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Sample records for east asia part

  1. Peak-summer East Asian rainfall predictability and prediction part II: extratropical East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, So-Young; Wang, Bin; Xing, Wen

    2016-07-01

    The part II of the present study focuses on northern East Asia (NEA: 26°N-50°N, 100°-140°E), exploring the source and limit of the predictability of the peak summer (July-August) rainfall. Prediction of NEA peak summer rainfall is extremely challenging because of the exposure of the NEA to midlatitude influence. By examining four coupled climate models' multi-model ensemble (MME) hindcast during 1979-2010, we found that the domain-averaged MME temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) skill is only 0.13. It is unclear whether the dynamical models' poor skills are due to limited predictability of the peak-summer NEA rainfall. In the present study we attempted to address this issue by applying predictable mode analysis method using 35-year observations (1979-2013). Four empirical orthogonal modes of variability and associated major potential sources of variability are identified: (a) an equatorial western Pacific (EWP)-NEA teleconnection driven by EWP sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, (b) a western Pacific subtropical high and Indo-Pacific dipole SST feedback mode, (c) a central Pacific-El Nino-Southern Oscillation mode, and (d) a Eurasian wave train pattern. Physically meaningful predictors for each principal component (PC) were selected based on analysis of the lead-lag correlations with the persistent and tendency fields of SST and sea-level pressure from March to June. A suite of physical-empirical (P-E) models is established to predict the four leading PCs. The peak summer rainfall anomaly pattern is then objectively predicted by using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns. A 35-year cross-validated hindcast over the NEA yields a domain-averaged TCC skill of 0.36, which is significantly higher than the MME dynamical hindcast (0.13). The estimated maximum potential attainable TCC skill averaged over the entire domain is around 0.61, suggesting that the current dynamical prediction models may have large rooms to improve

  2. Peak-summer East Asian rainfall predictability and prediction part II: extratropical East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, So-Young; Wang, Bin; Xing, Wen

    2015-10-01

    The part II of the present study focuses on northern East Asia (NEA: 26°N-50°N, 100°-140°E), exploring the source and limit of the predictability of the peak summer (July-August) rainfall. Prediction of NEA peak summer rainfall is extremely challenging because of the exposure of the NEA to midlatitude influence. By examining four coupled climate models' multi-model ensemble (MME) hindcast during 1979-2010, we found that the domain-averaged MME temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) skill is only 0.13. It is unclear whether the dynamical models' poor skills are due to limited predictability of the peak-summer NEA rainfall. In the present study we attempted to address this issue by applying predictable mode analysis method using 35-year observations (1979-2013). Four empirical orthogonal modes of variability and associated major potential sources of variability are identified: (a) an equatorial western Pacific (EWP)-NEA teleconnection driven by EWP sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, (b) a western Pacific subtropical high and Indo-Pacific dipole SST feedback mode, (c) a central Pacific-El Nino-Southern Oscillation mode, and (d) a Eurasian wave train pattern. Physically meaningful predictors for each principal component (PC) were selected based on analysis of the lead-lag correlations with the persistent and tendency fields of SST and sea-level pressure from March to June. A suite of physical-empirical (P-E) models is established to predict the four leading PCs. The peak summer rainfall anomaly pattern is then objectively predicted by using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns. A 35-year cross-validated hindcast over the NEA yields a domain-averaged TCC skill of 0.36, which is significantly higher than the MME dynamical hindcast (0.13). The estimated maximum potential attainable TCC skill averaged over the entire domain is around 0.61, suggesting that the current dynamical prediction models may have large rooms to improve

  3. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume III, Part 2, Language Policy and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noss, Richard

    This document, the second part of the third volume of a study concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, discusses the problems aroused by language in the region. Chapters I-IV cover assumptions of the study, common problems of the region, current solutions, and future outlook.…

  4. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume III, Part 1, High-level Manpower for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Guy

    This document, the first part of the third volume of a study concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, appraises the high-level manpower needs of the region. The report is divided into two sections: the first includes the major comments on the position of high-level manpower in…

  5. Peak-summer East Asian rainfall predictability and prediction part I: Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Wen; Wang, Bin; Yim, So-Young

    2016-07-01

    The interannual variation of East Asia summer monsoon (EASM) rainfall exhibits considerable differences between early summer [May-June (MJ)] and peak summer [July-August (JA)]. The present study focuses on peak summer. During JA, the mean ridge line of the western Pacific subtropical High (WPSH) divides EASM domain into two sub-domains: the tropical EA (5°N-26.5°N) and subtropical-extratropical EA (26.5°N-50°N). Since the major variability patterns in the two sub-domains and their origins are substantially different, the Part I of this study concentrates on the tropical EA or Southeast Asia (SEA). We apply the predictable mode analysis approach to explore the predictability and prediction of the SEA peak summer rainfall. Four principal modes of interannual rainfall variability during 1979-2013 are identified by EOF analysis: (1) the WPSH-dipole sea surface temperature (SST) feedback mode in the Northern Indo-western Pacific warm pool associated with the decay of eastern Pacific El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), (2) the central Pacific-ENSO mode, (3) the Maritime continent SST-Australian High coupled mode, which is sustained by a positive feedback between anomalous Australian high and sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) over Indian Ocean, and (4) the ENSO developing mode. Based on understanding of the sources of the predictability for each mode, a set of physics-based empirical (P-E) models is established for prediction of the first four leading principal components (PCs). All predictors are selected from either persistent atmospheric lower boundary anomalies from March to June or the tendency from spring to early summer. We show that these four modes can be predicted reasonably well by the P-E models, thus they are identified as the predictable modes. Using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns, we have made a 35-year cross-validated hindcast, setting up a bench mark for dynamic models' predictions. The P-E hindcast

  6. Application of WRF/Chem over East Asia: Part II. Model improvement and sensitivity simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Qiang; Duan, Fengkui; He, Kebin

    2016-01-01

    .5, and -64.0% to 7.2% for PM10, comparing to -84.2% to -44.5% for SO2, -88.1% to -44.0% for NO2, -11.0%-160.3% for O3, -63.9% to -25.2% for PM2.5, and -68.9%-33.3% for PM10 from the original simulation. The improved WRF/Chem is applied to estimate the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on regional climate and air quality in East Asia. Anthropogenic aerosols can increase cloud condensation nuclei, aerosol optical depth, cloud droplet number concentrations, and cloud optical depth. They can decrease surface net radiation, temperature at 2-m, wind speed at 10-m, planetary boundary layer height, and precipitation through various direct and indirect effects. These changes in turn lead to changes in chemical predictions in a variety of ways.

  7. Summertime land-sea thermal contrast and atmospheric circulation over East Asia in a warming climate—Part I: Past changes and future projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamae, Youichi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kimoto, Masahide; Shiogama, Hideo

    2014-11-01

    Land-sea surface air temperature (SAT) contrast, an index of tropospheric thermodynamic structure and dynamical circulation, has shown a significant increase in recent decades over East Asia during the boreal summer. In Part I of this two-part paper, observational data and the results of transient warming experiments conducted using coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (GCMs) are analyzed to examine changes in land-sea thermal contrast and the associated atmospheric circulation over East Asia from the past to the future. The interannual variability of the land-sea SAT contrast over the Far East for 1950-2012 was found to be tightly coupled with a characteristic tripolar pattern of tropospheric circulation over East Asia, which manifests as anticyclonic anomalies over the Okhotsk Sea and around the Philippines, and a cyclonic anomaly over Japan during a positive phase, and vice versa. In response to CO2 increase, the cold northeasterly winds off the east coast of northern Japan and the East Asian rainband were strengthened with the circulation pattern well projected on the observed interannual variability. These results are commonly found in GCMs regardless of future forcing scenarios, indicating the robustness of the East Asian climate response to global warming. The physical mechanisms responsible for the increase of the land-sea contrast are examined in Part II.

