation and deactivation. The algorithm is able to identify multiple causes of activation or deactivation in addition to identifying localised deactivations where the prediction for the query is active overall. No loss in performance is seen as there is no change in the prediction; the interpretation is produced directly on the model’s behaviour for the specific query. Results Models have been built using multiple learning algorithms including support vector machine and random forest. The models were built on public Ames mutagenicity data and a variety of fingerprint descriptors were used. These models produced a good performance in both internal and external validation with accuracies around 82%. The models were used to evaluate the interpretation algorithm. Interpretation was revealed that links closely with understood mechanisms for Ames mutagenicity. Conclusion This methodology allows for a greater utilisation of the predictions made by black box models and can expedite further study based on the output for a (quantitative) structure activity model. Additionally the algorithm could be utilised for chemical dataset investigation and knowledge extraction/human SAR development. PMID:24661325

2014-01-01

33

IS SPREAD OF INVASIVE SPECIES REGULATED? USING ECOLOGICAL THEORY TO INTERPRET STATISTICAL ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate a recent proposal that invasive species display patterns of spatial ''spread regulation'' analogous to density-dependent regulation of population abundances. While invasive species do offer valuable tests of ecological theories about spatial spread, we argue that the statistical approach used in the study is not useful, and that the proposed definition of ''spread regulation'' is likely to be confusing.

Perry de Valpine; Kim Cuddington; Martha F. Hoopes; Julie L. Lockwood

2008-01-01

34

Statistics Translated: A Step-by-Step Guide to Analyzing and Interpreting Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written in a humorous and encouraging style, this text shows how the most common statistical tools can be used to answer interesting real-world questions, presented as mysteries to be solved. Engaging research examples lead the reader through a series of six steps, from identifying a researchable problem to stating a hypothesis, identifying…

Terrell, Steven R.

2012-01-01

35

Translating the Statistical Representation of the Effects of Education Interventions into More Readily Interpretable Forms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is directed to researchers who conduct and report education intervention studies. Its purpose is to stimulate and guide them to go a step beyond reporting the statistics that emerge from their analysis of the differences between experimental groups on the respective outcome variables. With what is often very minimal additional effort,…

Lipsey, Mark W.; Puzio, Kelly; Yun, Cathy; Hebert, Michael A.; Steinka-Fry, Kasia; Cole, Mikel W.; Roberts, Megan; Anthony, Karen S.; Busick, Matthew D.

2012-01-01

36

US Geological Survey nutrient preservation experiment : experimental design, statistical analysis, and interpretation of analytical results  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data on which this report is based, including nutrient concentrations in synthetic reference samples determined concurrently with those in real samples, are extensive (greater than 20,000 determinations) and have been published separately. In addition to confirming the well-documented instability of nitrite in acidified samples, this study also demonstrates that when biota are removed from samples at collection sites by 0.45-micrometer membrane filtration, subsequent preservation with sulfuric acid or mercury (II) provides no statistically significant improvement in nutrient concentration stability during storage at 4 degrees Celsius for 30 days. Biocide preservation had no statistically significant effect on the 30-day stability of phosphorus concentrations in whole-water splits from any of the 15 stations, but did stabilize Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations in whole-water splits from three data-collection stations where ammonium accounted for at least half of the measured Kjeldahl nitrogen.

Patton, Charles J.; Gilroy, Edward J.

1999-01-01

37

Statistical Approaches to Interpretation of Local, Regional, and National Highway-Runoff and Urban-Stormwater Data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Decision makers need viable methods for the interpretation of local, regional, and national-highway runoff and urban-stormwater data including flows, concentrations and loads of chemical constituents and sediment, potential effects on receiving waters, and the potential effectiveness of various best management practices (BMPs). Valid (useful for intended purposes), current, and technically defensible stormwater-runoff models are needed to interpret data collected in field studies, to support existing highway and urban-runoffplanning processes, to meet National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) requirements, and to provide methods for computation of Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) systematically and economically. Historically, conceptual, simulation, empirical, and statistical models of varying levels of detail, complexity, and uncertainty have been used to meet various data-quality objectives in the decision-making processes necessary for the planning, design, construction, and maintenance of highways and for other land-use applications. Water-quality simulation models attempt a detailed representation of the physical processes and mechanisms at a given site. Empirical and statistical regional water-quality assessment models provide a more general picture of water quality or changes in water quality over a region. All these modeling techniques share one common aspect-their predictive ability is poor without suitable site-specific data for calibration. To properly apply the correct model, one must understand the classification of variables, the unique characteristics of water-resources data, and the concept of population structure and analysis. Classifying variables being used to analyze data may determine which statistical methods are appropriate for data analysis. An understanding of the characteristics of water-resources data is necessary to evaluate the applicability of different statistical methods, to interpret the results of these techniques, and to use tools and techniques that account for the unique nature of water-resources data sets. Populations of data on stormwater-runoff quantity and quality are often best modeled as logarithmic transformations. Therefore, these factors need to be considered to form valid, current, and technically defensible stormwater-runoff models. Regression analysis is an accepted method for interpretation of water-resources data and for prediction of current or future conditions at sites that fit the input data model. Regression analysis is designed to provide an estimate of the average response of a system as it relates to variation in one or more known variables. To produce valid models, however, regression analysis should include visual analysis of scatterplots, an examination of the regression equation, evaluation of the method design assumptions, and regression diagnostics. A number of statistical techniques are described in the text and in the appendixes to provide information necessary to interpret data by use of appropriate methods. Uncertainty is an important part of any decisionmaking process. In order to deal with uncertainty problems, the analyst needs to know the severity of the statistical uncertainty of the methods used to predict water quality. Statistical models need to be based on information that is meaningful, representative, complete, precise, accurate, and comparable to be deemed valid, up to date, and technically supportable. To assess uncertainty in the analytical tools, the modeling methods, and the underlying data set, all of these components need be documented and communicated in an accessible format within project publications.

Tasker, Gary D.; Granato, Gregory E.

2000-01-01

38

Statistical interpretation of the correlation between intermediate mass fragment multiplicity and transverse energy  

SciTech Connect

Multifragment emission following {sup 129}Xe+{sup 197}Au collisions at 30A, 40A, 50A, and 60A MeV has been studied with multidetector systems covering nearly 4{pi} in solid angle. The correlations of both the intermediate mass fragment and light charged particle multiplicities with the transverse energy are explored. A comparison is made with results from a similar system {sup 136}Xe+{sup 209}Bi at 28A MeV. The experimental trends are compared to statistical model predictions. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

Phair, L.; Beaulieu, L.; Moretto, L.G.; Wozniak, G.J.; Tso, K. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Bowman, D.R.; Carlin, N.; Dinius, J.D.; Gelbke, C.K.; Glasmacher, T.; Handzy, D.O.; Hsi, W.C.; Huang, M.J.; Kim, Y.D.; Lisa, M.A.; Lynch, W.G.; Montoya, C.P.; Peaslee, G.F.; Schwarz, C.; Tsang, M.B.; Zhu, F. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)] [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Ferrero, A.; Iori, I.; Moroni, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)] [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Margagliotti, G.V.; Rui, R.; Vannini, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via A. Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Fisica and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via A. Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Celano, L.; Colonna, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy)] [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); Gramegna, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Via Romea 4, 35020 Legnaro (Italy)] [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Via Romea 4, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Mastinu, P.F.; Milazzo, P.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Fisica and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy)

1999-11-01

39

Statistical analyses to support forensic interpretation for a new ten-locus STR profiling system.  

PubMed

A new ten-locus STR (short tandem repeat) profiling system was recently introduced into casework by the Forensic Science Service (FSS) and statistical analyses are described here based on data collected using this new system for the three major racial groups of the UK: Caucasian. Afro-Caribbean and Asian (of Indo-Pakistani descent). Allele distributions are compared and the FSS position with regard to routine significance testing of DNA frequency databases is discussed. An investigation of match probability calculations is carried out and the consequent analyses are shown to provide support for proposed changes in how the FSS reports DNA results when very small match probabilities are involved. PMID:11296886

Foreman, L A; Evett, I W

2001-01-01

40

A statistical approach to the interpretation of aliphatic hydrocarbon distributions in marine sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Q-mode factor analysis was used to quantitate the distribution of the major aliphatic hydrocarbon (n-alkanes, pristane, phytane) systems in sediments from a variety of marine environments. The compositions of the pure end members of the systems were obtained from factor scores and the distribution of the systems within each sample was obtained from factor loadings. All the data, from the diverse environments sampled (estuarine (San Francisco Bay), fresh-water (San Francisco Peninsula), polar-marine (Antarctica) and geothermal-marine (Gorda Ridge) sediments), were reduced to three major systems: a terrestrial system (mostly high molecular weight aliphatics with odd-numbered-carbon predominance), a mature system (mostly low molecular weight aliphatics without predominance) and a system containing mostly high molecular weight aliphatics with even-numbered-carbon predominance. With this statistical approach, it is possible to assign the percentage contribution from various sources to the observed distribution of aliphatic hydrocarbons in each sediment sample. ?? 1991.

Rapp, J.B.

1991-01-01

41

Double precision errors in the logistic map: statistical study and dynamical interpretation.  

PubMed

The nature of the round-off errors that occur in the usual double precision computation of the logistic map is studied in detail. Different iterative regimes from the whole panoply of behaviors exhibited in the bifurcation diagram are examined, histograms of errors in trajectories given, and for the case of fully developed chaos an explicit formula is found. It is shown that the statistics of the largest double precision error as a function of the map parameter is characterized by jumps whose location is determined by certain boundary crossings in the bifurcation diagram. Both jumps and locations seem to present geometric convergence characterized by the two first Feigenbaum constants. Eventually, a comparison with Benford's law for the distribution of the leading digit of compilation of numbers is discussed. PMID:17930330

Oteo, J A; Ros, J

2007-09-01

42

A Comprehensive Statistically-Based Method to Interpret Real-Time Flowing Measurements  

SciTech Connect

With the recent development of temperature measurement systems, continuous temperature profiles can be obtained with high precision. Small temperature changes can be detected by modern temperature measuring instruments such as fiber optic distributed temperature sensor (DTS) in intelligent completions and will potentially aid the diagnosis of downhole flow conditions. In vertical wells, since elevational geothermal changes make the wellbore temperature sensitive to the amount and the type of fluids produced, temperature logs can be used successfully to diagnose the downhole flow conditions. However, geothermal temperature changes along the wellbore being small for horizontal wells, interpretations of a temperature log become difficult. The primary temperature differences for each phase (oil, water, and gas) are caused by frictional effects. Therefore, in developing a thermal model for horizontal wellbore, subtle temperature changes must be accounted for. In this project, we have rigorously derived governing equations for a producing horizontal wellbore and developed a prediction model of the temperature and pressure by coupling the wellbore and reservoir equations. Also, we applied Ramey's model (1962) to the build section and used an energy balance to infer the temperature profile at the junction. The multilateral wellbore temperature model was applied to a wide range of cases at varying fluid thermal properties, absolute values of temperature and pressure, geothermal gradients, flow rates from each lateral, and the trajectories of each build section. With the prediction models developed, we present inversion studies of synthetic and field examples. These results are essential to identify water or gas entry, to guide flow control devices in intelligent completions, and to decide if reservoir stimulation is needed in particular horizontal sections. This study will complete and validate these inversion studies.

Keita Yoshioka; Pinan Dawkrajai; Analis A. Romero; Ding Zhu; A. D. Hill; Larry W. Lake

2007-01-15

43

Statistical information of ASAR observations over wetland areas: An interaction model interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results obtained after studying the relation between the statistical parameters that describe the backscattering distribution of junco marshes and their biophysical variables. The results are based on the texture analysis of a time series of Envisat ASAR C-band data (APP mode, V V +HH polarizations) acquired between October 2003 and January 2005 over the Lower Paraná River Delta, Argentina. The image power distributions were analyzed, and we show that the K distribution provides a good fitting of SAR data extracted from wetland observations for both polarizations. We also show that the estimated values of the order parameter of the K distribution can be explained using fieldwork and reasonable assumptions. In order to explore these results, we introduce a radiative transfer based interaction model to simulate the junco marsh ?0 distribution. After analyzing model simulations, we found evidence that the order parameter is related to the junco plant density distribution inside the junco marsh patch. It is concluded that the order parameter of the K distribution could be a useful parameter to estimate the junco plant density. This result is important for basin hydrodynamic modeling, since marsh plant density is the most important parameter to estimate marsh water conductance.

Grings, F.; Salvia, M.; Karszenbaum, H.; Ferrazzoli, P.; Perna, P.; Barber, M.; Jacobo Berlles, J.

44

Weighted feature significance: a simple, interpretable model of compound toxicity based on the statistical enrichment of structural features.  

PubMed

In support of the U.S. Tox21 program, we have developed a simple and chemically intuitive model we call weighted feature significance (WFS) to predict the toxicological activity of compounds, based on the statistical enrichment of structural features in toxic compounds. We trained and tested the model on the following: (1) data from quantitative high-throughput screening cytotoxicity and caspase activation assays conducted at the National Institutes of Health Chemical Genomics Center, (2) data from Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutagenicity assays conducted by the U.S. National Toxicology Program, and (3) hepatotoxicity data published in the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. Enrichments of structural features in toxic compounds are evaluated for their statistical significance and compiled into a simple additive model of toxicity and then used to score new compounds for potential toxicity. The predictive power of the model for cytotoxicity was validated using an independent set of compounds from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency tested also at the National Institutes of Health Chemical Genomics Center. We compared the performance of our WFS approach with classical classification methods such as Naive Bayesian clustering and support vector machines. In most test cases, WFS showed similar or slightly better predictive power, especially in the prediction of hepatotoxic compounds, where WFS appeared to have the best performance among the three methods. The new algorithm has the important advantages of simplicity, power, interpretability, and ease of implementation. PMID:19805409

Huang, Ruili; Southall, Noel; Xia, Menghang; Cho, Ming-Hsuang; Jadhav, Ajit; Nguyen, Dac-Trung; Inglese, James; Tice, Raymond R; Austin, Christopher P

2009-12-01

45

Easily Retrievable Objects among the NEO Population  

E-print Network

Asteroids and comets are of strategic importance for science in an effort to understand the formation, evolution and composition of the Solar System. Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are of particular interest because of their accessibility from Earth, but also because of their speculated wealth of material resources. The exploitation of these resources has long been discussed as a means to lower the cost of future space endeavours. In this paper, we consider the currently known NEO population and define a family of so-called Easily Retrievable Objects (EROs), objects that can be transported from accessible heliocentric orbits into the Earth's neighbourhood at affordable costs. The asteroid retrieval transfers are sought from the continuum of low energy transfers enabled by the dynamics of invariant manifolds; specifically, the retrieval transfers target planar, vertical Lyapunov and halo orbit families associated with the collinear equilibrium points of the Sun-Earth Circular Restricted Three Body problem. The judi...

Yárnoz, D García; McInnes, C R

2013-01-01

46

Easily available enzymes as natural retting agents.  

PubMed

Easily available commercial enzymes currently have great potential in bast fibre processing and can be modified for different end uses. There are several new technologies using enzymes that are able to modify fibre parameters, achieve requested properties, improve processing results and are more beneficial to the ecology in the area of bast fibre processing and fabrics finishing. Enzymatic methods for retting of flax, "cottonisation" of bast fibres, hemp separation, and processing of flax rovings before wet spinning, etc., fall into this group of new technologies. Such enzymatic biotechnologies can provide benefits in textile, composite, reinforced plastic and other technical applications. Laboratory, pilot and industrial scale results and experiences have demonstrated the ability of selected enzymes to decompose interfibre-bonding layers based on pectin, lignin and hemicelluloses. Texazym SER spray is able to increase flax long fibre yields by more than 40%. Other enzymes in combination with mild mechanical treatment can replace aggressive and energy-intensive processing like Laroche "cottonisation". Texazym SCW and DLG pretreatments of flax rovings are presented. PMID:17309044

Antonov, Viktor; Marek, Jan; Bjelkova, Marie; Smirous, Prokop; Fischer, Holger

2007-03-01

47

Easily retrievable objects among the NEO population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asteroids and comets are of strategic importance for science in an effort to understand the formation, evolution and composition of the Solar System. Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are of particular interest because of their accessibility from Earth, but also because of their speculated wealth of material resources. The exploitation of these resources has long been discussed as a means to lower the cost of future space endeavours. In this paper, we consider the currently known NEO population and define a family of so-called Easily Retrievable Objects (EROs), objects that can be transported from accessible heliocentric orbits into the Earth's neighbourhood at affordable costs. The asteroid retrieval transfers are sought from the continuum of low energy transfers enabled by the dynamics of invariant manifolds; specifically, the retrieval transfers target planar, vertical Lyapunov and halo orbit families associated with the collinear equilibrium points of the Sun-Earth Circular Restricted Three Body problem. The judicious use of these dynamical features provides the best opportunity to find extremely low energy Earth transfers for asteroid material. A catalogue of asteroid retrieval candidates is then presented. Despite the highly incomplete census of very small asteroids, the ERO catalogue can already be populated with 12 different objects retrievable with less than 500 m/s of ? v. Moreover, the approach proposed represents a robust search and ranking methodology for future retrieval candidates that can be automatically applied to the growing survey of NEOs.

García Yárnoz, D.; Sanchez, J. P.; McInnes, C. R.

2013-08-01

48

Design of systems involving easily measurable aspheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aspheric surfaces provide significant benefits to an optical design. Unfortunately, aspheres are usually more difficult to fabricate than spherical surfaces, making the choice of whether and when to use aspheres in a design less obvious. Much of the difficulty comes from obtaining aspheric measurements with comparable quality and simplicity to spherical measurements. Subaperture stitching can provide a flexible and effective test for many aspheric shapes, enabling more cost-effective manufacture of high-precision aspheres. To take full advantage of this flexible testing capability, however, the designer must know what the limitations of the measurement are, so that the asphere designs can be optimized for both performance and manufacturability. In practice, this can be quite difficult, as instrument capabilities are difficult to quantify absolutely, and standard asphere polynomial coefficients are difficult to interpret. The slope-orthogonal "Q" polynomial representation for an aspheric surface is ideal for constraining the slope departure of aspheres. We present a method of estimating whether an asphere described by Q polynomials is measurable by QED Technologies' SSI-A system. This estimation function quickly computes the testability from the asphere's prescription (Q polynomial coefficients, radius of curvature, and aperture size), and is thus suitable for employing in lens design merit functions. We compare the estimates against actual SSI-A lattices. Finally, we explore the speed and utility of the method in a lens design study.

Murphy, Paul E.; Stephenson, Dave; Jones, Andrew E. W.; Forbes, Greg W.

2013-09-01

49

A flexible computational framework for detecting, characterizing, and interpreting statistical patterns of epistasis in genetic studies of human disease susceptibility.  

PubMed

Detecting, characterizing, and interpreting gene-gene interactions or epistasis in studies of human disease susceptibility is both a mathematical and a computational challenge. To address this problem, we have previously developed a multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method for collapsing high-dimensional genetic data into a single dimension (i.e. constructive induction) thus permitting interactions to be detected in relatively small sample sizes. In this paper, we describe a comprehensive and flexible framework for detecting and interpreting gene-gene interactions that utilizes advances in information theory for selecting interesting single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), MDR for constructive induction, machine learning methods for classification, and finally graphical models for interpretation. We illustrate the usefulness of this strategy using artificial datasets simulated from several different two-locus and three-locus epistasis models. We show that the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and precision of a naïve Bayes classifier are significantly improved when SNPs are selected based on their information gain (i.e. class entropy removed) and reduced to a single attribute using MDR. We then apply this strategy to detecting, characterizing, and interpreting epistatic models in a genetic study (n = 500) of atrial fibrillation and show that both classification and model interpretation are significantly improved. PMID:16457852

Moore, Jason H; Gilbert, Joshua C; Tsai, Chia-Ti; Chiang, Fu-Tien; Holden, Todd; Barney, Nate; White, Bill C

2006-07-21

50

Side effect of acting on the world: acquisition of action-outcome statistic relation alters visual interpretation of action outcome  

PubMed Central

Humans can acquire the statistical features of the external world and employ them to control behaviors. Some external events occur in harmony with an agent's action, and thus, humans should also be able to acquire the statistical features between an action and its external outcome. We report that the acquired action-outcome statistical features alter the visual appearance of the action outcome. Pressing either of two assigned keys triggered visual motion whose direction was statistically biased either upward or downward, and observers judged the stimulus motion direction. Points of subjective equality (PSE) for judging motion direction were shifted repulsively from the mean of the distribution associated with each key. Our Bayesian model accounted for the PSE shifts, indicating the optimal acquisition of the action-effect statistical relation. The PSE shifts were moderately attenuated when the action-outcome contingency was reduced. The Bayesian model again accounted for the attenuated PSE shifts. On the other hand, when the action-outcome contiguity was reduced, the PSE shifts were greatly attenuated, and however, the Bayesian model could not accounted for the shifts. The results indicate that visual appearance can be modified by prediction based on the optimal acquisition of action-effect causal relation. PMID:24093017

Kawabe, Takahiro

2013-01-01

51

Statistical models for monitoring and regulating ground-level ozone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of statistical techniques to environmental problems often involves a tradeo between simple methods that are easily implemented and interpreted and more complicated methods that may have smaller errors. In this paper we compare simple and complicated statistical models for interpolating the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ground-level ozone o of a

Eric Gilleland; Douglas Nychka

2005-01-01

52

Statistical analysis and interpretation of prenatal diagnostic imaging studies, Part 1: evaluating the efficiency of screening and diagnostic tests.  

PubMed

Screening and diagnostic testing play fundamental roles in all fields of clinical medicine, with obstetric imaging and prenatal diagnosis being no exceptions. With advances in maternal serum screening and ultrasound technology, much research effort in the field of pre-natal diagnosis has actually been dedicated to the development and refinement of screening tests for fetal aneuploidy and other congenital disorders. This article aims to review the differences between screening and diagnostic tests, describe the accepted criteria for an efficient screening test, and provide an overview of the calculation and interpretation of test performance characteristics in relation to prenatal imaging studies. PMID:21795488

Goetzinger, Katherine R; Odibo, Anthony O

2011-08-01

53

Analysis of the procedures used to evaluate suicide crime scenes in Brazil: a statistical approach to interpret reports.  

PubMed

This study uses statistical techniques to evaluate reports on suicide scenes; it utilizes 80 reports from different locations in Brazil, randomly collected from both federal and state jurisdictions. We aimed to assess a heterogeneous group of cases in order to obtain an overall perspective of the problem. We evaluated variables regarding the characteristics of the crime scene, such as the detected traces (blood, instruments and clothes) that were found and we addressed the methodology employed by the experts. A qualitative approach using basic statistics revealed a wide distribution as to how the issue was addressed in the documents. We examined a quantitative approach involving an empirical equation and we used multivariate procedures to validate the quantitative methodology proposed for this empirical equation. The methodology successfully identified the main differences in the information presented in the reports, showing that there is no standardized method of analyzing evidences. PMID:25066170

Bruni, Aline Thaís; Velho, Jesus Antonio; Ferreira, Arthur Serra Lopes; Tasso, Maria Júlia; Ferrari, Raíssa Santos; Yoshida, Ricardo Luís; Dias, Marcos Salvador; Leite, Vitor Barbanti Pereira

2014-08-01

54

Chemical data and statistical interpretations for rocks and ores from the Ranger uranium mine, Northern Territory, Australia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analytical results for 61 elements in 370 samples from the Ranger Mine area are reported. Most of the rocks come from drill core in the Ranger No. 1 and Ranger No. 3 deposits, but 20 samples are from unmineralized drill core more than 1 km from ore. Statistical tests show that the elements Mg, Fe, F, Be, Co, Li, Ni, Pb, Sc, Th, Ti, V, CI, As, Br, Au, Ce, Dy, La Sc, Eu, Tb, Yb, and Tb have positive association with uranium, and Si, Ca, Na, K, Sr, Ba, Ce, and Cs have negative association. For most lithologic subsets Mg, Fe, Li, Cr, Ni, Pb, V, Y, Sm, Sc, Eu, and Yb are significantly enriched in ore-bearing rocks, whereas Ca, Na, K, Sr, Ba, Mn, Ce, and Cs are significantly depleted. These results are consistent with petrographic observations on altered rocks. Lithogeochemistry can aid exploration, but for these rocks requires methods that are expensive and not amenable to routine use.

Nash, J. Thomas; Frishman, David

1983-01-01

55

Biological drugs for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis by the subcutaneous route: interpreting efficacy data to assess statistical equivalence  

PubMed Central

Background: No equivalence analysis has yet been conducted on the effectiveness of biologics in rheumatoid arthritis. Equivalence testing has a specific scientific interest, but can also be useful for deciding whether acquisition tenders are feasible for the pharmacological agents being compared. Methods: Our search covered the literature up to August 2014. Our methodology was a combination of standard pairwise meta-analysis, Bayesian network meta-analysis and equivalence testing. The agents examined for their potential equivalence were etanercept, adalimumab, golimumab, certolizumab, and tocilizumab, each in combination with methotrexate (MTX). The reference treatment was MTX monotherapy. The endpoint was ACR50 achievement at 12 months. Odds ratio was the outcome measure. The equivalence margins were established by analyzing the statistical power data of the trials. Results: Our search identified seven randomized controlled trials (2846 patients). No study was retrieved for tocilizumab, and so only four biologics were evaluable. The equivalence range was set at odds ratio from 0.56 to 1.78. There were 10 head-to-head comparisons (4 direct, 6 indirect). Bayesian network meta-analysis estimated the odds ratio (with 90% credible intervals) for each of these comparisons. Between-trial heterogeneity was marked. According to our results, all credible intervals of the 10 comparisons were wide and none of them satisfied the equivalence criterion. A superiority finding was confirmed for the treatment with MTX plus adalimumab or certolizumab in comparison with MTX monotherapy, but not for the other two biologics. Conclusion: Our results indicate that these four biologics improved the rates of ACR50 achievement, but there was an evident between-study heterogeneity. The head-to-head indirect comparisons between individual biologics showed no significant difference, but failed to demonstrate the proof of no difference (i.e. equivalence). This body of evidence presently precludes any option of undertaking competitive tenderings for the procurement of these agents.

Fadda, Valeria; Maratea, Dario; Trippoli, Sabrina; Gatto, Roberta; De Rosa, Mauro; Marinai, Claudio

2014-01-01

56

Novel Cyclic Sugar Imines: Carbohydrate Mimics and Easily  

E-print Network

Novel Cyclic Sugar Imines: Carbohydrate Mimics and Easily Elaborated Scaffolds for Aza (e.g., DNJ) imines not only are potential carbohydrate- processing enzyme inhibitors that may for a nitrogen atom.1 The often potent inhibitory activity of many of these compounds toward carbohydrate

Davis, Ben G.

57

OFFICIAL NOTICE (Post Where Employees Can Easily Read)  

E-print Network

. Employers do not have to pay employees for unused leave upon termination or resignation of employmentOFFICIAL NOTICE (Post Where Employees Can Easily Read) ACCRUED SICK AND SAFE LEAVE ACT OF 2008 REQUIRES EMPLOYERS IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA TO PROVIDE PAID LEAVE TO EMPLOYEES FOR ILLNESS

Weaver, Harold A. "Hal"

58

Easily disassembled electrical connector for high voltage, high frequency connections  

DOEpatents

An easily accessible electrical connector capable of rapid assembly and disassembly is described wherein a wide metal conductor sheet may be evenly contacted over the entire width of the conductor sheet by opposing surfaces on the connector which provide an even clamping pressure against opposite surfaces of the metal conductor sheet using a single threaded actuating screw. 13 figures.

Milner, J.R.

1994-05-10

59

Easily melting glass for assembly of optical fiber into connectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The easily melting fluorine containing borophosphate glasses for construction knots have been obtained and investigated. The unique optical properties i.e. low refractive index - nD equals 1.41-1.45, wide spectral transparency region from 200 to 2000 nm as well as extended temperature application range from - 70 to +300 degree(s)C, thermostability and mechanical properties determine possibility to use fluorine containing borophosphate

Yanina Setina; Juris J. Auzans; J. J. Zolotarjova

1994-01-01

60

Between Teacher & Parent: Helping the Child Who Cries Easily  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents need to remember that crying is the first method of communication for children younger than 5 or 6. It is their way of getting attention. While it isn't easy for new parents to interpret their baby's cries, most learn to distinguish the "I am hungry--feed me" cry from the "My tummy hurts" or the "I am just fussy and bored" cry. This…

Brodkin, Adele M.

2004-01-01

61

Easily melting glass for assembly of optical fiber into connectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The easily melting fluorine containing borophosphate glasses for construction knots have been obtained and investigated. The unique optical properties i.e. low refractive index - nD equals 1.41-1.45, wide spectral transparency region from 200 to 2000 nm as well as extended temperature application range from - 70 to +300 degree(s)C, thermostability and mechanical properties determine possibility to use fluorine containing borophosphate glass as optical glue. The process of structure formation within temperature range 20-1000 degree(s)C has been investigated in details. It has been determined by IR and X-ray methods that the development of glass network begins with decomposition of components at 500 degree(s)C with further formation of glass elements within temperature range 625-675 degree(s)C. The stable glassforming area is determined by P-O-B groups. The role of fluorine in structure development depends on its depolymerizator behavior, on the other hand it has some glassforming ability. Latter is based on ability of fluorine to move from boron to phosphorus coordination sphere. For the compositions under research the formation of monofluorophosphate groups at higher temperatures have been determined. The ratio P:B equals 1, 2:2 defines obtaining of stable glass without devitrification within the temperature range from 300 to 700 degree(s)C. The interfacial processes between fluorine containing melts and quartz fiber have been investigated.

Setina, Janina; Auzans, Juris J.; Zolotarjova, J. J.

1994-09-01

62

Predicting cutability of lamb carcasses from easily obtainable carcass measurements  

E-print Network

Partial Regression Coefficients for Prediction Eouat. iona. 58 C!]AFTER' iNsRODd?!ION Varia Lion in th- (ota] va]ue of t]ic retail cuts from lani]& car? cas (' ' has been ade(]unruly demonstratcc! (S . fcmay 'Stores Inc. 1969 and Noki, 1961) . Sheep... varia'bles for each of the three sexes at a constant carcass weight. The differences between the adjusted trait means for each sex subclass were tested for statistical significance using Dun- can's Multiple Range Test as modified to consider unequal...

Oliver, William McCoy

2012-06-07

63

Metview and VAPOR: Exploring ECMWF forecasts easily in four dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) is an international organisation providing its member states and co-operating states with forecasts in the medium time range of up to 15 days as well as other forcasts and analysis. As part of its mission, ECMWF generates an increasing number of forecast data products for its users. To support the work of forecasters and researchers and to let them make best use of ECMWF forecasts, the Centre also provides tools and interfaces to visualise their products. This allows users to make use of and explore forecasts without having to transfer large amounts of raw data. This is especially true for products based on ECMWF's 50 member ensemble forecast. Users can choose to explore ECMWF's forecasts from the web or through visualisation tools installed locally or at ECMWF. ECMWF also develops in co-operation with INPE, Brazil, the Metview meteorological workstation and batch system. Metview enables users to easily analyse and visualise forecasts, and is routinely used by scientists and forecasters at ECMWF and other institutions. While Metview offers high quality visualisation in two-dimensional plots and animations, it uses external tools to visualise data in four dimensions. VAPOR is the Visualization and Analysis Platform for Ocean, Atmosphere, and Solar Researchers. VAPOR provides an interactive 3D visualisation environment that runs on most UNIX and Windows systems equipped with modern 3D graphics cards. VAPOR development is led by the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Scientific Computing Division in collaboration with U.C. Davis and Ohio State University. In this paper we will give an overview of how users, with Metview and access to ECMWF's archive, can visualise forecast data in four dimensions within VAPOR. The process of preparing the data in Metview is the key step and described in detail. The benefits to researchers are highlighted with a case study analysing a given weather scenario.

Siemen, Stephan; Kertesz, Sandor; Carver, Glenn

2014-05-01

64

REPRESENTATIVE ORDERING AND SELECTION OF VARIABLES, VOLUMES A AND B--STATISTICAL MODELS FOR THE EVALUATION AND INTERPRETATION OF EDUCATIONAL CRITERIA, PART 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE STUDIES EMBODIED IN THIS REPORT PROPOSE SOME STATISTICAL METHODS OF ORDERING AND ATTAINING RELEVANCY TO HELP THE EDUCATIONAL RESEARCHER CHOOSE AMONG SUCH VARIABLES AS TESTS AND BEHAVIOR RATINGS. CONSTRUCTION OF A MODEL FOR THE ANALYSIS OF CONTINGENCY TABLES, DETERMINATION OF THE MOST APPROPRIATE ORDERING PRINCIPLE IN STEP-DOWN ANALYSIS FOR THE…

BARGMANN, ROLF E.

65

Statistics Clinic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Do you have elevated p-values? Is the data analysis process getting you down? Do you experience anxiety when you need to respond to criticism of statistical methods in your manuscript? You may be suffering from Insufficient Statistical Support Syndrome (ISSS). For symptomatic relief of ISSS, come for a free consultation with JSC biostatisticians at our help desk during the poster sessions at the HRP Investigators Workshop. Get answers to common questions about sample size, missing data, multiple testing, when to trust the results of your analyses and more. Side effects may include sudden loss of statistics anxiety, improved interpretation of your data, and increased confidence in your results.

Feiveson, Alan H.; Foy, Millennia; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fiedler, James

2014-01-01

66

Statistical Analysis and Interpretation of Building Characterization, Indoor Environmental Quality Monitoring and Energy Usage Data from Office Buildings and Classrooms in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Three independent tasks had been performed (Stetzenbach 2008, Stetzenbach 2008b, Stetzenbach 2009) to measure a variety of parameters in normative buildings across the United States. For each of these tasks 10 buildings were selected as normative indoor environments. Task 1 focused on office buildings, Task 13 focused on public schools, and Task 0606 focused on high performance buildings. To perform this task it was necessary to restructure the database for the Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) data and the Sound measurement as several issues were identified and resolved prior to and during the transfer of these data sets into SPSS. During overview discussions with the statistician utilized in this task it was determined that because the selection of indoor zones (1-6) was independently selected within each task; zones were not related by location across tasks. Therefore, no comparison would be valid across zones for the 30 buildings so the by location (zone) data were limited to three analysis sets of the buildings within each task. In addition, differences in collection procedures for lighting were used in Task 0606 as compared to Tasks 01 & 13 to improve sample collection. Therefore, these data sets could not be merged and compared so effects by-day data were run separately for Task 0606 and only Task 01 & 13 data were merged. Results of the statistical analysis of the IEQ parameters show statistically significant differences were found among days and zones for all tasks, although no differences were found by-day for Draft Rate data from Task 0606 (p>0.05). Thursday measurements of IEQ parameters were significantly different from Tuesday, and most Wednesday measures for all variables of Tasks 1 & 13. Data for all three days appeared to vary for Operative Temperature, whereas only Tuesday and Thursday differed for Draft Rate 1m. Although no Draft Rate measures within Task 0606 were found to significantly differ by-day, Temperature measurements for Tuesday and Thursday showed variation. Moreover, Wednesday measurements of Relative Humidity within Task 0606 varied significantly from either Tuesday or Thursday. The majority of differences in IEQ measurements by-zone were highly significant (p<0.001), with the exception of Relative Humidity in some buildings. When all task data were combined (30 buildings) neither the airborne culturable fungi nor the airborne non-culturable spore data differed in the concentrations found at any indoor location in terms of day of collection. However, the concentrations of surface-associated fungi varied among the day of collection. Specifically, there was a lower concentration of mold on Tuesday than on Wednesday, for all tasks combined. As expected, variation was found in the concentrations of both airborne culturable fungi and airborne non-culturable fungal spores between indoor zones (1-6) and the outdoor zone (zone 0). No variation was found among the indoor zones of office buildings for Task 1 in the concentrations of airborne culturable fungi. However, airborne non-culturable spores did vary among zones in one building in Task 1 and variation was noted between zones in surface-associated fungi. Due to the lack of multiple lighting measurements for Tasks 13 and 0606, by-day comparisons were only performed for Task 1. No statistical differences were observed in lighting with respect to the day of collection. There was a wide range of variability by-zone among seven of the office buildings. Although few differences were found for the brightest illumination of the worksurface (IllumWkSfcBrtst) and the darkest illumination of the worksurface (IllumWkSfcDrkst) in Task 1, there was considerable variation for these variables in Task 13 and Task 0606 (p < 0.001). Other variables that differed by-zone in Task 13 include CombCCT and AmbCCT1 for S03, S07, and S08. Additionally, AmbChromX1, CombChromY, and CombChromX varied by-zone for school buildings S02, S04, and S05, respectively. Although all tasks demonstrated significant differences in sound measurements by zone, some of the buil

Linda Stetzenbach; Lauren Nemnich; Davor Novosel

2009-08-31

67

Localized Smart-Interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complex task of setting up a geological model consists not only of combining available geological information into a conceptual plausible model, but also requires consistency with availably data, e.g. geophysical data. However, in many cases the direct geological information, e.g borehole samples, are very sparse, so in order to create a geological model, the geologist needs to rely on the geophysical data. The problem is however, that the amount of geophysical data in many cases are so vast that it is practically impossible to integrate all of them in the manual interpretation process. This means that a lot of the information available from the geophysical surveys are unexploited, which is a problem, due to the fact that the resulting geological model does not fulfill its full potential and hence are less trustworthy. We suggest an approach to geological modeling that 1. allow all geophysical data to be considered when building the geological model 2. is fast 3. allow quantification of geological modeling. The method is constructed to build a statistical model, f(d,m), describing the relation between what the geologists interpret, d, and what the geologist knows, m. The para- meter m reflects any available information that can be quantified, such as geophysical data, the result of a geophysical inversion, elevation maps, etc... The parameter d reflects an actual interpretation, such as for example the depth to the base of a ground water reservoir. First we infer a statistical model f(d,m), by examining sets of actual interpretations made by a geological expert, [d1, d2, ...], and the information used to perform the interpretation; [m1, m2, ...]. This makes it possible to quantify how the geological expert performs interpolation through f(d,m). As the geological expert proceeds interpreting, the number of interpreted datapoints from which the statistical model is inferred increases, and therefore the accuracy of the statistical model increases. When a model f(d,m) successfully has been inferred, we are able to simulate how the geological expert would perform an interpretation given some external information m, through f(d|m). We will demonstrate this method applied on geological interpretation and densely sampled airborne electromagnetic data. In short, our goal is to build a statistical model describing how a geological expert performs geological interpretation given some geophysical data. We then wish to use this statistical model to perform semi automatic interpretation, everywhere where such geophysical data exist, in a manner consistent with the choices made by a geological expert. Benefits of such a statistical model are that 1. it provides a quantification of how a geological expert performs interpretation based on available diverse data 2. all available geophysical information can be used 3. it allows much faster interpretation of large data sets.