  8. South East Asia to America: Links in a Chain (Part Two).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Peter I.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the transfer of Indochinese refugees from Southeast Asia to the United States, their stay in interim refugee camps, the voyage by plane, bureaucratic problems, and their first encounter with American life. Provides an anecdotal account of one family's experiences and reactions. (GC)

  9. Tobacco control and gender in south-east Asia. Part II: Singapore and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Martha; Barraclough, Simon

    2003-12-01

    In the World Health Organization's Western Pacific Region, being born male is the single greatest risk marker for tobacco use. While the literature demonstrates that risks associated with tobacco use may vary according to sex, gender refers to the socially determined roles and responsibilities of men and women, who initiate, continue and quit using tobacco for complex and often different reasons. Cigarette advertising frequently appeals to gender roles. Yet tobacco control policy tends to be gender-blind. Using a broad, gender-sensitivity framework, this contradiction is explored in four Western Pacific countries. Part I of the study presented the rationale, methodology and design of the study, discussed issues surrounding gender and tobacco, and analysed developments in Malaysia and the Philippines (see the previous issue of this journal). Part II deals with Singapore and Vietnam. In all four countries gender was salient for the initiation and maintenance of smoking. Yet, with a few exceptions, gender was largely unrecognized in control policy. Suggestions for overcoming this weakness in order to enhance tobacco control are made. PMID:14695368

  10. East and Southeast Asia assessment.

    PubMed

    Suyono, H

    1984-06-01

    The people of East and Southeast Asia, despite societal differences and varied economic successes, share 1 cultural value, i.e., the love of children and the importance of family. The small family norms espoused by family planning programs, the goal in some nations of 1- or 2-child families, the concept that 2 children are enough regardless of their sex -- all these ideas contradict the basic cultural appreciation for children in most countries and the preference for sons in many. Yet, demographic realities give Asia no alternative. It is necessary to work against cultural values to increase the opportunities for individuals, their families, their countries, and the region as a whole. All the countries of this region have had family planning programs since at least the 1970s, and some have been very successful. It may be well into the 21st century before the populations of most East and Southeast countries stabilize. Stabilization will take longer for those countries which are without successful family planning policies and programs. Each national family planning program requires the full and positive political and financial commitment of its government. Programs also need the freedom to try all new approaches. The appropriateness and acceptability of a particular mehtod should be decided by program managers and personnel in consultation with potential users, rather than by politicians. Future family planning programs will need to be even more innovative. Family planning service delivery must be brought closer to the client so it will be available in all communities and work places and at all potential public and private places. Other basic services such as nutrition, income-generating schemes, and general and maternal/child health must be integrated into the programs. The responsibility for managing programs must be assumed by the community in order to create a very strong and broad base of national commitment. PMID:12339633

  11. The genus Leucophenga (Diptera, Drosophilidae), part VI: the argentata species group from the East Asia, with morphological and molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jia; Chen, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    Six species of the Leucophenga argentata species group from East Asia are examined (including one known and five new ones): L. argentata (de Meijere, 1914); L. bicuspidata sp. nov.; L. fuscivena sp. nov.; L. longipenis sp. nov.; L. quadricuspidata sp. nov.; L. tricuspidata sp. nov.; the diagnoses for Asian species of the argentata group and a key to these species are provided. A total of 44 DNA sequences of the mitochondrial COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) gene with BOLD process ID and GenBank accession numbers are provided for these species. The intra- and interspecific pairwise p-distances are summarized. The NJ (Neighbor-joining) and the Bayesian analyses are used to conduct a molecular phylogenetic analysis for the above-mentioned species. The molecular data are used as complementary evidence for the identification of the argentata group species with sexually dimorphic abdominal tergites. PMID:27615924

  12. South East Asia as a part of an Ordovician Gondwanaland—a palaeobiogeographic test of a tectonic hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrett, Clive; Stait, Bryan

    1985-10-01

    The hypothesis that Thailand and Malaysia (the Sibumasu block) were adjacent to Australia in the Early Palaeozoic has been tested by an examination of the Ordovician sequences and faunas of Sibumasu and Australia. The relatively stenogeographic nautiloids of the two areas are remarkably similar and have a Simpson Index of 0.92 at the generic level. Two new genera of discosorids are restricted to the two blocks and Georgina and Mesaktoceras are found elsewhere only in Tibet. Very close affinities are also evident between the gastropod, polyplacophoran and rostroconch molluscs. The Ordovician brachiopod faunas are also very close including the genus Spanodonta. Other very close similarities are found between the Upper Cambrian trilobite faunas and the Ordovician conodonts and stromatoporoids. No Ordovician faunas younger than Upper Whiterockian were found during this study in either northern Australia or Sibumasu and a stratigraphic gap probably exists from the Upper Whiterockian to the Upper Ordovician over most of the two blocks. These remarkably close faunal similarities are good evidence in favour of the hypothesis that Sibumasu was adjacent to Australia during the Early Palaeozoic. Similarly close faunal relationships between North China, South East Asia, Tibet and Australia may also suggest close proximity of those blocks during the Early Palaeozoic.

  13. Acid deposition in east Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Phadnis, M.J.; Carmichael, G.R.; Ichikawa, Y.

    1996-12-31

    A comparison between transport models was done to study the acid deposition in east Asia. The two models in question were different in the way the treated the pollutant species and the way simulation was carried out. A single-layer, trajectory model with simple (developed by the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Japan) was compared with a multi-layered, eulerian type model (Sulfur Transport Eulerian Model - II [STEM-II]) treating the chemical processes in detail. The acidic species used in the simulation were sulfur dioxide and sulfate. The comparison was done for two episodes: each a month long in winter (February) and summer (August) of 1989. The predicted results from STEM-II were compared with the predicted results from the CRIEPI model as well as the observed data at twenty-one stations in Japan. The predicted values from STEM-II were similar to the ones from the CRIEPI results and the observed values in regards to the transport features. The average monthly values of SO{sub 2} in air, sulfate in air and sulfate in precipitation were in good agreement. Sensitivity studies were carried out under different scenarios of emissions, dry depositions velocities and mixing heights. The predicted values in these sensitivity studies showed a strong dependence on the mixing heights. The predicted wet deposition of sulfur for the two months is 0.7 gS/m2.mon, while the observed deposition is around 1.1 gS/m2.mon. It was also observed that the wet deposition on the Japan sea side of the islands is more than those on the Pacific side and the Okhotsk sea, mainly because of the continental outflow of pollutant air masses from mainland China and Korea. The effects of emissions from Russia and volcanoes were also evaluated.