Lundh Gulbrandsen, Mats; Mejer Hansen, Thomas; Bach, Torben; Pallesen, Tom

2014-05-01

68

The Transterpreter: A Transputer Interpreter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the Transterpreter: a virtual machine for executing the Transputer instruction set. This interpreter is a small, portable, efficient and ex- tensible run-time. It is intended to be easily ported to handheld computers, mobile phones, and other embedded contexts. In striving for this level of portability, occam programs compiled to Transputer byte-code can currently be run on

Christian L. JACOBSEN; Matthew C. JADUD

2004-01-01

69

Landslides triggered by the 12 January 2010 Mw 7.0 Port-au-Prince, Haiti, earthquake: visual interpretation, inventory compiling and spatial distribution statistical analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 12 January 2010 Port-au-Prince, Haiti, earthquake (Mw 7.0) triggered tens of thousands of landslides. The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlations of the occurrence of landslides and their erosion thicknesses with topographic factors, seismic parameters, and their distance from roads. A total of 30 828 landslides triggered by the earthquake covered a total area of 15.736 km2, distributed in an area more than 3000 km2, and the volume of landslide accumulation materials is estimated to be about 29 700 000 m3. These landslides are of various types, mostly belonging to shallow disrupted landslides and rock falls, but also include coherent deep-seated landslides and rock slides. These landslides were delineated using pre- and post-earthquake high-resolutions satellite images. Spatial distribution maps and contour maps of landslide number density, landslide area percentage, and landslide erosion thickness were constructed in order to analyze the spatial distribution patterns of co-seismic landslides. Statistics of size distribution and morphometric parameters of co-seismic landslides were carried out and were compared with other earthquake events in the world. Four proxies of co-seismic landslide abundance, including landslides centroid number density (LCND), landslide top number density (LTND), landslide area percentage (LAP), and landslide erosion thickness (LET) were used to correlate co-seismic landslides with various landslide controlling parameters. These controlling parameters include elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, slope curvature, topographic position, distance from drainages, lithology, distance from the epicenter, distance from the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault, distance along the fault, and peak ground acceleration (PGA). A comparison of these impact parameters on co-seismic landslides shows that slope angle is the strongest impact parameter on co-seismic landslide occurrence. Our co-seismic landslide inventory is much more detailed than other inventories in several previous publications. Therefore, we carried out comparisons of inventories of landslides triggered by the Haiti earthquake with other published results and proposed possible reasons of any differences. We suggest that the empirical functions between earthquake magnitude and co-seismic landslides need to update on the basis of the abundant and more complete co-seismic landslide inventories recently available.

Xu, C.; Shyu, J. B. H.; Xu, X.-W.

2014-02-01

70

STATISTICAL METHODS STATISTICAL METHODS  

E-print Network

STATISTICAL METHODS 1 STATISTICAL METHODS Arnaud Delorme, Swartz Center for Computational@salk.edu. Keywords: statistical methods, inference, models, clinical, software, bootstrap, resampling, PCA, ICA Abstract: Statistics represents that body of methods by which characteristics of a population are inferred

Delorme, Arnaud

71

Time Resolved Thermal Diffusivity of Seasonal Snow Determined from Inexpensive, Easily-Implemented Temperature Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal diffusivity of snow is an important physical property associated with key hydrological phenomena such as snow melt and heat and water vapor exchange with the atmosphere. These phenomena have broad implications in studies of climate and heat and water budgets on many scales. However, direct measurements of snow thermal diffusivity require coupled point measurements of thermal conductivity and density, which are nonstationary due to snow metamorphism. Furthermore, thermal conductivity measurements are typically obtained with specialized heating probes or plates and snow density measurements require digging snow pits. Therefore, direct measurements are difficult to obtain with high enough temporal resolution such that direct comparisons with atmospheric conditions can be made. This study uses highly resolved (7.5 to 10 cm for depth and 1min for time) temperature measurements from the Plaine Morte glacier in Switzerland as initial and boundary conditions to numerically solve the 1D heat equation and iteratively optimize for thermal diffusivity. The method uses flux boundary conditions to constrain thermal diffusivity such that spuriously high values in thermal diffusivity are eliminated. Additionally, a t-test ensuring statistical significance between solutions of varied thermal diffusivity result in further constraints on thermal diffusivity that eliminate spuriously low values. The results show that time resolved (1 minute) thermal diffusivity can be determined from easily implemented and inexpensive temperature measurements of seasonal snow with good agreement to widely used parameterizations based on snow density. This high time resolution further affords the ability to explore possible turbulence-induced enhancements to heat and mass transfer in the snow.

Oldroyd, H. J.; Higgins, C. W.; Huwald, H.; Selker, J. S.; Parlange, M. B.

2011-12-01

72

Interpreting Metonymy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines some of the problems associated with interpreting metonymy, a figure of speech in which an attribute or commonly associated feature is used to name or designate something. After defining metonymy and outlining the principles of metonymy, the paper explains the differences between metonymy, synecdoche, and metaphor. It is…

Pankhurst, Anne

1994-01-01

73

Performing Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Utilizing a/r/tographic methodology to interrogate interpretive acts in museums, multiple areas of inquiry are raised in this paper, including: which knowledge is assigned the greatest value when preparing a gallery talk; what lies outside of disciplinary knowledge; how invitations to participate invite and disinvite in the same gesture; and what…

Kothe, Elsa Lenz; Berard, Marie-France

2013-01-01

74

SLAR image interpretation keys for geographic analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A means for side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) imagery to become a more widely used data source in geoscience and agriculture is suggested by providing interpretation keys as an easily implemented interpretation model. Interpretation problems faced by the researcher wishing to employ SLAR are specifically described, and the use of various types of image interpretation keys to overcome these problems is suggested. With examples drawn from agriculture and vegetation mapping, direct and associate dichotomous image interpretation keys are discussed and methods of constructing keys are outlined. Initial testing of the keys, key-based automated decision rules, and the role of the keys in an information system for agriculture are developed.

Coiner, J. C.

1972-01-01

75

Interpretive Medicine  

PubMed Central

Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the recognition of quality in interpretation and knowledge generation within the qualitative research field, I propose a framework by which to evaluate the quality of knowledge generated within generalist, interpretive clinical practice. I describe three priorities for research in developing this model further, which will strengthen and preserve core elements of the discipline of general practice, and thus promote and support the health needs of the public. PMID:21805819

Reeve, Joanne

2010-01-01

76

Inventory Control: An Inexpensive and Easily Constructed Device for Quantitative Conductivity Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a low cost system with easily replaced electrodes for use in general chemistry. Notes the accuracy and wide applicability permit easy use in physical or quantitative chemistry experiments. Provides schematic, theory, and helpful suggestions. (MVL)

Rettich, Timothy R.; Battino, Rubin

1989-01-01

77

Employer Learning And Statistical Discrimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that if firms statistically discriminate among young workers on the basis of easily observable characteristics such as education, then as firms learn about productivity, the coefficients on the easily observed variables should fall, and the coefficients on hard-to-observe correlates of productivity should rise. We find support for this proposition using NLSY79 data on education, the AFQT test, father's

Joseph G. Altonji; Charles R. Pierret

2001-01-01

78

Court Interpreter Training in the Language Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of demographic studies and statistics from state and federal courts indicate a growing need for Spanish-English court interpreters with special training in consecutive and simultaneous court interpretation. The five strongest skills which need to be taught in a court interpreter training program are identified and suggestions are given on…

Stromberg, Wayne H.; Head, Gerald L.

1984-01-01

79

As sustainability becomes integrated into public policy decision making,comprehensive and easily accessible sustainability  

E-print Network

As sustainability becomes integrated into public policy decision making,comprehensive and easily accessible sustainability information will be needed to assist policy analysis.As visual analytics emerges as a major tool of policy analysis,sustainability information,particularly sustainability indicators

Hall, Sharon J.

80

Transforming basic robotic platforms into easily deployable and Web remotely controllable robots  

E-print Network

Transforming basic robotic platforms into easily deployable and Web remotely controllable robots basic robotic platforms into Web remotely controllable robots. Our goal is to achieve robot deploymentG), the robot can be deployed and Web- controlled. The distant user can send commands to the robot

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

81

What do spectra tell us about dynamics? How can we easily calculate spectra?  

E-print Network

· What do spectra tell us about dynamics? · How can we easily calculate spectra? · Case studies Frozen Gaussians Off-center guiding #12;The dream: provide a physically motivated basis set for chemical are guided by and act like classical trajectories; easy to run in many degrees of freedom #12;Many strategies

Simons, Jack

82

A synthesis and optimization procedure for fully and easily testable sequential machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors outline a synthesis procedure which beginning from a state transition graph (STG) description of a sequential machine produces an optimized fully and easily testable logic implementation. This logic-level implementation is guaranteed to be testable for all single stuck-at faults in the combinational logic and the test sequences for these faults can be obtained using combinational test generation techniques

Srinivas Devadas; Hi-keung Tony Ma; A. Richard Newton; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-vincentelli

1989-01-01

83

The Validity of Seven Easily Obtainable Economic and Demographic Predictors of Achievement Test Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Involving about 850 fourth grade pupils in eleven schools of a desegregated metropolitan school district, this study examined the relationship between seven easily obtainable background variables and achievement test performance (CTBS-Battery Total). A multiple correlation of .52 was obtained between a composite of seven predictors and the measure of achievement. A five-variable economic predictor model yielded a multiple correlation of

Robert J. May; Douglas G. Alexander; Bill M. Holcombe

1978-01-01

84

A DESIGN OF OPERATING SYSTEM FOR EASILY IMPLEMENTING EFFICIENT FILE SYSTEMS ???????????????? ??????OS???  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The OS kernel shouldprovid e a framework with which programmers can easily implement an efficient file system. With conventional frameworks, a file system has been embedded into the kernel for efficiency or otherwise constructed at the user level for ease of implementation. However, the former technique makes the implementation difficult, and the latter involves performance penalties. This thesis proposes

Kenichi Kourai

85

a more easily digestible food for the bees, and in preservation of the food against attack  

E-print Network

a more easily digestible food for the bees, and in preservation of the food against attack by fungi] suggested that the nutritive value of pollen for both bee-collected and bee-stored was identical, at least in Apis mellifera. The aim 1. INTRODUCTION Scaptotrigona postica is an eusocial bee that lives

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

86

Under Review -(c) IEEE 2012 Inexpensive and Easily Customized Tactile Array  

E-print Network

1 Under Review - (c) IEEE 2012 Inexpensive and Easily Customized Tactile Array Sensors using MEMS include a MEMS pressure sensor, temperature sensor, instru- mentation amplifier, analog Sciences Abstract--This paper presents a new approach to the con- struction of tactile array sensors based

87

The Validity of Seven Easily Obtainable Economic and Demographic Predictors of Achievement Test Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Involving about 850 fourth grade pupils in 11 schools of a desegragated metropolitan school district, this study examined the relationship between seven easily obtainable background variables and achievement test performance on the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills—Battery Total (CTBS-Battery Total). A multiple correlation of .52 was obtained between a composite of seven predictors and the measure of achievement. A five-variable

Robert J. May; Douglas G. Alexander; Bill M. Holcombe

1977-01-01

88

Synthesis, Characterization, to application of water soluble and easily removable cationic pressure sensitive adhesives  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, the world has expressed an increasing interest in the recycling of waste paper to supplement the use of virgin fiber as a way to protect the environment. Statistics show that major countries are increasing their use of recycled paper. For example, in 1991 to 1996, the U.S. increased its recovered paper utilization rate from 31% to 39%, Germany went from 50% to 60%, the UK went from 60% to 70%, France increased from 46% to 49%, and China went from 32% to 35% [1]. As recycled fiber levels and water system closures both increase, recycled product quality will need to improve in order for recycled products to compete with products made from virgin fiber [2]. The use of recycled fiber has introduced an increasing level of metal, plastic, and adhesive contamination into the papermaking process which has added to the complexity of the already overwhelming task of providing a uniform and clean recycle furnish. The most harmful of these contaminates is a mixture of adhesives and polymeric substances that are commonly known as stickies. Stickies, which enter the mill with the pulp furnish, are not easily removed from the repulper and become more difficult the further down the system they get. This can be detrimental to the final product quality. Stickies are hydrophobic, tacky, polymeric materials that are introduced into the papermaking system from a mixture of recycled fiber sources. Properties of stickies are very similar to the fibers used in papermaking, viz. size, density, hydrophobicity, and electrokinetic charge. This reduces the probability of their removal by conventional separation processes, such as screening and cleaning, which are based on such properties. Also, their physical and chemical structure allows for them to extrude through screens, attach to fibers, process equipment, wires and felts. Stickies can break down and then reagglomerate and appear at seemingly any place in the mill. When subjected to a number of factors including changes in pH, temperature, concentration, charge, and shear forces, stickies can deposit [3]. These deposits can lead to decreased runnability, productivity and expensive downtime. If the stickie remains in the stock, then machine breaks can be common. Finally, if the stickie is not removed or deposited, it will either leave in the final product causing converting and printing problems or recirculate within the mill. It has been estimated that stickies cost the paper industry between $600 and $700 million a year due to the cost of control methods and lost production attributed to stickies [3]. Also, of the seven recycling mills opened in the United States between 1994 and 1997, four have closed citing stickies as the main reason responsible for the closure [4]. Adhesives are widely used throughout the paper and paperboard industry and are subsequently found in the recycled pulp furnish. Hodgson stated that even the best stock preparation process can only remove 99% of the contaminants, of which the remaining 1% is usually adhesives of various types which are usually 10-150 microns in effective diameter [5]. The large particles are removed by mechanical means such as cleaners and screens, and the smaller, colloidal particles can be removed with washing. The stickies that pass through the cleaning and screening processes cause 95% of the problems associated with recycling [6]. The cleaners will remove most of the stickies that have a density varying from the pulp slurry ({approx}1.0 g/cm3) and will accept stickies with densities ranging from 0.95-1.05 g/cm3 [2]. The hydrophobicity of the material is also an important characteristic of the stickie [7]. The hydrophobicity causes the stickies to agglomerate with other hydrophobic materials such as other stickies, lignin, and even pitch. The tacky and viscous nature of stickies contributes to many product and process problems, negatively affecting the practicality of recycled fiber use. The source of stickies that evade conventional removal techniques are usually synthetic polymers, including acrylates, styrene butadiene rub

Institute of Paper Science Technology

2004-01-30

89

Hypothesis Formulation, Model Interpretation, and Model Equivalence: Implications of a Mereological Causal Interpretation of Structural Equation Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One can distinguish statistical models used in causal modeling from the causal interpretations that align them with substantive hypotheses. Causal modeling typically assumes an efficient causal interpretation of the statistical model. Causal modeling can also make use of mereological causal interpretations in which the state of the parts…

Markus, Keith A.

2008-01-01

90

Methods of predicting the weight of carcass roast and steak meat from easily obtainable carcass measurements  

E-print Network

"~'1. " Fi'. &I LAgl' v (g "AflRA"EE CAE:. '. '. " '""Ai' 1be . ia liv Subaaitted tc tb= graduate Ec't = 1 of tbe 1exas Ai-i: Universi. ; i:i nartial fulfillau'nt cf t'ne requireaenta fcr tbe decree MAO'Dk OF SCLNCE Auguat -1. 9O3 vajcz... "ubject. ; An'&aat iu~bandry, '/lect") BL'T;. iXiS OE PSE. 'ICTIXG TLH HEIGHT OF CAKOA:9 HOAST AXO STEAK iiA' SHOD EASILY OBTAINABLE CABOASS 'NEAS~KVIBTS A Thesis HEAR'~ A11EK FITZ;. : ', . K. Apptoue as v sty' s and content by: t 'C iafrs...

Fitzhugh, Henry Allen

2012-06-07

91

Introduction Statistical  

E-print Network

Advanced Natural Language Processing Introduction Statistical NLP MIA - Master on Artificial Statistical NLP 1 Introduction Course goals Practical information 2 Statistical NLP #12;Advanced Natural Language Processing Introduction Course goals Statistical NLP 1 Introduction Course goals Practical

Ageno, Alicia

92

Interpreting 12th-Graders' NAEP-Scaled Mathematics Performance Using High School Predictors and Postsecondary Outcomes from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88). Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2007-328  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The search for an understandable reporting format has led the National Assessment Governing Board to explore the possibility of measuring and interpreting student performance on the 12th-grade National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), the Nation's Report Card, in terms of readiness for college, the workplace, and the military. This…

Scott, Leslie A.; Ingels, Steven J.

2007-01-01

93

On a realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics  

E-print Network

On a realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics Arnold Neumaier Institut fur Mathematik respecting the indeter- ministic nature of quantum mechanics, allows to speak of de#12;nite values for all], there are at least two levels of inter- preting quantum mechanics: the statistical interpretation in the narrower

Neumaier, Arnold

94

MR imaging of the spine after radiation therapy: easily recognizable effects  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the spine after radiation treatment in four patients demonstrated well defined areas of increased signal intensity in the vertebral bodies on short or T1-weighted sequences. Radiation doses of 4000-5790 rad (40-57.9 Gy) were administered to the mediastinum, rectum, and spine. The interval between radiation treatment and MR imaging was 2 months to 10 years. The abnormally increased areas of signal intensity seen on MR images were best demonstrated in the midsagittal plane and were easily differentiated from involvement by tumor. The alteration in signal intensity probably was secondary to replacement of marrow by fatty tissue and corresponded closely with radiation therapy portals.

Ramsey, R.G.; Zacharias, C.E.

1985-06-01

95

STRATEGIESEMPLOYERS Translation/Interpretation  

E-print Network

STRATEGIESEMPLOYERS GOVERNMENT Translation/Interpretation Language Analysis Linguistics Diplomacy for more job opportunities. INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE Translation/Interpretation Banking/Finance Sales Customer, Page 2) AREAS Translation/Interpretation Airline Services Management Booking and Reservations Travel

New Hampshire, University of

96

Surface structure, model and mechanism of an insect integument adapted to be damaged easily  

PubMed Central

Background Several sawfly larvae of the Tenthredinidae (Hymenoptera) are called easy bleeders because their whole body integument, except the head capsule, disrupts very easily at a given spot, under a slight mechanical stress at this spot. The exuding haemolymph droplet acts as a feeding deterrent towards invertebrate predators. The present study aimed to describe the cuticle surface, to consider it from a mechanistic point of view, and to discuss potential consequences of the integument surface in the predator-prey relationships. Results The integument surface of sawfly larvae was investigated by light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) which revealed that the cuticle of easy bleeders was densely covered by what we call "spider-like" microstructures. Such microstructures were not detected in non-easy bleeders. A model by finite elements of the cuticle layer was developed to get an insight into the potential function of the microstructures during easy bleeding. Cuticle parameters (i.e., size of the microstructures and thickness of the epi-versus procuticle) were measured on integument sections and used in the model. A shear force applied on the modelled cuticle surface led to higher stress values when microstructures were present, as compared to a plan surface. Furthermore, by measuring the diameter of a water droplet deposited on sawfly larvae, the integument of several sawfly species was determined as hydrophobic (e.g., more than Teflon®), which was related to the sawfly larvae's ability to bleed easily. Conclusion Easy bleeders show spider-like microstructures on their cuticle surface. It is suggested that these microstructures may facilitate integument disruption as well as render the integument hydrophobic. This latter property would allow the exuding haemolymph to be maintained as a droplet at the integument surface. PMID:15461785

Boeve, Jean-Luc; Ducarme, Veronique; Mertens, Tanguy; Bouillard, Philippe; Angeli, Sergio

2004-01-01

97

32. Statistics 1 32. STATISTICS  

E-print Network

32. Statistics 1 32. STATISTICS Revised September 2007 by G. Cowan (RHUL). This chapter gives an overview of statistical methods used in High Energy Physics. In statistics, we are interested in using's validity or to determine the values of its parameters. There are two main approaches to statistical

Masci, Frank

98

Why can organic liquids move easily on smooth alkyl-terminated surfaces?  

PubMed

The dynamic dewettability of a smooth alkyl-terminated sol-gel hybrid film surface against 17 probe liquids (polar and nonpolar, with high and low surface tensions) was systematically investigated using contact angle (CA) hysteresis and substrate tilt angle (TA) measurements, in terms of their physicochemical properties such as surface tension, molecular weight/volume, dielectric constant, density, and viscosity. We found that the dynamic dewettability of the hybrid film markedly depended not on the surface tensions but on the dielectric constants of the probe liquids, displaying lower resistance to liquid drop movement with decreasing dielectric constant (? < 30). Interfacial analysis using the sum-frequency generation (SFG) technique confirmed that the conformation of surface-tethered alkyl chains was markedly altered before and after contact with the different types of probe liquids. When probe liquids with low dielectric constants were in contact with our surface, CH3 groups were preferentially exposed at the solid/liquid interface, leading to a reduction in surface energy. Because of such local changes in surface energy at the three-phase contact line of the probe liquid, the contact line can move continuously from low-surface-energy (solid/liquid) areas to surrounding high-surface-energy (solid/air) areas without pinning. Consequently, the organic probe liquids with low dielectric constants can move easily and roll off when tilted only slightly, independent of the magnitude of CAs, without relying on conventional surface roughening and perfluorination. PMID:24660770

Urata, Chihiro; Masheder, Benjamin; Cheng, Dalton F; Miranda, Daniel F; Dunderdale, Gary J; Miyamae, Takayuki; Hozumi, Atsushi

2014-04-15

99

Ectopic spleen: An easily identifiable but commonly undiagnosed entity until manifestation of complications  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Ectopic spleen is an uncommon clinical entity as splenectomy for treatment of ectopic spleens accounts for less than 0.25% of splenectomies. The most common age of presentation is childhood especially under 1 year of age followed by the third decade of life. PRESENTATION OF CASE The present report refers to a patient with torsion of a pelvic spleen treated with splenectomy. The patient exhibited a period of vague intermittent lower abdominal pain lasted 65 days followed by a period of constant left lower quadrant pain of increasing severity lasted 6 days. On the first 65 days, vague pain was attributed to progressive torsion of the spleen which resulted in venous congestion. On the last 6 days, exacerbation of pain was attributed to irreducible torsion, infraction of the arterial supply, acute ischemia, strangulation and rupture of the gangrenous spleen. Diagnosis was made by CT which revealed absence of the spleen in its normal position, a homogeneous pelvic mass with no contrast enhancement, free blood in the peritoneal cavity, and confirmed by laparotomy. DISCUSSION Clinical manifestations of ectopic spleen vary from asymptomatic to abdominal emergency. Symptoms are most commonly attributed to complications related to torsion. Operative management, including splenopexy or splenectomy, is the treatment of choice in uncomplicated and complicated cases because conservative treatment of an asymptomatic ectopic spleen is associated with a complication rate of 65%. CONCLUSION Although an ectopic spleen can be easily identified on clinical examination, it is commonly misdiagnosed until the manifestation of complications in adulthood. PMID:24973525

Blouhos, Konstantinos; Boulas, Konstantinos A.; Salpigktidis, Ilias; Barettas, Nikolaos; Hatzigeorgiadis, Anestis

2014-01-01

100

Efficient transformation of grease to biodiesel using highly active and easily recyclable magnetic nanobiocatalyst aggregates.  

PubMed

Green and efficient production of biodiesel (FAME) from waste grease containing high amount of free fatty acid (FFA) was achieved by using novel magnetic nanobiocatalyst aggregates (MNA). Thermomyces lanuginosus Lipase (TLL) and Candida antarctica Lipase B (CALB) were covalently immobilized on core-shell structured iron oxide magnetic nanoparticle (80 nm), respectively, followed by freeze-dry to give MNA (13-17 ?m) with high yield (80-89%) and high enzyme loading (61 mg TLL or 22 mg CALB per gram MNA). MNA TL showed the best performance among immobilized enzymes known thus for the production of FAME from grease (17 wt.% FFA) with methanol, giving 99% yield in 12 h (3.3 wt.% catalyst). MNA TL was easily separated under magnetic field and reused, retaining 88% productivity in 11th cycle. MNA CA converted >97% FFA in grease (17 wt.% FFA) to FAME in 12 h (0.45 wt.% catalyst), being useful in two-step transformation of grease to biodiesel. PMID:23298767

Ngo, Thao P N; Li, Aitao; Tiew, Kang W; Li, Zhi

2013-10-01

101

Open Window: When Easily Identifiable Genomes and Traits Are in the Public Domain  

PubMed Central

“One can't be of an enquiring and experimental nature, and still be very sensible.” - Charles Fort [1] As the costs of personal genetic testing “self-quantification” fall, publicly accessible databases housing people's genotypic and phenotypic information are gradually increasing in number and scope. The latest entrant is openSNP, which allows participants to upload their personal genetic/genomic and self-reported phenotypic data. I believe the emergence of such open repositories of human biological data is a natural reflection of inquisitive and digitally literate people's desires to make genomic and phenotypic information more easily available to a community beyond the research establishment. Such unfettered databases hold the promise of contributing mightily to science, science education and medicine. That said, in an age of increasingly widespread governmental and corporate surveillance, we would do well to be mindful that genomic DNA is uniquely identifying. Participants in open biological databases are engaged in a real-time experiment whose outcome is unknown. PMID:24647311

Angrist, Misha

2014-01-01

102

Easily regenerable solid adsorbents based on polyamines for carbon dioxide capture from the air.  

PubMed

Adsorbents prepared easily by impregnation of fumed silica with polyethylenimine (PEI) are promising candidates for the capture of CO2 directly from the air. These inexpensive adsorbents have high CO2 adsorption capacity at ambient temperature and can be regenerated in repeated cycles under mild conditions. Despite the very low CO2 concentration, they are able to scrub efficiently all CO2 out of the air in the initial hours of the experiments. The influence of parameters such as PEI loading, adsorption and desorption temperature, particle size, and PEI molecular weight on the adsorption behavior were investigated. The mild regeneration temperatures required could allow the use of waste heat available in many industrial processes as well as solar heat. CO2 adsorption from the air has a number of applications. Removal of CO2 from a closed environment, such as a submarine or space vehicles, is essential for life support. The supply of CO2-free air is also critical for alkaline fuel cells and batteries. Direct air capture of CO2 could also help mitigate the rising concerns about atmospheric CO2 concentration and associated climatic changes, while, at the same time, provide the first step for an anthropogenic carbon cycle. PMID:24644023

Goeppert, Alain; Zhang, Hang; Czaun, Miklos; May, Robert B; Prakash, G K Surya; Olah, George A; Narayanan, S R

2014-05-01

103

Benchmarking Prolog Interpreters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interpreters have the advantage of creating a safe environment in addition to provide portability. In the context of Prolog, several interpreters were developed following the model of the WAM. But what to say about the performance of the known interpreters? This article points to the differences in performance among the known Prolog interpreters. For this, we used several metrics to

Alexandre Martins Locci; Anderson Faustino da Silva

2011-01-01

104

THE EASILY VISIBLE rings of Saturn, made of ice and dust that reflect the sun's light in vivid  

E-print Network

THE EASILY VISIBLE rings of Saturn, made of ice and dust that reflect the sun's light in vivid hues of Saturn's gravitational field. The ring has a diameter of about 22.5 million miles--almost 300 times planets the size of Saturn could stack vertically inside it, easily making it the largest planetary ring

Danforth, Chris

105

American children with reading problems can easily learn to read English represented by Chinese characters.  

PubMed

With 2.5 to 5.5 hours of tutoring, eight second-grade inner-city school children with clear reading disability were taught to read English material written as 30 different Chinese characters. This accomplishment eliminates certain general interpretations of dyslexia, for example, as a visual-auditory memory deficit. The success of this program can be attributed to the novelty of the Chinese orthography and to the fact that Chinese characters map into speech at the level of words rather than of phonemes. It is proposed that much reading disability can be accounted for in terms of the highly abstract nature of the phoneme (the critical unit of speech in alphabetic systems) and that an intermediate unit, such as the syllable, might well be used to introduce reading. PMID:5101816

Rozin, P; Poritsky, S; Sotsky, R

1971-03-26

106

Reliable plasmonic substrates for bioanalytical SERS applications easily prepared by convective assembly of gold nanocolloids.  

PubMed

The ability to easily prepare Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) substrates by the assembly of chemically synthesized gold nanocolloids is of great interest for the advancement of SERS-based optical detection and identification of molecular species of biological or chemical interest, pollutants or warfare agents. In this work we employ three very simple strategies, which can be implemented in any laboratory without the need for specialized equipment, to prepare assemblies of citrate-stabilized spherical gold colloids: (i) drop-coating, which induces the assembly of colloids in so-called coffee rings; (ii) a simplified variant of convective self-assembly (CSA), based on water evaporation in a constrained geometry, which yields highly uniform strips of nanoparticles (NP); (iii) assembly onto chemically functionalized glass surfaces which yields randomly assembled colloids and colloidal clusters. The SERS properties of the resulting colloidal assemblies are comparatively evaluated under multiple excitation lines with p-aminothiophenol (pATP) as a model Raman scatterer. The NP strips obtained by CSA prove to be SERS-active both in the visible and NIR and possess a highly uniform SERS response as demonstrated by spectra at individually selected sites and by confocal SERS mapping. Further it is shown that these NP strips are effective for the detection of cytosine, a DNA component, and for multi-analyte SERS detection. These results, showing how an efficient SERS substrate can be obtained by a very simple assembly method from easy-to-synthesize colloidal gold NP, can have an impact on the development of analytical SERS applications. PMID:23171872

Farcau, Cosmin; Potara, Monica; Leordean, Cosmin; Boca, Sanda; Astilean, Simion

2013-01-21

107

On Applying Statistical Methods: Losing Local Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the field of statistics is receiving increasing recognition in the media and everyday life, concern continues about the quality of statistical education and statistical analysis and the application of statistical methods. This paper focuses on three areas of concern: (1) the quality of data, especially missing data; (2) the interpretation

Henry, Neil W.

108

SOCR: Statistics Online Computational Resource  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need for hands-on computer laboratory experience in undergraduate and graduate statistics education has been firmly established in the past decade. As a result a number of attempts have been undertaken to develop novel approaches for problem-driven statistical thinking, data analysis and result interpretation. In this paper we describe an…

Dinov, Ivo D.

2006-01-01

109

STRATEGIESEMPLOYERS Translation/Interpretation  

E-print Network

STRATEGIESEMPLOYERS GOVERNMENT Translation/Interpretation Journalism/Broadcasting Linguistics, MEDIA, ENTERTAINMENT FOREIGN LANGUAGE AREAS Advertising Translation/Interpretation Journalism of State ImmigrationandNaturalizationService CustomsService LibraryofCongress Armedforces Voice of America

Baltisberger, Jay H.

110

The emergent Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a new and conceptually simple interpretation of quantum mechanics based on reduced density matrices of sub-systems from which the standard Copenhagen interpretation emerges as an effective description of macroscopically large systems. This interpretation describes a world in which definite measurement results are obtained with probabilities that reproduce the Born rule. Wave function collapse is seen to be a useful but fundamentally unnecessary piece of prudent book keeping which is only valid for macro-systems. The new interpretation lies in a class of modal interpretations in that it applies to quantum systems that interact with a much larger environment. However, we show that it does not suffer from the problems that have plagued similar modal interpretations like macroscopic superpositions and rapid flipping between macroscopically distinct states. We describe how the interpretation fits neatly together with fully quantum formulations of statistical mechanics and that a measurement process can be viewed as a process of ergodicity breaking analogous to a phase transition. The key feature of the new interpretation is that joint probabilities for the ergodic subsets of states of disjoint macro-systems only arise as emergent quantities. Finally we give an account of the EPR-Bohm thought experiment and show that the interpretation implies the violation of the Bell inequality characteristic of quantum mechanics but in a way that is rather novel. The final conclusion is that the Copenhagen interpretation gives a completely satisfactory phenomenology of macro-systems interacting with micro-systems.

Hollowood, Timothy J.

2014-05-01

111

Data Acquisition Interpretation  

E-print Network

Data Acquisition Inversion Interpretation Discussion Virgin River DCIP Report Justin Granek1 1 Report #12;Data Acquisition Inversion Interpretation Discussion Outline 1 Data Acquisition Location Survey Specications 2 Inversion Data Errors DCIP2D DCIP3D 3 Interpretation Correlations Snowbird Tectonic

Oldenburg, Douglas W.

112

Journalists as Interpretive Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes viewing journalists as members of an interpretive community (not a profession) united by its shared discourse and collective interpretations of key public events. Applies the frame of the interpretive community to journalistic discourse about two events central for American journalists--Watergate and McCarthyism. (SR)

Zelizer, Barbie

1993-01-01

113

Journalists as interpretive communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article suggests that the notion of “profession” may not offer the most fruitful way of examining community among American journalists. It proposes viewing journalists as members of an interpretive community instead, one united by its shared discourse and collective interpretations of key public events. The article applies the frame of the interpretive community to journalistic discourse about two events

Barbie Zelizer

1993-01-01

114

Implementing clinical practice guidelines while taking account of changing evidence: ATHENA DSS, an easily modifiable decision-support system for managing hypertension in primary care.  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the ATHENA Decision Support System (DSS), which operationalizes guidelines for hypertension using the EON architecture. ATHENA DSS encourages blood pressure control and recommends guideline-concordant choice of drug therapy in relation to comorbid diseases. ATHENA DSS has an easily modifiable knowledge base that specifies eligibility criteria, risk stratification, blood pressure targets, relevant comorbid diseases, guideline-recommended drug classes for patients with comorbid disease, preferred drugs within each drug class, and clinical messages. Because evidence for best management of hypertension evolves continually, ATHENA DSS is designed to allow clinical experts to customize the knowledge base to incorporate new evidence or to reflect local interpretations of guideline ambiguities. Together with its database mediator Athenaeum, ATHENA DSS has physical and logical data independence from the legacy Computerized Patient Record System (CPRS) supplying the patient data, so it can be integrated into a variety of electronic medical record systems. PMID:11079893

Goldstein, M. K.; Hoffman, B. B.; Coleman, R. W.; Musen, M. A.; Tu, S. W.; Advani, A.; Shankar, R.; O'Connor, M.

2000-01-01

115

Descriptive statistics.  

PubMed

In this article, we introduced basic concepts of statistics, type of distributions, and descriptive statistics. A few examples were also provided. The basic concepts presented herein are only a fraction of the concepts related to descriptive statistics. Also, there are many commonly used distributions not presented herein, such as Poisson distributions for rare events and exponential distributions, F distributions, and logistic distributions. More information can be found in many statistics books and publications. PMID:19891281

Shi, Runhua; McLarty, Jerry W

2009-10-01

116

Statistical Diversions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term "data snooping" refers to the practice of choosing which statistical analyses to apply to a set of data after having first looked at those data. Data snooping contradicts a fundamental precept of applied statistics, that the scheme of analysis is to be planned in advance. In this column, the authors shall elucidate the statistical

Petocz, Peter; Sowey, Eric

2012-01-01

117

Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.

Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore

2001-01-01

118

(Interpretive Report), MPACI stem (Interpretive Report),  

E-print Network

Dominique interactif4 Dominique Ado4 CBCL et MMPI2 AIS PsyCorp5 D317.4 X X X X AP5RI X X E306/308 X X X E310/312 X X X X X X X X MMPI2 AIS E314/316 X X X X X X E318/320 X X X X X X E322/324 X X X E323.1.2 X Report), MPACI (Profile Report), MAPI (Interpretive Report), MCMIIII (Interpretive Report), MMPI2 Adult

Parrott, Lael

119

Photo observation & interpretation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each week in Structural Geology, I assign students the task of sketching, describing, and interpreting an image. The images are chosen to match the relevant course material for that week. There is a specific form for this assignment, which is designed in part to physically separate their observations from interpretations on the page. In class, we spend 10-20 minutes discussing their different observations/interpretations.

Titus, Sarah

120

Statistics Tools  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of calculators, created by Thomas Kirkman of the College of Saint Bendict/Saint Joseph, allows users to perform a number of statistical applications. Each provides background on the procedure and an example. Users can compute descriptive statistics and perform t-tests, Chi-square tests, Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, Fisher's Exact Test, contingency tables, ANOVA, and regression. This is a nice collection of useful applications for a statistics classroom.

Kirkman, Thomas

2009-02-04

121

Morbidity statistics  

PubMed Central

This paper is based on an analysis of questionnaires sent to the health ministries of Member States of WHO asking for information about the extent, nature, and scope of morbidity statistical information. It is clear that most countries collect some statistics of morbidity and many countries collect extensive data. However, few countries relate their collection to the needs of health administrators for information, and many countries collect statistics principally for publication in annual volumes which may appear anything up to 3 years after the year to which they refer. The desiderata of morbidity statistics may be summarized as reliability, representativeness, and relevance to current health problems. PMID:5306722

Smith, Alwyn

1969-01-01

122

STRATEGIESEMPLOYERS Translation/Interpretation  

E-print Network

STRATEGIESEMPLOYERS GOVERNMENT Translation/Interpretation LanguageAnalysis Linguistics Diplomacy experience. Considerearningagraduatedegreeformorejob opportunities. INDUSTRYANDCOMMERCE Translation. #12;STRATEGIESEMPLOYERS TRAVELANDTOURISM (Foreign Language, Page 2) AREAS Translation

New Hampshire, University of

123

STRATEGIESEMPLOYERS Translation/Interpretation  

E-print Network

/Finance Sales CustomerServices Manufacturing Engineering/Technical Research OperationsManagement Consulting with computers. Read international newspapers to keep up with overseas developments. Interpretation: Simultaneous

Kaminsky, Werner

124

Statistics as a dynamical attractor  

E-print Network

It is demonstrated that any statistics can be represented by an attractor of the solution to a corresponding systen of ODE coupled with its Liouville equation. Such a non-Newtonian representation allows one to reduce foundations of statistics to better established foundations of ODE. In addition to that, evolution to the attractor reveals possible micro-mechanisms driving random events to the final distribution of the corresponding statistical law. Special attention is concentrated upon the power law and its dynamical interpretation: it is demonstrated that the underlying dynamics supports a " violent reputation" of the power law statistics.

Michail Zak

2012-08-30

125

Basic statistics in cell biology.  

PubMed

The physicist Ernest Rutherford said, "If your experiment needs statistics, you ought to have done a better experiment." Although this aphorism remains true for much of today's research in cell biology, a basic understanding of statistics can be useful to cell biologists to help in monitoring the conduct of their experiments, in interpreting the results, in presenting them in publications, and when critically evaluating research by others. However, training in statistics is often focused on the sophisticated needs of clinical researchers, psychologists, and epidemiologists, whose conclusions depend wholly on statistics, rather than the practical needs of cell biologists, whose experiments often provide evidence that is not statistical in nature. This review describes some of the basic statistical principles that may be of use to experimental biologists, but it does not cover the sophisticated statistics needed for papers that contain evidence of no other kind. PMID:25000992

Vaux, David L

2014-10-11

126

A Statistical Approach to the Processing of Metonymy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a statistical approach to the interpretation of metonymy. A metonymy is received as an input, then its possible interpretations are ranked by applying a statistical measure. The method has been tested experimentally. It correctly interpreted 53 out of 75 metonymies in Japanese.

Masao Utiyama; Masaki Murata; Hitoshi Isahara

2000-01-01

127

STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM MONDAY, MARCH 24, 2014  

E-print Network

STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM MONDAY, MARCH 24, 2014 TALK: 4:15 PM -- SCIENCE CENTER RM. 705 RECEPTION: 3 Department of Statistics University of California, Berkeley ABSTRACT In a 2009 PNAS article, based on work at appropriate speeds. We discuss these results and argue that while they are hard to interpret statistically

Schrag, Daniel

128

Statistical Diversions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors focus on hypothesis testing--that peculiarly statistical way of deciding things. Statistical methods for testing hypotheses were developed in the 1920s and 1930s by some of the most famous statisticians, in particular Ronald Fisher, Jerzy Neyman and Egon Pearson, who laid the foundations of almost all modern methods of…

Petocz, Peter; Sowey, Eric

2008-01-01

129

An Interpreter’s Interpretation: Sign Language Interpreters’ View of Musculoskeletal Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Sign language interpreters are at increased risk for musculoskeletal disorders associated with work. Previous studies have used survey techniques to identify potential risk factors and approaches to their medical management. Little is known about risk factors and management of symptoms in this group from the perspective of the interpreter. Such qualitative information should help inform future research related to

William L. Johnson; Michael Feuerstein

2005-01-01

130

Listening and Message Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Message interpretation, the notion that individuals assign meaning to stimuli, is related to listening presage, listening process, and listening product. As a central notion of communication, meaning includes (a) denotation and connotation, and (b) content and relational meanings, which can vary in ambiguity and vagueness. Past research on message interpretation, using primarily written scenarios, has identified individual, sociocultural, and contextual

Renee Edwards

2011-01-01

131

Integrated 3-D quality control of geological interpretation through the use of simple methods and programs  

SciTech Connect

Integrating different petroleum geology disciplines gives insight and help in analyzing data and in checking the quality of different interpretations. Simple approaches and affordable programs allow rapid visualization of data in 3-D. Displaying geological data from stratigraphy, diagenesis, and structural geology together, allows identification of anomalies (i.e. development targets) and often gives clues of the controlling processes. Four case studies from world class fields are used to illustrate the vital need to integrate quality control of interpretation across disciplines. Distribution of diagenetic alterations is revealed by visualizing diagenetic and petrographic data against faults in a 3-D statistical program. Faults are transferred from 3-D seismic into such a program and then analyzed against other data. Fault intersections wrongly correlated are also easily picked. Other powerful tools include a modified use of the Bischke Plots that allow the identification of missing sections previously identified as fault cut-outs. The quality of interpretation has sometimes been assessed from the presence of stacked anomalies of various expression. In other cases repeated unexpected isopach trends revealed subtle faults such as riedels sealing and compartmentizing the reservoirs. Occasionally the timing of fault reactivation was assessed precisely whereas all other techniques failed even to identify these hidden features. Unrecognized porosity-depth trends were identified after filtering data for stratigraphy or sedimentology and studying it in its geographical and tectonic context. Three dimensional visualization was needed in cases of quartz overgrowth where grain size, depth, stratigraphy and location with respect to faults were all important.

Chatellier, J.Y.; Gustavo, F.; Magaly, Q. [Intevep, Caracas (Venezuela)

1996-12-31

132

Integrated 3-D quality control of geological interpretation through the use of simple methods and programs  

SciTech Connect

Integrating different petroleum geology disciplines gives insight and help in analyzing data and in checking the quality of different interpretations. Simple approaches and affordable programs allow rapid visualization of data in 3-D. Displaying geological data from stratigraphy, diagenesis, and structural geology together, allows identification of anomalies (i.e. development targets) and often gives clues of the controlling processes. Four case studies from world class fields are used to illustrate the vital need to integrate quality control of interpretation across disciplines. Distribution of diagenetic alterations is revealed by visualizing diagenetic and petrographic data against faults in a 3-D statistical program. Faults are transferred from 3-D seismic into such a program and then analyzed against other data. Fault intersections wrongly correlated are also easily picked. Other powerful tools include a modified use of the Bischke Plots that allow the identification of missing sections previously identified as fault cut-outs. The quality of interpretation has sometimes been assessed from the presence of stacked anomalies of various expression. In other cases repeated unexpected isopach trends revealed subtle faults such as riedels sealing and compartmentizing the reservoirs. Occasionally the timing of fault reactivation was assessed precisely whereas all other techniques failed even to identify these hidden features. Unrecognized porosity-depth trends were identified after filtering data for stratigraphy or sedimentology and studying it in its geographical and tectonic context. Three dimensional visualization was needed in cases of quartz overgrowth where grain size, depth, stratigraphy and location with respect to faults were all important.

Chatellier, J.Y.; Gustavo, F.; Magaly, Q. (Intevep, Caracas (Venezuela))

1996-01-01

133

Double copper sheath multiconductor instrumentation cable is durable and easily installed in high thermal or nuclear radiation area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multiconductor instrumentation cable in which the conducting wires are routed through two concentric copper tube sheaths, employing a compressed insulator between the conductors and between the inner and outer sheaths, is durable and easily installed in high thermal or nuclear radiation area. The double sheath is a barrier against moisture, abrasion, and vibration.

Mc Crae, A. W., Jr.

1967-01-01

134

On Statistical Aspects of Qjets  

E-print Network

The process by which jet algorithms construct jets and subjets is inherently ambiguous and equally well motivated algorithms often return very different answers. The Qjets procedure was introduced by the authors to account for this ambiguity by considering many reconstructions of a jet at once, allowing one to assign a weight to each interpretation of the jet. Employing these weighted interpretations leads to an improvement in the statistical stability of many measurements. Here we explore in detail the statistical properties of these sets of weighted measurements and demonstrate how they can be used to improve the reach of jet-based studies.

Ellis, Stephen D; Krohn, David; Roy, Tuhin S

2014-01-01

135

On Statistical Aspects of Qjets  

E-print Network

The process by which jet algorithms construct jets and subjets is inherently ambiguous and equally well motivated algorithms often return very different answers. The Qjets procedure was introduced by the authors to account for this ambiguity by considering many reconstructions of a jet at once, allowing one to assign a weight to each interpretation of the jet. Employing these weighted interpretations leads to an improvement in the statistical stability of many measurements. Here we explore in detail the statistical properties of these sets of weighted measurements and demonstrate how they can be used to improve the reach of jet-based studies.

Stephen D. Ellis; Andrew Hornig; David Krohn; Tuhin S. Roy

2014-09-24

136

Statistical Laboratory & Department of Statistics  

E-print Network

will coordinate the teaching of the first two courses in business statistics. The undergraduate program continues and statistical methodology in the nutritional sciences. We were also very pleased to secure a permanent lecturer reviewing achievements of the past seven years and planning for the future. A written report was submitted

137

Rainbow statistics  

E-print Network

Non-commutative quantum field theories and their global quantum group symmetries provide an intriguing attempt to go beyond the realm of standard local quantum field theory. A common feature of these models is that the quantum group symmetry of their Hilbert spaces induces additional structure in the multiparticle states which reflects a non-trivial momentum-dependent statistics. We investigate the properties of this "rainbow statistics" in the particular context of $\\kappa$-quantum fields and discuss the analogies/differences with models with twisted statistics.

Michele Arzano; Dario Benedetti

2008-09-04

138

Systematic detection of statistically overrepresented DNA motif association rules.  

PubMed

DNA motifs, or cis-elements, are short nucleotide sequence patterns recognized by various transcription factors (TFs). In promoters, these TFs bind in a complex combinatorial manner in order to regulate the expression of a downstream gene. The combinatorial space is frequently large and difficult to manage since vertebrates have thousands of transcription factors and more than 20,000 genes. We introduce a computer program called CAYCE (Combinatorial AnalYsis of Cis-Elements) that systematically detects statistically overrepresented DNA motif association rules independent of Microarray information. CAYCE is an adaptation of the apriori algorithm traditionally used for association rule mining, but offers three significant advancements. (1) It analyzes multiple occurrences of an item, corresponding to multiple TF binding sites, (2) It compares results with a biologically relevant background, and (3), it provides p-values for straightforward statistical interpretation. CAYCE can be easily applied to any item-set data where the investigator is also interested in multiple occurrences of a single item, and/or overrepresentation of association rules compared with a background. Applying CAYCE to human promoters in 1% of the human genome, we discover that motif clusters containing five repetitions of SP1 are the most statistically significant. PMID:17503362

Lin, Jane Marie; Weng, Zhiping

2006-01-01

139

An easily diagnosable PLA  

E-print Network

and i+1 are bridged; otherwise they s. re free from a, bridging fs, ult. List 1, 2, 3 and 4 are the major algorithms for the fault detection and location processes. They simulate the sequence of tests shown in the previous chapter. The details..., ; =0; v=0; brp[ii] = 0; ps0[ii] = 1; end /* case ls/ /+ case 3*/ end end end end else if. f=l snd s=0 then begin /' Test Ts"', ' if product hne Bu should be checked then begin ii' Bs = 0 then brp(0] = 1; else brp 0 = 0; for ii ? 2, 4, p...

Kao, Chung Min

2012-06-07

140

Injury Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... 2012 1998 Electrocutions Associated With Consumer Products July 17, 2012 2000 Electrocutions Associated with Consumer Products (9999) ... Furniture and Decor Injury Statistics Other Sports July 17, 2012 Unpowered Scooters July 10, 2012 Trampolines May ...

141

Statistics Indonesia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 1997, the Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS-Statistics Indonesia) is a non-departmental Indonesian government institution directly responsible to the Indonesian president. As the law that created this valuable institution stipulates, the BPS is intended to provide data to the government and the public, along cooperating with other international statistical institutions. Visitors looking for statistics on any number of topics will not be disappointed, as the areas covered include agriculture, consumer price indices, employment, energy, foreign trade, mining, population, public finance, tourism, and social welfare. Additionally, there are monthly macro-economic statistical reports for the years from 1998 to 2001 that can be downloaded and viewed as well. The site is rounded out by a collection of some 21 papers from the past four years that analyze various economic data from the country, such as earning data and manufacturing production.

142

SOCR: Statistics Online Computational Resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for hands-on computer laboratory experience in undergraduate and graduate statistics education has been firmly established in the past decade. As a result a number of attempts have been undertaken to develop novel approaches for problem-driven statistical thinking, data analysis and result interpretation. In this paper we describe an integrated educational web-based framework for: interactive distribution modeling, virtual online

Ivo D. Dinov

2006-01-01

143

Statistical Mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review and further develop a mathematical framework for non-equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics recently proposed in (JP4, JP5, JP6, Ru3, Ru4, Ru5, Ru6). In the alge- braic formalism of quantum statistical mechanics we introduce notions of non-equilibrium steady states, entropy production and heat fluxes, and study their properties. Our basic paradigm is a model of a small (finite) quantum system

V. Jaksi ´; C.-A. Pillet

1937-01-01

144

Interpretation of Biosphere Reserves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) to monitor the 193 biogeographical provinces of the Earth and the creation of biosphere reserves. Highlights the need for interpreters to become familiar or involved with MAB program activities. (LZ)

Merriman, Tim

1994-01-01

145

Collapse challenge for interpretations  

E-print Network

mechanics is to build from first principles and your preferred interpretation a complete, observer). The challenge is to build from first principles and your preferred interpreta­ tion a complete, observer principles, too. 6. Position, mom

Neumaier, Arnold

146

Highly concentrated synthesis of copper-zinc-tin-sulfide nanocrystals with easily decomposable capping molecules for printed photovoltaic applications.  

PubMed

Among various candidate materials, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a promising earth-abundant semiconductor for low-cost thin film solar cells. We report a facile, less toxic, highly concentrated synthetic method utilizing the heretofore unrecognized, easily decomposable capping ligand of triphenylphosphate, where phase-pure, single-crystalline, and well-dispersed colloidal CZTS nanocrystals were obtained. The favorable influence of the easily decomposable capping ligand on the microstructural evolution of device-quality CZTS absorber layers was clarified based on a comparative study with commonly used oleylamine-capped CZTS nanoparticles. The resulting CZTS nanoparticles enabled us to produce a dense and crack-free absorbing layer through annealing under a N2 + H2S (4%) atmosphere, demonstrating a solar cell with an efficiency of 3.6% under AM 1.5 illumination. PMID:24057000

Kim, Youngwoo; Woo, Kyoohee; Kim, Inhyuk; Cho, Yong Soo; Jeong, Sunho; Moon, Jooho

2013-11-01

147

Geological interpretation of a Gemini photo  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Study of the Gemini V photograph of the Salt Range and Potwar Plateau, West Pakistan, indicates that small-scale orbital photographs permit recognition of the regional continuity of some geologic features, particularly faults and folds that could he easily overlooked on conventional air photographs of larger scale. Some stratigraphic relationships can also be recognized on the orbital photograph, but with only minimal previous geologic knowledge of the area, these interpretations are less conclusive or reliable than the interpretation of structure. It is suggested that improved atmospheric penetration could be achieved through the use of color infrared film. Photographic expression of topography could also be improved by deliberately photographing some areas during periods of low sun angle.

Hemphill, William R.; Danilchik, Walter

1968-01-01

148

Ta3N5-Pt nonwoven cloth with hierarchical nanopores as efficient and easily recyclable macroscale photocatalysts  

PubMed Central

Traditional nanosized photocatalysts usually have high photocatalytic activity but can not be efficiently recycled. Film-shaped photocatalysts on the substrates can be easily recycled, but they have low surface area and/or high production cost. To solve these problems, we report on the design and preparation of efficient and easily recyclable macroscale photocatalysts with nanostructure by using Ta3N5 as a model semiconductor. Ta3N5-Pt nonwoven cloth has been prepared by an electrospinning-calcination-nitridation-wet impregnation method, and it is composed of Ta3N5 fibers with diameter of 150–200?nm and hierarchical pores. Furthermore, these fibers are constructed from Ta3N5 nanoparticles with diameter of ~25?nm which are decorated with Pt nanoparticles with diameter of ~2.5?nm. Importantly, Ta3N5-Pt cloth can be used as an efficient and easily recyclable macroscale photocatalyst with wide visible-light response, for the degradation of methylene blue and parachlorophenol, probably resulting in a very promising application as “photocatalyst dam” for the polluted river. PMID:24496147

Li, Shijie; Zhang, Lisha; Wang, Huanli; Chen, Zhigang; Hu, Junqing; Xu, Kaibing; Liu, Jianshe

2014-01-01

149

Gille-SIO 221C 1 Objective Mapping: Anisotropic Statistics  

E-print Network

Gille-SIO 221C 1 Objective Mapping: Anisotropic Statistics Objective mapping discussions often assume that covariance statistics are isotropic and homogeneous. However, in the ocean and atmosphere. The equations used to carry out objective mapping are easily modified to allow for anisotropic statistics

Gille, Sarah T.

150

Modification of codes NUALGAM and BREMRAD. Volume 3: Statistical considerations of the Monte Carlo method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The statistics are considered of the Monte Carlo method relative to the interpretation of the NUGAM2 and NUGAM3 computer code results. A numerical experiment using the NUGAM2 code is presented and the results are statistically interpreted.

Firstenberg, H.

1971-01-01

151

Engineering Statistics From "Engineering Statistics" , Top &  

E-print Network

Engineering Statistics From "Engineering Statistics" , Top & Wiley, Prapaisri & Pongchanun 2 From "Engineering Statistics" , Top & Wiley, Prapaisri & Pongchanun 3 " "(Sample) (Sampling) ""(Population) " "(Statistics) ""(Parameter) From "Engineering Statistics" , Top & Wiley, Prapaisri

Kovintavewat, Piya

152

Statistical mechanics of the vacuum  

E-print Network

The vacuum is full of virtual particles which exist for short moments of time. In this paper we construct a chaotic model of vacuum fluctuations associated with a fundamental entropic field that generates an arrow of time. The dynamics can be physically interpreted in terms of fluctuating virtual momenta. This model leads to a generalized statistical mechanics that distinguishes fundamental constants of nature.

Christian Beck

2011-12-07

153

Statistics Poster Challenge for Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The analysis and interpretation of data are important life skills. A poster challenge for schoolchildren provides an innovative outlet for these skills and demonstrates their relevance to daily life. We discuss our Statistics Poster Challenge and the lessons we have learned.

Payne, Brad; Freeman, Jenny; Stillman, Eleanor

2013-01-01

154

1 What is Statistics? Statistics is the science of data! Collecting, classifying, organizing, analyzing,  

E-print Network

1 What is Statistics? Statistics is the science of data! Collecting, classifying, organizing, analyzing, interpreting, etc. 2 Raw Data is Ugly Graphical representations of data always look pretty decided to attempt a project that I've been thinking about for years; teaching elementary statistics via

DeMaio, Joe

155

Vital Statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article questions the idea that quantitative methods, in particular the analysis of social statistics, is at odds with critical approaches to geography. It argues that numbers-based research is vital to highlight social injustice and oppression and that quantitative research can meet the requirements of critical geography to be reflexive, politically conscious, and activist. The article highlights two issues of

Mark Ellis

2009-01-01

156

Statistical Fun  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following the announcement last year that there will be no more math coursework assessment at General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), teachers will in the future be able to devote more time to preparing learners for formal examinations. One of the key things that the author has learned when teaching statistics is that it makes for far…

Catley, Alan

2007-01-01

157

Synthesis, characterization and application of water-soluble and easily removable cationic pressure-sensitive adhesives. Quarterly technical report  

SciTech Connect

The Institute studied the adsorption of cationic pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) on wood fiber, and the buildup of PSA in a closed water system during paper recycling; the results are presented. Georgia Tech worked to develop an environmentally friendly polymerization process to synthesize a novel re-dispersible PSA by co-polymerizing an oil-soluble monomer (butyl acrylate) and a cationic monomer MAEPTAC; results are presented. At the University of Georgia at Athens the project focused on the synthesis of water-soluble and easily removable cationic polymer PSAs.

NONE

1999-09-30

158

Highly concentrated synthesis of copper-zinc-tin-sulfide nanocrystals with easily decomposable capping molecules for printed photovoltaic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among various candidate materials, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a promising earth-abundant semiconductor for low-cost thin film solar cells. We report a facile, less toxic, highly concentrated synthetic method utilizing the heretofore unrecognized, easily decomposable capping ligand of triphenylphosphate, where phase-pure, single-crystalline, and well-dispersed colloidal CZTS nanocrystals were obtained. The favorable influence of the easily decomposable capping ligand on the microstructural evolution of device-quality CZTS absorber layers was clarified based on a comparative study with commonly used oleylamine-capped CZTS nanoparticles. The resulting CZTS nanoparticles enabled us to produce a dense and crack-free absorbing layer through annealing under a N2 + H2S (4%) atmosphere, demonstrating a solar cell with an efficiency of 3.6% under AM 1.5 illumination.Among various candidate materials, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a promising earth-abundant semiconductor for low-cost thin film solar cells. We report a facile, less toxic, highly concentrated synthetic method utilizing the heretofore unrecognized, easily decomposable capping ligand of triphenylphosphate, where phase-pure, single-crystalline, and well-dispersed colloidal CZTS nanocrystals were obtained. The favorable influence of the easily decomposable capping ligand on the microstructural evolution of device-quality CZTS absorber layers was clarified based on a comparative study with commonly used oleylamine-capped CZTS nanoparticles. The resulting CZTS nanoparticles enabled us to produce a dense and crack-free absorbing layer through annealing under a N2 + H2S (4%) atmosphere, demonstrating a solar cell with an efficiency of 3.6% under AM 1.5 illumination. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental methods for CZTS nanocrystal synthesis, device fabrication, and characterization; the size distribution and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra of the synthesized CZTS nanoparticles; UV-vis spectra of the CZTS films; isothermal analysis of triphenylphosphate (TPP) and oleylamine (OLA); microstructural SEM images of annealed CZTS nanocrystal films. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03104g

Kim, Youngwoo; Woo, Kyoohee; Kim, Inhyuk; Cho, Yong Soo; Jeong, Sunho; Moon, Jooho

2013-10-01

159

Hydrophobic-polymer-grafted graphene oxide nanosheets as an easily separable adsorbent for the removal of tetrabromobisphenol a.  

PubMed

Hydrophobic polymer brushes have been grafted from graphene oxide nanosheets (GO) via the facile surface-initiated redox radical polymerization of tert-butyl acrylate (tBA) from the GO with cerium ammonium nitrate (CAN) as an oxidant. After the hydrophobic surface modification, the poly(tert-butyl acrylate) (PtBA)-grafted graphene oxide nanosheets (GO-PtBA) could still be dispersed in water because of the remaining oxygen-containing groups but deposited within 40 min. The feature makes it an easily separable adsorbent for environmental pollutants. For example, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) could be removed from aqueous solution via hydrogen bonds (between hydroxyl groups of TBBPA and hydroxyl and carboxyl groups of GO) and ?-? interactions (between the benzene ring of TBBPA and GO), with an adsorption capacity of 22.2 mg g(-1) at pH 7.0. The TBBPA-adsorbed GO-PtBA could be deposited completely within 30 min, and the adsorbed TBBPA could be easily desorbed with ethanol, demonstrating its good recyclability. PMID:25335692

Zhao, Xubo; Liu, Peng

2014-11-18

160

Learning Statistics By Doing Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, created by Gary Smith of Pomona College, discusses a project-based approach to teaching statistics. The article focuses on the team aspect of learning, it introduces concepts such as: working with data, learning by doing, learning by writing, learning by speaking, and authentic assessment of material. An appendix contains a list of twenty projects that have been successfully assigned.

Smith, Gary

2009-02-02

161

Interpretation Intelligent Systems Laboratory  

E-print Network

1 TENS Text Interpretation Intelligent Systems Laboratory University of Wollongong TENS Text and delivering the text data to the user by electrically stimulating the fingers. Intelligent Systems Laboratory ­ University of Wollongong #12;2 The TENS Unit Intelligent Systems Laboratory ­ University of Wollongong

Ward, Koren

162

Interpretable and flexible technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

in recent years, dynamic properties of technical systems have attracted attention. A changing environment requires technical systems that can be adapted to new conditions. With an in- creased rate of change comes a demand for interpretability of technical systems in terms of business processes, since one cannot change what one does not understand. The paper presents a theory that emphasize

Peter Bøgh Andersen; Frederik Bajers

163

Interpreting the Constitution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

Brennan, William J., Jr.

1987-01-01

164

Documenting and Interpreting Conflict  

E-print Network

, a professor at Artuklu University at Mardin, collected oral histories of Armenians and Kurds in DiyarbakirDocumenting and Interpreting Conflict through Oral History A WORKING GUIDE Co-produced with TAARII Editors Mary Marshall Clark Columbia University Center for Oral History Research Terrell Frazier Columbia

Salzman, Daniel

165

Kinematics Graph Interpretation Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The primary goal of the Kinematics Graphing Project is to investigate the ability of students to interpret kinematics graphs and to generate a set of suggestions for faculty teaching the subject. Evaluation instruments are used to uncover the common misconceptions of students.

Beichner, Robert J.

2003-10-10

166

Interpretation of quantum mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

New axioms are proposed for the interpretation of quantum mechanics. They rest on a kind of calculus allowing to select meaningful physical statements and giving rules to check a given physical reasoning containing implications. Measurement theory is reformulated. Laboratoire associé au Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.

Roland Omnès

1987-01-01

167

Social Maladjustment: An Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The exclusionary term, "social maladjustment," the definition in Public Law 94-142 (the Education for All Handicapped Children Act) of serious emotional disturbance, has been an enigma for special education. This paper attempts to limit the interpretation of social maladjustment in order to counter effects of such decisions as "Honig vs. Doe" in…

Center, David B.

168

Psychosemantics and Simultaneous Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehension model of simultaneous interpretation activity raises three types of problems: structure of semantic information stored in long-term memory, modalities of input processing and specific restrictions due to situation. A useful concept of semantic mnesic structures includes: (1) a componential-predicative lexicon; (2) a propositional…

Le Ny, Jean-Francois

169

SOCR: Statistics Online Computational Resource.  

PubMed

The need for hands-on computer laboratory experience in undergraduate and graduate statistics education has been firmly established in the past decade. As a result a number of attempts have been undertaken to develop novel approaches for problem-driven statistical thinking, data analysis and result interpretation. In this paper we describe an integrated educational web-based framework for: interactive distribution modeling, virtual online probability experimentation, statistical data analysis, visualization and integration. Following years of experience in statistical teaching at all college levels using established licensed statistical software packages, like STATA, S-PLUS, R, SPSS, SAS, Systat, etc., we have attempted to engineer a new statistics education environment, the Statistics Online Computational Resource (SOCR). This resource performs many of the standard types of statistical analysis, much like other classical tools. In addition, it is designed in a plug-in object-oriented architecture and is completely platform independent, web-based, interactive, extensible and secure. Over the past 4 years we have tested, fine-tuned and reanalyzed the SOCR framework in many of our undergraduate and graduate probability and statistics courses and have evidence that SOCR resources build student's intuition and enhance their learning. PMID:21451741

Dinov, Ivo D

2006-10-01

170

SOCR: Statistics Online Computational Resource  

PubMed Central

The need for hands-on computer laboratory experience in undergraduate and graduate statistics education has been firmly established in the past decade. As a result a number of attempts have been undertaken to develop novel approaches for problem-driven statistical thinking, data analysis and result interpretation. In this paper we describe an integrated educational web-based framework for: interactive distribution modeling, virtual online probability experimentation, statistical data analysis, visualization and integration. Following years of experience in statistical teaching at all college levels using established licensed statistical software packages, like STATA, S-PLUS, R, SPSS, SAS, Systat, etc., we have attempted to engineer a new statistics education environment, the Statistics Online Computational Resource (SOCR). This resource performs many of the standard types of statistical analysis, much like other classical tools. In addition, it is designed in a plug-in object-oriented architecture and is completely platform independent, web-based, interactive, extensible and secure. Over the past 4 years we have tested, fine-tuned and reanalyzed the SOCR framework in many of our undergraduate and graduate probability and statistics courses and have evidence that SOCR resources build student’s intuition and enhance their learning. PMID:21451741

Dinov, Ivo D.

2011-01-01

171

INCREASING SCIENTIFIC POWER WITH STATISTICAL POWER  

EPA Science Inventory

A brief survey of basic ideas in statistical power analysis demonstrates the advantages and ease of using power analysis throughout the design, analysis, and interpretation of research. he power of a statistical test is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis of the test...

172

Spike statistics  

E-print Network

In this paper we explore stochastical and statistical properties of so-called recurring spike induced Kasner sequences. Such sequences arise in recurring spike formation, which is needed together with the more familiar BKL scenario to yield a complete description of generic spacelike singularities. In particular we derive a probability distribution for recurring spike induced Kasner sequences, complementing similar available BKL results, which makes comparisons possible. As examples of applications, we derive results for so-called large and small curvature phases and the Hubble-normalized Weyl scalar.

J. Mark Heinzle; Claes Uggla

2012-12-21

173

Tips for Mental Health Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers tips for working with interpreters in mental health settings. These tips include: (1) Using trained interpreters, not bilingual staff or community members; (2) Explaining "interpreting procedures" to the providers and clients; (3) Addressing the stigma associated with mental health that may influence interpreters; (4) Defining…

Whitsett, Margaret

2008-01-01

174

Four Faculty Positions Applied Statistics & Computational Statistics  

E-print Network

Four Faculty Positions Applied Statistics & Computational Statistics The Department of Statistics at the Assistant Professor rank. Two positions are open in the area of Applied Statistics, with a focus on the development of statistical methodology and statistical consulting. The other two positions are open

Shepp, Larry

175

Interpreting the Urinalysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial is designed to aid first and second year medical students learn interpretation of the urinalysis. It includes material on how the test is done, its general application and pitfalls in interpretation. General introductory material is followed by a series of short clinical vignettes illustrating diagnostic application of the test with various medical conditions. QuickTime movie player and Java script runtime plug-in scripts are required for some pages. The tutorial concludes with a short self-help quiz covering the major points developed. The plug-ins noted above are available free at the following sites: http://www.apple.com/quicktime/download/win.html and http://www.sun.com/. Questions should be directed to Dr. Mark Braun (braunm@indiana.edu).

Braun, Mark

2007-03-02

176

National Association for Interpretation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NAI promotes the advancement of the profession of interpretation, a communication process used in on-site informal education programs at parks, zoos, nature centers, historic sites, museums, and aquaria. This site announces national and regional NAI conferences, workshops on diverse topics, skill certification programs, networking opportunities and job listing service. Includes membership information and application; can order newsletters, professional journals and books. Membership, program and publication fees apply.

177

Interpreting Geologic Sections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Athro, Limited is a for-profit corporation that publishes high school and college level biology, earth science, and geology course supplements and independent learning materials on the Web. This site provides instruction in interpreting the order of events in three hypothetical and one real geological section. For each section there is a list of events and an animation of the history of the section once the student has decided on the order of events.

Morris, Paul

178

Linking numbers, spin, and statistics of solitons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spin and statistics of solitons in the (2 + 1)- and (3 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear sigma models is considered. For the (2 + 1)-dimensional case, there is the possibility of fractional spin and exotic statistics; for 3 + 1 dimensions, the usual spin-statistics relation is demonstrated. The linking-number interpretation of the Hopf invariant and the use of suspension considerably simplify the analysis.

Wilczek, F.; Zee, A.

1983-01-01

179

Computerized interpretation of solitary pulmonary nodules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In physicians' interpretation, morphologic characteristics of pulmonary nodules are not only important signs for the discrimination, but also important features for the diagnosis with a reasonable degree of confidence. This paper describes about the computerized interpretation system which is developed to analyze the relation between the measuring values and the morphologic characteristics, and to make clear the logic of physicians' diagnosis. We think that the four basic morphologic characteristics of the discriminative diagnosis between benign and malignant nodules exist which are: (1) the density; (2) the homogeneity; (3) the definition; and (4) the convergence. To obtain each grade of the parameters, we developed an interpretation system. On the other hand, to obtain digital feature values, we used our computer aided diagnosis system. Interpretation experiments were performed by using 15 benign and 19 malignant cases of chest x-ray CT images. As the result of a statistical analysis, some digital features have the significant differences between benign and malignant nodules, and the morphological characteristics have also differences. Therefore the computerized system is feasible to help physicians' interpretation to distinct between malignant and benign nodules by showing digital feature values as some references.

Suzuki, Hideo; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Mori, Masaki; Mitani, Masanobu; Natori, Hiroshi

1998-04-01

180

Data Interpretation: Using Probability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experimental data are analysed statistically to allow researchers to draw conclusions from a limited set of measurements. The hard fact is that researchers can never be certain that measurements from a sample will exactly reflect the properties of the entire group of possible candidates available to be studied (although using a sample is often the…

Drummond, Gordon B.; Vowler, Sarah L.

2011-01-01

181

Structural interpretation of seismic data and inherent uncertainties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geoscience is perhaps unique in its reliance on incomplete datasets and building knowledge from their interpretation. This interpretation basis for the science is fundamental at all levels; from creation of a geological map to interpretation of remotely sensed data. To teach and understand better the uncertainties in dealing with incomplete data we need to understand the strategies individual practitioners deploy that make them effective interpreters. The nature of interpretation is such that the interpreter needs to use their cognitive ability in the analysis of the data to propose a sensible solution in their final output that is both consistent not only with the original data but also with other knowledge and understanding. In a series of experiments Bond et al. (2007, 2008, 2011, 2012) investigated the strategies and pitfalls of expert and non-expert interpretation of seismic images. These studies focused on large numbers of participants to provide a statistically sound basis for analysis of the results. The outcome of these experiments showed that a wide variety of conceptual models were applied to single seismic datasets. Highlighting not only spatial variations in fault placements, but whether interpreters thought they existed at all, or had the same sense of movement. Further, statistical analysis suggests that the strategies an interpreter employs are more important than expert knowledge per se in developing successful interpretations. Experts are successful because of their application of these techniques. In a new set of experiments a small number of experts are focused on to determine how they use their cognitive and reasoning skills, in the interpretation of 2D seismic profiles. Live video and practitioner commentary were used to track the evolving interpretation and to gain insight on their decision processes. The outputs of the study allow us to create an educational resource of expert interpretation through online video footage and commentary with associated further interpretation and analysis of the techniques and strategies employed. This resource will be of use to undergraduate, post-graduate, industry and academic professionals seeking to improve their seismic interpretation skills, develop reasoning strategies for dealing with incomplete datasets, and for assessing the uncertainty in these interpretations. Bond, C.E. et al. (2012). 'What makes an expert effective at interpreting seismic images?' Geology, 40, 75-78. Bond, C. E. et al. (2011). 'When there isn't a right answer: interpretation and reasoning, key skills for 21st century geoscience'. International Journal of Science Education, 33, 629-652. Bond, C. E. et al. (2008). 'Structural models: Optimizing risk analysis by understanding conceptual uncertainty'. First Break, 26, 65-71. Bond, C. E. et al., (2007). 'What do you think this is?: "Conceptual uncertainty" In geoscience interpretation'. GSA Today, 17, 4-10.