  14. Application of WRF/Chem over East Asia: Part I. Model evaluation and intercomparison with MM5/CMAQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Litao; Zhang, Qiang; Duan, Fengkui; He, Kebin

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the application of the online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF/Chem) version 3.3.1 is evaluated over East Asia for January, April, July, and October 2005 and compared with results from a previous application of an offline model system, i.e., the Mesoscale Model and Community Multiple Air Quality modeling system (MM5/CMAQ). The evaluation of WRF/Chem is performed using multiple observational datasets from satellites and surface networks in mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Japan. WRF/Chem simulates well specific humidity (Q2) and downward longwave and shortwave radiation (GLW and GSW) with normalized mean biases (NMBs) within 24%, but shows moderate to large biases for temperature at 2-m (T2) (NMBs of -9.8% to 75.6%) and precipitation (NMBs of 11.4-92.7%) for some months, and wind speed at 10-m (WS10) (NMBs of 66.5-101%), for all months, indicating some limitations in the YSU planetary boundary layer scheme, the Purdue Lin cloud microphysics, and the Grell-Devenyi ensemble scheme. WRF/Chem can simulate the column abundances of gases reasonably well with NMBs within 30% for most months but moderately to significantly underpredicts the surface concentrations of major species at all sites in nearly all months with NMBs of -72% to -53.8% for CO, -99.4% to -61.7% for NOx, -84.2% to -44.5% for SO2, -63.9% to -25.2% for PM2.5, and -68.9% to 33.3% for PM10, and aerosol optical depth in all months except for October with NMBs of -38.7% to -16.2%. The model significantly overpredicts surface concentrations of O3 at most sites in nearly all months with NMBs of up to 160.3% and NO3- at the Tsinghua site in all months. Possible reasons for large underpredictions include underestimations in the anthropogenic emissions of CO, SO2, and primary aerosol, inappropriate vertical distributions of emissions of SO2 and NO2, uncertainties in upper boundary conditions (e.g., for O3 and CO), missing or inaccurate model representations (e

  15. Education Indicators for East Asia and Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acedo, Clementina; Uemura, Mitsue

    This set of education indicators for the World Bank's East Asia and Pacific Region is designed to provide key policy-oriented data for World Bank staff and clients. The framework is divided into six main chapters: (1) the demographic, social and economic context of education; (2) financial and human resources invested in education; (3) access to…

  16. Higher Education in South-East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    South-East Asia is a region of vast development diversity but also many commonalities. And the development of higher education in the region, stemmed from its different historical background is changing rapidly towards their respective socio-economic needs. The publication is a joint research study by UNESCO Bangkok and Southeast Asian Ministers…

  17. Inferring human history in East Asia from Y chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    East Asia harbors substantial genetic, physical, cultural and linguistic diversity, but the detailed structures and interrelationships of those aspects remain enigmatic. This question has begun to be addressed by a rapid accumulation of molecular anthropological studies of the populations in and around East Asia, especially by Y chromosome studies. The current Y chromosome evidence suggests multiple early migrations of modern humans from Africa via Southeast Asia to East Asia. After the initial settlements, the northward migrations during the Paleolithic Age shaped the genetic structure in East Asia. Subsequently, recent admixtures between Central Asian immigrants and northern East Asians enlarged the genetic divergence between southern and northern East Asia populations. Cultural practices, such as languages, agriculture, military affairs and social prestige, also have impacts on the genetic patterns in East Asia. Furthermore, application of Y chromosome analyses in the family genealogy studies offers successful showcases of the utility of genetics in studying the ancient history. PMID:23731529

  18. Impacts of global warming on climate change over East Asia as simulated by 15 GCMs

    SciTech Connect

    Zong-ci Zhao; Xiaodong Li

    1997-12-31

    About 15 GCMs (GFDL1, GISS, LLNL, MPI, OSU, UKMOL, UKMOH, GCMs90-92, GFDL2, NCAR, OPYC, LSG, HADL, GCMs95) obtained from the IPCC WG 1 1990, 1992 and 1995 reports have been chosen to examine the impacts of global warming, on the climate chance over East Asia. Although the models scenarios of the human activities were different for the different GCMs, the climate change over East Asia (70E-140E, 15N-60N) for tile doubled CO{sub 2} as simulated by about 15 GCMs have been analysed. The Simulations shown that the temperature might increased by about 0.5 - 1.5 C over East Asia, especially in winter and northwestern parts of East Asia. The precipitation might increase in northwestern and northeastern parts of East Asia and decrease in the central part of East Asia. The evaluations and assessments of the GCMs over East Asia have indicated that the GCMs have the abilities to simulate the climate change over East Asia, especially for the temperature and the winter season. There are some uncertainties for the simulations to compare with the observations, especially for tile precipitation and tile summer season.

  19. East Asia: Seismotectonics, magmatism and mantle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dapeng; Yu, Sheng; Ohtani, Eiji

    2011-02-01

    In this article, we review the significant recent results of geophysical studies and discuss their implications on seismotectonics, magmatism, and mantle dynamics in East Asia. High-resolution geophysical imaging revealed structural heterogeneities in the source areas of large crustal earthquakes, which may reflect magma and fluids that affected the rupture nucleation of large earthquakes. In subduction zone regions, the crustal fluids originate from the dehydration of the subducting slab. Magmatism in arc and back-arc areas is caused by the corner flow in the mantle wedge and dehydration of the subducting slab. The intraplate magmatism has different origins. The continental volcanoes in Northeast Asia (such as Changbai and Wudalianchi) seem to be caused by the corner flow in the big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant slab in the mantle transition zone and the deep dehydration of the stagnant slab as well. The Tengchong volcano in Southwest China is possibly caused by a similar process in BMW above the subducting Burma microplate (or Indian plate). The Hainan volcano in southernmost China seems to be a hotspot fed by a lower-mantle plume associated with the Pacific and Philippine Sea slabs' deep subduction in the east and the Indian slab's deep subduction in the west down to the lower mantle. The occurrence of deep earthquakes under the Japan Sea and the East Asia margin may be related to a metastable olivine wedge in the subducting Pacific slab. The stagnant slab finally collapses down to the bottom of the mantle, which may trigger upwelling of hot mantle materials from the lower mantle to the shallow mantle beneath the subducting slabs and cause the slab-plume interactions. Some of these issues, such as the origin of intraplate magmatism, are still controversial, and so further detailed studies are needed from now.

  20. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in East Asia and Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan) of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture). In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases. PMID:26042615

  1. Ciguatera fish poisoning in East Asia and southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2015-06-01

    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan) of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture). In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases. PMID:26042615

  2. Tomgraphic Structure of East Asia: Geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. J.; Pei, S.; Zhao, D.; Yin, A.; Ning, J.; Chen, X.

    2004-12-01

    P-wave arrival times of both regional and teleseismic earthquakes were inverted to obtain mantle structures of East Asia. Most important findings of this regional tomography are as follows. (1) No fast P-wave velocity anomalies can be related to subducted oceanic slabs beneath the 660-km discontinuity; instead the subducted oceanic slabs become flattened and stagnant in the transition zone. (2) The western end of the flat stagnant slabs is located ~ 1500 km west of the active trench in the western Pacific, which is correlated with the prominent surface topographic break in eastern China, between the Erdos Plateau to the west and the North China plain in the east, along the NNE-trending Taihang Mountain Range (~105¡aE). Based on these observations, we suggested that vigorous mantle convection is operating within this horizontally expanded ¡°mantle wedge¡± above both the active subducting slabs in the western Pacific and the stagnant flat slabs beneath much of the North China plain. This horizontally expanded convection was probably resulted from both rapid eastward migration of the western Pacific trench system and the sinking of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic slabs now trapped at the 660-km transition zone. Both the widespread Cenozoic volcanism and associated extensional basins in East Asia could have been the manifestation of this vigorous upper mantle convection. Finally negative thermal anomaly associated with the stagnant slabs above the 660-km discontinuity has not only caused a broad depression of the boundary due to its negative Clapeyron slope but also effectively shielded the asthenosphere and continental lithosphere above from any possible influence of mantle plumes in the lower mantle.