Bond, Clare

2013-04-01

182

Interpretation of extragalactic jets  

SciTech Connect

The nature of extragalatic radio jets is modeled. The basic hypothesis of these models is that extragalatic jets are outflows of matter which can be described within the framework of fluid dynamics and that the outflows are essentially continuous. The discussion is limited to the interpretation of large-scale (i.e., kiloparsec-scale) jets. The central problem is to infer the physical parameters of the jets from observed distributions of total and polarized intensity and angle of polarization as a function of frequency. 60 refs., 6 figs.

Norman, M.L.

1985-01-01

183

Graphs: Interpret Line Plots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website application provides practice interpreting line plots. The format of the website makes it available to use with individual students on one computer or with an entire class on an interactive white board. Each practice problem is submitted to determine if it is correct, when an incorrect answer is submitted the correct answer and an option for an explanation appears. Each problem set is also timed and the user is provided with a percent correct. This website does have a membership option for a fee which would enable the teacher to track the progress of multiple students over time.

2012-01-01

184

Interpreting the Higgs  

E-print Network

The LHC and Tevatron Higgs data are interpreted as constraints on an effective theory of a Higgs boson with mass close to 125 GeV. We focus on the diphoton, ZZ*, WW* channels at the LHC, and the b-bbar channel at the Tevatron, which are currently the most sensitive probes of a Higgs with such a mass. Combining the available data in these channels, we derive the preferred regions of the parameter space of the effective theory. We further provide the mapping between the effective theory and the relevant Higgs event rates, facilitating future extraction of the preferred region by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations.

Carmi, Dean; Kuflik, Eric; Volansky, Tomer

2012-01-01

185

Conservative, Non-conservative and Average Pairwise Statistical Significance of Local Sequence Alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimation of statistical significance of a pairwise alignment is an important problem in sequence comparison. Recently, it was shown that pairwise statistical significance does better in practice than database statistical significance in terms of retrieval accuracy of homologs. In this paper, we introduce the concept of conservative, non-conservative, and average pairwise statistical significance which can be easily derived from original

Ankit Agrawal; Xiaoqiu Huang

2008-01-01

186

Easily implementable field programmable gate array-based adaptive optics system with state-space multichannel control.  

PubMed

In this paper, an easily implementable adaptive optics system (AOS) based on a real-time field programmable gate array (FPGA) platform with state-space multichannel control programmed by LabVIEW has been developed, and also integrated into a laser focusing system successfully. To meet the requirements of simple programming configuration and easy integration with other devices, the FPGA-based AOS introduces a standard operation procedure including AOS identification, computation, and operation. The overall system with a 32-channel driving signal for a deformable mirror (DM) as input and a Zernike polynomial via a lab-made Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) as output is optimally identified to construct a multichannel state-space model off-line. In real-time operation, the FPGA platform first calculates the Zernike polynomial of the optical wavefront measured from the SHWS as the feedback signal. Then, a state-space multichannel controller according to the feedback signal and the identified model is designed and implemented in the FPGA to drive the DM for phase distortion compensation. The current FPGA-based AOS is capable of suppressing low-frequency thermal disturbances with a steady-state phase error of less than 0.1 ? within less than 10 time steps when the control loop is operated at a frequency of 30 Hz. PMID:24089871

Chang, Chia-Yuan; Ke, Bo-Ting; Su, Hung-Wei; Yen, Wei-Chung; Chen, Shean-Jen

2013-09-01

187

Early Prediction of Intensive Care Unit-Acquired Weakness Using Easily Available Parameters: A Prospective Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction An early diagnosis of Intensive Care Unit–acquired weakness (ICU–AW) using muscle strength assessment is not possible in most critically ill patients. We hypothesized that development of ICU–AW can be predicted reliably two days after ICU admission, using patient characteristics, early available clinical parameters, laboratory results and use of medication as parameters. Methods Newly admitted ICU patients mechanically ventilated ?2 days were included in this prospective observational cohort study. Manual muscle strength was measured according to the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale, when patients were awake and attentive. ICU–AW was defined as an average MRC score <4. A prediction model was developed by selecting predictors from an a–priori defined set of candidate predictors, based on known risk factors. Discriminative performance of the prediction model was evaluated, validated internally and compared to the APACHE IV and SOFA score. Results Of 212 included patients, 103 developed ICU–AW. Highest lactate levels, treatment with any aminoglycoside in the first two days after admission and age were selected as predictors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the prediction model was 0.71 after internal validation. The new prediction model improved discrimination compared to the APACHE IV and the SOFA score. Conclusion The new early prediction model for ICU–AW using a set of 3 easily available parameters has fair discriminative performance. This model needs external validation. PMID:25347675

Wieske, Luuk; Witteveen, Esther; Verhamme, Camiel; Dettling-Ihnenfeldt, Daniela S.; van der Schaaf, Marike; Schultz, Marcus J.; van Schaik, Ivo N.; Horn, Janneke

2014-01-01

188

A coulometric method for the assay of some easily oxidized organic substances with iodine as an oxidizing agent.  

PubMed

A coulometric method for the assay of easily oxidized organic substances, using iodine as an oxidizing agent, has been developed. The principle of the method is to oxidize the substance with an excess of iodine in a water-acetic acid medium and then titrate the iodide formed, with anodically generated silver ion. The titration is followed by dead-stop indication using two platinum electrodes. The method has been applied to the assay of dihydric phenols with hydroxyl groups in the ortho or para positions and to the determination of ascorbic acid in various pharmaceutical preparations. The absolute relative error varied between 0.2 and 2.8% for the 8 phenols investigated and the relative standard deviation between 0.2 and 1%. For standard solutions of ascorbic acid the absolute relative error was 0.9% and for the 6 pharmaceutical preparations investigated the relative standard deviation lay in the range 0.3-0.9%. The method is easy to apply and has a number of advantages over current iodimetric methods. PMID:18961965

Edholm, L E

1976-10-01

189

Combination and interpretation of observables in Cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The standard cosmological model has deep theoretical foundations but need the introduction of two major unknown components, dark matter and dark energy, to be in agreement with various observations. Dark matter describes a non-relativistic collisionless fluid of (non baryonic) matter which amount to 25% of the total density of the universe. Dark energy is a new kind of fluid not of matter type, representing 70% of the total density which should explain the recent acceleration of the expansion of the universe. Alternatively, one can reject this idea of adding one or two new components but argue that the equations used to make the interpretation should be modified consmological scales. Instead of dark matter one can invoke a failure of Newton's laws. Instead of dark energy, two approaches are proposed : general relativity (in term of the Einstein equation) should be modified, or the cosmological principle which fixes the metric used for cosmology should be abandonned. One of the main objective of the community is to find the path of the relevant interpretations thanks to the next generation of experiments which should provide large statistics of observationnal data. Unfortunately, cosmological in formations are difficult to pin down directly fromt he measurements, and it is mandatory to combine the various observables to get the cosmological parameters. This is not problematic from the statistical point of view, but assumptions and approximations made for the analysis may bias our interprettion of the data. Consequently, a strong attention should be paied to the statistical methods used to make parameters estimation and for model testing. After a review of the basics of cosmology where the cosmological parameters are introduced, we discuss the various cosmological probes and their associated observables used to extract cosmological informations. We present the results obtained from several statistical analyses combining data of diferent nature but we insist on the main drawbaks that can falsify our final interpretation.

Virey, Jean-Marc

2010-04-01

190

Impact of Statistical Learning Methods on the Predictive Power of Multivariate Normal Tissue Complication Probability Models  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To study the impact of different statistical learning methods on the prediction performance of multivariate normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models. Methods and Materials: In this study, three learning methods, stepwise selection, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), and Bayesian model averaging (BMA), were used to build NTCP models of xerostomia following radiotherapy treatment for head and neck cancer. Performance of each learning method was evaluated by a repeated cross-validation scheme in order to obtain a fair comparison among methods. Results: It was found that the LASSO and BMA methods produced models with significantly better predictive power than that of the stepwise selection method. Furthermore, the LASSO method yields an easily interpretable model as the stepwise method does, in contrast to the less intuitive BMA method. Conclusions: The commonly used stepwise selection method, which is simple to execute, may be insufficient for NTCP modeling. The LASSO method is recommended.

Xu Chengjian, E-mail: c.j.xu@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Schaaf, Arjen van der; Schilstra, Cornelis; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Veld, Aart A. van't [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

2012-03-15

191

Statistical Digest No. 70 Fishery Statistics of  

E-print Network

Statistical Digest No. 70 Statistics of the United States 1976 Washington National Marine Fisheries Service #12;#12;Statistical Digest No. 70 Fishery Statistics of the United States 1976 Prepared by: Resource Statistics Division Joseph Pileggi, Chief B.G. Thompson, Assistant Chief

192

Cytological artifacts masquerading interpretation  

PubMed Central

Background: Cytological artifacts are important to learn because an error in routine laboratory practice can bring out an erroneous result. Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of delayed fixation and morphological discrepancies created by deliberate addition of extraneous factors on the interpretation and/or diagnosis of an oral cytosmear. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out using papanicolaou and hematoxylin and eosin-stained oral smears, 6 each from 66 volunteer dental students with deliberate variation in fixation delay timings, with and without changes in temperature, undue pressure while smear making and intentional addition of contaminants. The fixation delay at room temperature was carried out at an interval of every 30 minutes, 1 day and 1 week and was continued till the end of 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month, respectively. The temperature variations included 60 to 70°C and 3 to 4°C. Results: Light microscopically, the effect of delayed fixation at room temperature appeared first on cytoplasm followed by nucleus within the first 2 hours and on the 4th day, respectively, till complete cytoplasmic degeneration on the 23rd day. However, delayed fixation at variable temperature brought faster degenerative changes at higher temperature than lower temperature. Effect of extraneous factors revealed some interesting facts. Conclusions: In order to justify a cytosmear interpretation, a cytologist must be well acquainted with delayed fixation-induced cellular changes and microscopic appearances of common contaminants so as to implicate better prognosis and therapy. PMID:24648667

Sahay, Khushboo; Mehendiratta, Monica; Rehani, Shweta; Kumra, Madhumani; Sharma, Rashi; Kardam, Priyanka

2013-01-01

193

An intentional interpretive perspective  

PubMed Central

To the extent that the concept of intention has been addressed within behavior analysis, descriptions of intention have been general and have not specifically included important distinctions that differentiate a behavior-analytic approach from vernacular definitions of intention. A fundamental difference between a behavior-analytic approach and most other psychological approaches is that other approaches focus on the necessity of intentions to explain behavior, whereas a behavior-analytic approach is directed at understanding the interplay between behavior and environment. Behavior-analytic interpretations include the relations between the observer's behavior and the environment. From a behavior-analytic perspective, an analysis of the observer's interpretations of an individual's behavior is inherent in the subsequent attribution of intention. The present agenda is to provide a behavior-analytic account of attributing intention that identifies the establishing conditions for speaking of intention. Also addressed is the extent to which we speak of intentions when the observed individual's behavior is contingency shaped or under instructional control. PMID:22478417

Neuman, Paul

2004-01-01

194

Heritage and hermeneutics: towards a broader interpretation of interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article re-examines the theoretical basis for environmental and heritage interpretation in tourist settings in the light of hermeneutic philosophy. It notes that the pioneering vision of heritage interpretation formulated by Freeman Tilden envisaged a broadly educational, ethically informed and transformative art. By contrast, current cognitive psychological attempts to reduce interpretation to the monological transmission of information, targeting universal but

Phillip Gordon Ablett; Pamela Kay Dyer

2009-01-01

195

Generic interpreters and microprocessor verification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following topics are covered in viewgraph form: (1) generic interpreters; (2) Viper microprocessors; (3) microprocessor verification; (4) determining correctness; (5) hierarchical decomposition; (6) interpreter theory; (7) AVM-1; (8) phase-level specification; and future work.

Windley, Phillip J.

1990-01-01

196

Rapid quantitative analysis of microcystins in raw surface waters with MALDI MS utilizing easily synthesized internal standards.  

PubMed

The freshwater cyanotoxins, microcystins (MCs), pose a global public health threat as potent hepatotoxins in cyanobacterial blooms; their persistence in drinking and recreational water has been associated with potential chronic effects in addition to acute intoxications. Rapid and accurate detection of the over 80 structural congeners is challenged by the rigorous and time consuming clean up required to overcome interference found in raw water samples. MALDI-MS has shown promise for rapid quantification of individual congeners in raw water samples, with very low operative cost, but so far limited sensitivity and lack of available and versatile internal standards (ISs) has limited its use. Two easily synthesized S-hydroxyethyl-Cys(7)-MC-LR and -RR ISs were used to generate linear standard curves in a reflectron MALDI instrument, reproducible across several orders of magnitude for MC-LR, -RR and -YR. Minimum quantification limits in direct water samples with no clean up or concentration step involved were consistently below 7 ?g/L, with recoveries from spiked samples between 80 and 119%. This method improves sensitivity by 30 fold over previous reports of quantitative MALDI-TOF applications to MCs and provides a salient option for rapid throughput analysis for multiple MC congeners in untreated raw surface water blooms as a means to identify source public health threats and target intervention strategies within a watershed. As demonstrated by analysis of a set of samples from Uruguay, utilizing the reaction of different MC congeners with alternate sulfhydryl compounds, the m/z of the IS can be customized to avoid overlap with interfering compounds in local surface water samples. PMID:24388801

Roegner, Amber F; Schirmer, Macarena Pírez; Puschner, Birgit; Brena, Beatriz; Gonzalez-Sapienza, Gualberto

2014-02-01

197

The U.S. Supreme Court finds a statute's description of a simple statistical measure of relative disparity ‘ambiguous’ allowing the Secretary of Education to interpret the formula: Zuni Public School District 89 v. U.S. Department of Education II  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree of deference courts give to the interpretation of a statute made by the government agency administering it arises in a variety of legal contexts. This spring the U.S. Supreme Court decided a case concerning the interpretation of a formula used to determine whether the educational funds available to the school districts of a state are ‘equalized’. A state

Joseph L. Gastwirth

2008-01-01

198

Stupid statistics!  

PubMed

The method of least squares is probably the most powerful data analysis tool available to scientists. Toward a fuller appreciation of that power, this work begins with an elementary review of statistics fundamentals, and then progressively increases in sophistication as the coverage is extended to the theory and practice of linear and nonlinear least squares. The results are illustrated in application to data analysis problems important in the life sciences. The review of fundamentals includes the role of sampling and its connection to probability distributions, the Central Limit Theorem, and the importance of finite variance. Linear least squares are presented using matrix notation, and the significance of the key probability distributions-Gaussian, chi-square, and t-is illustrated with Monte Carlo calculations. The meaning of correlation is discussed, including its role in the propagation of error. When the data themselves are correlated, special methods are needed for the fitting, as they are also when fitting with constraints. Nonlinear fitting gives rise to nonnormal parameter distributions, but the 10% Rule of Thumb suggests that such problems will be insignificant when the parameter is sufficiently well determined. Illustrations include calibration with linear and nonlinear response functions, the dangers inherent in fitting inverted data (e.g., Lineweaver-Burk equation), an analysis of the reliability of the van't Hoff analysis, the problem of correlated data in the Guggenheim method, and the optimization of isothermal titration calorimetry procedures using the variance-covariance matrix for experiment design. The work concludes with illustrations on assessing and presenting results. PMID:17964948

Tellinghuisen, Joel

2008-01-01

199

Enhancing the Teaching of Statistics: Portfolio Theory, an Application of Statistics in Finance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we present an application of statistics using real stock market data. Most, if not all, students have some familiarity with the stock market (or at least they have heard about it) and therefore can understand the problem easily. It is the real data analysis that students find interesting. Here we explore the building of efficient…

Christou, Nicolas

2008-01-01

200

Interpreting bruises at necropsy  

PubMed Central

The accurate interpretation of bruising at necropsy is essential to understanding how a victim has been injured and assists the pathologist in a reliable reconstruction of the events leading to death. It is essential not only to assess the mechanism of production of a bruise, taking into account the type of impacting surface and the magnitude of force used, but also to estimate when the injury was caused. An account is given of the various methods used in the examination of bruises, particularly with respect to aging, as well as the factors that may affect their appearance. Differentiation from artefacts resulting from postmortem changes is also discussed in some detail. Key Words: bruising • necropsy • time of death • cause of death PMID:11328832

Vanezis, P

2001-01-01

201

A History of Oral Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This historical account of the oral interpretation of literature establishes a chain of events comprehending 25 centuries of verbal tradition from the Homeric Age through 20th Century America. It deals in each era with the viewpoints and contributions of major historical figures to oral interpretation, as well as with oral interpretation's…

Bahn, Eugene; Bahn, Margaret L.

202

Reading and Interpreting Tables and Graphs Involving Rates and Percentages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This survey, created by Milo Schield of Augsburg College, assesses statistical literacy. The survey focuses on the general use of informal statistics in everyday situations: reading and interpreting tables and graphs involving rates and percentages. The survey itself takes between thirty and forty minutes. The author does apologize for the length, but insists that it is due to how comprehensive the survey is. Sixty-nine questions in length, almost every topic concerning statistics is covered. The survey was funded by the W.M. Keck Statistical Literacy Project.

Schield, Milo

2009-03-11

203

Statistics (Program Description)  

NSF Publications Database

... of Mathematical Sciences Statistics Description The Statistics Program supports research for ... robust methods, experimental design, spatial statistics, resampling methods, and the analysis of ...

204

Methodology, Measurement, and Statistics  

NSF Publications Database

... federal statistical agencies for competitive survey and statistical methodology proposals.) Proposal ... models that cross traditional disciplinary boundaries, including research on statistical methodology ...

205

An easily accessible sulfated saccharide mimetic inhibits in vitro human tumor cell adhesion and angiogenesis of vascular endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

Summary Oligosaccharides aberrantly expressed on tumor cells influence processes such as cell adhesion and modulation of the cell’s microenvironment resulting in an increased malignancy. Schmidt’s imidate strategy offers an effective method to synthesize libraries of various oligosaccharide mimetics. With the aim to perturb interactions of tumor cells with extracellular matrix proteins and host cells, molecules with 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan as core structure were synthesized and screened in biological assays for their abilities to interfere in cell adhesion and other steps of the metastatic cascade, such as tumor-induced angiogenesis. The most active compound, (4-{[(?-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]methyl}furan-3-yl)methyl hydrogen sulfate (GSF), inhibited the activation of matrix-metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) as well as migration of the human melanoma cells of the lines WM-115 and WM-266-4 in a two-dimensional migration assay. GSF inhibited completely the adhesion of WM-115 cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, fibrinogen and fibronectin. In an in vitro angiogenesis assay with human endothelial cells, GSF very effectively inhibited endothelial tubule formation and sprouting of blood vessels, as well as the adhesion of endothelial cells to ECM proteins. GSF was not cytotoxic at biologically active concentrations; neither were 3,4-bis{[(?-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]methyl}furan (BGF) nor methyl ?-D-galactopyranoside nor 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan, which were used as controls, eliciting comparable biological activity. In silico modeling experiments, in which binding of GSF to the extracellular domain of the integrin ?v?3 was determined, revealed specific docking of GSF to the same binding site as the natural peptidic ligands of this integrin. The sulfate in the molecule coordinated with one manganese ion in the binding site. These studies show that this chemically easily accessible molecule GSF, synthesized in three steps from 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan and benzoylated galactose imidate, is nontoxic and antagonizes cell physiological processes in vitro that are important for the dissemination and growth of tumor cells in vivo. PMID:23015827

Marano, Grazia; Gronewold, Claas; Frank, Martin; Merling, Anette; Kliem, Christian; Sauer, Sandra; Wiessler, Manfred; Frei, Eva

2012-01-01

206

Three-Dimensional Statistics of Radio Polarimetry  

E-print Network

The measurement of radio polarization may be regarded as a three-dimensional statistical problem because the large photon densities at radio wavelengths allow the simultaneous detection of the three Stokes parameters which completely describe the radiation's polarization. The statistical nature of the problem arises from the fluctuating instrumental noise, and possibly from fluctuations in the radiation's polarization. A statistical model is used to derive the general, three-dimensional statistics that govern radio polarization measurements. The statistics are derived for specific cases of source-intrinsic polarization, with an emphasis on the orthogonal polarization modes in pulsar radio emission. The statistics are similar to those commonly found in other fields of the physical, biological, and Earth sciences. Given the highly variable linear and circular polarization of pulsar radio emission, an understanding of the three-dimensional statistics may be an essential prequisite to a thorough interpretation of pulsar polarization data.

Mark M. McKinnon

2003-06-03

207

Chi-Square Statistics, Tests of Hypothesis and Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of technology such as computers and programmable calculators enables students to find p-values and conduct tests of hypotheses in many different ways. Comprehension and interpretation of a research problem become the focus for statistical analysis. This paper describes how to calculate chisquare statistics and p-values for statistical

Rochowicz, John A.

208

EIA publications manual: Statistical graphs  

SciTech Connect

Statistical graphs both illustrate a set of data and provide an analytical perspective. The distinction between these two functions is one of emphasis. Where the purpose of a graph is to dramatize or highlight a set of data, its primary function is illustration. Where the purpose of a graph is to explore, measure, calculate, and derive relationships, the primary function of the graph is analytical. In general practice, these two functions can be so interdependent as to be indistinguishable. The following guidelines are intended to aid in resolving problems common to the presentation of data in statistical graphs. The variety and complexity of data to be presented call for a flexible approach; therefore, the following examples are intended not as inflexible specifications but rather as guides to the design of graphs that are attractive and easily understood. All the types of graphs discussed here have appeared in EIA publications. A list of references that provides further examples is included. Also included is a glossary of statistical terms used in discussing the statistical properties of different types of graphs. 11 refs., 24 figs.

Not Available

1985-04-01

209

A programmed labeling approach to image interpretation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Manual labeling techniques require the analyst-interpreter to use not only production film converter products but also agricultural and meteorological data and spectral aids in an integrated, judgmental fashion. To control an anticipated high variance in these techniques, a semiautomatic labeling technology was developed. The product of this technology is label identification from statistical tabulation (LIST) which operates from a discriminant basis and has the ability to measure the reliability of the label and to introduce an arbitrary bias. The development of LIST and its properties are described. Numerical results of an application are included and the evaluation of LIST is discussed.

Pore, M. D.; Abotteen, R. A. (principal investigators)

1979-01-01

210

Audiometry screening and interpretation.  

PubMed

The prevalence of hearing loss varies with age, affecting at least 25 percent of patients older than 50 years and more than 50 percent of those older than 80 years. Adolescents and young adults represent groups in which the prevalence of hearing loss is increasing and may therefore benefit from screening. If offered, screening can be performed periodically by asking the patient or family if there are perceived hearing problems, or by using clinical office tests such as whispered voice, finger rub, or audiometry. Audiometry in the family medicine clinic setting is a relatively simple procedure that can be interpreted by a trained health care professional. Pure-tone testing presents tones across the speech spectrum (500 to 4,000 Hz) to determine if the patient's hearing levels fall within normal limits. A quiet testing environment, calibrated audiometric equipment, and appropriately trained personnel are required for in-office testing. Pure-tone audiometry may help physicians appropriately refer patients to an audiologist or otolaryngologist. Unilateral or asymmetrical hearing loss can be symptomatic of a central nervous system lesion and requires additional evaluation. PMID:23317024

Walker, Jennifer Junnila; Cleveland, Leanne M; Davis, Jenny L; Seales, Jennifer S

2013-01-01

211

Time-variant statics corrections during interpretation  

SciTech Connect

Even though statics processing is well advanced and is routinely applied, interpreters are still required to evaluate seismic data that has either no statics corrections or poor statics corrections. It is a critical interpretation skill to recognize uncorrected statics and to correct for their effects. Poor decisions and dry holes are often the result of failure to do this. Since multifold seismic data has become the norm, statics are no longer time invariant. The method of flattening stacked data on a shallow reflector that worked so well for single fold data will show anomalous structure and isochron variation caused by the time-variant effects of uncorrected statics. Uncorrected statics can be identified by anomalous undulations in a shallow reflector, by the time-variant effects with increasing reflection time, and by the variations in optimal stacking velocities, all of which have been documented in the literature. Knowledge of these properties from stacked data observations can lead to robust estimates of the surface position delay profile necessary for all statics corrections. Although prestack analysis and correction provide the best solutions, full spatial and temporal corrections can be calculated easily and applied to the interpretation of stacked data on most work stations to enable quicker, less expensive decision making. Prestack reprocessing is only one action that may result from a quality poststack analysis. Stacked data time picks can be fully corrected with a statics term and a velocity term. Partial corrections, applied only to the center trace of a static-causing body can be made without knowledge of the exact surface position delay model. The ratio of central trace delays of two reflectors is approximately equal to the ratio of effective spread lengths used to stack the two reflectors. This method is applied to a real data example published last year in Geophysics where the anomalous isochron thinning is accurately predicted.

Musgrove, F.W. (Mobil North Sea Limited, London (United Kingdom))

1994-03-01

212

timid, or easily manipulated. This is not compassion. A marine drill ser-geant may be demanding and results-driven, but can show compassion  

E-print Network

timid, or easily manipulated. This is not compassion. A marine drill ser- geant may be demanding and results-driven, but can show compassion when a recruit requires bereavement leave to attend a family

Kim, Duck O.

213

FISHERY STATISTICS UNITED STATES  

E-print Network

FISHERY STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES 1973 STATISTICAL DIGEST NO. 67 Prepared by STATISTICS a review of the fishery statistics for the year 1973 . These statistics include data on the volume in assembling data on the fisheries. In certain areas, information complete enough to be used by the statistical

214

Evaluation of internists’ spirometric interpretations  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Correct interpretation of screening spirometry results is essential in making accurate clinical diagnoses and directing subsequent\\u000a pulmonary evaluation. The general internist is largely responsible for interpreting screening spirometric tests at community\\u000a hospitals. However, reports of new guidelines for screening spirometry are infrequently published in the general internal\\u000a medicine literature. This can lead to incorrect interpretations. We sought to evaluate

Oleh Hnatiuk; Lisa Moores; Thomas Loughney; Kenneth Torrington

1996-01-01

215

[Consolidate statistics work, reform the statistics system].  

PubMed

China learned about statistics from the Soviet Union in the 1950s. The statistics work of the entire country was under centralized and unified leadership. The state's statistics system and methods were implemented and practiced uniformly throughout China. Any false report was considered dishonest and an act detrimental to the interests of the country. In the first 5 years, the statistical information was usually reliable, with the exception of that concerning agriculture. Some problems with false figures led to the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party and the State Council deciding to consolidate statistics work in 1962. The decision was made to establish a powerful, centralized, and unified statistics system as quickly as possible. At present the strength of statistics departments at or above the county level throughout China is only about 76% of that of 1965, and the strength of the State Statistics Bureau is less than that of 1976. The statistics bureaus of many cities and counties have not yet been reestablished. Viewed from examples of inaccurate statistical figures and incomplete statistical content, the tendency of party and government leaders meddling in statistical figures and making false reports has not yet been eliminated. It appears that many people in the party and in the country have not really learned a lesson from the serious mistakes caused by putting forth strong demands without first having a clear understanding of the situation. Many localities, departments, and units still fail to understand the importance of statistics. The following action needs to be taken to consolidate statistics work: 1) raise the social status of statistics work; 2) reform the system of administration in statistics work; 3) establish a powerful statistics system; and 4) improve the laws and regulations governing statistics. PMID:12311439

Sun, Y

1981-03-26

216

Mantoux test and its interpretation.  

PubMed

The tuberculin skin test is one of the few investigations dating from the 19(th) century that are still widely used as an important test for diagnosing tuberculosis. Though very commonly used by physicians worldwide its interpretation always remains difficult and controversial. Various factors like age, immunological status coexisting illness etc influence its outcome, so also its interpretation. Utmost care is required while interpreting the result and giving an opinion. This article has been written with the purpose of elucidating the performance and interpretation of the standard tuberculin test. PMID:23130251

Nayak, Surajit; Acharjya, Basanti

2012-01-01

217

Mantoux test and its interpretation  

PubMed Central

The tuberculin skin test is one of the few investigations dating from the 19th century that are still widely used as an important test for diagnosing tuberculosis. Though very commonly used by physicians worldwide its interpretation always remains difficult and controversial. Various factors like age, immunological status coexisting illness etc influence its outcome, so also its interpretation. Utmost care is required while interpreting the result and giving an opinion. This article has been written with the purpose of elucidating the performance and interpretation of the standard tuberculin test. PMID:23130251

Nayak, Surajit; Acharjya, Basanti

2012-01-01

218

Spin, Statistics, and Reflections, II. Lorentz Invariance  

E-print Network

The analysis of the relation between modular P$_1$CT-symmetry -- a consequence of the Unruh effect -- and Pauli's spin-statistics relation is continued. The result in the predecessor to this article is extended to the Lorentz symmetric situation. A model $\\G_L$ of the universal covering $\\widetilde{L_+^\\uparrow}\\cong SL(2,\\complex)$ of the restricted Lorentz group $L_+^\\uparrow$ is modelled as a reflection group at the classical level. Based on this picture, a representation of $\\G_L$ is constructed from pairs of modular P$_1$CT-conjugations, and this representation can easily be verified to satisfy the spin-statistics relation.

Bernd Kuckert; Reinhard Lorenzen

2005-12-21

219

Optimal State Discrimination Using Particle Statistics  

E-print Network

We present an application of particle statistics to the problem of optimal ambiguous discrimination of quantum states. The states to be discriminated are encoded in the internal degrees of freedom of identical particles, and we use the bunching and antibunching of the external degrees of freedom to discriminate between various internal states. We show that we can achieve the optimal single-shot discrimination probability using only the effects of particle statistics. We discuss interesting applications of our method to detecting entanglement and purifying mixed states. Our scheme can easily be implemented with the current technology.

S. Bose; A. Ekert; Y. Omar; N. Paunkovic; V. Vedral

2003-09-10

220

Basic statistical concepts in nutrition research.  

PubMed

Statistical principles are used in nutrition research to plan and conduct research studies and to answer research questions. This article describes general statistical concepts and provides some guidelines to assist in the interpretation of research literature. Prospective and retrospective study designs used in nutrition research are presented as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each of the study designs. Descriptive statistics used to summarize data and graphical tools used to display the shape of the distribution of a set of data guide nutrition support professionals to select appropriate statistical tests. Fundamental topics of statistics, including power analysis and sample size, confidence intervals and hypothesis testing, and analysis of variance and regression, are also reviewed. The article emphasizes the importance of effective collaboration with statisticians at an early stage of the research study to avoid potential pitfalls associated with improper utilization of statistical methods. PMID:23449772

Saracino, Giovanna; Jennings, Linda W; Hasse, Jeanette M

2013-04-01

221

Geochemical Interpretation of Collision Volcanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collision volcanism can be defined as volcanism that takes place during an orogeny from the moment that continental subduction starts to the end of orogenic collapse. Its importance in the Geological Record is greatly underestimated as collision volcanics are easily misinterpreted as being of volcanic arc, extensional or mantle plume origin. There are many types of collision volcanic province: continent-island arc collision (e.g. Banda arc); continent-active margin collision (e.g. Tibet, Turkey-Iran); continent-rear-arc collision (e.g. Bolivia); continent-continent collision (e.g. Tuscany); and island arc-island arc collision (e.g. Taiwan). Superimposed on this variability is the fact that every orogeny is different in detail. Nonetheless, there is a general theme of cyclicity on different time scales. This starts with syn-collision volcanism resulting from the subduction of an ocean-continent transition and continental lithosphere, and continues through post-collision volcanism. The latter can be subdivided into orogenic volcanism, which is related to thickened crust, and post-orogenic, which is related to orogenic collapse. Typically, but not always, collision volcanism is preceded by normal arc volcanism and followed by normal intraplate volcanism. Identification and interpretation of collision volcanism in the Geologic Record is greatly facilitated if a dated stratigraphic sequence is present so that the petrogenic evolution can be traced. In any case, the basis of fingerprinting collision terranes is to use geochemical proxies for mantle and subduction fluxes, slab temperatures, and depths and degrees of melting. For example, syn-collision volcanism is characterized by a high subduction flux relative to mantle flux because of the high input flux of fusible sediment and crust coupled with limited mantle flow, and because of high slab temperatures resulting from the decrease in subduction rate. The resulting geochemical patterns are similar regardless of collision type with extreme LILE and significant HFSE enrichment relative to MORB and with large negative Nb-Ta and Ti anomalies. Post-collision volcanism is usually ascribed to combinations of slab detachment, delamination, and slab roll back (orogenic) and extension (post-orogenic). The magma source is typically conductively-heated, sub-continental mantle lithosphere with composition and depth of melting depending on the nature and evolution of the collision zone in question. Geochemical patterns may be similar to those of syn-collision basalts or of intraplate, continental basalts - or transitional between these. This variability in space and time, though problematic for geochemical fingerprinting, can give clues to the polarity and development of the collision zone, for example by highlighting the distribution of subduction-modified mantle lithosphere and hence of pre-collision subduction zones. One characteristic common to this setting is a high crustal input resulting from the presence of a hot, thick 'crustal chemical filter' which is evident on geochemical projections that highlight AFC-type processes. Using this, and other, geochemical features it is possible to develop methodologies to at least partly see through the complexity of collision terranes.

Pearce, Julian

2014-05-01

222

Renyi statistics in equilibrium statistical mechanics  

E-print Network

The Renyi statistics in the canonical and microcanonical ensembles is examined in the general case and in particular for the ideal gas. In the microcanonical ensemble the Renyi statistics is equivalent with the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics. By the exact analytical results for the ideal gas, it is shown that in the canonical ensemble in the thermodynamic limit the Renyi statistics is also equivalent with the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics. Furthermore it satisfies the requirements of the equilibrium thermodynamics, i.e. the thermodynamical potential of the statistical ensemble is a homogeneous function of degree 1 of its extensive variables of state. We conclude that the Renyi statistics duplicates the thermodynamical relations stemming from the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics in the thermodynamical limit.

A. S. Parvan; T. S. Biro

2009-10-16

223

Statistical comparison of spatial fields in model validation, perturbation, and predictability experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The comparison of spatial fields of meteorological variables is an essential component of model validation studies and is central in assessing the significance of any change between a perturbed and control run of a general circulation model. Comparisons may be made of statistics which define the time-mean state, the temporal variability about this state, and/or spatial variability. Comparisons may also be made of the two time-mean spatial patterns, or of the temporal evolutions of spatial patterns. We consider here a suite of univariate and multivariate statistics which may be used to make these comparisons. Some of these statistics have been used previously, while others are either new or have not previously been used in the present context. The use of these statistics, their differences and similarities, and their relative performances are illustrated by considering mean sea level pressure changes between the decades 1951-1960 and 1971-1980 over an area covering North America, the North Atlantic Ocean, and Europe. Significance levels are assessed using the pool-permutation procedure of Preisendorfer and Barnett (1983) (henceforth P+B). This overcomes problems arising from nonideal behavior of the data (particularly spatial autocorrelation), unknown sampling distributions, and multiplicity in the case of univariate statistics. A subset of statistics is identified as most useful. For tests of differences in means these are the grid point by grid point t-test, a test comparing the overall means, and P+B's SITES statistic. For tests of differences in temporal variability they are the grid point by grid point F-test, and SPRET1 (the ratio of the spatial means of the time variances). SPRET1 is a modification of P+B's SPRED statistic designed to identify the direction of any variance difference. As a test of spatial variability differences, we identify SPREX1 (the ratio of the time means of the spatial variances), and for comparing spatial patterns the best statistic is the (spatial) correlation coefficient between the time-mean fields. For comparing the temporal evolution of spatial patterns, we recommend using the time-mean anomaly field correlation which is a more easily interpreted equivalent to P+B's SHAPE statistic.

Wigley, T. M. L.; Santer, B. D.

1990-01-01

224

Royal Statistical Society Center for Statistical Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Royal Statistical Society, this website's purpose it to promote the improvement of statistical education, training and understanding. You will find activities, resources and current news to help in teaching statistics. The site breaks down its resources in this manner: for school, higher education, for all levels, problem solving and MSOR@RSSCSE. The page is quite broad in scope. For this reason, it is a great resource for those interested in almost any aspect of statistics education.

2009-05-04

225

Dream Interpretation in Ancient Civilizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dream interpretation was regarded by ancient peoples in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and Rome as an art requiring intelligence and, sometimes, divine inspiration. It became a motif in literature. It was treated as a science by philosophers and physicians. Dreams were thought to come either as clear messages, or as symbols requiring interpretation. In a method called incubation, the dreamer could

J. Donald Hughes

2000-01-01

226

Oral Interpretation as Performing Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A three-step process of description, reduction, and interpretation is employed in this paper in disentangling the complex of relationships involved in oral interpretation. In the description, contributions from various disciplines are synthesized; among the topics discussed are the communication process model usually employed in descriptions of…

Peterson, Eric E.

227

Museum Docents' Understanding of Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore docents' perceptions of their interpretive role in art museums and determine how those perceptions shape docents' practice. The objective was to better understand how docents conceive of their role and what shapes the interpretation they give on tours to the public. The conceptual…

Neill, Amanda C.