  3. Growing Typhoon Influence on East Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Liguang; Wang, BIn; Geng, Shuqin

    2005-01-01

    Numerical model studies have suggested that the ongoing global warming will likely affect tropical cyclone activity. But so far little observed evidence has been detected to support the projected future changes. Using satellite-supported best-track data from 1965 to 2003, we show for the first time that over the past four decades the two prevailing typhoon tracks in the western North Pacific (WNP) have shifted westward significantly; the typhoon activity over the South China Sea has considerably decreased; and East Asia has experienced increasing typhoon influence. Our trajectory model simulation indicates that the long-term shifts in the typhoon tracks result primarily from the changes in the mean translation velocity of typhoons or the large-scale steering flow, which is associated with the westward expansion and strengthening of the WNP subtropical high.

  4. NASA's East and Southeast Asia Initiatives: BASE-ASIA and EAST-AIRE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, S.; Maring, H.

    2005-01-01

    Airborne dust from northern China influences air quality and regional climate in Asia during springtime. However, with the economic growth in China, increased emission of particulate air pollutants from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the earth's radiation balance, but also adversely affect human health year round. In addition, both of dust and aerosol pollutants can be transported swiftly across the Pacific affecting North America within a few days. Asian dust and pollutant aerosols can be detected by their colored appearance using current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and by sunphotometers deployed on the surface of the earth. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Globally significant sources of greenhouse gases (eg., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play a role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, altering the earth's radiation and water budgets. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds; the hydrological cycle; land surface reflectivity and emissivity; and ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two NASA initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment) and BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) will be presented. The objectives of these initiatives is to

  5. East Asia Regionalization Based on Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larmat, C. S.; Maceira, M.; Romanowicz, B. A.; Chai, C.; Ammon, C. J.; Zhang, H.

    2015-12-01

    We present here a first step toward a model of the seismic velocity structure through stochastic full waveform tomography of East Asia. Such inversion typically requires exploring thousands of variations of each parameter that is inverted to ensure reliable probabilistic inferences. Here we explore regionalization in order to reduce the dimension of the parameter space and identify regions with similar seismic characteristics that can be treated as a common block in the subsequent stochastic inversion. We follow the approach of Lekic and Romanowicz (2011) in which regionalization is performed through a cluster analysis of tomographic velocity models. Our analysis is based on teleseismic P-wave Receiver Functions (RFTNs) instead. We apply a K-means algorithm minimizing a distance metrics defined in the vector space of RFTNs. Different metrics have been tested to optimize the clustering. Coherence and association with known tectonic and physiographic features and/or established geophysical information is also tested. We first validate our clustering analysis with two different receiver functions datasets from USArray stations. A first set was built by stacking EARS receiver functions for each available station across all azimuths and with a Gaussian filter width of 2.5 Hz and small ray parameters (0.038 to 0.05 s/km). The second dataset was built by interpolation of the receiver function wavefield (Chai et al, 2015). The agreement with geological and tectonic regions of western US is better for the latter dataset. Our future inversion region is East Asia where remarkable instrumentation efforts open the door to high-resolution tomography studies at the continental scale. Our collaborators provided teleseismic P-wave receiver functions for 785 stations. Clustering results show agreement with known tectonic features of the area, and we will show our attempts of regionalization based on this information.

  6. Yellow fever, Asia and the East African slave trade.

    PubMed

    Cathey, John T; Marr, John S

    2014-05-01

    Yellow fever is endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and South America, yet its principal vectors--species of mosquito of the genus Aedes--are found throughout tropical and subtropical latitudes. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that yellow fever originated in Africa and that its spread to the New World coincided with the slave trade, but why yellow fever has never appeared in Asia remains a mystery. None of several previously proposed explanations for its absence there is considered satisfactory. We contrast the trans-Atlantic slave trade, and trade across the Sahara and to the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia, with that to Far East and Southeast Asian ports before abolition of the African slave trade, and before the scientific community understood the transmission vector of yellow fever and the viral life cycle, and the need for shipboard mosquito control. We propose that these differences in slave trading had a primary role in the avoidance of yellow fever transmission into Asia in the centuries before the 20(th) century. The relatively small volume of the Black African slave trade between Africa and East and Southeast Asia has heretofore been largely ignored. Although focal epidemics may have occurred, the volume was insufficient to reach the threshold for endemicity. PMID:24743951

  7. Large-scale phytogeographical patterns in East Asia in relation to latitudinal and climatic gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qian, H.; Song, J.-S.; Krestov, P.; Guo, Q.; Wu, Z.; Shen, X.; Guo, X.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: This paper aims at determining how different floristic elements (e.g. cosmopolitan, tropical, and temperate) change with latitude and major climate factors, and how latitude affects the floristic relationships between East Asia and the other parts of the world. Location: East Asia from the Arctic to tropical regions, an area crossing over 50?? of latitudes and covering the eastern part of China, Korea, Japan and the eastern part of Russia. Methods: East Asia is divided into forty-five geographical regions. Based on the similarity of their world-wide distributional patterns, a total of 2808 indigenous genera of seed plants found in East Asia were grouped into fourteen geographical elements, belonging to three major categories (cosmopolitan, tropical and temperate). The 50??-long latitudinal gradient of East Asia was divided into five latitudinal zones, each of c. 10??. Phytogeographical relationships of East Asia to latitude and climatic variables were examined based on the forty-five regional floras. Results: Among all geographical and climatic variables considered, latitude showed the strongest relationship to phytogeographical composition. Tropical genera (with pantropical, amphi-Pacific tropical, palaeotropical, tropical Asia-tropical Australia, tropical Asia-tropical Africa and tropical Asia geographical elements combined) accounted for c. 80% of the total genera at latitude 20??N and for c. 0% at latitude 55-60??N. In contrast, temperate genera (including holarctic, eastern Asia-North America, temperate Eurasia, temperate Asia, Mediterranean, western Asia to central Asia, central Asia and eastern Asia geographical elements) accounted for 15.5% in the southernmost latitude and for 80% at 55-60??N, from where northward the percentage tended to level off. The proportion of cosmopolitan genera increased gradually with latitude from 5% at the southernmost latitude to 21% at 55-60??N, where it levelled off northward. In general, the genera present in a more

  8. The East and Southeast Asia Initiatives: Aerosol Column Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; Li, Zhanqing

    2003-01-01

    Airborne dusts from northern China contribute a significant part of the air quality problem and, to some extent, regional climatic impact in Asia during spring- time. However, with the economical growth in China, increases in the emission of air pollutants generated from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the radiation balance, but adverse health effects to humans all year round. In addition, both of these dust and air pollution clouds can transport swiftly across the Pacific reaching North America within a few days, possessing an even larger scale effect. The Asian dust and air pollution aerosols can be detected by its colored appearance on current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and its evolution monitored by satellites and surface network. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3,Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth- atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth's radiation and water budget. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); land surface reflectivity and emissivity; as well as ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two new initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East

  9. Characteristics of ionospheric storms in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao; Wang, Guojun; Shi, Jiankui