2010-01-01

228

Interpreting Recoil for Undergraduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phenomenon of recoil is usually explained to students in the context of Newton's third law. Typically, when a projectile is fired, the recoil of the launch mechanism is interpreted as a reaction to the ejection of the smaller projectile. The same phenomenon is also interpreted in the context of the conservation of linear momentum, which is…

Elsayed, Tarek A.

2012-01-01

229

Semantic Interpretation in Generative Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author finds Katz and Postal's 1964 generative semantic theories concerning the organization of grammar incorrect and proposes an interpretive approach to semantics in which syntactic structures are given interpretations by an autonomous semantic component. The research reported leads the author to describe a generative grammar consisting of…

Jackendoff, Ray S.

230

Remote sensing and image interpretation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A textbook prepared primarily for use in introductory courses in remote sensing is presented. Topics covered include concepts and foundations of remote sensing; elements of photographic systems; introduction to airphoto interpretation; airphoto interpretation for terrain evaluation; photogrammetry; radiometric characteristics of aerial photographs; aerial thermography; multispectral scanning and spectral pattern recognition; microwave sensing; and remote sensing from space.

Lillesand, T. M.; Kiefer, R. W. (principal investigators)

1979-01-01

231

Automatic Interpretation and Coding of Face Images Using Flexible Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Face images are difficult to interpret because they are highly variable. Sources of variability include individual appearance, 3D pose, facial expression , and lighting. We describe a compact parametrized model of facial appearance which takes into account all these sources of variability. The model represents both shape and gray-level appearance , and is created by performing a statistical analysis over

Andreas Lanitis; Christopher J. Taylor; Timothy F. Cootes

1997-01-01

232

Philosophical perspectives on quantum chaos: Models and interpretations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of quantum chaos is a special case of the larger problem of understanding how the classical world emerges from quantum mechanics. While we have learned that chaos is pervasive in classical systems, it appears to be almost entirely absent in quantum systems. The aim of this dissertation is to determine what implications the interpretation of quantum mechanics has for attempts to explain the emergence of classical chaos. There are three interpretations of quantum mechanics that have set out programs for solving the problem of quantum chaos: the standard interpretation, the statistical interpretation, and the deBroglie-Bohm causal interpretation. One of the main conclusions of this dissertation is that an interpretation alone is insufficient for solving the problem of quantum chaos and that the phenomenon of decoherence must be taken into account. Although a completely satisfactory solution of the problem of quantum chaos is still outstanding, I argue that the deBroglie-Bohm interpretation with the help of decoherence outlines the most promising research program to pursue. In addition to making a contribution to the debate in the philosophy of physics concerning the interpretation of quantum mechanics, this dissertation reveals two important methodological lessons for the philosophy of science. First, issues of reductionism and intertheoretic relations cannot be divorced from questions concerning the interpretation of the theories involved. Not only is the exploration of intertheoretic relations a central part of the articulation and interpretation of an individual theory, but the very terms used to discuss intertheoretic relations, such as `state' and `classical limit', are themselves defined by particular interpretations of the theory. The second lesson that emerges is that, when it comes to characterizing the relationship between classical chaos and quantum mechanics, the traditional approaches to intertheoretic relations, namely reductionism and theoretical pluralism, are inadequate. The fruitful ways in which models have been used in quantum chaos research point to the need for a new framework for addressing intertheoretic relations that focuses on models rather than laws.

Bokulich, Alisa Nicole

2001-09-01

233

FISHERY STATISTICS UNITED STATES  

E-print Network

FISHERY STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES 1972 STATISTICAL DIGEST NO. 66 Prepared by STATISTICS;ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The data in this edition of "Fishery Statistics of the United States" were collected in co- operation with the various States and tabulated by the staff of the Statistics and Market News Division

234

Students' Interpretation of a Function Associated with a Real-Life Problem from Its Graph  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The properties of a function such as limit, continuity, derivative, growth, or concavity can be determined more easily from its graph than by doing any algebraic operation. For this reason, it is important for students of mathematics to interpret some of the properties of a function from its graph. In this study, we investigated the competence of…

Mahir, Nevin

2010-01-01

235

Question Driven Semantics Interpretation for Collaborative Knowledge Engineering and Ontology Reuse  

E-print Network

Question Driven Semantics Interpretation for Collaborative Knowledge Engineering and Ontology Reuse}@ifs.tuwien.ac.at Abstract Ontology integration, alignment, and reuse are at the heart of Semantic Web vision. The alignment between two ontologies can be achieved easily provided both share the same axiomatic space. This in turn

236

Crunching Numbers: What Cancer Screening Statistics Really Tell Us  

Cancer.gov

Cancer screening studies have shown that more screening does not necessarily translate into fewer cancer deaths. This article explains how to interpret the statistics used to describe the results of screening studies.

237

a Contextualist Interpretation of Mathematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of mathematics has been the subject of heated debate among mathematicians and philosophers throughout the ages. The realist and anti-realist positions have had longstanding debate over this problem, but some of the most important recent development has focused on the interpretations; each of the above positions has its own interpretation of the nature of mathematics. I argue in this paper a contextualist interpretation of mathematics, it elucidates the essential features of mathematical context. That is, being integral and having concrete structure, mathematical context is a recontextualizational process with determinate boundary.

Liu, Jie

2014-03-01

238

Coincidence Prodedures for the Detection of Known Signals in Statistically Undefined Background Noise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several classes of coincidence procedures are considered for the detection of known signals in additive signal-independent noise about which little statistical information is available, or can easily be obtained. The detection applications considered are ...

J. W. Modestino

1975-01-01

239

DNA statistics, overlapping word paradox and Conway equation  

SciTech Connect

Overlapping word paradox known in combinatorics for 20 years is to this day disregarded in many papers on DNA statistics. The author considers Conway equation for the best bet for simpletons as an example of the overlapping word paradox. He gives a new short proof of Conway equation and discusses the implications of the overlapping word paradox for DNA statistics. In particular, he demonstrates that ignoring overlapping word paradox in DNA statistics can easily lead to 500% mistakes in estimations of statistical significance. He also presents formulas allowing one to find `anomalous` words in DNA texts.

Pevzner, P.A. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics

1993-12-31

240

SOIL TEST INTERPRETATIONS RECOMMENDATIONS HANDBOOK  

E-print Network

1 SOIL TEST INTERPRETATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS HANDBOOK Originally written 1983 By Daryl D..................................................20 SOIL ACIDITY AND LIMESTONE...............................................27 EXCHANGEABLE MAGNESIUM No. Page No. I. Nitrogen rate adjustments based upon soil texture, organic matter, and time of major

Noble, James S.

241

INTERPRETATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes preliminary attempts to formulate viable models for interpreting environmental assessment data. The models are evaluated using data from the four most comprehensive environmental assessments. A format for entering environmental assessment results on FORTRAN c...

242

Dialectica Interpretation with Marked Counterexamples  

E-print Network

Goedel's functional "Dialectica" interpretation can be used to extract functional programs from non-constructive proofs in arithmetic by employing two sorts of higher-order witnessing terms: positive realisers and negative counterexamples. In the original interpretation decidability of atoms is required to compute the correct counterexample from a set of candidates. When combined with recursion, this choice needs to be made for every step in the extracted program, however, in some special cases the decision on negative witnesses can be calculated only once. We present a variant of the interpretation in which the time complexity of extracted programs can be improved by marking the chosen witness and thus avoiding recomputation. The achieved effect is similar to using an abortive control operator to interpret computational content of non-constructive principles.

Trifonov, Trifon

2011-01-01

243

Car Troubles: An Interpretive Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growing amount of U.S. surface area being paved increases interpretive opportunities for teaching about the environmental impacts of automobiles. Provides methods and suggestions for educating high school students. Provides several computer graphics. (LZ)

Dawson, Leslie

1995-01-01

244

Map Interpretation with Google Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Resources in this collection A highly effective, non-traditional approach for using Google Earth to teach strike, dip, and geologic map interpretation, with assignments and activities (Barbara Tewksbury, Hamilton ...

245

Interpretive Techniques for Adventure Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interpretive techniques for encouraging participants to experience a deeper level of environmental growth during outdoor activities include group discussions, creative writing, artistic expression, visualization, sensitization, group activities introducing participants to various aspects of the environment, reflective thinking, the use of…

Baker, Peter

1995-01-01

246

Personalized Interpretation and Experience Enhancement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a discussion on the interpretations of museums and zoos. Introduces the applications of living history, museum theater and explains the terms interactors, explainers, and curators; keepers; and technicians. Lists the locations having the explained applications. Includes 29 references. (YDS)

West, Robert Mac

2001-01-01

247

Statistical templates for visual search.  

PubMed

How do we find a target embedded in a scene? Within the framework of signal detection theory, this task is carried out by comparing each region of the scene with a "template," i.e., an internal representation of the search target. Here we ask what form this representation takes when the search target is a complex image with uncertain orientation. We examine three possible representations. The first is the matched filter. Such a representation cannot account for the ease with which humans can find a complex search target that is rotated relative to the template. A second representation attempts to deal with this by estimating the relative orientation of target and match and rotating the intensity-based template. No intensity-based template, however, can account for the ability to easily locate targets that are defined categorically and not in terms of a specific arrangement of pixels. Thus, we define a third template that represents the target in terms of image statistics rather than pixel intensities. Subjects performed a two-alternative, forced-choice search task in which they had to localize an image that matched a previously viewed target. Target images were texture patches. In one condition, match images were the same image as the target and distractors were a different image of the same textured material. In the second condition, the match image was of the same texture as the target (but different pixels) and the distractor was an image of a different texture. Match and distractor stimuli were randomly rotated relative to the target. We compared human performance to pixel-based, pixel-based with rotation, and statistic-based search models. The statistic-based search model was most successful at matching human performance. We conclude that humans use summary statistics to search for complex visual targets. PMID:24627458

Ackermann, John F; Landy, Michael S

2014-01-01

248

Guidelines simplify well test interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a few simple guidelines, industry professionals, especially those who are not well-testing experts, can know more about well-test interpretation, and thus make more appropriate decisions for well tests. Today's well tests frequently provide much more than permeability, skin, and extrapolated pressure. Most managers, geoscientists, and petroleum engineers rely on specialists to interpret pressure-transient data from well tests. At times,

C. A. Ehlig-Economides; P. Hegeman; S. Vik

1994-01-01

249

Near-Concrete Program Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a near-concrete interpretation, a program anal- ysis that aims to cut very close to program execution while retaining decidability. Both in name and in spirit, the approach is similar to ab- stract interpretation, but models heaps with possibly recursive strucure, is path sensitive, and applies in a fully higher-order setting. The main technical contribution is a prune-rerun technique

Paritosh Shro; Christian Skalka; Scott F. Smith

2006-01-01

250

Abstract--For people to accept robotic agents socially it is necessary for the robots to be easily classifiable. We propose  

E-print Network

Abstract--For people to accept robotic agents socially it is necessary for the robots to be easily people classify a given robot's type and role, and a robot's behavior in terms of the number a new addition to this toolset: Classification Ease. For people to accept robots in social contexts

Robinson, Peter

251

An easily installable groundwater lysimeter to determine water balance components and hydraulic properties of peat soils Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(1), 2332 (2003) EGU  

E-print Network

properties of peat soils 23 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(1), 23­32 (2003) © EGU An easily Kai Schwaerzel1 and Heiko P. Bohl2 1 Institute of Ecology, Department of Soil Sciences and Soil installable groundwater lysimeter to determine water balance components and hydraulic properties of peat soils

Boyer, Edmond

252

Exact global fault collapsing can be easily applied locally at the logic gates, however, it is often ignored for large cir-  

E-print Network

1 ABSTRACT Exact global fault collapsing can be easily applied locally at the logic gates, however, we present AGFC, an approximate global fault collapsing tool for combinational circuits. Experimental results show that (i) AGFC reduces the num- ber of faults drastically with feasible resources and (ii

Al-Asaad, Hussain

253

Implementing Clinical Practice Guidelines While Taking Account of Changing Evidence: ATHENA DSS, an Easily Modifiable Decision-Support System for Managing Hypertension in Primary Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the ATHENA Decision Support System (DSS), which operationalizes guidelines for hypertension using the EON architecture. ATHENA DSS encourages blood pressure control and recommends guideline-concordant choice of drug therapy in relation to comorbid diseases. ATHENA DSS has an easily modifiable knowledge base that specifies eligibility criteria, risk stratification, blood pressure targets, relevant comorbid diseases, guideline-recommended drug classes for

M. K. Goldstein; B. B. Hoffman; R. W. Coleman; M. A. Musen; S. W. Tu; A. Advani; R. Shankar; Martin J. O'Connor

2000-01-01

254

Statistical Reference Datasets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A project designed to improve the accuracy of statistical software by providing reference datasets with certified computational results that enable the objective evaluation of statistical software. Dataset archives (Analysis of Variance, Linear Regression, Nonlinear Regression, and Univariate Summary Statistics); background information; related resources and links; FAQs. A project component of of NIST's Tools for Evaluating Mathematical and Statistical Software.

2008-01-31

255

Statistical Reference Datasets  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

Statistical Reference Datasets (Web, free access)   The Statistical Reference Datasets is also supported by the Standard Reference Data Program. The purpose of this project is to improve the accuracy of statistical software by providing reference datasets with certified computational results that enable the objective evaluation of statistical software.

256

Sampling in Statistical Inference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, presented by the Department of Statistics at Yale University, gives an explanation, a definition and an example of sampling in statistical inference. Topics include parameters, statistics, sampling distributions, bias, and variability. Overall, this is a great resource for any mathematics classroom studying statistics.

Lacey, Michelle

2008-12-23

257

FISHERY STATISTICS UNITED STATES  

E-print Network

FISHERY STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES 1974 STATISTICAL DIGEST NO. 68 Prepared by Data Management;PREFACE This report contains a review of U . S. commercial fishery statistics for the calendar year 1974 statistical surveys covering the fisheries of the United States were made by the National Marine Fisheries

258

FISHERY STATISTICS UNITED STATES  

E-print Network

FISHERY STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES 1971 STATISTICAL DIGEST NO. 65 Prepared by STATISTICS Service for the years 1931 , 1950 , 1954 - 60, and 1962 - 69 . ii i #12;FISHERY STATISTICS OF THE UNITED DEPARTMENT Of COMMERCE ATMO SPHE RIC ADMINI STRATION Fisheries Service frederick B. Dent, Secretary Robert M

259

STATISTICAL METHODS INFECTIOUS METHODS  

E-print Network

Appendix G STATISTICAL METHODS INFECTIOUS METHODS STATISTICAL ROADMAP Prepared in Support of: CDC for Environmental Health 1 #12;Statistical Methods for Analyzing Data Collected During the Churchill County Study 1 with the complex statistical analysis, investigators from the CDC contracted with Battelle for their assistance

260

Intelligent Collection Environment for an Interpretation System  

SciTech Connect

An Intelligent Collection Environment for a data interpretation system is described. The environment accepts two inputs: A data model and a number between 0.0 and 1.0. The data model is as simple as a single word or as complex as a multi-level/multidimensional model. The number between 0.0 and 1.0 is a control knob to indicate the user's desire to allow loose matching of the data (things are ambiguous and unknown) versus strict matching of the data (things are precise and known). The environment produces a set of possible interpretations, a set of requirements to further strengthen or to differentiate a particular subset of the possible interpretation from the others, a set of inconsistencies, and a logic map that graphically shows the lines of reasoning used to derive the above output. The environment is comprised of a knowledge editor, model explorer, expertise server, and the World Wide Web. The Knowledge Editor is used by a subject matter expert to define Linguistic Types, Term Sets, detailed explanations, and dynamically created URI's, and to create rule bases using a straight forward hyper matrix representation. The Model Explorer allows rapid construction and browsing of multi-level models. A multi-level model is a model whose elements may also be models themselves. The Expertise Server is an inference engine used to interpret the data submitted. It incorporates a semantic network knowledge representation, an assumption based truth maintenance system, and a fuzzy logic calculus. It can be extended by employing any classifier (e.g. statistical/neural networks) of complex data types. The World Wide Web is an unstructured data space accessed by the URI's supplied as part of the output of the environment. By recognizing the input data model as a query, the environment serves as a deductive search engine. Applications include (but are not limited to) interpretation of geophysical phenomena, a navigation aid for very large web sites, monitoring of computer or sensor networks, customer support, trouble shooting, and searching complex digital libraries (e.g. genome libraries).

Maurer, W J

2001-07-19

261

Some easily analyzable convolutional codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Convolutional codes have played and will play a key role in the downlink telemetry systems on many NASA deep-space probes, including Voyager, Magellan, and Galileo. One of the chief difficulties associated with the use of convolutional codes, however, is the notorious difficulty of analyzing them. Given a convolutional code as specified, say, by its generator polynomials, it is no easy matter to say how well that code will perform on a given noisy channel. The usual first step in such an analysis is to computer the code's free distance; this can be done with an algorithm whose complexity is exponential in the code's constraint length. The second step is often to calculate the transfer function in one, two, or three variables, or at least a few terms in its power series expansion. This step is quite hard, and for many codes of relatively short constraint lengths, it can be intractable. However, a large class of convolutional codes were discovered for which the free distance can be computed by inspection, and for which there is a closed-form expression for the three-variable transfer function. Although for large constraint lengths, these codes have relatively low rates, they are nevertheless interesting and potentially useful. Furthermore, the ideas developed here to analyze these specialized codes may well extend to a much larger class.

Mceliece, R.; Dolinar, S.; Pollara, F.; Vantilborg, H.

1989-01-01

262

Equilibrium statistical mechanics for incomplete nonextensive statistics  

E-print Network

The incomplete nonextensive statistics in the canonical and microcanonical ensembles is explored in the general case and in a particular case for the ideal gas. By exact analytical results for the ideal gas it is shown that taking the thermodynamic limit, with $z=q/(1-q)$ being an extensive variable of state, the incomplete nonextensive statistics satisfies the requirements of equilibrium thermodynamics. The thermodynamical potential of the statistical ensemble is a homogeneous function of the first degree of the extensive variables of state. In this case, the incomplete nonextensive statistics is equivalent to the usual Tsallis statistics. If $z$ is an intensive variable of state, i.e. the entropic index $q$ is a universal constant, the requirements of the equilibrium thermodynamics are violated.

A. S. Parvan; T. S. Biro

2010-03-29

263

An Experimental Approach to Teaching and Learning Elementary Statistical Mechanics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introductory statistical mechanics is studied for a simple two-state system using an inexpensive and easily built apparatus. A large variety of demonstrations, suitable for students in high school and introductory university chemistry courses, are possible. This article details demonstrations for exothermic and endothermic reactions, the dynamic…

Ellis, Frank B.; Ellis, David C.

2008-01-01

264

ERACER: a database approach for statistical inference and data cleaning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-world databases often contain syntactic and semantic errors, in spite of integrity constraints and other safety measures incorporated into modern DBMSs. We present ERACER, an iterative statistical framework for inferring missing information and correcting such errors automatically. Our approach is based on belief propagation and relational dependency networks, and includes an efficient approximate inference algorithm that is easily implemented in

Chris Mayfield; Jennifer Neville; Sunil Prabhakar

2010-01-01

265

A first step toward automatic interpretation of SAR images using evidential fusion of several structure detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose a method aiming to characterize the spatial organization of the main cartographic elements of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image and thus giving an almost automatic interpretation of the scene. Their approach is divided into three main steps which build the whole image interpretation gradually. The first step consists of applying low-level detectors taking the speckle statistics

Florence Tupin; Isabelle Bloch; H. Maitre

1999-01-01

266

Alaska Justice Forum Page 1 Please see Legal Interpreting, page 3  

E-print Network

Alaska Justice Forum Page 1 Please see Legal Interpreting, page 3 Winter 1994 UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA ANCHORAGE Vol. 10, No. 4 A Publication of the Justice Center Alaska Justice Statistical Analysis Unit ALASKA a greater use of interpreters in state and municipal courts. In Alaska, with its diverse population

Pantaleone, Jim

267

An Interpretation of Banded Magnetospheric Radio Emissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently-published Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorer/Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (AMPTE/IRM) banded magnetospheric emissions, commonly referred to as '(n + 1/2)f(sub ce)' emissions where f(sub ce) is the electron gyrofrequency, are analyzed by treating them as analogous to sounder-stimulated ionospheric emissions. We show that both individual AMPTE/IRM spectra of magnetospheric banded emissions, and a statistically-derived spectra observed over the two-year lifetime of the mission, can be interpreted in a self-consistent manner. The analysis, which predicts all spectral peaks within 4% of the observed peaks, interprets the higher-frequency emissions as due to low group-velocity Bernstein-mode waves and the lower-frequency emissions as eigen modes of cylindrical-electromagnetic-plasma-oscillations. The demarcation between these two classes of emissions is the electron plasma frequency f(sub pe), where an emission is often observed. This f(sub pe), emission is not necessarily the strongest. None of the observed banded emissions were attributed to the upper-hybrid frequency. We present Alouette-2 and ISIS-1 plasma-resonance data, and model electron temperature (T(sub e)) values, to support the argument that the frequency-spectrum of ionospheric sounder-stimulated emissions is not strongly temperature dependent and thus that the interpretation of these emissions in the ionosphere is relevant to other plasmas (such as the magnetosphere) where N(sub e) and T(sub e) can be quite different but where the ratio f(sub pe)/f(sub ce) is identical.

Benson, Robert F.; Osherovich, V. A.; Fainberg, J.; Vinas, A. F.; Ruppert, D. R.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

268

A systematic review of statistical power in software engineering experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Statistical power is an inherent part of empirical studies that employ significance testing and is essential for the planning of studies, for the interpretation of study results, and for the validity of study conclusions. This paper reports a quantitative assessment of the statistical power of empirical software engineering research based on the 103 papers on controlled experiments (of a

Tore Dybå; Vigdis By Kampenes; Dag I. K. Sjøberg

2006-01-01

269

ALISE Library and Information Science Education Statistical Report, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume is the twentieth annual statistical report on library and information science (LIS) education published by the Association for Library and Information Science Education (ALISE). Its purpose is to compile, analyze, interpret, and report statistical (and other descriptive) information about library/information science programs offered by…

Daniel, Evelyn H., Ed.; Saye, Jerry D., Ed.

270

INTERPRETATION  

E-print Network

Though the specific mission of state managed wildlife areas may differ, many wildlife areas attract similar groups of people interested in outdoor recreation activities, such as hunting, fishing, and wildlife watching. Websites are often the main informational link between state wildlife areas and visitors. The Internet is a powerful tool that provides natural resource personnel with nearly limitless possibilities for information sharing. Unfortunately, users of the Internet are becoming increasingly discerning in their tastes for Internet content. Wildlife area websites must meet both the content and design demands of their target audiences. This study surveyed wildlife agency personnel from five different states, IN, MN, MI, OH, and WI, to develop a list of recommendations highlighting the most important components of wildlife area websites. Also surveyed were visitors of a state wildlife area in central Wisconsin, the George W. Mead Wildlife Area, to determine what wildlife area visitors felt were the most important components of a wildlife area website.

Jessica Huxmann

271

Does Quantum Mechanics Need Interpretation?  

E-print Network

Since the beginning, quantum mechanics has raised major foundational and interpretative problems. Foundational research has been an important factor in the development of quantum cryptography, quantum information theory and, perhaps one day, practical quantum computers. Many believe that, in turn, quantum information theory has bearing on foundational research. This is largely related to the so-called epistemic view of quantum states, which maintains that the state vector represents information on a system and has led to the suggestion that quantum theory needs no interpretation. I will argue that this and related approaches fail to take into consideration two different explanatory functions of quantum mechanics, namely that of accounting for classically unexplainable correlations between classical phenomena and that of explaining the microscopic structure of classical objects. If interpreting quantum mechanics means answering the question, "How can the world be for quantum mechanics to be true?", there seems to be no way around it.

Louis Marchildon

2009-02-17

272

The Interpretive Approach to Religious Education: Challenging Thompson's Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a recent book chapter, Matthew Thompson makes some criticisms of my work, including the interpretive approach to religious education and the research and activity of Warwick Religions and Education Research Unit. Against the background of a discussion of religious education in the public sphere, my response challenges Thompson's account,…

Jackson, Robert

2012-01-01

273

The atomic-scale unit, entity: key to a direct and easily understood definition of the SI base unit for amount of substance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The atomic-scale unit, entity (ent), is defined as the number-specific amount of substance, n\\/N, the amount of substance of a single entity. This unit is an invariant physical quantity (the reciprocal of the Avogadro constant) that serves as the basis for redefining the SI base unit for amount of substance in a direct and easily understood manner. It is argued

B P Leonard

2007-01-01

274

Complete Blood Count (CBC) Interpretation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial is designed to aid first and second year medical students learn how to interpret a complete blood count. It includes material on how the test is done, its general application and pitfalls in interpretation. QuickTime movies and Java script runtime plug-in scripts are required for some pages. The tutorial concludes with a short self-help quiz covering the major points developed. The plug-ins noted above are available free at the following sites: http://www.apple.com/quicktime/download/win.html and http://www.sun.com/. Questions should be directed to Dr. Mark Braun (braunm@indiana.edu).Annotated: false

2010-05-31

275

Using Playing Cards to Differentiate Probability Interpretations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aprioristic (classical, naïve and symmetric) and frequentist interpretations of probability are commonly known. Bayesian or subjective interpretation of probability is receiving increasing attention. This paper describes an activity to help students differentiate between the three types of probability interpretations.

López Puga, Jorge

2014-01-01

276

16 CFR 1.73 - Interpretations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the Federal Register interpretations of the provisions...of the Act. (2) The interpretations are not substantive...basis for voluntary and simultaneous abandonment of unlawful...Failure to comply with such interpretations may result in...

2010-01-01

277

Principles of Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This modern textbook provides a complete survey of the broad field of statistical mechanics. Based on a series of lectures, it adopts a special pedagogical approach. The authors, both excellent lecturers, clearly distinguish between general principles and their applications in solving problems. Analogies between phase transitions in fluids and magnets using continuum and spin models are emphasized, leading to a better understanding. Such special features as historical notes, summaries, problems, mathematical appendix, computer programs and order of magnitude estimations distinguish this volume from competing works. Due to its ambitious level and an extensive list of references for technical details on advanced topics, this is equally a must for researchers in condensed matter physics, materials science, polymer science, solid state physics, and astrophysics. From the contents Thermostatics: phase stability, phase equilibria, phase transitions; Statistical Mechanics: calculation, correlation functions, ideal classical gases, ideal quantum gases; Interacting Systems: models, computer simulation, mean-field approximation; Interacting Systems beyond Mean-field Theory: scaling and renormalization group, foundations of statistical mechanics "The present book, however, is unique that it both is written in a very pedagogic, easily comprehensible style, and, nevertheless, goes from the basic principles all the way to these modern topics, containing several chapters on the various approaches of mean field theory, and a chapter on computer simulation. A characteristic feature of this book is that often first some qualitative arguments are given, or a "pedestrians's approach", and then a more general and/or more rigorous derivation is presented as well. Particularly useful are also "supplementary notes", pointing out interesting applications and further developments of the subject, a detailed bibliography, problems and historical notes, and many pedagogic figures."

Chowdhury, Debashish; Stauffer, Dietrich

2000-09-01

278

Finding One Variable Statistics With a Graphing Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This quick YouTube video from high school statistics teacher Roger W. Davis explains how to find one variable statistics using the TI-84 graphing calculator. The demonstration goes through three steps: entering the data, finding one variable statistics using the STAT menu, and interpreting the results. The data created includes mean, sum, median and more. Flash player is required to view this video, and the running time for the clip is 3:12.

Davis, Roger W.

2009-02-12

279

Annual summary of vital statistics--1985.  

PubMed

Data for this article, as in previous reports, are drawn principally from Monthly Vital Statistics Report, published by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). The international data come from the Demographic Yearbook and the quarterly Population and Vital Statistics Reports, both published by the Statistical Office of the United Nations, which has also been kind enough to provide directly more recent data. Except for mortality data by cause and age, which are based on a 10% sample, all the US data for 1984 are estimates by place of occurrence, based upon a count of certificates received in state offices between two dates, 1 month apart, regardless of when the event occurred. Experience has shown that for the country as a whole the estimates, with few exceptions, are close to the subsequent final figures. There are, however, considerable variations in some states, particularly in comparing data by place of occurrence and place of residence. State information should be interpreted cautiously. PMID:3786054

Wegman, M E

1986-12-01

280

Classical interpretations of relativistic precessions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relativists have exposed various precessions and developed ingenious experiments to verify those phenomena with extreme precisions. The Gravity Probe B mission was designed to study the precessions of the gyroscopes rotating round the Earth in a nearly circular near-Earth polar orbit to demonstrate the geodetic effect and the Lense-Thirring effect as predicted by the general relativity theory. In this paper, we show in a very simple and novel analysis that the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, the Thomas precession, and the precession data (on the de Sitter and Lense-Thirring precessions) collected from the Gravity Probe B mission could easily be explained from classical physics, too.

Sankar, Hajra

2014-04-01

281

Classical interpretations of relativistic precessions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relativists have exposed various precessions and developed ingenious experiments to verify those phenomena with extreme precisions. The Gravity Probe B mission was designed to study the precessions of the gyroscopes rotating round the Earth in a nearly circular near-Earth polar orbit to demonstrate the geodetic effect and the Lense-Thirring effect as predicted by the general relativity theory. In this paper, we show in a very simple and novel analysis that the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, the Thomas precession, and the precession data (on the de Sitter and Lense-Thirring precessions) collected from the Gravity Probe B mission could easily be explained from classical physics, too.

Hajra, Sankar

2014-03-01

282

Interpretation and the Aesthetic Dimension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author, utilizing a synthesis of philosophic comments on aesthetics, provides a discourse on the aesthetic dimension and offers examples of how interpreters can nurture the innate sense of beauty in man. Poetic forms, such as haiku, are used to relate the aesthetic relationship between man and the environment. (BT)

Mortensen, Charles O.

1976-01-01

283

Making Sense of Multiple Interpretations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some teaching innovations arise from a combination of good intentions, last-minute planning, and incredible luck. In this article, the author discusses the different interpretations of the students on Constance Curry's 'Silver Rights' and David Cecelski's 'Along Freedom Road,' the two books he assigns to the class in the history of education…

Dougherty, Jack

2004-01-01

284

Interpretive Reproduction in Children's Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author looks at children's play from the perspective of interpretive reproduction, emphasizing the way children create their own unique peer cultures, which he defines as a set of routines, artifacts, values, and concerns that children engage in with their playmates. The article focuses on two types of routines in the peer culture of preschool…

Corsaro, William A.

2012-01-01

285

Intercultural music: Creation and interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intercultural Music: Creation and Interpretation is a collection of refereed papers from the conference component of the 2006 Aurora New Music Festival, held at the University of Western Sydney. The editors are keen to point out that the definition of ‚intercultural‘ invoked is wide and that the collection presents some awkwardnesses. This is notably in discussion of the problems associated

Peter Dunbar-Hall

2007-01-01

286

Interpreter Training Program: Program Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes in detail the deaf interpreter training program offered at Mott Community College (Flint, Michigan). The program features field-based learning experiences, internships, team teaching, a field practicum, the goal of having students meet certification standards, and proficiency examinations. The program has special…

Massoud, LindaLee

287

Interpretation: A tool beyond boundaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interpreters have existed for a long time in history and their work can be appraised today in international events all over the world. Thanks to them, leaders from different countries can communicate, make agreements, make war and peace. Still, this field of work seems to be unfamiliar to most people, as there are few opportunities to do actual professional services

Argelia Peña Aguilar; Patricia Isis García; Rafael Velasco Argente; José Luis; Villanueva Castilla; Ingrid Yareny; Aguilar Arana; Yolima del Carmen Olvera

288

Visual Interpretation of Children's Books.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how visual literacy (the ability to interpret the visual images of advertisements, illustrations, television, and other visual media) can promote creative and analytic thinking. Provides several instructional strategies to teach visual literacy through book illustrations. Notes that visual literacy is essential in a world increasingly…

Goldstone, Bette P.

1989-01-01

289

Novel interpretation of synchro principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with a now interpretation of synchro principles. Approximate equations for currant and torque in a synchro may be established directly from synchronous machine theory. However, this analysis is built up from fundamental laws in order to establish a theory especially adapted to synchros.The investigation centres on obtaining the basic mathematical relations governing the electro-mechanical operation of a

F. L. N-NAGY; B. D. McNULTY

1969-01-01

290

Sign Language Interpreter Needs Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1991, a study was conducted by Oakland Community College (OCC) in order to evaluate the need for a proposed Sign Language Interpreter program. OCC's study focused on validating and updating findings from a similar research project begun in fall 1989 by Macomb Community College (MCC) in Warren, Michigan. Federal and state legislation, data from…

Oakland Community Coll., Farmington, MI. Office of Institutional Planning and Analysis.

291

Interpretation as a Relational Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

To say that interpretation is a relational process means that any useful understanding achieved is a joint creation, emerging from the interaction, rather than an objective truth about one person discovered by another. We are interested in how the dyad interacts and what emerges from a specific interaction. The interaction between patient and therapist facilitates or constrains the range and

Shelley R. Doctors

2009-01-01

292

Statistical Convergence and Convergence in Statistics  

E-print Network

Statistical convergence was introduced in connection with problems of series summation. The main idea of the statistical convergence of a sequence l is that the majority of elements from l converge and we do not care what is going on with other elements. We show (Section 2) that being mathematically formalized the concept of statistical convergence is directly connected to convergence of such statistical characteristics as the mean and standard deviation. At the same time, it known that sequences that come from real life sources, such as measurement and computation, do not allow, in a general case, to test whether they converge or statistically converge in the strict mathematical sense. To overcome limitations induced by vagueness and uncertainty of real life data, neoclassical analysis has been developed. It extends the scope and results of the classical mathematical analysis by applying fuzzy logic to conventional mathematical objects, such as functions, sequences, and series. The goal of this work is the further development of neoclassical analysis. This allows us to reflect and model vagueness and uncertainty of our knowledge, which results from imprecision of measurement and inaccuracy of computation. In the context on the theory of fuzzy limits, we develop the structure of statistical fuzzy convergence and study its properties.

Mark Burgin; Oktay Duman

2006-12-07

293

Statistics for Chemists: Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a group of exercises that allow students to practice basic statistical calculations for descriptive statistics, confidence intervals, hypothesis tests, regression and experimental design. The exercises are interactive and provide feedback for students who submit wrong answers.

Wehrens, Ron

2011-03-25

294

Blood Facts and Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... About Blood > Blood Facts and Statistics Printable Version Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts ... about American Red Cross Blood Services Facts about blood needs Every two seconds someone in the U.S. ...

295

Data and Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... Cell Disease (SCD) National Center Homepage Share Compartir Data & Statistics Sickle cell disease (SCD) affects millions of ... Healthy Living Living Well Preventing Infections Emergency Guide Data & Statistics Research National Resource Directory Text Version Articles & ...

296

Immigration and Naturalization Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Immigration and Naturalizations Service Statistics site provides "comprehensive annual immigration statistics from 1994-1996, as well as state estimates of the United States' illegal alien resident and foreign-born populations."

Service., United S.

1997-01-01

297

Mathematical and statistical analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the mathematical and statistical analysis component of RICIS is to research, develop, and evaluate mathematical and statistical techniques for aerospace technology applications. Specific research areas of interest include modeling, simulation, experiment design, reliability assessment, and numerical analysis.

Houston, A. Glen

1988-01-01

298

Conducting and Interpreting Canonical Correlation Analysis in Personality Research: A User-Friendly Primer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to reduce potential statistical barriers and open doors to canonical correlation analysis (CCA) for applied behavioral scientists and personality researchers. CCA was selected for discussion, as it represents the highest level of the general linear model (GLM) and can be rather easily conceptualized as a method closely linked with the more widely under- stood

Alissa Sherry; Robin K. Henson

2005-01-01

299

Environment for statistical computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a short exposition on the current state of art as far as statistical software is concerned. The main aims are to take a look at current tendencies in information technologies for statistics and data analysis, especially for describing selected programs and systems.We start with statistical packages, i.e. a suite of computer programs that are specialized in statistical analysis,

Jaromír Antoch

2008-01-01

300

Statistical Database Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical database security focuses on the protection of confidential individual values stored in so-called statistical databases and used for statistical purposes. Examples include patient records used by medical researchers, and detailed phone call\\u000a records, statistically analyzed by phone companies in order to improve their services. This problem became apparent in the\\u000a 1970s and has escalated in recent years due to

Ljiljana Brankovic; Helen Giggins

301

Magnetic Polarity Stratigraphy: Stochastic Properties of Data, Sampling Problems, and the Evaluation of Interpretations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical model has been derived which can be used either to test the interpretation of a given magnetic stratigraphy or to make time estimates from the paleomagnetic data. The model is based on the presently accepted statistical properties of the earth's magnetic field and the stochastic nature of the paleomagnetic sampling process. Given knowledge of the number of paleomagnetic

Noye M. Johnson; Victor E. McGee

1983-01-01

302

Magnetic polarity stratigraphy: Stochastic properties of data, sampling problems, and the evaluation of interpretations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical model has been derived which can be used either to test the interpretation of a given magnetic stratigraphy or to make time estimates from the paleomagnetic data. The model is based on the presently accepted statistical properties of the earth's magnetic field and the stochastic nature of the paleomagnetic sampling process. Given knowledge of the number of paleomagnetic

Noye M. Johnson; Victor E. McGee

1983-01-01

303

Statistics: Power from Data!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Statistics Canada's website designed to teach secondary mathematics and information studies students statistical information. Each chapter is intended to be complete in itself, with exercises and lesson plans. The site covers a broad spectrum of topics involving statistics. Overall, it is a comprehensive view of this vast field.

2008-12-29

304

Statistics for Chemists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is a comprehensive resource on statistics, including information on descriptive statistics, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, regression, ANOVA, experimental design, and multivariate statistics. Web-based exercises are interspersed throughout the text, allowing students to practice what they are learning and to obtain immediate feedback.

Wehrens, R.

2011-02-14

305

Common statistical tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent survey by BeGole of four major orthodontic journals revealed that76% of the original and scientific articles published in 1997 incorporated statistical procedures in their methodologies. To evaluate the information presented in these scientific articles, the clinician needs to have an understanding of the statistical techniques used in them. Although a number of the statistical methodologies were complex, requiring

Rose D. Sheats; V. Shane Pankratz

2002-01-01

306

Statistical Mechanics its applications  

E-print Network

Statistical Mechanics and its applications Dr A. Alavi Part II Chemistry 2007-2008 1 #12;I. INTRODUCTION Statistical Mechanics is concerned with how to describe the behaviour of systems containing large, and how this is done, as well as its theoretical justification, is the subject of Statistical Mechanics. A

Alavi, Ali

307

Giovanni Gallavotti STATISTICAL MECHANICS  

E-print Network

Giovanni Gallavotti STATISTICAL MECHANICS Short Treatise Roma 1999 #12;. #12;Short treatise of Statistical Mechanics Giovanni Gallavotti Dipartimento di Fisica Universit`a di Roma La Sapienza 00185 Roma that started with my involvement as Coordinator of the Statistical Mechanics section of the Italian Encyclo

Roma "La Sapienza", Università di

308

Giovanni Gallavotti STATISTICAL MECHANICS  

E-print Network

Giovanni Gallavotti STATISTICAL MECHANICS Short Treatise Roma 1999 #12; . #12; Short treatise of Statistical Mechanics Giovanni Gallavotti Dipartimento di Fisica Universitâ??a di Roma La Sapienza 00185 Roma that started with my involvement as Coordinator of the Statistical Mechanics section of the Italian Encyclo

Roma "La Sapienza", Università di

309

The Statistics of Style  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by J. Swift of the Royal Statistical Society, this article describes an exercise, probability and statistics, which develops a statistic that measures the variety of noun usage in order to distinguish two authors. The exercise emphasizes the use of frequency.

Swift, J.

2009-03-10

310

Glossary of Statistical Terms  

Cancer.gov

Defines common statistical terms, NCI terminology, and the five key statistical measures of cancer: incidence, mortality, survival, prevalence, and lifetime risk. NCI monitors these cancer statistics to assess progress and to identify population subgroups and geographic areas in which cancer control efforts need to be concentrated.

311

Measuring statistical heterogeneity: The Pietra index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are various ways of quantifying the statistical heterogeneity of a given probability law: Statistics uses variance - which measures the law’s dispersion around its mean; Physics and Information Theory use entropy - which measures the law’s randomness; Economics uses the Gini index - which measures the law’s egalitarianism. In this research we explore an alternative to the Gini index-the Pietra index-which is a counterpart of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic. The Pietra index is shown to be a natural and elemental measure of statistical heterogeneity, which is especially useful in the case of asymmetric and skewed probability laws, and in the case of asymptotically Paretian laws with finite mean and infinite variance. Moreover, the Pietra index is shown to have immediate and fundamental interpretations within the following applications: renewal processes and continuous time random walks; infinite-server queueing systems and shot noise processes; financial derivatives. The interpretation of the Pietra index within the context of financial derivatives implies that derivative markets, in effect, use the Pietra index as their benchmark measure of statistical heterogeneity.

Eliazar, Iddo I.; Sokolov, Igor M.

2010-01-01

312

Statistical dynamics of religion evolutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A religion affiliation can be considered as a “degree of freedom” of an agent on the human genre network. A brief review is given on the state of the art in data analysis and modelization of religious “questions” in order to suggest and if possible initiate further research, after using a “statistical physics filter”. We present a discussion of the evolution of 18 so-called religions, as measured through their number of adherents between 1900 and 2000. Some emphasis is made on a few cases presenting a minimum or a maximum in the investigated time range-thereby suggesting a competitive ingredient to be considered, besides the well accepted “at birth” attachment effect. The importance of the “external field” is still stressed through an Avrami late stage crystal growth-like parameter. The observed features and some intuitive interpretations point to opinion based models with vector, rather than scalar, like agents.

Ausloos, M.; Petroni, F.

2009-10-01

313

Statistical dynamics of religion evolutions  

E-print Network

A religion affiliation can be considered as a "degree of freedom" of an agent on the human genre network. A brief review is given on the state of the art in data analysis and modelization of religious "questions" in order to suggest and if possible initiate further research, ... after using a "statistical physics filter". We present a discussion of the evolution of 18 so called religions, as measured through their number of adherents between 1900 and 2000. Some emphasis is made on a few cases presenting a minimum or a maximum in the investigated time range, - thereby suggesting a competitive ingredient to be considered, beside the well accepted "at birth" attachement effect. The importance of the "external field" is still stressed through an Avrami late stage crystal growth-like parameter. The observed features and some intuitive interpretations point to opinion based models with vector, rather than scalar, like agents.

Ausloos, Marcel

2008-01-01

314

Statistical mechanics of program systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the collective behaviour of a set of operators and variables that constitute a program and the emergence of meaningful computational properties in the language of statistical mechanics. This is done by appropriately modifying available Monte Carlo methods to deal with hierarchical structures. The study suggests, in analogy with simulated annealing, a method to automatically design programs. Reasonable solutions can be found, at low temperatures, when the method is applied to simple toy problems such as finding an algorithm that determines the roots of a function or one that makes a nonlinear regression. Peaks in the specific heat are interpreted as signalling phase transitions which separate regions where different algorithmic strategies are used to solve the problem.

Neirotti, Juan P.; Caticha, Nestor

2006-08-01

315

PyDipSi: a general and easily modifiable/traceless Si-tethered directing group for C-H acyloxylation of arenes.  

PubMed

A new general and easily installable silicon-tethered pyridyl-containing directing group (PyDipSi) that allows for highly efficient and regioselective Pd-catalyzed ortho C-H acyloxylation of arenes has been developed. It has also been demonstrated that this directing group can efficiently be removed as well as converted into a variety of other valuable functional groups. In addition, the installation of the PyDipSi directing group along with pivaloxylation and quantitative conversion of the PyDipSi group into a halogen functionality represents a formal three-step ortho oxygenation of haloarenes. PMID:20509671

Chernyak, Natalia; Dudnik, Alexander S; Huang, Chunhui; Gevorgyan, Vladimir

2010-06-23

316

8 CFR 1003.22 - Interpreters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Procedure § 1003.22 Interpreters. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing shall swear or affirm to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the United States Government, in which event no such oath or...

2012-01-01

317

8 CFR 1003.22 - Interpreters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Procedure § 1003.22 Interpreters. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing shall swear or affirm to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the United States Government, in which event no such oath or...

2011-01-01

318

8 CFR 1003.22 - Interpreters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Procedure § 1003.22 Interpreters. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing shall swear or affirm to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the United States Government, in which event no such oath or...

2010-01-01

319

8 CFR 1003.22 - Interpreters.  

...Procedure § 1003.22 Interpreters. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing shall swear or affirm to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the United States Government, in which event no such oath or...

2014-01-01

320

8 CFR 1003.22 - Interpreters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Procedure § 1003.22 Interpreters. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing shall swear or affirm to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the United States Government, in which event no such oath or...

2013-01-01

321

Understanding AOP through the Study of Interpreters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I return to the question of what distinguishes AOP languages by considering how the interpreters of AOP languages differ from conventional interpreters. Key elements for static transformation are seen to be redefinition of the set and lookup operators in the interpretation of the language. This analysis also yields a definition of crosscutting in terms of interlacing of interpreter actions.

Filman, Robert E.

2004-01-01

322

Is statistical significance always significant?  

PubMed

One way in which we learn new information is to read the medical literature. Whether or not we do primary research, it is important to be able to read literature in a critical fashion. A seemingly simple concept in reading is to interpret p values. For most of us, if we find a p value that is <.05, we take the conclusion to heart and quote it at every opportunity. If the p value is >.05, we discard the paper and look elsewhere for useful information. Unfortunately, this is too simplistic an approach. The real utility of p values is to consider them within the context of the experiment being performed. Defects in study design can make an interpretation of a p value useless. One has to be wary of type I (seeing a "statistically significant" difference just because of chance) and type II (failing to see a difference that really exists) errors. Examples of the former are publication bias and the performance of multiple analyses; the latter refers to a trial that is too small to demonstrate the difference. Finding significant differences in surrogate or intermediate endpoints may not help us. We need to know if those endpoints reflect the behavior of clinical endpoints. Selectively citing significant differences and disregarding studies that do not find them is inappropriate. Small differences, even if they are statistically significant, may require too much resource expenditure to be clinically useful. This article explores these problems in depth and attempts to put p values in the context of studies. PMID:16207667

Koretz, Ronald L

2005-06-01

323

Inuit interpretations of sleep paralysis.  

PubMed

Traditional and contemporary Inuit concepts of sleep paralysis were investigated through interviews with elders and young people in Iqaluit, Baffin Island. Sleep paralysis was readily recognized by most respondents and termed uqumangirniq (in the Baffin region) or aqtuqsinniq (Kivalliq region). Traditional interpretations of uqumangirniq referred to a shamanistic cosmology in which the individual's soul was vulnerable during sleep and dreaming. Sleep paralysis could result from attack by shamans or malevolent spirits. Understanding the experience as a manifestation of supernatural power, beyond one's control, served to reinforce the experiential reality and presence of the spirit world. For contemporary youth, sleep paralysis was interpreted in terms of multiple frameworks that incorporated personal, medical, mystical, traditional/shamanistic, and Christian views, reflecting the dynamic social changes taking place in this region. PMID:15881270

Law, Samuel; Kirmayer, Laurence J

2005-03-01

324

Interpreting geological structure using kriging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We applied kriging (geostatistics) to interpret the structure of basement rock in Yucca Flat, NTS from borehole data. The estimation error for 118 data is 81 m comparable with those based on both gravity and borehole data. Using digitized topographic data, we tested the kriging results and found that the model validation process (Thomas option) on data gave a fair representation of the overall uncertainty of the kriged values.

Mao, N.

1985-07-01

325

Interpreting Chemical Labels Learning Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Southwest Center for Microsystems Education is a Regional Advanced Technology Education Center funded in part by the National Science Foundation. This safety learning module covers the content and interpretation of chemical labels and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Diamond ratings. It contains an Instructor Guide, Participant Guide and supporting presentations. Visitors are encouraged to create an account and login in order to access the full set of resources.

2011-09-23

326

Interpreting neurodynamics: concepts and facts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of neuronal systems, briefly neurodynamics, has developed into an attractive and influential research branch\\u000a within neuroscience. In this paper, we discuss a number of conceptual issues in neurodynamics that are important for an appropriate\\u000a interpretation and evaluation of its results. We demonstrate their relevance for selected topics of theoretical and empirical\\u000a work. In particular, we refer to the

Harald Atmanspacher; Stefan Rotter

2008-01-01

327

Interpreting recent carbon dioxide data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using web-accessed climate data, students will examine the latitudinal distribution of CO2 and explain how (and why) that has changed over (recent) time. They will then work in groups of two or three to download, graph, and interpret carbon dioxide concentration data from one individual location (different groups will be assigned a different site). Each student will complete a series of questions to ensure their understanding of the concepts outlined above.

Gordon, Elizabeth

328

Cosmic inflation and big bang interpreted as explosions  

E-print Network

It has become common understanding that the recession of galaxies and the corresponding redshift of light received from them can only be explained by an expansion of the space between them and us. In this paper, for the presently favored case of a universe without spatial curvature, it is shown that this interpretation is restricted to comoving coordinates. It is proven by construction that within the framework of general relativity other coordinates exist in relation to which these phenomena can be explained by a motion of the cosmic substrate across space, caused by an explosion like big bang or by inflation preceding an almost big bang. At the place of an observer, this motion occurs without any spatial expansion. It is shown that in these "explosion coordinates" the usual redshift comes about by a Doppler shift and a subsequent gravitational shift. Making use of this interpretation, it can easily be understood why in comoving coordinates light rays of short spatial extensions expand and thus constitute an exemption from the rule that small objects up to the size of the solar system or even galaxies do not participate in the expansion of the universe. It is also discussed how the two interpretations can be reconciled with each other.

Eckhard Rebhan

2012-11-05

329

Catalytic Nonoxidation Dehydrogenation of Ethane Over Fe-Ni Catalysts Supported on Mg (Al)O to Produce Hydrogen and Easily Purified Carbon Nanotubes  

SciTech Connect

Nonoxidative decomposition of ethane was conducted over monometallic Ni and bimetallic Fe-Ni catalysts on basic Mg(Al)O support to produce H2 free of CO and CO2 and easily purified carbon nanotubes, a potentially valuable byproduct. The Mg(Al)O support was prepared by calcination of synthetic MgAl-hydrotalcite with a Mg to Al ratio of 5. The catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness with total metal loadings of 5 wt %. The dehydrogenation of undiluted ethane was conducted at temperatures of 500, 650, and 700 C. At 500 C, the Ni/Mg(Al)O catalyst was highly active and very stable with 100% conversion of ethane to 20 vol % H2 and 80 vol % CH4. However, the bimetallic Fe-Ni/Mg(Al)O exhibited its best performance at 650 C, yielding 65 vol % H2, 10 vol % CH4, and 25 vol % unreacted ethane. The product carbon was in the form of carbon nanotubes (CNT) at all three reaction temperatures, but the morphology of the CNT depended on both the catalyst composition and reaction temperature. The CNTs were formed by a tip-growth mechanism over the Mg(Al)O supported catalysts and were easily purified by a one-step dilute nitric acid treatment. Mossbauer spectroscopy, X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, TEM, STEM, TGA, and XRD were used to characterize the catalysts and the CNT, revealing the catalytic mechanisms.

Shen,W.; Wang, Y.; Shi, X.; Shah, N.; Huggins, F.; Bollineni, S.; Seehra, M.; Huffman, G.

2007-01-01

330

Statistics for Ecologists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Website, maintained by Carlos Herrera of the Donana Biological Station in Seville, Spain, is "a collection of links to sites with mathematical and statistical material (software, documents) which may be useful to ecologists and evolutionary ecologists." Organized into eight sections, the site points users to resources from Ecologically-oriented software to General Statistical Libraries. For graduate students and researchers alike, this statistics resource is sure to come in handy.

331

Statistics and Graphing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Statistics play a vital role in the scientific enterprise. This activity provides background information and tutorials on basic statistics (mean, median, standard deviation, etc.) used in science. Topics include descriptive statistics (measures of central tendency and dispersion) and presenting data (tables, figures, and graphs). Sample datasets from actual scientific experiments are used to illustrate points. Links to an online statisitical tool and an online graphing application are also provided.

Laposata, Matt

332

Federal Law Enforcement Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Supplies census statistics about federal employees with law enforcement authority. Provides additional information about the functionality, budget, expenditures, and staffing of federal crime labs and police departments.

Justice, U. S.

333

Statistical distribution sampling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Determining the distribution of statistics by sampling was investigated. Characteristic functions, the quadratic regression problem, and the differential equations for the characteristic functions are analyzed.

Johnson, E. S.

1975-01-01

334

Environmental Statistics and Optimal Regulation  

PubMed Central

Any organism is embedded in an environment that changes over time. The timescale for and statistics of environmental change, the precision with which the organism can detect its environment, and the costs and benefits of particular protein expression levels all will affect the suitability of different strategies–such as constitutive expression or graded response–for regulating protein levels in response to environmental inputs. We propose a general framework–here specifically applied to the enzymatic regulation of metabolism in response to changing concentrations of a basic nutrient–to predict the optimal regulatory strategy given the statistics of fluctuations in the environment and measurement apparatus, respectively, and the costs associated with enzyme production. We use this framework to address three fundamental questions: (i) when a cell should prefer thresholding to a graded response; (ii) when there is a fitness advantage to implementing a Bayesian decision rule; and (iii) when retaining memory of the past provides a selective advantage. We specifically find that: (i) relative convexity of enzyme expression cost and benefit influences the fitness of thresholding or graded responses; (ii) intermediate levels of measurement uncertainty call for a sophisticated Bayesian decision rule; and (iii) in dynamic contexts, intermediate levels of uncertainty call for retaining memory of the past. Statistical properties of the environment, such as variability and correlation times, set optimal biochemical parameters, such as thresholds and decay rates in signaling pathways. Our framework provides a theoretical basis for interpreting molecular signal processing algorithms and a classification scheme that organizes known regulatory strategies and may help conceptualize heretofore unknown ones. PMID:25254493

2014-01-01

335

Environmental statistics and optimal regulation.  

PubMed

Any organism is embedded in an environment that changes over time. The timescale for and statistics of environmental change, the precision with which the organism can detect its environment, and the costs and benefits of particular protein expression levels all will affect the suitability of different strategies--such as constitutive expression or graded response--for regulating protein levels in response to environmental inputs. We propose a general framework-here specifically applied to the enzymatic regulation of metabolism in response to changing concentrations of a basic nutrient-to predict the optimal regulatory strategy given the statistics of fluctuations in the environment and measurement apparatus, respectively, and the costs associated with enzyme production. We use this framework to address three fundamental questions: (i) when a cell should prefer thresholding to a graded response; (ii) when there is a fitness advantage to implementing a Bayesian decision rule; and (iii) when retaining memory of the past provides a selective advantage. We specifically find that: (i) relative convexity of enzyme expression cost and benefit influences the fitness of thresholding or graded responses; (ii) intermediate levels of measurement uncertainty call for a sophisticated Bayesian decision rule; and (iii) in dynamic contexts, intermediate levels of uncertainty call for retaining memory of the past. Statistical properties of the environment, such as variability and correlation times, set optimal biochemical parameters, such as thresholds and decay rates in signaling pathways. Our framework provides a theoretical basis for interpreting molecular signal processing algorithms and a classification scheme that organizes known regulatory strategies and may help conceptualize heretofore unknown ones. PMID:25254493

Sivak, David A; Thomson, Matt

2014-09-01

336

Primer of statistics in dental research: part I.  

PubMed

Statistics play essential roles in evidence-based dentistry (EBD) practice and research. It ranges widely from formulating scientific questions, designing studies, collecting and analyzing data to interpreting, reporting, and presenting study findings. Mastering statistical concepts appears to be an unreachable goal among many dental researchers in part due to statistical authorities' limitations of explaining statistical principles to health researchers without elaborating complex mathematical concepts. This series of 2 articles aim to introduce dental researchers to 9 essential topics in statistics to conduct EBD with intuitive examples. The part I of the series includes the first 5 topics (1) statistical graph, (2) how to deal with outliers, (3) p-value and confidence interval, (4) testing equivalence, and (5) multiplicity adjustment. Part II will follow to cover the remaining topics including (6) selecting the proper statistical tests, (7) repeated measures analysis, (8) epidemiological consideration for causal association, and (9) analysis of agreement. PMID:24461958

Shintani, Ayumi

2014-01-01

337

Directionality Effects in Simultaneous Language Interpreting: The Case of Sign Language Interpreters in the Netherlands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The quality of interpretations produced by sign language interpreters was investigated. Twenty-five experienced interpreters were instructed to interpret narratives from (a) spoken Dutch to Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN), (b) spoken Dutch to Sign Supported Dutch (SSD), and (c) SLN to spoken Dutch. The quality of the interpreted narratives…

van Dijk, Rick; Boers, Eveline; Christoffels, Ingrid; Hermans, Daan

2011-01-01

338

Springer Series in Statistics Springer Series in Statistics  

E-print Network

Springer Series in Statistics Springer Series in Statistics Inference in Hidden Markov Models class of statistical models with applications in diverse areas such as communications engineering models, including both algo- rithms and statistical theory. Topics range from filtering and smoothing

Cappé, Olivier

339

Statistical physics on the light-front  

SciTech Connect

The formulation of statistical physics using light-front quantization, instead of conventional equal-time boundary conditions, has important advantages for describing relativistic statistical systems, such as heavy ion collisions. We develop light-front field theory at finite temperature and density with special attention to Quantum Chromodynamics. We construct the most general form of the statistical operator allowed by the Poincare algebra and introduce the chemical potential in a covariant way. In light-front quantization, the Green's functions of a quark in a medium can be defined in terms of just 2-component spinors and does not lead to doublers in the transverse directions. A seminal property of light-front Green's functions is that they are related to parton densities in coordinate space. Namely, the diagonal and off-diagonal parton distributions measured in hard scattering experiments can be interpreted as light-front density matrices.

Raufeisen, J. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik der Universitaet, Philosophenweg 19, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2005-06-14

340

Early-stage Alzheimer's disease and multiple subcortical infarction with mild cognitive impairment: neuropsychological comparison using an easily applicable test battery.  

PubMed

We conducted a neuropsychological study comparing early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 22) and multiple subcortical infarction with mild cognitive impairment (MSI; n = 22) using an easily applicable test battery which included 8 tests. Two groups were matched for age, education and score on the Mini-Mental State Examination. Patients with AD had significantly lower scores than MSI patients in the delayed recall of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, while MSI patients had significantly worse scores in the Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test. This suggests that early discrimination of MSI from AD can be made by frontal system impairment in MSI and episodic memory disturbance in the visuospatial domain in AD using simple neuropsychological tests. PMID:9370088

Tei, H; Miyazaki, A; Iwata, M; Osawa, M; Nagata, Y; Maruyama, S

1997-01-01

341

Young child with severe brain volume loss easily passes the word memory test and medical symptom validity test: implications for mild TBI.  

PubMed

The Word Memory Test (WMT) and Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT) are two commonly used free-standing measures of test-taking effort. The use of any test as a measure of effort is enhanced when evidence shows that it can be easily passed by patients with severe neurological conditions. The opportunity arose to administer the WMT and MSVT to a 9-year-old girl (referred to as CJ) with severe congenital bilateral brain tissue loss (shown via a compelling brain MRI image), chronic epilepsy, an extremely low Full Scale IQ, extremely low adaptive functioning, developmental delays, numerous severe cognitive impairments, and treatment with multiple high-dose benzodiazepines. She received extensive early intervention services and numerous academic accommodations. Despite this set of problems, CJ passed the WMT and MSVT at perfect to near perfect levels. Implications for failure on these tests among patients with known or alleged mild traumatic brain injury are discussed. PMID:24266623

Carone, Dominic A

2014-01-01

342

BS in STATISTICS: Statistical Science Emphasis (695220) MAP Sheet Department of Statistics  

E-print Network

BS in STATISTICS: Statistical Science Emphasis (695220) MAP Sheet Department of Statistics the following: Stat 121 Principles of Statistics Stat 151 Introduction to Bayesian Statistics Stat 201 Statistics for Engineers & Scientists Stat 301 Statistics & Probability for Sec Ed Note: Students who have

Olsen Jr., Dan R.

343

Interpretation: a political and social practice.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article was to illustrate that interpretation is a political and social practice and to explore the conceptualization of interpretation as a political and social practice within the discipline of nursing. A critical view of language, meaning, and interpretation reveals that words are influenced by sociopolitical context and empiricism is engulfed in interpretations derived from the environment. The deliberations reveal that how we perceive our nature of being in the world affects our interpretations. In contrast, from a critical theory lens the discussion reveals that interpretation becomes a process of penetration of different contexts and of an evolutionary praxis effecting transformation. PMID:20693834

Aluwihare-Samaranayake, Dilmi S

2010-01-01

344

Seasonal variability of total and easily leachable element contents in topsoils (0-5 cm) from eight catchments in the European Arctic (Finland, Norway and Russia).  

PubMed

Frozen topsoil samples (0-5 cm) were collected during March/April 1994 in eight Arctic catchments in northern Europe (4 in Russia, 3 in Finland, 1 in Norway) at varying distances and wind directions from the emissions of the Russian nickel ore mining, roasting and smelting industry on the Kola Peninsula. Between 14 and 25 sites were sampled in catchment basins ranging in size from 12 to 35 km(2). Sampling was repeated in spring immediately after the snow melted, in summer and in autumn to study seasonal variability and the fate of elements when the snow melts. The <2 mm fraction of air-dried topsoils was analysed for total (aqua regia extraction) and easily leachable (in 1 m ammonium acetate, buffered at pH 4.5) element concentrations using ICP-AES and GFAAS for up to 35 elements. Results for selected elements are presented here. Soil organic matter can be shown to be the controlling factor determining element contents and fate. In catchments close to the Russian nickel industry, the topsoils have low carbon and nitrogen contents. Using both extraction methods most elements reach maximum concentrations in winter; lowest concentrations are observed in midsummer. Soil organic matter and elements associated with it are thus leached out of the soils together with soluble elements when the snow melts. This process continues in summer. Elements will enrich surface waters, the lower layers of podzol profiles, or reach the groundwater. The use of the two extractions described provides a simple method to study the mobilities and pathways of elements in the topsoils during the arctic year. Using the proportions of easily leachable to total concentration, a good estimation of the status of the topsoil in the study area can be given. PMID:15093425

Niskavaara, H; Reimann, C; Chekushin, V; Kashulina, G

1997-01-01

345

Which statistics should tropical biologists learn?  

PubMed

Tropical biologists study the richest and most endangered biodiversity in the planet, and in these times of climate change and mega-extinctions, the need for efficient, good quality research is more pressing than in the past. However, the statistical component in research published by tropical authors sometimes suffers from poor quality in data collection; mediocre or bad experimental design and a rigid and outdated view of data analysis. To suggest improvements in their statistical education, we listed all the statistical tests and other quantitative analyses used in two leading tropical journals, the Revista de Biología Tropical and Biotropica, during a year. The 12 most frequent tests in the articles were: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Chi-Square Test, Student's T Test, Linear Regression, Pearson's Correlation Coefficient, Mann-Whitney U Test, Kruskal-Wallis Test, Shannon's Diversity Index, Tukey's Test, Cluster Analysis, Spearman's Rank Correlation Test and Principal Component Analysis. We conclude that statistical education for tropical biologists must abandon the old syllabus based on the mathematical side of statistics and concentrate on the correct selection of these and other procedures and tests, on their biological interpretation and on the use of reliable and friendly freeware. We think that their time will be better spent understanding and protecting tropical ecosystems than trying to learn the mathematical foundations of statistics: in most cases, a well designed one-semester course should be enough for their basic requirements. PMID:22017105

Loaiza Velásquez, Natalia; González Lutz, María Isabel; Monge-Nájera, Julián

2011-09-01

346

Glaciation of northwestern Wyoming interpreted from ERTS-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of ERTS Imagery has shown a number of alpine glacial features can be recognized and mapped successfully. Although the Wyoming mountains are generally regarded as the type locality for Rocky Mountain glaciation some areas have not been studied from a glacial standpoint because of inaccessibility or lack of topographic control. ERTS imagery provides an excellent base for this type of regional geomorphic study. A map of maximum extent of Wisconsin Ice, flow directions and major glacial features was compiled from interpretation of the ERTS imagery. Features which can be mapped are large moraines, outwash fans and terraces. Present-day glaciers and snowfields are easily discriminated and mapped. Glaciers and glacial deposits which serve as aquifers play a significant role in the hydrologic cycle and are important because of the increasing demand placed on our water resources. ERTS provides a quick and effective method for change detection and inventory of these vital resources.

Breckenridge, R. M.

1973-01-01

347

A Generalization of Poisson Convergence to "Gibbs Convergence" with Applications to Statistical Mechanics  

E-print Network

. The theorem is then used to develop a lattice-to-continuum theory for statistical mechanics. Key Words. Sums.1 below) has a statistical mechanical interpretation. Let Abe the intersection of a fixed rectangle in Rd theory of classical statistical mechanics including some results for the infinite volume case, i

Klein, David

348

Statistical application of groundwater monitoring data at the Hanford Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective use of groundwater monitoring data requires both statistical and geohydrologic interpretations. At the Hanford Site in south-central Washington state such interpretations are used for (1) detection monitoring, assessment monitoring, and\\/or corrective action at Resource Conservation and Recovery Act sites; (2) compliance testing for operational groundwater surveillance; (3) impact assessments at active liquid-waste disposal sites; and (4) cleanup decisions at

C. J. Chou; V. G. Johnson; F. N. Hodges

1993-01-01

349

Some More Statistical Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A continuation of a previous unit, expanding to talk about standard deviation, tell some stories about statistics, show what statistics is, and provide three computer programs to demonstrate activities one may do in class, or students may use independently. In passing, it answers the question: How can you tell if the coin flips or the dice are random?

Langan, James F.

2007-03-24

350

JSTOR: Statistical Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This journals from The Institute of Mathematical Statistics is now available online. Statistical Science, Vols. 1-12 (1986-1997) is fully accessible to the hundreds of academic institutions participating in JSTOR. The journal may be searched by keyword, full-text, title, author, and abstract, or browsed by date of publication. A list of JSTOR participants is provided at the JSTOR site.

1999-01-01

351

Statistical Summaries: Public Institutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, presents a statistical portrait of the Virginia's 17 public higher education institutions. Data provided include: enrollment figures (broken down in categories such as sex, residency, full- and part-time status, residence, ethnicity, age, and level of postsecondary education); FTE figures; admissions statistics (such as number…

Virginia State Council of Higher Education, Richmond.

352

Explorations in Statistics: Regression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This seventh installment of "Explorations in Statistics" explores regression, a technique that estimates the nature of the relationship between two things for which we may only surmise a mechanistic or predictive connection.…

Curran-Everett, Douglas

2011-01-01

353

Elementary Concepts in Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This introductory statistics introduction, by StatSoft, gives an overview of variables, classifications, measurements, relations, and other basic statistical concepts. There are also two animated graphs illustrating density and distribution functions, as well as how sample size influences sampling distribution.

2008-12-25

354

Explorations in Statistics: Power  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This fifth installment of "Explorations in Statistics" revisits power, a concept fundamental to the test of a null hypothesis. Power is the probability that we reject the null hypothesis when it is false. Four things affect…

Curran-Everett, Douglas

2010-01-01

355

The Stock Statistics Parser  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how use the HTMLEditorKit to perform web data mining on stock statistics for listed firms. Our focus is on making use of the web to get information about companies, using their stock symbols and YAHOO finance. We show how to map a stock ticker symbol into a company name gather statistics and derive new information. Our example

Douglas Lyon

2008-01-01

356

Statistical Mapping by Computer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The function of a statistical map is to provide readers with a visual impression of the data so that they may be able to identify any geographic characteristics of the displayed phenomena. The increasingly important role played by the computer in the production of statistical maps is manifested by the varied examples of computer maps in recent…

Utano, Jack J.

357

ROOT Statistical Software  

E-print Network

Advanced mathematical and statistical computational methods are required by the LHC experiments for analyzing their data. Some of these methods are provided by the ROOT project, a C++ Object Oriented framework for large scale data handling applications. We review the current mathematical and statistical classes present in ROOT, emphasizing the recent developments.

Moneta, Lorenzo; Brun, R; Kreshuk, Anna

2008-01-01

358

Issues in Labor Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics collects "succinct, up-to-the-minute background papers on current topics" at the Issues in Labor Statistics publication page. Each two-page edition addresses labor topics as diverse as auto dealer employment and highway fatalities with graphical summaries and BLS contacts for additional information.

359

Weakly sufficient quantum statistics  

E-print Network

Some aspects of weak sufficiency of quantum statistics are investigated. In particular, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a weakly sufficient statistic for a given family of vector states, investigate the problem of its minimality, and find the relation between weak sufficiency and other notions of sufficiency employed so far.

Katarzyna Lubnauer; Andrzej ?uczak; Hanna Pods?dkowska

2009-11-23

360

Scalable statistical bug isolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a statistical debugging algorithm that isolates bugs in programs containing multiple undiagnosed bugs. Earlier statistical algorithms that focus solely on identifying predictors that correlate with program failure perform poorly when there are multiple bugs. Our new technique separates the effects of different bugs and identifies predictors that are associated with individual bugs. These predictors reveal both the circumstances

Ben Liblit; Mayur Naik; Alice X. Zheng; Alexander Aiken; Michael I. Jordan

2005-01-01

361

Water Quality Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water quality experiments, especially the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of water quality, offer an ideal context for connecting statistics and science. In the STAR program for secondary students and teachers, water quality experiments were also used as a context for teaching statistics. In this article, we trace one activity that uses…

Hodgson, Ted; Andersen, Lyle; Robison-Cox, Jim; Jones, Clain

2004-01-01

362

Application Statistics, 1974.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistics on application and registration patterns of applicants wishing to pursue full-time study in first-year places in the Ontario universities were obtained throughout the admission cycle from the processing of applicants by the Center and from the universities themselves. All application and registration statistics presented refer to…

Payton, L. C.

363

Statistical Applets: Confidence Intervals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Duckworth, McCabe, Moore and Sclove for W.H. Freeman and Co., this applet is a visual representation of confidence levels and accompanies "ÃÂÃÂPractice of Business Statistics;" however, it can be used without this text. Even though brief, this is a nice interactive resource for an introductory statistics course.

Duckworth, William; Mccabe, George; Moore, David; Sclove, Stanley

2009-03-04

364

Defence Statistics 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new UK government report are from the House of Commons Library contains statistics on defense spending and manpower and addresses "the problems involved in using such statistics, particularly when making international comparisons." The report also contains numerous graphs and tables.

Library., Great B.; Morgan, Bryn.

1998-01-01

365

Statistical Science Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains links in several statistical categories, including other meta-sites (catalogs), universities, statistics departments, software, journals, data sets, methodology, conferences, and teaching, among others. It has an Australian flavor, but is international in scope. Gordon K. Smyth, Research scientist and mathematician, maintains this site.

1998-01-01

366

Statistical Parsing Inside Algorithm  

E-print Network

Parsing · Review · Statistical Parsing · SCFG · Inside Algorithm · Outside Algorithm NLP statistical parsing 1 · Outside Algorithm · Viterbi Algorithm · Learning models · SCFG extensions · Other approaches · Grammar acquisition: · Grammatical induction · Dependency Parsing #12;Parsing · Parsing

Ageno, Alicia

367

Statistical Reference Datasets: Archives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The datasets on this page are classified by analysis techniqueand by level of difficulty (lower, average, higher). They were originally intended to test statistical software. The sets cover these topics: ANOVA, linear regression, Markov Chain Monte Carlo, nonlinear regression, and univariate summary statistics. This is a nice collection as it not only contains raw data but also helps explain the different methods and tests.

2009-08-18

368

Multidimensional Visual Statistical Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies of visual statistical learning (VSL) have demonstrated that statistical regularities in sequences of visual stimuli can be automatically extracted, even without intent or awareness. Despite much work on this topic, however, several fundamental questions remain about the nature of VSL. In particular, previous experiments have not…

Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.; Isola, Phillip J.; Scholl, Brian J.; Treat, Teresa A.

2008-01-01

369

Fluid Interpretation of Cardassian Expansion  

E-print Network

A fluid interpretation of Cardassian expansion is developed. Here, the Friedmann equation takes the form $H^2 = g(\\rho_M)$ where $\\rho_M$ contains only matter and radiation (no vacuum). The function $g(\\rhom)$ returns to the usual $8\\pi\\rhom/(3 m_{pl}^2)$ during the early history of the universe, but takes a different form that drives an accelerated expansion after a redshift $z \\sim 1$. One possible interpretation of this function (and of the right hand side of Einstein's equations) is that it describes a fluid with total energy density $\\rho_{tot} = {3 m_{pl}^2 \\over 8 \\pi} g(\\rhom) = \\rhom + \\rho_K$ containing not only matter density (mass times number density) but also interaction terms $\\rho_K$. These interaction terms give rise to an effective negative pressure which drives cosmological acceleration. These interactions may be due to interacting dark matter, e.g. with a fifth force between particles $F \\sim r^{\\alpha -1}$. Such interactions may be intrinsically four dimensional or may result from higher dimensional physics. A fully relativistic fluid model is developed here, with conservation of energy, momentum, and particle number. A modified Poisson's equation is derived. A study of fluctuations in the early universe is presented, although a fully relativistic treatment of the perturbations including gauge choice is as yet incomplete.