       The ionosphere experiences intense response during the geomagnetic storm and it varies with latitude and longitude. The DPS-4 digisonde measurements and GPS-TEC data of ionospheric stations located at different latitudes in the longitudinal sector of 90-130E during 2002 to 2012 were analyzed to investigate the ionospheric effects in the different latitude of East Asia during geomagnetic storm. About 70 geomagnetic storms are selected according to the Dst index and observed data and they are in different seasons and different solar activity levels. A few quiet days’ averages of data before geomagnetic storm were used as the undisturbed level. Results show that for the middle and high latitude, the short-lived positive disturbance associated with the initial phase of the every storm was observed in each season and then the disturbances were negative till the termination of storm. At the low latitude, storm-time disturbances of foF2 have obvious diurnal, seasonal and solar cycle characteristics. Generally, geomagnetic activity will cause foF2 to increase at daytime and decrease at nighttime except for the summer in low solar activity period. The intensity of response of foF2 is stronger at nighttime than that at daytime. The negative ionospheric storm effect is the strongest in summer and the positive ionospheric storm effect is the strongest in winter. In high solar activity period, the diurnal variation of the response of foF2 is very pronounced in each season, and the strong ionospheric response can last several days. In low solar activity period, ionospheric response has very pronounced diurnal variation in winter only. It’s notable that geomagnetic activities occurred at local time nighttime can cause stronger and longer responses of foF2 at the low latitude. All in all, the obvious negative phase ionospheric storms often occurred at the low latitude. Moreover a notable phenomenon was observed for the low latitude, there are the intensive

  10. East Asia Review, 1973. To sum up.

    PubMed

    Keeny, S M

    1974-05-01

    Observations are made related to the review of family planning activities in East Asia in 1973. The number of new acceptors for the region increased from 2.7 million in 1972 to 3.4 million in 1973. The leaders were Indonesia, which almost doubled its achievement of calendar year 1972, the Philippines, and Korea. In Thailand, the number of new acceptors dropped by about 10%. South Vietnam is the only country in the region without an official policy. Most couples still think that the ideal number of children is 4, with at least 2 sons. Some religious opposition does exist, particularly with reference to sterlization and abortion. More attention is being paid to women in their 20s. Sterilization and condoms are becoming more popular. Korea reports a sharp increase in vasectomies. Better methods and continuation rates should be stressed. In Taiwan a couple who start with 1 method and continue to practice some method lower their reproduction rate by 80%. More responsibility is being delegated to nurses and midwives, but too slowly. In Indonesia, the number of field workers rose from 3774 in 1972 to 6275 in 1973. The Philippines and Thailand are experimenting to see what kind of workers get best results and under what kind of salary and incentive arrangements. In-service training tends to be neglected, but preservice training is improving. Costs, in general, have risen, though in Korea the cost per acceptor has dropped from US$8.00 to US$7.80. Korea and Taiwan have reduced their annual population growth rates by more than 1/3 in 10 years, from 30 to 19-20 per 1000 each. Singapore's rate is 17 and Hong Kong's 14 (exclusive of inmigration). The number of couples currently practicing contraception in Singapore is 71%. Target systems assigning quotas to clinics are generally used except in Thailand and Malaysia, where programs emphasize maternal and child health, rather than population planning. Most programs require about 10 years to get the annual growth rate down to 2% by

  11. Regional scale modeling of atmospheric CO2 over East Asia and comparison with satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, C.

    2012-12-01

    East Asia is now the most important regions in terms of CO2 emissions and the analyzing accurate CO2 budget is critical issue for low-carbon policy. He we show the simulated regional scale CO2 distribution. The regional scale chemical transport model (WRF-Chem) was used with 50km x 50km resolution. The lateral boundary conditions were from GEOS-Chem CO2 simulations (with 2x2.5 degree resolution) where the chemical CO2 production and 3-D emissions from aviation were included. It is clear that the seasonal changes in north-south gradient of CO2 concentration over East Asia is shown by the model. In spring, the westerly transport of CO2 from north-east China is dominant, which increases the higher CO2 concentration in northern part of East Asia in the lower troposphere (< 2km). In contrast, the strong CO2 sink of vegetation from northern part of Asia and Siberia reduces CO2 concentration significantly in northern part of East Asia. The modeling results represent that the seasonal CO2 changes in the spatial distribution are affected by both the Chinese CO2 emissions and CO2 sinks from the vegetation. The modeling results are compared with the recent GOSAT CO2 column observations and stationary data. The regional CO2 modeling study will help the global low carbon policy for responding to recent climate change.

  12. Application of an online-coupled regional climate model, WRF-CAM5, over East Asia for examination of ice nucleation schemes: Part I. Comprehensive model evaluation and trend analysis for 2006 and 2011

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chen, Ying; Zhang, Yang; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai -Yung; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin

    2015-08-18

    Online-coupled climate and chemistry models are necessary to realistically represent the interactions between climate variables and chemical species and accurately simulate aerosol direct and indirect effects on cloud, precipitation, and radiation. In this Part I of a two-part paper, simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with the physics package of Community Atmosphere Model (WRF-CAM5) are conducted with the default heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterization over East Asia for two full years: 2006 and 2011. A comprehensive model evaluation is performed using satellite and surface observations. The model shows an overall acceptable performance for major meteorological variables at themore » surface and in the boundary layer, as well as column variables (e.g., precipitation, cloud fraction, precipitating water vapor, downward longwave and shortwave radiation). Moderate to large biases exist for cloud condensation nuclei over oceanic areas, cloud variables (e.g., cloud droplet number concentration, cloud liquid and ice water paths, cloud optical depth, longwave and shortwave cloud forcing). These biases indicate a need to improve the model treatments for cloud processes, especially cloud droplets and ice nucleation, as well as to reduce uncertainty in the satellite retrievals. The model simulates well the column abundances of chemical species except for column SO2 but relatively poor for surface concentrations of several species such as CO, NO2, SO2, PM2.5, and PM10. Several reasons could contribute to the underestimation of major chemical species in East Asia including underestimations of anthropogenic emissions and natural dust emissions, uncertainties in the spatial and vertical distributions of the anthropogenic emissions, as well as biases in meteorological, radiative, and cloud predictions. Despite moderate to large biases in the chemical predictions, the model performance is generally consistent with or even better than that

  13. Application of an online-coupled regional climate model, WRF-CAM5, over East Asia for examination of ice nucleation schemes: Part I. Comprehensive model evaluation and trend analysis for 2006 and 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ying; Zhang, Yang; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai -Yung; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin

    2015-08-18

    Online-coupled climate and chemistry models are necessary to realistically represent the interactions between climate variables and chemical species and accurately simulate aerosol direct and indirect effects on cloud, precipitation, and radiation. In this Part I of a two-part paper, simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with the physics package of Community Atmosphere Model (WRF-CAM5) are conducted with the default heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterization over East Asia for two full years: 2006 and 2011. A comprehensive model evaluation is performed using satellite and surface observations. The model shows an overall acceptable performance for major meteorological variables at the surface and in the boundary layer, as well as column variables (e.g., precipitation, cloud fraction, precipitating water vapor, downward longwave and shortwave radiation). Moderate to large biases exist for cloud condensation nuclei over oceanic areas, cloud variables (e.g., cloud droplet number concentration, cloud liquid and ice water paths, cloud optical depth, longwave and shortwave cloud forcing). These biases indicate a need to improve the model treatments for cloud processes, especially cloud droplets and ice nucleation, as well as to reduce uncertainty in the satellite retrievals. The model simulates well the column abundances of chemical species except for column SO2 but relatively poor for surface concentrations of several species such as CO, NO2, SO2, PM2.5, and PM10. Several reasons could contribute to the underestimation of major chemical species in East Asia including underestimations of anthropogenic emissions and natural dust emissions, uncertainties in the spatial and vertical distributions of the anthropogenic emissions, as well as biases in meteorological, radiative, and cloud predictions. Despite moderate to large biases in the chemical predictions, the model performance is

  14. South-East Asia's Trembling Rainforests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, John

    1991-01-01

    This discussion focuses on potential solutions to the degradation of rainforests in Southeast Asia caused by indiscriminate logging, inappropriate road-construction techniques, forest fires, and the encroachment upon watersheds by both agricultural concerns and peasant farmers. Vignettes illustrate the impact of this degradation upon the animals,…

  15. Impact of the Dominant Large-scale Teleconnections on Winter Temperature Variability over East Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Monthly mean geopotential height for the past 33 DJF seasons archived in Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis is decomposed into the large-scale teleconnection patterns to explain their impacts on winter temperature variability over East Asia. Following Arctic Oscillation (AO) that explains the largest variance, East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR), West Pacific (WP) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are identified as the first four leading modes that significantly explain East Asian winter temperature variation. While the northern part of East Asia north of 50N is prevailed by AO and EA/WR impacts, temperature in the midlatitudes (30N-50N), which include Mongolia, northeastern China, Shandong area, Korea, and Japan, is influenced by combined effect of the four leading teleconnections. ENSO impact on average over 33 winters is relatively weaker than the impact of the other three teleconnections. WP impact, which has received less attention than ENSO in earlier studies, characterizes winter temperatures over Korea, Japan, and central to southern China region south of 30N mainly by advective process from the Pacific. Upper level wave activity fluxes reveal that, for the AO case, the height and circulation anomalies affecting midlatitude East Asian winter temperature is mainly located at higher latitudes north of East Asia. Distribution of the fluxes also explains that the stationary wave train associated with EA/WR propagates southeastward from the western Russia, affecting the East Asian winter temperature. Investigation on the impact of each teleconnection for the selected years reveals that the most dominant teleconnection over East Asia is not the same at all years, indicating a great deal of interannual variability. Comparison in temperature anomaly distributions between observation and temperature anomaly constructed using the combined effect of four leading teleconnections clearly show a reasonable consistency between

  16. Collaboration in Cultural Heritage Digitisation in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyuk-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of collaboration in cultural heritage preservation in East Asia, including digital projects, and to suggest practical improvements based on a cultural structuralism perspective. Design/methodology/approach: Through exploratory research, the paper addresses aspects for successful…

  17. History Education and Reconciliation: Comparative Perspectives on East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Un-suk, Ed.; Kondo, Takahiro, Ed.; Yang, Biao, Ed.; Pingel, Falk, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The legacy of crimes committed during the Second World War in East Asia is still a stumbling block for reconciliation and trustful cultural relations between South Korea, China and Japan. The presentation of this issue in history school books is in the focus of a heated public and academic debate. This book written by historians and pedagogues…

  18. The Progress of Globalization and Educational Reforms in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimbo, Atsuko

    2009-01-01

    The symposium entitled "Social Changes in East Asia and Educational reforms: China, Korea, and Singapore" suggested that these countries are carrying out rather drastic educational reforms in the context of rapid social changes. The knowledge gained from the symposium also has important suggestions for Japanese educational reform. In addition, as…

  19. University Restructuring in East Asia: Trends, Challenges and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, David; Lo, William

    2008-01-01

    This concluding article aims to pull together the analysis undertaken in the preceding articles in this special issue. By sketching an overview of the university reforms and developments revealed in the sectoral articles, it draws out the trends of university restructuring in East Asia. It then projects the significances of these trends in terms…

  20. An evaluation of ozone dry deposition simulations in East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Park, R.; Hong, Seungkyu K.; Kwon, Hyoung-Ahn; Kim, Saewung; Guenther, Alex B.; Woo, Jung-Hun; Loughner, C. P.

    2014-08-11

    We used a 3-D regional atmospheric chemistry transport model (WRF-Chem) to examine processes that determine O3 in East Asia; in particular, we focused on O3 dry deposition, which is an uncertain research area due to insufficient observation and numerical studies in East Asia. Here, we compare two widely used dry deposition parameterization schemes, Wesely and M3DRY, which are used in the WRF-Chem and CMAQ models, respectively. The O3 dry deposition velocities simulated using the two aforementioned schemes under identical meteorological conditions show considerable differences (a factor of 2) due to surface resistance parameterization discrepancies. The O3 concentration differed by up to 10 ppbv for the monthly mean. The simulated and observed dry deposition velocities were compared, which showed that the Wesely scheme model is consistent with the observations and successfully reproduces the observed diurnal variation. We conduct several sensitivity simulations by changing the land use data, the surface resistance of the water and the model’s spatial resolution to examine the factors that affect O3 concentrations in East Asia. As shown, the model was considerably sensitive to the input parameters, which indicates a high uncertainty for such O3 dry deposition simulations. Observations are necessary to constrain the dry deposition parameterization and input data to improve the East Asia air quality models.

  1. Natives or immigrants: modern human origin in east Asia.

    PubMed

    Jin, L; Su, B

    2000-11-01

    East Asia is one of the few regions in the world where a relatively large number of human fossils have been unearthed--a discovery that has been taken as evidence for an independent local origin of modern humans outside of Africa. However, genetic studies conducted in the past ten years, especially using Y chromosomes, have provided unequivocal evidence for an African origin of East Asian populations. The genetic signatures present in diverse East Asian populations mark the footsteps of prehistoric migrations that occurred tens of thousands of years ago. PMID:11253652

  2. Education and Development in East Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Paul, Ed.; Sweeting, Anthony, Ed.

    This book examines the specific role that formal education has played in the development process of the East Asian regions since World War II. The essays emphasize education's role as a source of growth and analyze its links with economic, social, and political domains in the post-war period. The writers hope to demonstrate both the changing…

  3. Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment(BASE-ASIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; King, Michael D.; Shu, Peter K.

    2002-01-01

    Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially in Africa, South America, and South East Asia. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass-burning processes, which influence the Earth-atmosphere energetics and hence impact both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some gases and aerosols can serve as active cloud condensation nuclei, which play important role in determining the net radiation budget, precipitation rate, and cloud lifetime. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); the reflectivity and emissivity of the land; and the stability of ecosystems and ecosystem biodiversity. Compared to Africa and South America, the climatology in South East Asia reveals quite different characteristics, showing distinct large-scale smoke and cloud sources and interaction regimes. The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring, which is associated with the peak season of biomass burning activities. Estimating the burning fuel (e.g., bark, branches, and wood), an important part of studying regional carbon cycle, may rely on utilizing a wide range of distinctive spectral features in the shortwave and longwave regions. Therefore, to accurately assess the impact of smoke aerosols in this region requires continuous observations from satellites, aircraft, networks of ground-based instruments and dedicated field experiments. A new initiative will be proposed and discussed.