Paolo Gondolo; Katherine Freese

2002-09-26

370

Interpretation of the Cosmological Metric  

E-print Network

The cosmological Robertson-Walker metric of general relativity is often said to have the consequences that (1) the recessional velocity $v$ of a galaxy at proper distance $\\ell$ obeys the Hubble law $v=H\\ell$, and therefore galaxies at sufficiently great distance $\\ell$ are receding faster than the speed of light $c$; (2) faster than light recession does not violate special relativity theory because the latter is not applicable to the cosmological problem, and because ``space itself is receding'' faster than $c$ at great distance, and it is velocity relative to local space that is limited by $c$, not the velocity of distant objects relative to nearby ones; (3) we can see galaxies receding faster than the speed of light; and (4) the cosmological redshift is not a Doppler shift, but is due to a stretching of photon wavelength during propagation in an expanding universe. We present a particular Robertson-Walker metric (an empty universe metric) for which a coordinate transformation shows that none of these interpretation necessarily holds. The resulting paradoxes of interpretation lead to a deeper understanding of the meaning of the cosmological metric.

Richard J. Cook; M. Shane Burns

2008-03-18

371

IOS Press Statistical literacy: A new mission for data producers  

E-print Network

Abstract. Statistical literacy is a new goal for statistical educators. A core element of statistical literacy for consumers is the ability to read and interpret data in the tables and graphs published by national statistical offices. A core element for producers is the ability to create tables, graphs and reports that are unambiguous and comprehensible. It appears that comprehensibility is not considered part of the mission for many national statistical offices (NSOs). Yet can the staff or users read the data generated by these agencies? The 2002 W. M. Keck Statistical Literacy survey indicates that professional data analysts, college students and school mathematics teachers and even college professors have difficulties reading such data. A common reason is confusing captions. Other reasons include user difficulties in decoding tables and in using ordinary English to describe part-whole relations. Recommendations include vetting agency tables and graphs for comprehensibility, assessing the statistical literacy of staff and users, and developing objective standard standards for using ordinary English to describe rates and percentages and for titling such tables. Establishing these standards can help teachers improve the statistical literacy of students and future leaders so they can use agency-generated data to make better decisions. 1. Statistical literacy While the phrase “statistical literacy ” has a long history, it has only recently become a goal for statistical educators. In 1979, “statistical literacy ” was the title of a textbook [11]. In 1982, “statistical numeracy ” was described in the Cockcroft report [8]. In 2001, “statistical literacy ” was an IASE conference theme. In 2002, “Developing a statistically literate society ” was the theme of the International Conference on Teaching Statistics (ICOTS-6). In 2006, statistical literacy was adopted as a goal by the American Statistical Association (ASA) in endorsing the ASA Guidelines for Assessment and

Milo Schield

372

Biostratinomic utility of Archimedes in environmental interpretation  

SciTech Connect

Biostratinomic information from the bryozoan Archimedes can be used to infer paleocurrent senses when other more traditional sedimentary structures are lacking. As with other elongate particles, Archimedes zooaria become oriented in the current and, upon settling, preserve a sense of the flow direction. Orientations and lengths were measured on over 200 individuals from bedding plane exposures in the Upper Mississippian Union Limestone (Greenbrier Group) of West Virginia. These were separated into long and short populations and plotted on rose diagrams. The results show that long and short segments become preferentially oriented in the current and the bimodally distributed long segments can be used to infer the current sense. The current sense is defined by the line which bisects the obtuse angle created by the two maxima in the rose diagram for long segments. Statistical evaluation of the long and short populations indicate they are significant to the 99.9 percent level. Elongate fossils such as Archimedes can be used in paleocurrent evaluations and can add more detail to the interpretation of paleodepositional conditions.

Wulff, J.I. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (USA))

1990-04-01

373

Practical Statistical Thinking Probability: The Language of Statistics  

E-print Network

Practical Statistical Thinking Probability: The Language of Statistics Essentials of Statistics and Probability Dhruv Sharma May 22, 2007 Department of Statistics, NC State University dbsharma@ncsu.edu SAMSI Undergrad Workshop Dhruv Sharma Essentials of Statistics and Probability #12;Practical Statistical Thinking

374

Australian Bureau of Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those looking for statistical information on a broad set of themes and geographical areas within Australia, they should visit the Australian Bureau of Statistics Web site. From the main page, visitors can view recent statistical reports, such as the Australian Consumer Price Index, information about the labor force (e.g., employment rates), and a series of occasional papers. Particularly helpful to the casual user will be the Themes section, which provides summary statistics about the environment, tourism, transportation, economic well-being, and education. Additionally, the Bureau publishes reports organized by administrative and regional divisions of the country, a feature that will be helpful to students doing research on a particular area of the country. If users are seeking to learn more about the organization, history, and mission of the Australian Bureau of Statistics, they will find this material located under the About the ABS section of the site.

2000-01-01

375

Statistical Mechanics with focus on  

E-print Network

Statistical Mechanics with focus on Liquids, Solutions and Colloidal Systems Course contents A. Foundations of statistical mechanics Classical dynamics ­ Hamilton's and Liouville's equations The concept thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. B. Liquid state theory; Equilibrium statistical mechanics for liquids

Johannesson, Henrik

376

7 CFR 2901.4 - Interpretations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (a) Request for an interpretation. (1) Any person seeking an interpretation of the Essential Agricultural Uses...request, as supplemented by other information brought to the attention of the Director during the consideration of the...

2010-01-01

377

7 CFR 2901.4 - Interpretations.  

... (a) Request for an interpretation. (1) Any person seeking an interpretation of the Essential Agricultural Uses...request, as supplemented by other information brought to the attention of the Director during the consideration of the...

2014-01-01

378

Interpretation and clustering of handwritten student responses  

E-print Network

This thesis presents an interpretation and clustering framework for handwritten student responses on tablet computers. The ink analysis system is able to capture and interpret digital ink strokes for many types of classroom ...

Von Tish, Kelsey Leigh

2012-01-01

379

10 CFR 76.6 - Interpretations.  

...Interpretations. 76.6 Section 76.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.6 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in...

2014-01-01

380

10 CFR 76.6 - Interpretations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Interpretations. 76.6 Section 76.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.6 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in...

2013-01-01

381

10 CFR 76.6 - Interpretations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Interpretations. 76.6 Section 76.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.6 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in...

2011-01-01

382

10 CFR 76.6 - Interpretations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Interpretations. 76.6 Section 76.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.6 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in...

2012-01-01

383

10 CFR 76.6 - Interpretations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Interpretations. 76.6 Section 76.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.6 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in...

2010-01-01

384

Environmental affect and participation in interpretation  

E-print Network

and are set apart from the text by enlarged margins and single spacing. I. Environmental Interpretation A. definition of inter retation B. definition of interpretive presentations II, Causes of Behavior; General III. Causes of Behavior; the Role... and are set apart from the text by enlarged margins and single spacing. I. Environmental Interpretation A. definition of inter retation B. definition of interpretive presentations II, Causes of Behavior; General III. Causes of Behavior; the Role...

Giles, Martha Ann

2012-06-07

385

Urban damage estimation using statistical processing of satellite images: 2003 Bam, Iran earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remotely sensed satellite imagery of an earthquake-affected area can significantly assist in estimating the severity of infrastructure damage. Modern high-resolution satellite systems have been launched to provide users optical or Synthetic Aperture radar (SAR) data with sub-meter accuracy, which enable the possibility of sensing damage for individual infrastructure by means of pre- and post-event imagery. Herein, we focus our study on the region of Bam, Iran, which was devastated by a moment magnitude Mw = 6.6 earthquake on December 26, 2003, causing approximately 43,200 lives lost. To recognize houses within the Bam region before the earthquake, the boundary of houses are located using a combination of morphological gray-level open and intensity threshold operators. The unique aspect of this paper, as demonstrated with satellite imagery data from this event, is the use of an probabilistic framework for determining the optimal combination of morphological and intensity threshold parameters, which results in an estimated ground truth (EGT). By overlaying the EGT obtained from images before the earthquake with images of the same region after the earthquake, two statistical damage indices, including a new boundary-compactness based index proposed in this study, are compared. This comparison is presented using easily interpretable damage maps, where individual houses are rendered with colors representing the severity of damage.

Chen, ZhiQiang; Hutchinson, Tara C.

2004-12-01

386

Urban damage estimation using statistical processing of satellite images: 2003 Bam, Iran earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remotely sensed satellite imagery of an earthquake-affected area can significantly assist in estimating the severity of infrastructure damage. Modern high-resolution satellite systems have been launched to provide users optical or Synthetic Aperture radar (SAR) data with sub-meter accuracy, which enable the possibility of sensing damage for individual infrastructure by means of pre- and post-event imagery. Herein, we focus our study on the region of Bam, Iran, which was devastated by a moment magnitude Mw = 6.6 earthquake on December 26, 2003, causing approximately 43,200 lives lost. To recognize houses within the Bam region before the earthquake, the boundary of houses are located using a combination of morphological gray-level open and intensity threshold operators. The unique aspect of this paper, as demonstrated with satellite imagery data from this event, is the use of an probabilistic framework for determining the optimal combination of morphological and intensity threshold parameters, which results in an estimated ground truth (EGT). By overlaying the EGT obtained from images before the earthquake with images of the same region after the earthquake, two statistical damage indices, including a new boundary-compactness based index proposed in this study, are compared. This comparison is presented using easily interpretable damage maps, where individual houses are rendered with colors representing the severity of damage.

Chen, ZhiQiang; Hutchinson, Tara C.

2005-01-01

387

Statistics at a glance.  

PubMed

I still remember my first book on statistics: "Elementary statistics with applications in medicine and the biological sciences" by Frederick E. Croxton. For me, it has been the start of pursuing understanding statistics in daily life and in medical practice. It was the first volume in a long row of books. In his introduction, Croxton pretends that"nearly everyone involved in any aspect of medicine needs to have some knowledge of statistics". The reality is that for many clinicians, statistics are limited to a "P < 0.05 = ok". I do not blame my colleagues who omit the paragraph on statistical methods. They have never had the opportunity to learn concise and clear descriptions of the key features. I have experienced how some authors can describe difficult methods in a well understandable language. Others fail completely. As a teacher, I tell my students that life is impossible without a basic knowledge of statistics. This feeling has resulted in an annual seminar of 90 minutes. This tutorial is the summary of this seminar. It is a summary and a transcription of the best pages I have detected. PMID:21302664

Ector, Hugo

2010-12-01

388

R for Statistics Rafal Kulik  

E-print Network

R for Statistics Rafal Kulik Department of Mathematics and Statistics University of Ottawa Statistical Society of Ottawa 23 September 2011 Rafal Kulik #12;R for Statistics SSO meeting Plan Rafal Kulik 1 #12;R for Statistics SSO meeting Plan What is R? Rafal Kulik 1 #12;R for Statistics SSO meeting

Kulik, Rafal

389

Worlds in the Everett Interpretation  

E-print Network

This is a discussion of how we can understand the world-view given to us by the Everett interpretation of quantum mechanics, and in particular the role played by the concept of `world'. The view presented is that we are entitled to use `many-worlds' terminology even if the theory does not specify the worlds in the formalism; this is defended by means of an extensive analogy with the concept of an `instant' or moment of time in relativity, with the lack of a preferred foliation of spacetime being compared with the lack of a preferred basis in quantum theory. Implications for identity of worlds over time, and for relativistic quantum mechanics, are discussed.

David Wallace

2001-03-16

390

Measuring and interpreting neuronal correlations  

PubMed Central

Mounting evidence suggests that understanding how the brain encodes information and performs computations will require studying correlations between neurons. The recent advent of recording techniques such as multielectrode arrays and two-photon imaging has made it easier to measure correlations, opening the door to detailed exploration of their properties and contributions to cortical processing. Studies to date, however, have reported discrepant findings, providing a confusing picture. Here, we briefly review these studies and conduct simulations to explore the influence of several experimental and physiological factors on correlation measurements. Differences in response strength, the time window over which spikes are counted, spike sorting conventions, and internal states can all dramatically affect measured correlations and systematically bias estimates. Given these complicating factors, we offer guidelines for interpreting correlation data and a discussion of how best to evaluate the impact of correlations on cortical processing. PMID:21709677

Cohen, Marlene R.; Kohn, Adam

2013-01-01

391

8 CFR 1240.5 - Interpreter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under this part shall be sworn to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the United States Government, in which event no such oath shall be...

2012-01-01

392

8 CFR 1240.44 - Interpreter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Any person acting as interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under this part shall be sworn to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the United States Government, in which event no such oath shall be...

2012-01-01

393

8 CFR 1240.44 - Interpreter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Any person acting as interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under this part shall be sworn to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the United States Government, in which event no such oath shall be...

2013-01-01

394

8 CFR 1240.44 - Interpreter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Any person acting as interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under this part shall be sworn to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the United States Government, in which event no such oath shall be...

2010-01-01

395

8 CFR 1240.5 - Interpreter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under this part shall be sworn to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the United States Government, in which event no such oath shall be...

2013-01-01

396

8 CFR 1240.44 - Interpreter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Any person acting as interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under this part shall be sworn to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the United States Government, in which event no such oath shall be...

2011-01-01

397

8 CFR 1240.44 - Interpreter.  

... Any person acting as interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under this part shall be sworn to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the United States Government, in which event no such oath shall be...

2014-01-01

398

8 CFR 1240.5 - Interpreter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under this part shall be sworn to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the United States Government, in which event no such oath shall be...

2011-01-01

399

8 CFR 1240.5 - Interpreter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under this part shall be sworn to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the United States Government, in which event no such oath shall be...

2010-01-01

400

8 CFR 1240.5 - Interpreter.  

... Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under this part shall be sworn to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the United States Government, in which event no such oath shall be...

2014-01-01

401

Comprehension and Error Monitoring in Simultaneous Interpreters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the current study we explored lexical, syntactic, and semantic processes during text comprehension in English monolinguals and Spanish/English (first language/second language) bilinguals with different experience in interpreting (nontrained bilinguals, interpreting students and professional interpreters). The participants performed an…

Yudes, Carolina; Macizo, Pedro; Morales, Luis; Bajo, M. Teresa

2013-01-01

402

Watching Music: Interpretations of Visual Music Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discourse concerning audience interpretation of media, particularly music videos, has shifted to focus on individual understanding. The individual controls his or her final interpretation based on personal, cultural, and social experiences. This study, using a questionnaire and focus groups, looks at how visual music performance is interpreted, particularly how gender and race influences individual relevancy and understanding. Five music

Venise T. Berry; Vanessa Shelton

1999-01-01

403

Court Interpreting: The Anatomy of a Profession.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For both translators and interpreters, language proficiency is only the starting point for professional work. The equivalence of both meaning and style are necessary for faithful translation. The legal interpreter or translator must understand the complex characteristics and style of legal language. Court interpreting is a relatively young…

de Jongh, Elena M.

404

QUALITATIVE INTERPRETATION OF GALAXY SPECTRA  

SciTech Connect

We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is for general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means-based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to H II galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. We compare the mean ages of the stellar populations with those inferred using the code STARLIGHT. We also examine the estimated gas-phase metallicity with the metallicities obtained using electron-temperature-based methods. A number of byproducts follow from the analysis. There is a tight correlation between the age of the stellar population and the metallicity of the gas, which is stronger than the correlations between galaxy mass and stellar age, and galaxy mass and gas metallicity. The galaxy spectra are known to follow a one-dimensional sequence, and we identify the luminosity-weighted mean stellar age as the affine parameter that describes the sequence. All ASK classes happen to have a significant fraction of old stars, although spectrum-wise they are outshined by the youngest populations. Old stars are metal-rich or metal-poor depending on whether they reside in passive galaxies or in star-forming galaxies.

Sanchez Almeida, J.; Morales-Luis, A. B. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Terlevich, R.; Terlevich, E. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Cid Fernandes, R., E-mail: jos@iac.es, E-mail: abml@iac.es, E-mail: rjt@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: eterlevi@inaoep.mx, E-mail: cid@astro.ufsc.br [Departamento de Fisica-CFM, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

2012-09-10

405

Quantum-Statistical Computation  

E-print Network

Systems of spin 1, such as triplet pairs of spin-1/2 fermions (like orthohydrogen nuclei) make useful three-terminal elements for quantum computation, and when interconnected by qubit equality relations are universal for quantum computation. This is an instance of quantum-statistical computation: some of the logical relations of the problem are satisfied identically in virtue of quantum statistics, which takes no time. We show heuristically that quantum-statistical ground-mode computation is substantially faster than pure ground-mode computation when the ground mode is reached by annealing.

Giuseppe Castagnoli; David Ritz Finkelstein

2001-11-22

406

Statistics of football dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the dynamics of football matches. Our goal is to characterize statistically the temporal sequence of ball movements in this collective sport game, searching for traits of complex behavior. Data were collected over a variety of matches in South American, European and World championships throughout 2005 and 2006. We show that the statistics of ball touches presents power-law tails and can be described by q-gamma distributions. To explain such behavior we propose a model that provides information on the characteristics of football dynamics. Furthermore, we discuss the statistics of duration of out-of-play intervals, not directly related to the previous scenario.

Mendes, R. S.; Malacarne, L. C.; Anteneodo, C.

2007-06-01

407

Statistics and Probability Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial, created by Harvey Berman of Stat Trek, provides a basic introduction to many topics in statistics and probability. Topics include: sets and subsets, statistical experiments, counting, basic probability rules, Bayes' theorem, probability distributions, discrete versus continuous, binomial, negative binomial, hypergeometric, multinomial, Poisson, normal, sampling theory, central tendency, variability, sampling distributions, t-distribution, Chi-square distribution, F-distribution, estimation problems, hypothesis testing, power, survey sampling, simple random samples, stratified samples, cluster samples, sample size. This is a general overview of statistics and probability. It is geared towards a high school advanced placement level.

Berman, Harvey

2009-08-06

408

Cancer Statistics, 2003  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site contains a recent report on cancer statistics prepared by the American Cancer Society (ACS) that uses incidence data from the National Cancer Institute and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. The report offers "an up-to-date perspective on the occurrence of cancer" in the United States, including cancer frequency, incidence, mortality, and survival statistics for 2003. The Web site provides links to similar articles, the PubMed citation for the report and other bibliographic resources, and a course based on the article from ACS Online Continuing Medical Education for credit toward the Physician's Recognition Award of the American Medical Association (free registration required).

Ghafoor, Asma.; Jemal, Ahmedin.; Murray, Taylor.; Samuels, Alicia.; Thun, Michael J.; Ward, Elizabeth.

2003-01-01

409

UCLA Statistics Series  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of California Los Angeles Statistics Series presents a collection of more than 250 preprints covering a wide array of statistical topics, such as descriptive multivariate analysis, advanced linear models, survey construction and analysis, teaching statistics, and much more. The preprints are arranged by paper number only, hence users must browse the entire list to locate relevant items. Approximately half of the full-text preprints are accessible in HTML, .pdf, or postscript formats. To access preprints not available electronically, users must contact the authors of the papers; author addresses are provided.

410

Statistics at Square One  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by T.D.V. Swinscow for the BMJ Publishing group, this textbook for medical statistics covers many topics such as: data display and summary, mean, standard deviation, populations , samples, statements of probability, confidence intervals, differences between means: type I and type II errors and power, differences between percentages, paired alternatives, t-tests, chi-squared tests, exact probability test, rank score tests, correlation, regression, survival analysis, study design and choosing a statistical test. This is a great resource for those interested in a broad overview of many different statistical methods.

Swinscow, T. D. V. (Thomas Douglas Victor)

2009-05-05

411

Statistics of football dynamics  

E-print Network

We investigate the dynamics of football matches. Our goal is to characterize statistically the temporal sequence of ball movements in this collective sport game, searching for traits of complex behavior. Data were collected over a variety of matches in South American, European and World championships throughout 2005 and 2006. We show that the statistics of ball touches presents power-law tails and can be described by $q$-gamma distributions. To explain such behavior we propose a model that provides information on the characteristics of football dynamics. Furthermore, we discuss the statistics of duration of out-of-play intervals, not directly related to the previous scenario.

Mendes, R S; Anteneodo, C

2007-01-01

412

Transportation Statistics Annual Report 1997  

SciTech Connect

This document is the fourth Transportation Statistics Annual Report (TSAR) prepared by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) for the President and Congress. As in previous years, it reports on the state of U.S. transportation system at two levels. First, in Part I, it provides a statistical and interpretive survey of the system—its physical characteristics, its economic attributes, aspects of its use and performance, and the scale and severity of unintended consequences of transportation, such as fatalities and injuries, oil import dependency, and environment impacts. Part I also explores the state of transportation statistics, and new needs of the rapidly changing world of transportation. Second, Part II of the report, as in prior years, explores in detail the performance of the U.S. transportation system from the perspective of desired social outcomes or strategic goals. This year, the performance aspect of transportation chosen for thematic treatment is “Mobility and Access,” which complements past TSAR theme sections on “The Economic Performance of Transportation” (1995) and “Transportation and the Environment” (1996). Mobility and access are at the heart of the transportation system’s performance from the user’s perspective. In what ways and to what extent does the geographic freedom provided by transportation enhance personal fulfillment of the nation’s residents and contribute to economic advancement of people and businesses? This broad question underlies many of the topics examined in Part II: What is the current level of personal mobility in the United States, and how does it vary by sex, age, income level, urban or rural location, and over time? What factors explain variations? Has transportation helped improve people’s access to work, shopping, recreational facilities, and medical services, and in what ways and in what locations? How have barriers, such as age, disabilities, or lack of an automobile, affected these accessibility patterns? How are commodity flows and transportation services responding to global competition, deregulation, economic restructuring, and new information technologies? How do U.S. patterns of personal mobility and freight movement compare with other advanced industrialized countries, formerly centrally planned economies, and major newly industrializing countries? Finally, how is the rapid adoption of new information technologies influencing the patterns of transportation demand and the supply of new transportation services? Indeed, how are information technologies affecting the nature and organization of transportation services used by individuals and firms?

Fenn, M.

1997-01-01

413

HistFitter software framework for statistical data analysis  

E-print Network

We present a software framework for statistical data analysis, called HistFitter, that has been used extensively by the ATLAS Collaboration to analyze big datasets originating from proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Since 2012 HistFitter has been the standard statistical tool in searches for supersymmetric particles performed by ATLAS. HistFitter is a programmable and flexible framework to build, book-keep, fit, interpret and present results of data models of nearly arbitrary complexity. Starting from an object-oriented configuration, defined by users, the framework builds probability density functions that are automatically fitted to data and interpreted with statistical tests. A key innovation of HistFitter is its design, which is rooted in core analysis strategies of particle physics. The concepts of control, signal and validation regions are woven into its very fabric. These are progressively treated with statistically rigorous built-in methods. Being capable of working with mu...

Baak, M; Cote, D; Koutsman, A; Lorenz, J; Short, D

2014-01-01

414

Web-based parallel corpora for statistical machine translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical machine translation is the state-of-the- art technique based on sentence-level aligned parallel corpora. The improvement of this kind of technique is constrained by the lack of parallel corpora publicly available. The booming of the World Wide Web stands a fair chance that we can construct parallel corpora in a big scale more easily. In this paper, we summarize the

Bo Li; Juan Liu; Wenjuan Shi

2007-01-01

415

On de-Sitter geometry in crater statistics  

E-print Network

The cumulative size-frequency distributions of impact craters on planetary bodies in the solar system appear to approximate a universal inverse square power-law for small crater radii. In this article, we show how this distribution can be understood easily in terms of geometrical statistics, using a de-Sitter geometry of the configuration space of circles on the Euclidean plane and on the unit sphere. The effect of crater overlap is also considered.

Gary W. Gibbons; Marcus C. Werner

2012-09-04

416

Weighted order statistic classifiers with large rank-order margin.  

SciTech Connect

We describe how Stack Filters and Weighted Order Statistic function classes can be used for classification problems. This leads to a new design criteria for linear classifiers when inputs are binary-valued and weights are positive . We present a rank-based measure of margin that can be directly optimized as a standard linear program and investigate its effect on generalization error with experiment. Our approach can robustly combine large numbers of base hypothesis and easily implement known priors through regularization.

Porter, R. B. (Reid B.); Hush, D. R. (Donald R.); Theiler, J. P. (James P.); Gokhale, M. (Maya)

2003-01-01

417

More Intelligent Statistical Software and Statistical Expert Systems: Future Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical computer programs are becoming increasingly accessible to people with limited statistical training. More intelligent statistical software is clearly needed. In this article, new or improved offerings—ranging from computer-based indexes of the literature to expert statistical systems—are discussed and illustrated. Three general levels of statistical software are differentiated: computerized statistical answering and referral services, expert guidance embedded in statistical programs,

Gerald J. Hahn

1985-01-01

418

Cooperative Learning in Statistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Formal use of cooperative learning techniques proved effective in improving student performance and retention in a freshman level statistics course. Lectures interspersed with group activities proved effective in increasing conceptual understanding and overall class performance. (11 references) (Author)

Keeler, Carolyn M.; And Others

1994-01-01

419

Agricultural Statistics 1994  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) has made full text of "Agricultural Statistics 1994" available via its Web site. Agricultural Statistics is an annual compendium of data (and selected charts) relating to all aspects of the U.S. agricultural economy. Subject coverage includes all major crop and livestock sectors, farm income and credit, stabilization and price support, agricultural conservation and forestry statistics, and fertilizers and pesticides, among others. Tables include both state and national breakdowns, and most national tables include between two and ten year time series. The book is available as one large Adobe Acrobat .PDF file (about 5 megabytes), so you'll need a fast connection to get it. You'll also need a free Acrobat Reader, which can be obtained at the same page. Acrobat allows selective searching for specific tables, as well as selective printing of those tables. (See Network Tools, below.)

1994-01-01

420

How Statistics "Excel" Online.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of Microsoft Excel software and provides examples of its use in an online statistics course at Golden Gate University in the areas of randomness and probability, sampling distributions, confidence intervals, and regression analysis. (LRW)

Chao, Faith; Davis, James

2000-01-01

421

Introduction Statistical Models  

E-print Network

model represents air pollution from line sources based on Gaussian diffusion. One might simply make of Statistics; University of California, Berkeley and Department of Biostatistics; Harvard School of Public

Paciorek, Chris

422

Quantum statistics on graphs  

E-print Network

Quantum graphs are commonly used as models of complex quantum systems, for example molecules, networks of wires, and states of condensed matter. We consider quantum statistics for indistinguishable spinless particles on a graph, concentrating on the simplest case of abelian statistics for two particles. In spite of the fact that graphs are locally one-dimensional, anyon statistics emerge in a generalized form. A given graph may support a family of independent anyon phases associated with topologically inequivalent exchange processes. In addition, for sufficiently complex graphs, there appear new discrete-valued phases. Our analysis is simplified by considering combinatorial rather than metric graphs -- equivalently, a many-particle tight-binding model. The results demonstrate that graphs provide an arena in which to study new manifestations of quantum statistics. Possible applications include topological quantum computing, topological insulators, the fractional quantum Hall effect, superconductivity and molecular physics.

JM Harrison; JP Keating; JM Robbins

2011-01-07

423

Playing at Statistical Mechanics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are the applications of counting techniques of a sorting game to distributions and concepts in statistical mechanics. Included are the following distributions: Fermi-Dirac, Bose-Einstein, and most probable. (RH)

Clark, Paul M.; And Others

1974-01-01

424

Country Statistical Profiles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Database of a series of statistical indicators, primarily economic, but also social and educational, on each OECD countries. Can be viewed either online or downloaded as excel files. The excel downloads also allow for graphical comparisons with other OECD countries.

Development, Organisation F.

425

Titanic: A Statistical Exploration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses the available data about the Titanic's passengers to interest students in exploring categorical data and the chi-square distribution. Describes activities incorporated into a statistics class and gives additional resources for collecting information about the Titanic. (ASK)

Takis, Sandra L.

1999-01-01

426

Statistics on Banking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The FDIC Statistics on Banking is a "quarterly publication that provides aggregate financial and structure information on FDIC-insured institutions, with summary totals by state and charter type." The latest figures for third quarter 1997 are now available.

427

Understanding Solar Flare Statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review is presented of work aimed at understanding solar flare statistics, with emphasis on the well known flare power-law size distribution. Although avalanche models are perhaps the favoured model to describe flare statistics, their physical basis is unclear, and they are divorced from developing ideas in large-scale reconnection theory. An alternative model, aimed at reconciling large-scale reconnection models with solar flare statistics, is revisited. The solar flare waiting-time distribution has also attracted recent attention. Observed waiting-time distributions are described, together with what they might tell us about the flare phenomenon. Finally, a practical application of flare statistics to flare prediction is described in detail, including the results of a year of automated (web-based) predictions from the method.

Wheatland, M. S.

2005-12-01

428

Statistical Analysis of Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Treatise on statistical analysis of data geared toward students in the advanced physics lab. Includes instructions on using Excel for linear and nonlinear regression and the "delta chi-square equals 1 rule" for finding uncertainties for nonlinear regression.

Deserio, Robert

2009-01-30

429

Fisheries Statistics Office Publications  

E-print Network

Fisheries Statistics Office Publications How is the Potential Sector Contribution Calculated? Science, Service, Stewardship NOAA FISHERIES SERVICE U.S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | National Marine Fisheries Service #12;How is the Potential Sector Contribution

430

Mathematics and Statistics Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by Bob MacKay, Clark College. What are Mathematical and Statistical Models These types of models are obviously related, but there are also real differences between them. Mathematical Models: grow out of ...

431

National Statistics Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Perhaps you have a burning desire to find detailed statistical information about agriculture in Wales, or even about poverty in London's East End. All of this information can be found on the very thorough and usable National Statistics homepage, which provides information on Britain's economy, population, and society. Given the amount of information on the site, visitors would do well to look through the UK at a Glance area. Here they will find basic information on the gross domestic product, consumer spending, unemployment, and population estimates. Along with these aggregate figures for the entire nation, visitors can visit the neighborhood statistics section, where they can retrieve summary statistics for different locales around England and Wales. A number of fine reports based on the 2001 Census are also available for the general public's consideration, and they include considerations of the state of children's dental health to the provisioning of programs for the elderly.

432

Exploratory Data Analysis Case Studies (Engineering Statistics Handbook)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This part of the NIST Engineering Statistics Handbook, created by authors James Filliben and Alan Heckart, contains case studies for Exploratory Data Analysis. Some of the topics include normal and uniform random numbers, reliability using airplane glass failure times, and analysis of primary factors using ceramic strength. Each different lesson contains background information, interpretation methods and even example to work through. This is a nice collection of interactive statistics lessons.

Filliben, James; Heckert, Alan

2009-06-26

433

Statistics programs1 teach individuals to apply mathematical principles to the collection, analysis, and presentation of data.  

E-print Network

and interpret research studies Occupations in this field require the ability to: use computer applications; and interpretation of the results. Statisticians may apply their knowledge of statistical methods to a variety decisions and evaluate the results of new programs. Some statisticians develop new statistical methods

Lawrence, Rick L.

434

Introduction to Descriptive Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial, authored by Jay Hill of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, introduces mean, median, mode, variance, and standard deviation using sports statistics from the Internet and class-generated statistics. Students should understand stem-and-leaf plots before using this tutorial. This material is intended for class use. Excel spreadsheets with sample data are also available for download. The relation links to a letter for teachers.

Hill, Jay

2009-01-19

435

Environmental Quality Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ), this site contains updated monthly tables with statistics about United States environmental quality. The major topics covered in these tables are population, economy and the environment, public lands, ecosystems, air quality, aquatic resources, terrestrial resources, pollution prevention, energy, transportation, and the global environment. The tables indicate data sources, and an archive of statistics for earlier years is provided.

436

Using continuous DNA interpretation methods to revisit likelihood ratio behaviour.  

PubMed

Continuous DNA interpretation systems make use of more information from DNA profiles than analysts have previously been able to with binary, threshold based systems. With these new continuous DNA interpretation systems and a new, more powerful, DNA profiling kit (GlobalFiler) there is an opportunity to re-examine the behaviour of a commonly used statistic in forensic science, the likelihood ratio (LR). The theoretical behaviour of the LR has been known for some time, although in many instances the behaviour has not been able to be thoroughly demonstrated due to limitations of the biological and mathematical models being used. In this paper the effects of profile complexity, replicate amplifications, assuming contributors, adding incorrect information, and adding irrelevant information to the calculation of the LR are explored. The empirical results are compared to theoretical expectations and explained. The work finishes with the results being used to dispel common misconceptions around reliability, accuracy, informativeness and reproducibility. PMID:24727432

Taylor, Duncan

2014-07-01

437

Irish Cepaea nemoralis Land Snails Have a Cryptic Franco-Iberian Origin That Is Most Easily Explained by the Movements of Mesolithic Humans  

PubMed Central

The origins of flora and fauna that are only found in Ireland and Iberia, but which are absent from intervening countries, is one of the enduring questions of biogeography. As Southern French, Iberian and Irish populations of the land snail Cepaea nemoralis sometimes have a similar shell character, we used mitochondrial phylogenies to begin to understand if there is a shared “Lusitanian” history. Although much of Europe contains snails with A and D lineages, by far the majority of Irish individuals have a lineage, C, that in mainland Europe was only found in a restricted region of the Eastern Pyrenees. A past extinction of lineage C in the rest of Europe cannot be ruled out, but as there is a more than 8000 year continuous record of Cepaea fossils in Ireland, the species has long been a food source in the Pyrenees, and the Garonne river that flanks the Pyrenees is an ancient human route to the Atlantic, then we suggest that the unusual distribution of the C lineage is most easily explained by the movements of Mesolithic humans. If other Irish species have a similarly cryptic Lusitanian element, then this raises the possibility of a more widespread and significant pattern. PMID:23840368

Grindon, Adele J.; Davison, Angus

2013-01-01

438

A technique for making holograms easily and for measuring simultaneously the behaviour of particles of different sizes and/or shapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new technique for rapidly discriminating shapes and/or sizes of micrometre size particles which are spatially distributed on a large scale has been developed. The technique is based on multiplexed matched spatial filtering, which is a kind of Fourier holographic filtering technique. Using the technique, large view visualization of the spatial distribution and the spatial behaviour of specific particles (e.g. aerosols, allergen particles, red blood cells, etc) can be realized. To make the multiplexed matched spatial filter (MMSF), a new material for hologram recording has been applied. The material is a photoconductor plastic which is processed by a solvent vapour and a corona discharge. The method of hologram recording is a dry process, which processes the material in several minutes at the initial settings of the device. Therefore, the MMSF can be made very easily in a short time. In the research, the discrimination of spatial behaviour of moving particles of different shape and/or size has been carried out by the MMSF made by the photoconductor plastic material.

Shimizu, Isao; Kato, Fumitake; Ikeda, Koh; Ohashi, Yoshisada

2004-04-01

439

Interface problems: Structural constraints on interpretation?  

PubMed Central

Five experiments investigated the interpretation of quantified noun phrases in relation to discourse structure. They demonstrated, using questionnaire and on-line reading techniques, that readers in English prefer to give a quantified noun phrase in (VP-external) subject position a presuppositional interpretation, in which the noun phrase limits or restricts the interpretation of an already available set, rather than giving it a nonpresuppositional or existential interpretation, in which it introduces completely new entities into the discourse. Experiment 1 showed that readers prefer a presuppositional interpretation of three ships over the existential interpretation in Five ships appeared on the horizon. Three ships sank. Experiment 2 showed longer reading times in sentences that are disambiguated toward the existential interpretation than in sentences that permit the presuppositional interpretation. Experiment 3 suggested that the presuppositional preference is greater when the phrase three ships occurs outside the verb phrase than when it occurs inside the verb phrase. Experiment 4 showed that Korean subjects marked with a topic marker received more presuppositional interpretations than subjects marked with a nominative marker. Experiment 5 showed that German subjects in VP-external (but nontopic) position received more presuppositional interpretations than VP-internal subjects. The results suggest the syntactic position of a phrase is one determinant of its interpretation, as expected according to the mapping hypothesis of Diesing (1990). PMID:16050443

Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles; Rayner, Keith; Deevy, Patricia; Koh, Sungryong; Bader, Markus

2006-01-01

440

Data analysis using the Gnu R system for statistical computation  

SciTech Connect

R is a language system for statistical computation. It is widely used in statistics, bioinformatics, machine learning, data mining, quantitative finance, and the analysis of clinical drug trials. Among the advantages of R are: it has become the standard language for developing statistical techniques, it is being actively developed by a large and growing global user community, it is open source software, it is highly portable (Linux, OS-X and Windows), it has a built-in documentation system, it produces high quality graphics and it is easily extensible with over four thousand extension library packages available covering statistics and applications. This report gives a very brief introduction to R with some examples using lattice QCD simulation results. It then discusses the development of R packages designed for chi-square minimization fits for lattice n-pt correlation functions.

Simone, James; /Fermilab

2011-07-01

441

Statistics: Part 1 1. Why bother with statistics?  

E-print Network

Statistics: Part 1 1. Why bother with statistics? Why is statistics so necessary for observational. But your data just don't seem to back up their claim. Statistics allows you to determine how confidently) practical introduction to those bits of statistics most vital to observational astronomy. 2. What

Francis, Paul

442

Statistics 36-756: Advanced Statistics II Syllabus: Fall, 2006  

E-print Network

Statistics 36-756: Advanced Statistics II Syllabus: Fall, 2006 Instructor: Stephen E. Fienberg 132G: · To consider major topics from statistical theory and the foundations of inference not covered in Statistics 36-756: Advanced Statistics I, such as exchangeability, the axiomatic foundation of subjective probability

Fienberg, Stephen E.