  4. COPD in Asia: where East meets West.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wan C; Ng, Tze P

    2008-02-01

    COPD is a global health concern, and is a major cause of chronic morbidity and mortality worldwide. According to the World Health Organization, it is currently the sixth leading cause of death in the world, and further increases in the prevalence and mortality of the disease is predicted for the coming decades. These increases are mainly linked to the epidemic of tobacco exposure and indoor and outdoor air pollution in Asian countries. The burden of COPD in Asia is currently greater than that in developed Western countries, both in terms of the total number of deaths and the burden of disease, as measured in years of life lost and years spent living with disability. The types of health-care policies and the practice of medicine vary considerably among the regions of Asia and have an impact on the burden of disease. Treatment aims in Asian countries are based on evidence-based management guidelines. Barriers to the implementation of disease management guidelines are related to issues of resource conflict and lack of organizational support rather than cultural differences in medical practice. To reduce this burden of COPD in Asian countries, there is a need for a multifaceted approach in improving awareness of prevalence and disease burden, in facilitating accurate diagnosis of COPD among chronic respiratory diseases, in championing health policies that reduce the burden of the main risk factors for COPD and in the wider use of evidence-based management for COPD. PMID:18252918

  5. Archaic human ancestry in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Skoglund, Pontus; Jakobsson, Mattias

    2011-11-01

    Recent studies of ancient genomes have suggested that gene flow from archaic hominin groups to the ancestors of modern humans occurred on two separate occasions during the modern human expansion out of Africa. At the same time, decreasing levels of human genetic diversity have been found at increasing distance from Africa as a consequence of human expansion out of Africa. We analyzed the signal of archaic ancestry in modern human populations, and we investigated how serial founder models of human expansion affect the signal of archaic ancestry using simulations. For descendants of an archaic admixture event, we show that genetic drift coupled with ascertainment bias for common alleles can cause artificial but largely predictable differences in similarity to archaic genomes. In genotype data from non-Africans, this effect results in a biased genetic similarity to Neandertals with increasing distance from Africa. However, in addition to the previously reported gene flow between Neandertals and non-Africans as well as gene flow between an archaic human population from Siberia ("Denisovans") and Oceanians, we found a significant affinity between East Asians, particularly Southeast Asians, and the Denisova genome--a pattern that is not expected under a model of solely Neandertal admixture in the ancestry of East Asians. These results suggest admixture between Denisovans or a Denisova-related population and the ancestors of East Asians, and that the history of anatomically modern and archaic humans might be more complex than previously proposed. PMID:22042846

  6. Antenatal depression in East Asia: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schatz, David Beck; Hsiao, Mei-Chun; Liu, Chia-Yih

    2012-06-01

    This current study's goal is to summarize the literature regarding Antenatal Depression (AD) in the East Asian countries of Taiwan, China (including Hong Kong and Macau), Japan, and Korea. The main search utilized a Pub med Chinese Electronic Periodical Service (CEPS) literature review using keywords 'AD', and 'Prenatal Depression' with searches for 'Japan', 'Korea', 'Taiwan', 'Hong Kong' and Macau'. The rates of AD in East Asia appear to be relatively close to those in the Western literature, although certain studies showed slightly decreased rates. Many of the risk factors for AD were the same in the Eastern and Western literature. These risk factors included demographic factors such as younger age, smoking, low education and income, and unemployment. Other risk factors were physical symptoms such as menstrual pains and nausea. Finally, psychological factors such as a poor response to the pregnancy, poor spousal support, and poor family support were associated with AD. With regard to treatment, there were no studies examining the administration of psychotropic medications for AD. The literature from East Asia both confirmed many Western findings and made unique contributions to the literature on AD. The treatment of AD in East Asia appears to be an entity which, despite its morbidity, has not been adequately studied. PMID:22707960

  7. Antenatal Depression in East Asia: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Schatz, David Beck; Liu, Chia-Yih

    2012-01-01

    This current study's goal is to summarize the literature regarding Antenatal Depression (AD) in the East Asian countries of Taiwan, China (including Hong Kong and Macau), Japan, and Korea. The main search utilized a Pub med Chinese Electronic Periodical Service (CEPS) literature review using keywords 'AD', and 'Prenatal Depression' with searches for 'Japan', 'Korea', 'Taiwan', 'Hong Kong' and Macau'. The rates of AD in East Asia appear to be relatively close to those in the Western literature, although certain studies showed slightly decreased rates. Many of the risk factors for AD were the same in the Eastern and Western literature. These risk factors included demographic factors such as younger age, smoking, low education and income, and unemployment. Other risk factors were physical symptoms such as menstrual pains and nausea. Finally, psychological factors such as a poor response to the pregnancy, poor spousal support, and poor family support were associated with AD. With regard to treatment, there were no studies examining the administration of psychotropic medications for AD. The literature from East Asia both confirmed many Western findings and made unique contributions to the literature on AD. The treatment of AD in East Asia appears to be an entity which, despite its morbidity, has not been adequately studied. PMID:22707960

  8. Country watch: South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Bagasao, T M

    1996-01-01

    Nongovernmental organizations (NGO) and community-based groups working on HIV/AIDS in Thailand, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Malaysia, and other countries participated in a February 1991 workshop during which they recognized that human rights are inextricably linked with HIV prevention, the provision of services, and improving the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS and other vulnerable, marginalized groups. They also noted how rarely environments were supportive with respect to either legal structures or sociocultural norms. The groups resolved to act as a watchdog, an advocacy and lobbying group to monitor legislation, provide public information, and empower people with HIV/AIDS as visible and active partners. Meeting again in 1993 to assess progress, the groups found few gains in addressing human rights violations such as the denial of medical services to people with HIV/AIDS and the deportation of HIV-positive migrant workers. The Asia Pacific Council of AIDS Service Organizations (APCASO) responded by developing a pilot documentation, monitoring, and reporting system in the region to record HIV-related human rights violations. That system is described. PMID:12347180

  9. Food in health security in South East Asia.

    PubMed

    Tuyen, Le Danh

    2009-01-01

    With a global economic crisis, undernourished peoples in South East Asia, as elsewhere, face even greater food insecurity. Future challenges to food availability include increasing food prices, increasing population size and climate change. National policies are required which emphasise improved intersectoral coordination, enhanced government credibility and accountability, as well as a shift in food aid to investment in agriculture and the empowerment of independent institutions. PMID:19965337

  10. Biogeography of Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in East and Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Robert Liu, Fu-Guo; Tsaur, Shun-Chern; Huang, Hsiao-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The causes of high biological diversity in biodiversity hotspots have long been a major subject of study in conservation biology. To investigate this matter, we conducted a phylogeographic study of five Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) species from East and Southeast Asia: Drosophila albomicans Duda, D. formosana Duda, D. immigrans Sturtevant, D. melanogaster Meigen, and D. simulans Sturtevant. We collected 185 samples from 28 localities in eight countries. From each collected individual, we sequenced the autosomal extra sex comb gene (esc) and seven mitochondrial genes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate-reductase dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4), ND4L, tRNA-His, tRNA-Pro, tRNA-Thr, partial ND5, and partial ND6. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum- likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed interesting population structure and identified the existence of two distinct D. formosana lineages (Southeast Asian and Taiwanese populations). Genetic differentiation among groups of D. immigrans suggests the possibility of endemic speciation in Taiwan. In contrast, D. melanogaster remained one extensively large population throughout East and Southeast Asia, including nearby islets. A molecular clock was used to estimate divergence times, which were compared with past geographical events to infer evolutionary scenarios. Our findings suggest that interglacial periods may have caused population isolation, thus enhancing population differentiation more strongly for some of the Drosophila species. The population structure of each Drosophila species in East and Southeast Asia has been influenced by past geographic events. PMID:26078303

  11. Early evidence of the genus Homo in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Zhu, R X; Potts, R; Pan, Y X; Yao, H T; Lü, L Q; Zhao, X; Gao, X; Chen, L W; Gao, F; Deng, C L

    2008-12-01

    The timing and route of the earliest dispersal from Africa to Eastern Asia are contentious topics in the study of early human evolution because Asian hominin fossil sites with precise age constraints are very limited. Here we report new high-resolution magnetostratigraphic results that place stringent age controls on excavated hominin incisors and stone tools from the Yuanmou Basin, southwest China. The hominin-bearing layer resides in a reverse polarity magnetozone just above the upper boundary of the Olduvai subchron, yielding an estimated age of 1.7Ma. The finding represents the age of the earliest documented presence of Homo, with affinities to Homo erectus, in mainland East Asia. This age estimate is roughly the same as for H. erectus in island Southeast Asia and immediately prior to the oldest archaeological evidence in northeast Asia. Mammalian fauna and pollen obtained directly from the hominin site indicate that the Yuanmou hominins lived in a varied habitat of open vegetation with patches of bushland and forest on an alluvial fan close to a lake or swamp. The age and location are consistent with a rapid southern migration route of initial hominin populations into Eastern Asia. PMID:18842287

  12. Developing Curriculum Materials on East Asia for Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menton, Linda K.