443

Applied Math & Statistics: Statistics Minor Curriculum Chart: 2013-2014  

E-print Network

Applied Math & Statistics: Statistics Minor Curriculum Chart: 2013-2014 http PSYC 181 CMPE 108 SOCY 103A CMPS 142 TIM 230 Information on the Statistics Minor The statistics minor as preparation for a graduate degree in statistics or biostatistics. Course Information With permission from

Stuart, Josh

444

Statistical model with a standard ? distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a statistical model consisting of N basic units which interact with each other by exchanging a physical entity, according to a given microscopic random law, depending on a parameter ? . We focus on the equilibrium or stationary distribution of the entity exchanged and verify through numerical fitting of the simulation data that the final form of the equilibrium distribution is that of a standard Gamma distribution. The model can be interpreted as a simple closed economy in which economic agents trade money and a saving criterion is fixed by the saving propensity ? . Alternatively, from the nature of the equilibrium distribution, we show that the model can also be interpreted as a perfect gas at an effective temperature T(?) , where particles exchange energy in a space with an effective dimension D(?) .

Patriarca, Marco; Chakraborti, Anirban; Kaski, Kimmo

2004-07-01

445

Interpreting NHANES biomonitoring data, cadmium.  

PubMed

Cadmium (Cd) occurs naturally in the environment and the general population's exposure to it is predominantly through diet. Chronic Cd exposure is a public health concern because Cd is a known carcinogen; it accumulates in the body and causes kidney damage. The National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) has measured urinary Cd; the 2003-2004 NHANES survey cycle reported estimates for 2257 persons aged 6 years and older in the Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals. As part of translational research to make computerized models accessible to health risk assessors we re-coded a cadmium model in Berkeley Madonna simulation language. This model was used in our computational toxicology laboratory to predict the urinary excretion of cadmium. The model simulated the NHANES-measured data very well from ages 6 to 60+ years. An unusual increase in Cd urinary excretion was observed among 6-11-year-olds, followed by a continuous monotonic rise into the seventh decade of life. This observation was also made in earlier studies that could be life stage-related and a function of anatomical and phsysiological changes occurring during this period of life. Urinary excretion of Cd was approximately twofold higher among females than males in all age groups. The model describes Cd's cumulative nature in humans and accommodates the observed variation in exposure/uptake over the course of a lifetime. Such models may be useful for interpreting biomonitoring data and risk assessment. PMID:20447450

Ruiz, Patricia; Mumtaz, Moiz; Osterloh, John; Fisher, Jeffrey; Fowler, Bruce A

2010-09-15

446

Guide to Magellan image interpretation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of Magellan Mission requirements, radar system characteristics, and methods of data collection is followed by a description of the image data, mosaic formats, areal coverage, resolution, and pixel DN-to-dB conversion. The availability and sources of image data are outlined. Applications of the altimeter data to estimate relief, Fresnel reflectivity, and surface slope, and the radiometer data to derive microwave emissivity are summarized and illustrated in conjunction with corresponding SAR image data. Same-side and opposite-side stereo images provide examples of parallax differences from which to measure relief with a lateral resolution many times greater than that of the altimeter. Basic radar interactions with geologic surfaces are discussed with respect to radar-imaging geometry, surface roughness, backscatter modeling, and dielectric constant. Techniques are described for interpreting the geomorphology and surface properties of surficial features, impact craters, tectonically deformed terrain, and volcanic landforms. The morphologic characteristics that distinguish impact craters from volcanic craters are defined. Criteria for discriminating extensional and compressional origins of tectonic features are discussed. Volcanic edifices, constructs, and lava channels are readily identified from their radar outlines in images. Geologic map units are identified on the basis of surface texture, image brightness, pattern, and morphology. Superposition, cross-cutting relations, and areal distribution of the units serve to elucidate the geologic history.

Ford, John P.; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Weitz, Catherine M.; Farr, Tom G.; Senske, David A.; Stofan, Ellen R.; Michaels, Gregory; Parker, Timothy J.; Fulton, D. (editor)

1993-01-01

447

Hunting Down Interpretations of the HERA Large-Q^2 data  

E-print Network

Possible interpretations of the HERA large-Q^2 data are reviewed briefly. The possibility of statistical fluctuations cannot be ruled out, and it seems premature to argue that the H1 and ZEUS anomalies are incompatible. The data cannot be explained away by modifications of parton distributions, nor do contact interactions help. A leptoquark interpretation would need a large tau-q branching ratio. Several R-violating squark interpretations are still viable despite all the constraints, and offer interesting experimental signatures, but please do not hold your breath.

John Ellis

1997-12-11

448

Static and statistical bending of DNA evaluated by Monte Carlo simulations.  

PubMed Central

To investigate the influence of thermal fluctuations on DNA curvature the Metropolis procedure at 300 K was applied to B-DNA decamers containing A5.T5 and A4.T4 blocks. Monte Carlo simulations have confirmed the DNA bending anisotropy: B-DNA bends most easily in a groove direction (roll). The A5.T5 block is more rigid than the other sequences; the pyrimidine-purine dimers are found to be the most flexible. For A5TCTCT, A5CTCTC, and A5GAGAG, the average bend angle per decamer is 20-25 degrees in a direction toward the minor groove in the center of the A5.T5 tract, which is consistent with both the "junction" and "wedge AA" models. However, in A5T5, A4T4CG, and T4A4GC, bending is directed into the grooves at the 5' and 3' ends of purine tracts. Thus, directionality of bending caused by An.Tn blocks strongly depends on their neighboring sequences. These calculations demonstrate that the sequence-dependent variation of the minor-groove width mimics the observed hydroxyl radical cleavage pattern. To estimate the effect of fluctuations on the overall shape of curved DNA fragments, longer pieces of DNA (up to 200 base pairs) were generated. For sequences with strong curvature (A5X5 and A4T4CG), the static model and Monte Carlo ensemble give similar results but, for moderately and slightly curved sequences (A5T5 or T4A4GC), the static model predicts a much smaller degree of bending than does the statistical representation. Considering fluctuations is important for quantitative interpretation of the gel electrophoresis measurements of DNA curvature, where both the static and statistical bends are operative. PMID:1871119

Zhurkin, V B; Ulyanov, N B; Gorin, A A; Jernigan, R L

1991-01-01

449

Statistical Physics of Fracture  

SciTech Connect

Disorder and long-range interactions are two of the key components that make material failure an interesting playfield for the application of statistical mechanics. The cornerstone in this respect has been lattice models of the fracture in which a network of elastic beams, bonds, or electrical fuses with random failure thresholds are subject to an increasing external load. These models describe on a qualitative level the failure processes of real, brittle, or quasi-brittle materials. This has been particularly important in solving the classical engineering problems of material strength: the size dependence of maximum stress and its sample-to-sample statistical fluctuations. At the same time, lattice models pose many new fundamental questions in statistical physics, such as the relation between fracture and phase transitions. Experimental results point out to the existence of an intriguing crackling noise in the acoustic emission and of self-affine fractals in the crack surface morphology. Recent advances in computer power have enabled considerable progress in the understanding of such models. Among these partly still controversial issues, are the scaling and size-effects in material strength and accumulated damage, the statistics of avalanches or bursts of microfailures, and the morphology of the crack surface. Here we present an overview of the results obtained with lattice models for fracture, highlighting the relations with statistical physics theories and more conventional fracture mechanics approaches.

Alava, Mikko [Helsinki University of Technology, Helsinki, Finland; Nukala, Phani K [ORNL; Zapperi, Stefano [University of La Sapienza, Rome

2006-05-01

450

Statistical models of flares  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By 'statistical' models of flares we denote the global stochastic models of the dynamics of the energy-release process and its associated phenomena which consider flares to consist in a large number of constituent small-scale processes. The observations strongly support such a kind of models: a) Radio-and HXR-emission of flares are highly fragmented in space and time, suggesting that the flare process itself is spatially and temporarily fragmented (De Jager and De Jonge 1978, Benz 1985, Aschwanden et al. 1990). b) The temporal dynamics of flares has been shown to be 'complex' (relatively high-dimensional chaotic or stochastic) through time-series analysis of radio-emission (dimension-estimate and power-spectra: Isliker and Benz (1994), Isliker (1996), Ryabov et al. (1997); wavelet transform: Aschwanden et al. 1998, Schwarz et al. 1998). c) Spatially, there are only weak and local correlations between neighbouring burst-sites, reminiscent of a chain-reaction (analysis of nb-spikes spectrograms with symbolic dynamics: Schwarz et al. 1993). The most prominent global dynamical models of the energy-release process which comprise entire flares are Cellular Automata (CA) models (Lu and Hamilton 1991, Lu et al. 1993; extended to model nano-flares: Vlahos et al. 1995, Georgoulis and Vlahos 1996; including non-local communications: MacKinnon et al. 1996; an analytic approach: MacKinnon and MacPherson 1997). In these models, the local processes (reconnection) are modeled in a strongly simplified way, by simple evolution rules, so that inhomogeneous active regions can be modeled entirely. Alternatively, Isliker (1996) proposed a shot noise model for flares. This model is able to explain the temporal characteristics of the flare-process, however, it is formal, so-far, it has not been tied to physics, yet. A different class of stochastic models has been proposed to explain the dynamics of the corona as a whole, with randomly occurring flares (Rosner and Vaiana 1978, criticized in Lu 1995b; Litvinenko 1996; a new approach (a master equation for the flare occurrence probability): Wheatland and Glukhov 1998). In this approach, structures within a flare are not resolved, the aim is to explain the occurrence rate and total sizes of flares. The CA models are successful in explaining the distributions of the peak-fluxes, total fluxes, and durations of HXR-emission, which are all power-laws (see references in Aschwanden et al. 1998). In the radio range, peak-flux distributions of generalized power-law and exponential shape are observed, which generally are steeper than in the HXR (type I: Mercier and Trottet (1997); type III, decim. pulsations, nb-spikes: Aschwanden et al. 1998; type III: Isliker and Vlahos 1998; nb-spikes: Isliker and Benz 1998). Since radio-waves can be emitted in low energy events, the steep distributions might be a hint that small flares (micro-flares) have a steep distribution, too, and might therewith substantially contribute to coronal heating. It must be noted, however, that poor time- or frequency-resolution can lead to a steepening of the peak-flux distributions (Isliker and Benz 1998), an effect whose influence on the published events has to be discussed, still. Originally, the evolution rules of the CAs were only loosely motivated through physical considerations and basically taken from the 'sand-pile' paradigm, above all the connection between CA and MHD (the local theory of magnetic reconnection) was missing. Recently, Isliker et al. (1998) have shown that the evolution rules of the CAs correspond to localized, threshold dependent diffusion, implementing directly the solution of a diffusion equation, with unknown diffusivity and scales. Thus, CAs can be interpreted as an implementation of the (simplified) induction equation in a large, inhomogeneous medium. A complete flare model needs to incorporate not just the energy release process, but also the acceleration and transport of particles, as well as the generation of EM-emission. First steps towards this direction are done: Anastasiadis et al. 1997 studied acce

Isliker, H.

451

FISHERY STATISTICS E UNITED STATES  

E-print Network

SH 11 .A443X FISH FISHERY STATISTICS E UNITED STATES ^ 1951 &ch 3. \\§^ ^/'· m:^ STATISTICAL DIGEST. Farley, Director Statistical Digest 30 FISHERY STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES 1951 BY A. W. ANDERSON;Fishery Statistics of the United States and Alaska are compiled and published annually to make available

452

Statistical foundations of liquid-crystal theory  

PubMed Central

Working on a state space determined by considering a discrete system of rigid rods, we use nonequilibrium statistical mechanics to derive macroscopic balance laws for liquid crystals. A probability function that satisfies the Liouville equation serves as the starting point for deriving each macroscopic balance. The terms appearing in the derived balances are interpreted as expected values and explicit formulas for these terms are obtained. Among the list of derived balances appear two, the tensor moment of inertia balance and the mesofluctuation balance, that are not standard in previously proposed macroscopic theories for liquid crystals but which have precedents in other theories for structured media. PMID:23554513

Seguin, Brian; Fried, Eliot

2013-01-01

453

Statistical Understanding Made Simple  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching statistics can be tough for even experienced instructors, so it is nice to learn about the Statistical Understanding Made Simple (SUMS) website. Created by researchers at the University of Glasgow, the site helps users build "interactive, fun and highly effective tutorials designed to help students understand basic statistics." Visitors who wish to have the resource generator create tutorials will need to register on the site and provide a small data set. Of course, visitors can also check out the "Ready Made Tutorials" area, where they will discover projects that examine the relationship between height and weight and the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy on depression. Additionally, the site also contains several games which students can use to explore the effects of standard deviation and histograms.

454

Statistical Mechanics of Wormholes  

E-print Network

The statistical mechanics of a gas of Einstein-Kalb-Ramond wormholes is studied in this paper. The wormholes studied are the result of sewing together two Reissner-Nordstrom-type black hole metrics at their horizons. By requiring the stress-energy tensor associated with this geometry to be that of a Kalb-Ramond field, we obtain the mass and Kalb-Ramond `charge` of the wormholes in terms of the parameters describing the mass density, tension and pressure. We investigate the statistical mechanics of this system of wormholes within the context of the statistical bootstrap model. A gas of such wormholes is found to obey the bootstrap condition only for an extreme, non-thermodynamic, energy and `charge` distribution among the particles. We comment briefly on the scattering of quantum wormholes.

Paul H. Cox; Benjamin C. Harms; Shaoqi Hou

2011-09-29

455

GSE statistics without spin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy level statistics following the Gaussian Symplectic Ensemble (GSE) of Random Matrix Theory have been predicted theoretically and observed numerically in numerous quantum chaotic systems. However, in all these systems there has been one unifying feature: the combination of half-integer spin and time-reversal invariance. Here we provide an alternative mechanism for obtaining GSE statistics that is derived from geometric symmetries of a quantum system which alleviates the need for spin. As an example, we construct a quantum graph with a discrete symmetry given by the quaternion group Q8 and observe GSE statistics within one of its subspectra. We then show how to isolate this subspectrum and construct a quantum graph with a scalar valued wave function and a pure GSE spectrum.

Joyner, Christopher H.; Müller, Sebastian; Sieber, Martin

2014-09-01

456

National Transportation Statistics 2001  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released in July 2002, this 431-page document prepared by the United States Bureau of Transportation Statistics contains almost every piece of aggregate data on transportation imaginable. While going through the entire document may be a challenge, the report is divided into more readily digestible sections such as Transportation System, Transportation Safety, and Transportation and the Economy. The majority of the report consists of tables and charts that summarize a variety of transportation statistics, such as Retail New Passenger Car Sales, Principal Means of Transportation to Work, and Railroad Passenger Safety Data. This exhaustive survey of the United States transportation system will be most helpful to those doing research in the field of transportation policy or those just looking for useful statistics.

2002-01-01

457

Footprints of Statistical Anisotropies  

E-print Network

We propose and develop a formalism to describe and constrain statistically anisotropic primordial perturbations. Starting from a decomposition of the primordial power spectrum in spherical harmonics, we find how the temperature fluctuations observed in the CMB sky are directly related to the coefficients in this harmonic expansion. Although the angular power spectrum does not discriminate between statistically isotropic and anisotropic perturbations, it is possible to define analogous quadratic estimators that are direct measures of statistical anisotropy. As a simple illustration of our formalism we test for the existence of a preferred direction in the primordial perturbations using full-sky CMB maps. We do not find significant evidence supporting the existence of a dipole component in the primordial spectrum.

C. Armendariz-Picon

2005-09-29

458

UNESCO Institute for Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1999, the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) was designed to meet both the needs of UNESCO Member States and to provide the international community with a wide range of statistical information in order to "analyze the efficiency and effectiveness of their programmes and to inform their policy decisions." The UIC is hosted by the University of Montreal, and performs work around four primary themes, including education, literacy, culture & communication, and science & technology. Overall, the site is a remarkable source of information, including databases, working papers, country profiles, statistical tables, and methodological material about the conduct of their research. Several of these works are featured prominently on their homepage including a working paper on financing the expansion of educational opportunity in Latin America and the Caribbean and an electronic questionnaire on science and technology.

459

BEING CRITICAL ABOUT APPROACHES TO RESEARCH IN STATISTICS EDUCATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teachers undertaking educational research for the first time usually begin their explorations by evaluating some aspect of their practice. By contrast, experienced researchers will start from an argued research question supported by a defined theoretical framework. In this paper, we use a critical discourse approach to explore various interpretive research paradigms that are commonly used to investigate aspects of statistics

Anna Reid; Peter Petocz

2006-01-01

460

Assessing Statistical Aspects of Test Fairness with Structural Equation Modelling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Test fairness and test bias are not synonymous concepts. Test bias refers to statistical evidence that the psychometrics or interpretation of test scores depend on group membership, such as gender or race, when such differences are not expected. A test that is grossly biased may be judged to be unfair, but test fairness concerns the broader, more…

Kline, Rex B.

2013-01-01

461

The Overrepresentation of Juvenile Crime Proportions in Robbery Clearance Statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many, especially casual observers, interpret juvenile arrest statistics to bea measure of crime committed by juveniles. Others argue that clearancestatistics are a more representative index of the relative responsibility ofjuveniles. Using data from the FBI's National Incident-Based ReportingSystem, this paper explores the likelihoods of arrests for juvenile andadult robbery offenders. The findings show that juvenile robbery suspectsare 23% more likely

Howard N. Snyder

1999-01-01

462

Statistics review 3: Hypothesis testing and P values  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present review introduces the general philosophy behind hypothesis (significance) testing and calculation of P values. Guidelines for the interpretation of P values are also provided in the context of a published example, along with some of the common pitfalls. Examples of specific statistical tests will be covered in future reviews.

Elise Whitley; Jonathan Ball

2002-01-01

463

Relaxation in statistical many-agent economy models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review some statistical many-agent models of economic and social systems inspired by microscopic molecular models and discuss their stochastic interpretation. We apply these models to wealth exchange in economics and study how the relaxation process depends on the parameters of the system, in particular on the saving propensities that define and diversify the agent profiles.

Patriarca, M.; Chakraborti, A.; Heinsalu, E.; Germano, G.

2007-05-01

464

Basic Statistical Concepts and Methods for Earth Scientists  

USGS Publications Warehouse

INTRODUCTION Statistics is the science of collecting, analyzing, interpreting, modeling, and displaying masses of numerical data primarily for the characterization and understanding of incompletely known systems. Over the years, these objectives have lead to a fair amount of analytical work to achieve, substantiate, and guide descriptions and inferences.

Olea, Ricardo A.

2008-01-01

465

Using Statistics to Lie, Distort, and Abuse Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistics is a branch of mathematics that involves organization, presentation, and interpretation of data, both quantitative and qualitative. Data do not lie, but people do. On the surface, quantitative data are basically inanimate objects, nothing more than lifeless and meaningless symbols that appear on a page, calculator, computer, or in one's…

Bintz, William; Moore, Sara; Adams, Cheryll; Pierce, Rebecca

2009-01-01

466

Statistical models for cores decomposition of an undirected random graph  

E-print Network

We develop a rigorous and interpretable statistical model for networks using their shell structure to construct minimal sufficient statistics. The model provides the formalism necessary for using k-cores in statistical considerations of random graphs, and in particular social networks. It cannot be specialized to any known degree-centric model and does not generalize Erd\\"os-R\\'enyi. We propose a sampling algorithm for constructing all graphs with a given shell structure, and an MCMC algorithm to simulate from the model. These algorithms will serve as a basis for parameter estimation and model fit tests.

Karwa, Vishesh; Petrovi?, Sonja; Stasi, Despina; Wilburne, Dane

2014-01-01

467

Statistics of statisticians: Critical mass of statistics and operational research groups in the UK  

E-print Network

Using a recently developed model, inspired by mean field theory in statistical physics, and data from the UK's Research Assessment Exercise, we analyse the relationship between the quality of statistics and operational research groups and the quantity researchers in them. Similar to other academic disciplines, we provide evidence for a linear dependency of quality on quantity up to an upper critical mass, which is interpreted as the average maximum number of colleagues with whom a researcher can communicate meaningfully within a research group. The model also predicts a lower critical mass, which research groups should strive to achieve to avoid extinction. For statistics and operational research, the lower critical mass is estimated to be 9 $\\pm$ 3. The upper critical mass, beyond which research quality does not significantly depend on group size, is about twice this value.

Kenna, Ralph

2011-01-01

468

Perspectives in Statistical Mechanics  

E-print Network

Without attempting to summarize the vast field of statistical mechanics, we briefly mention some of the progress that was made in areas which have enjoyed Barry Simon's interests. In particular, we focus on rigorous non-perturbative results which provide insight on the spread of correlations in Gibbs equilibrium states and yield information on phase transitions and critical phenomena. Briefly mentioned also are certain spinoffs, where ideas which have been fruitful within the context of statistical mechanics proved to be of use in other areas, and some recent results which relate to previously open questions and conjectures.

Michael Aizenman

2006-07-12

469

Statistical Data Mining Tutorials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These tutorial, created by Professor Andrew Moore at Carnegie-Mellon University, cover a range of topics in statistical data mining "including the foundations of probability, the foundations of statistical data analysis, and most of the classic machine learning and data mining algorithms." Decision Trees, Information Gain, and Cross-Validation are just a few of the items presented here. Each topic contains a set of tutorial slides in PDF, excellent for converting into a classroom presentation or left as they are for a classroom handout or online learning resource.

Moore, Andrew W., Ph.D.

2011-04-18

470

Concurrent behavior: Are the interpretations mutually exclusive?  

PubMed Central

The experimental literature is replete with examples of behavior which occur concurrently with a schedule of reinforcement. These concurrent behaviors, often with similar topographies and occurring under like circumstances, may be interpreted as functionally autonomous, collateral, adjunctive, superstitious or mediating behavior. The degree to which the interaction of concurrent and schedule controlled behavior is used in the interpretation of behavior illustrated the importance of distinguishing among these interpretations by experimental procedure. The present paper reviews the characteristics of these interpretations, and discusses the experimental procedures necessary to distinguish among them. The paper concludes that the interpretations are mutually exclusive and refer to distinct behaviors, but that the distinction between any two of the interpretations requires more than one experimental procedure. PMID:22478568

Lyon, David O.

1982-01-01

471

Medical Statistics: A Textbook for the Health Sciences, Fourth Edition: Provides students and practitioners with a clear, concise introduction to the statistics  

E-print Network

examples and exercises on the interpretation of the statistics in papers published in medical journals httpMedical Statistics: A Textbook for the Health Sciences, Fourth Edition: Provides students reading of clinical papers. Written by three experts with wide teaching and consulting experience, Medical

Oakley, Jeremy

472

Quantum statistical inference for density estimation  

SciTech Connect

A new penalized likelihood method for non-parametric density estimation is proposed, which is based on a mathematical analogy to quantum statistical physics. The mathematical procedure for density estimation is related to maximum entropy methods for inverse problems; the penalty function is a convex information divergence enforcing global smoothing toward default models, positivity, extensivity and normalization. The novel feature is the replacement of classical entropy by quantum entropy, so that local smoothing may be enforced by constraints on the expectation values of differential operators. Although the hyperparameters, covariance, and linear response to perturbations can be estimated by a variety of statistical methods, we develop the Bayesian interpretation. The linear response of the MAP estimate is proportional to the covariance. The hyperparameters are estimated by type-II maximum likelihood. The method is demonstrated on standard data sets.

Silver, R.N.; Martz, H.F.; Wallstrom, T.

1993-11-01

473

Applications of quantum entropy to statistics  

SciTech Connect

This paper develops two generalizations of the maximum entropy (ME) principle. First, Shannon classical entropy is replaced by von Neumann quantum entropy to yield a broader class of information divergences (or penalty functions) for statistics applications. Negative relative quantum entropy enforces convexity, positivity, non-local extensivity and prior correlations such as smoothness. This enables the extension of ME methods from their traditional domain of ill-posed in-verse problems to new applications such as non-parametric density estimation. Second, given a choice of information divergence, a combination of ME and Bayes rule is used to assign both prior and posterior probabilities. Hyperparameters are interpreted as Lagrange multipliers enforcing constraints. Conservation principles are proposed to act statistical regularization and other hyperparameters, such as conservation of information and smoothness. ME provides an alternative to heirarchical Bayes methods.

Silver, R.N.; Martz, H.F.

1994-07-01

474

Statistical prediction with Kanerva's sparse distributed memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new viewpoint of the processing performed by Kanerva's sparse distributed memory (SDM) is presented. In conditions of near- or over-capacity, where the associative-memory behavior of the model breaks down, the processing performed by the model can be interpreted as that of a statistical predictor. Mathematical results are presented which serve as the framework for a new statistical viewpoint of sparse distributed memory and for which the standard formulation of SDM is a special case. This viewpoint suggests possible enhancements to the SDM model, including a procedure for improving the predictiveness of the system based on Holland's work with genetic algorithms, and a method for improving the capacity of SDM even when used as an associative memory.

Rogers, David

1989-01-01

475

The Statistical Consulting Center for Astronomy (SCCA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The process by which raw astronomical data acquisition is transformed into scientifically meaningful results and interpretation typically involves many statistical steps. Traditional astronomy limits itself to a narrow range of old and familiar statistical methods: means and standard deviations; least-squares methods like chi(sup 2) minimization; and simple nonparametric procedures such as the Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. These tools are often inadequate for the complex problems and datasets under investigations, and recent years have witnessed an increased usage of maximum-likelihood, survival analysis, multivariate analysis, wavelet and advanced time-series methods. The Statistical Consulting Center for Astronomy (SCCA) assisted astronomers with the use of sophisticated tools, and to match these tools with specific problems. The SCCA operated with two professors of statistics and a professor of astronomy working together. Questions were received by e-mail, and were discussed in detail with the questioner. Summaries of those questions and answers leading to new approaches were posted on the Web (www.state.psu.edu/ mga/SCCA). In addition to serving individual astronomers, the SCCA established a Web site for general use that provides hypertext links to selected on-line public-domain statistical software and services. The StatCodes site (www.astro.psu.edu/statcodes) provides over 200 links in the areas of: Bayesian statistics; censored and truncated data; correlation and regression, density estimation and smoothing, general statistics packages and information; image analysis; interactive Web tools; multivariate analysis; multivariate clustering and classification; nonparametric analysis; software written by astronomers; spatial statistics; statistical distributions; time series analysis; and visualization tools. StatCodes has received a remarkable high and constant hit rate of 250 hits/week (over 10,000/year) since its inception in mid-1997. It is of interest to scientists both within and outside of astronomy. The most popular sections are multivariate techniques, image analysis, and time series analysis. Hundreds of copies of the ASURV, SLOPES and CENS-TAU codes developed by SCCA scientists were also downloaded from the StatCodes site. In addition to formal SCCA duties, SCCA scientists continued a variety of related activities in astrostatistics, including refereeing of statistically oriented papers submitted to the Astrophysical Journal, talks in meetings including Feigelson's talk to science journalists entitled "The reemergence of astrostatistics" at the American Association for the Advancement of Science meeting, and published papers of astrostatistical content.

Akritas, Michael

2001-01-01

476

Klein Paradox in the Pilot Wave Interpretation  

E-print Network

The de Broglie-Bohm pilot wave interpretation of quantum mechanics is shown to provide a consistent explanation for a single relativistic particle (more accurately, a single particle process since pair production is addressed). This is accomplished by incorporating the Feynman-Stueckelberg interpretation of anti-matter. The lack of conserved probability and existence of negative energy solutions is studied through this interpretation. We discuss the resolution of Klein's original paradox through the pilot wave interpretation, and similarly analyze the potential barrier problem. Simulations are presented for a wave packet incident on potential steps & barriers of various heights.

John F. Dodaro

2013-12-04

477

Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics: a critical survey  

E-print Network

This brief survey analyzes the epistemological implications about the role of observer in the interpretations of Quantum Mechanics. As we know, the goal of most interpretations of quantum mechanics is to avoid the apparent intrusion of the observer into the measurement process. In the same time, there are implicit and hidden assumptions about his role. In fact, most interpretations taking as ontic level one of these fundamental concepts as information, physical law and matter bring us to new problematical questions. We think, that no interpretation of the quantum theory can avoid this intrusion until we do not clarify the nature of observer.

Michele Caponigro

2008-11-24

478

Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics: a critical survey  

E-print Network

This brief survey analyzes the epistemological implications about the role of observer in the interpretations of Quantum Mechanics. As we know, the goal of most interpretations of quantum mechanics is to avoid the apparent intrusion of the observer into the measurement process. In the same time, there are implicit and hidden assumptions about his role. In fact, most interpretations taking as ontic level one of these fundamental concepts as information, physical law and matter bring us to new problematical questions. We think, that no interpretation of the quantum theory can avoid this intrusion until we do not clarify the nature of observer.

Caponigro, Michele

2008-01-01

479

Observations & Interpretations: Engaging Students in Classroom Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used to introduce or reinforce in students the importance of differentiating between observations and interpretations and quantitative and qualitative observations during classroom experimentation or demonstrations

480

Data Torturing and the Misuse of Statistical Tools  

SciTech Connect

Statistical concepts, methods, and tools are often used in the implementation of statistical thinking. Unfortunately, statistical tools are all too often misused by not applying them in the context of statistical thinking that focuses on processes, variation, and data. The consequences of this misuse may be ''data torturing'' or going beyond reasonable interpretation of the facts due to a misunderstanding of the processes creating the data or the misinterpretation of variability in the data. In the hope of averting future misuse and data torturing, examples are provided where the application of common statistical tools, in the absence of statistical thinking, provides deceptive results by not adequately representing the underlying process and variability. For each of the examples, a discussion is provided on how applying the concepts of statistical thinking may have prevented the data torturing. The lessons learned from these examples will provide an increased awareness of the potential for many statistical methods to mislead and a better understanding of how statistical thinking broadens and increases the effectiveness of statistical tools.

Abate, Marcey L.

1999-08-16

481

Medical Interpreters as Tools: Dangers and Challenges in the Utilitarian Approach to Interpreters’ Roles and Functions  

PubMed Central

Objective This study explores the tensions, challenges, and dangers when a utilitarian view of interpreter is constructed, imposed, and/or reinforced in health care settings. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with 26 medical interpreters from 17 different languages and cultures and 39 providers of five specialties. Grounded theory was used for data analysis. Results The utilitarian view to interpreters’ roles and functions influences providers in the following areas: (a) hierarchical structure and unidirectional communication, (b) the interpreter seen as information gatekeeper, (c) the interpreter seen as provider proxy, and (d) interpreter’s emotional support perceived as tools. Conclusion When interpreters are viewed as passive instruments, a utilitarian approach may compromise the quality of care by silencing patients’ and interpreters’ voice, objectifying interpreters’ emotional work, and exploiting patients’ needs. Practice Implications Providers need to recognize that a utilitarian approach to the interpreter’s role and functions may create interpersonal and ethical dilemmas that compromise the quality of care. By viewing interpreters as smart technology (rather than passive instruments), both providers and interpreters can learn from and co-evolve with each other, allowing them to maintain control over their expertise and to work as collaborators in providing quality care. PMID:22857777

Kramer, Eric M.

2012-01-01

482

Uniiversity o Traffic Statist  

E-print Network

. The department's focus is to reduce the Community's fear of crime by the prevention of crime, the protection in this report were compiled through use of the Computer Aided Dispatch System and the Report Management System not allow for exact numbers to be captured. A new and improved system of computer entries and statistical

Van Stryland, Eric

483

Uniiversity o Traffic Statist  

E-print Network

the Community's fear of crime by the prevention of crime, the protection of life and property; the preservation of the Computer Aided Dispatch System and the Report Management System. While we strive to provide the most to be captured. A new and improved system of computer entries and statistical capture was brought online

Kik, Pieter

484

Statistical Abstract, 1986.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first annual Statistical Abstract for the University of Alaska System provides factual information for use by the Board of Regents, college administrators, and public officials in the development of university plans and programs. Topics cover: enrollments, programs and awards, faculty and staff, facilities and space, fiscal analysis,…

Alaska Univ., Fairbanks.

485

MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS  

E-print Network

MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS Canterbury The UK's European university Undergraduate study #12;2 ACADEMIC EXCELLENCE AND INSPIRATIONAL TEACHING Much of science is based upon the application of mathematics as for computer science. New discoveries within mathematics affect not only science, but also our general

Banaji,. Murad

486

Library Research and Statistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These nine articles discuss research and statistics on libraries and librarianship, including libraries in the United States, Canada, and Mexico; acquisition expenditures in public, academic, special, and government libraries; price indexes; state rankings of public library data; library buildings; expenditures in school library media centers; and…

Lynch, Mary Jo; St. Lifer, Evan; Halstead, Kent; Fox, Bette-Lee; Miller, Marilyn L.; Shontz, Marilyn L.

2001-01-01

487

Statistical Identification of Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistically based program has been written which learns to distinguishbetween languages. The amount of training text that such a program needsis surprisingly small, and the amount of text needed to make an identificationis also quite small. The program incorporates no linguistic presuppositionsother than the assumption that text can be encoded as a string of bytes. Sucha program can be

Ted Dunning

1994-01-01

488

Statistical Applets: Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by authors Duckworth, McCabe, Moore and Sclove for W.H. Freeman and Co., this applet is designed to help students visualize power and its relationship to type I error by allowing them to adjust null and alternative hypotheses, sample size, standard deviation, and type I error. It accompanies "ÃÂÃÂPractice of Business Statistics," but can be used without this text.

Duckworth, William; Mccabe, George; Moore, David; Sclove, Stanley

2009-03-16

489

International Justice Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provides statistical information from the UN Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention as well as other participating research institutions. Provides links to UN data collections on crime and justice as well as links to justice department websites in a number of foreign countries.

490

Quantum Statistics Madalin Guta  

E-print Network

Quantum Statistics Madalin Gut¸a School of Mathematics University of Nottingham 1 #12;The old paradigm Quantum Mechanics up to the 80's Quantum measurements have random results Only probability particles, any more than we can raise Ichtyosauria in the zoo 2 #12;The new paradigm Individual quantum

Guta, Madalin

491

Statistics Primer to accompany  

E-print Network

taking a medical test. We observe patterns in the world, and we try to draw conclusions about how (Houghton et al., 2001). Ecologists are interested in whether plant and animal populations have been the Natural World? Statistics is essential to scientific discovery. Most biological studies involve five basic

Myers, Lauren Ancel

492

Statistics of stable marriages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the stable marriage problem N men and N women have to be matched by pairs under the constraint that the resulting matching is stable. We study the statistical properties of stable matchings in the large N limit using both numerical and analytical methods. Generalizations of the model including singles and unequal numbers of men and women are also investigated.

Dzierzawa, Michael; Oméro, Marie-José

2000-11-01

493

Answer Changing and Statistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of answer changing on the test scores of students studying educational statistics is investigated. The results show that students who make changes in their original responses significantly improve their overall test performance, and high-scoring students make a greater number of changes than low-scoring students. (Author/GSK)

Penfield, Douglas A.; Mercer, Maryann

1980-01-01

494

OECD Statistics Portal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of its mission, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) collects various statistics needed to create reports for both its member nations and the general public. Visitors can browse a variety of data sets as well as download data in Excel file format. A useful glossary is also provided.

495

Electromagnetism, Spin, and Statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delicacies in quantum physics for magnetic sources carrying electric charge, recently exposed by Wilczek, are studied further, with emphasis on the meaning of angular momentum for these systems, and the nature of phases which affect the statistics of indistinguishable objects. Wilczek has uncovered a remarkable two-body interaction which leads to a many-body system in two dimensions changing from Bose gas

Alfred S. Goldhaber

1982-01-01

496

Electromagnetism, spin, and statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delicacies in quantum physics for magnetic sources carrying electric charge, recently exposed by Wilczek, are studied further, with emphasis on the meaning of angular momentum for these systems, and the nature of phases which affect the statistics of indistinguishable objects. Wilczek has uncovered a remarkable two-body interaction which leads to a many-body system in two dimensions changing from Bose gas

Alfred Goldhaber

1982-01-01

497

Statistical origin of gravity  

SciTech Connect

Starting from the definition of entropy used in statistical mechanics we show that it is proportional to the gravity action. For a stationary black hole this entropy is expressed as S=E/2T, where T is the Hawking temperature and E is shown to be the Komar energy. This relation is also compatible with the generalized Smarr formula for mass.

Banerjee, Rabin; Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan [S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata-700098 (India)

2010-06-15

498

Data and Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... About CDC.gov . Hemophilia Share Compartir Data & Statistics In the United States [ Read article ] Hemophilia affects 1 in 5,000 ... The exact number of people living with hemophilia in the United States is not known. A CDC study conducted in ...

499

Statistics for Analytical Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides a brief reference on statistics that both analytical faculty and students will find useful. The site includes a series of problem sets and supporting MathCAD spreadsheets. Materials available on the website can be downloaded as a pdf file.

Van Bramer, Scott E.

2011-04-01

500