    2007-01-01

    The Curriculum Research & Development Group (CRDG) is a research unit of the College of Education at the University of Hawai'i. Part of its mission is to develop curriculum materials for students in grades K-12. The social studies section of CRDG has been developing curriculum materials on Asia since the early 1990s. As part of a project entitled…

  13. Aerosol impacts on climate and environment over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, M.; Sano, I.; Mukai, S.

    2014-12-01

    It is well known that the aerosol distribution in East Asia is complex due to both the increasing emissions of the anthropogenic aerosols associated with economic growth and the behavior of natural dusts. Therefore, detailed observations of atmospheric particles in East Asian are important. It is concerned about the change of concentration of aerosols causes various effects on the climate by directly and indirectly modifying the optical properties and lifetimes of cloud. In addition to radiation budget change, aerosol has a significant potential to change cloud and precipitation. These circulation fields change influence on emission of natural aerosols such as dust aerosols and sea salt aerosols. Also, air pollution in megacities in East Asia has become a serious problem. Especially problematic are fine particles called PM2.5, whose diameter is 2.5 mm or less. Particulate matter (PM) pollution as indicated by high PM2.5 readings will cause a spike in the mortality rate of patients suffering from heart and lung diseases. Because fine particles are much smaller than inhalable coarse particles, the can penetrate deeper into the lungs and cause more severe effects on human health. Anthropogenic sources of PM2.5 include automobiles, factories, coal-burning power plants, and heaters in homes. It is well known that the size of dust particles decreases during long-range transport via westerly winds, and the resulting dust storms can contain high concentrations of fine particles. Accordingly, PM2.5 concentrations correspond well to both anthropogenic and dust aerosols. This work intends to investigate impacts of aerosol on regional climate change and environment over East Asia using observations and model simulations.

  14. Uncertainties in calculating precipitation climatology in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Park, S. K.

    2016-02-01

    This study examines the uncertainty in calculating the fundamental climatological characteristics of precipitation in the East Asia region from multiple fine-resolution gridded analysis data sets based on in situ rain gauge observations and data assimilations. Five observation-based gridded precipitation data sets are used to derive the long-term means, standard deviations in lieu of interannual variability and linear trends over the 28-year period from 1980 to 2007. Both the annual and summer (June-July-August) mean precipitation is examined. The agreement amongst these precipitation data sets is examined using two metrics including the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) defined as the ratio between long-term means and the corresponding standard deviations, and Taylor diagrams, which allow examinations of the pattern correlation, the standard deviation, and the centered root mean square error. It is found that the five gauge-based precipitation analysis data sets agree well in the long-term mean and interannual variability in most of the East Asia region including eastern China, Manchuria, South Korea, and Japan, which are densely populated and have fairly high-density observation networks. The regions of large inter-data-set variations include Tibetan Plateau, Mongolia, northern Indo-China, and North Korea. The regions of large uncertainties are typically lightly populated and are characterized by severe terrain and/or extremely high elevations. Unlike the long-term mean and interannual variability, agreement between data sets in the linear trend is weak, both for the annual and summer mean values. In most of the East Asia region, the SNR for the linear trend is below 0.5: the inter-data-set variability exceeds the multi-data ensemble mean. The uncertainty in the spatial distribution of long-term means among these data sets occurs both in the spatial pattern and variability, but the uncertainty for the interannual variability and time trend is much larger in the

  15. Uncertainties in calculating precipitation climatology in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Park, S. K.

    2015-08-01

    This study examines the uncertainty in calculating the fundamental climatological characteristics of precipitation in the East Asia region from multiple fine-resolution gridded analysis datasets based on in-situ rain gauge observations. Five observation-based gridded precipitation datasets are used to derive the long-term means, standard deviations in lieu of interannual variability and linear trends over the 28-year period from 1980 to 2007. Both the annual and summer (June-July-August) mean precipitation is examined. The agreement amongst these precipitation datasets are examined using multiple metrics including the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) defined as the ratio between long-term means and the corresponding standard deviations, and Taylor diagrams which allows examinations of the pattern correlation, the standard deviation, and the centered root mean square error. It is found that the five gauge-based precipitation analysis datasets agree well in the long-term mean and interannual variability in most of the East Asia region including eastern China, Manchuria, South Korea, and Japan, which are densely populated and have fairly high density observation networks. The regions of large inter-dataset variations include Tibetan Plateau, Mongolia, northern Indo-China, and North Korea. The regions of large uncertainties are typically lightly populated and are characterized by severe terrain and/or extreme high elevations. Unlike the long-term mean and interannual variability, agreements between datasets in the linear trend is weak, both for the annual and summer mean values. In most of the East Asia region, the SNR for the linear trend is below 0.5, i.e., the inter-dataset variability exceeds the multi-data ensemble mean. The uncertainty in the spatial distribution of long-term means among these datasets occurs both in the spatial pattern and variability, but the uncertainty for the interannual variability and time trend is much larger in the variability than in the

  16. Sociocultural factors and local customs related to taeniasis in east Asia.

    PubMed

    Fan, P C; Chung, W C

    1997-11-01

    Taeniasis is an important medical and economic problem in many countries in East Asia. According to our estimation, there is an annual loss of US$18,673,495, US$13,641,021, and US$2,425,500 due to taeniasis in the mountainous areas of Taiwan, Cheju Island of Korea, and Samosir Island of Indonesia, respectively. Although taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium have been reported, T. saginata asiatica is the dominate species in part of the world, especially in the mountainous and remote areas where the inhabitants are fond of eating raw or undercooked meat and/or viscera of domestic or wild animals. Therefore, sociocultural factors and local customs are the determinants in the transmission of taeniasis. In this paper, local customs and sociocultural factors including local dishes, accidental infection during dish preparation, and treatment for anaemia of children in the countries of East Asia were reviewed. PMID:9425862

  17. Hepatitis B epidemiology in Asia, the Middle East and Africa.

    PubMed

    André, F

    2000-02-18

    Asia and Africa have previously been classified as areas of high endemicity for hepatitis B virus (HBV), but in some countries highly effective vaccination programmes have shifted this pattern towards intermediate or low endemicity. Thus, China is now the only country in Asia where HBV endemicity is high. Countries with intermediate endemicity include India, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan and Thailand, and those with low endemicity include Japan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Malaysia. Most countries in Africa have high HBV endemicity, with the exceptions of Tunisia and Morocco, which have intermediate endemicity. Zambia has borderline intermediate/high endemicity. In the Middle East, Bahrain, Iran, Israel and Kuwait are areas of low endemicity, Cyprus, Iraq and the United Arab Emirates have intermediate endemicity, and Egypt, Jordan, Oman, Palestine, Yemen and Saudi Arabia have high endemicity. All of these Middle East countries reach a large proportion of their population with hepatitis B vaccination, which is reducing the infection rate, particularly in Saudi Arabia. The vaccination programme in Taiwan has also greatly reduced the HBV infection rate. Future vaccination programmes must take into account the mode of transmission of HBV, the healthcare infrastructure to deliver vaccination, and the socioeconomic and political factors in each individual country, to determine the most cost-effective way of infection control. PMID:10683538

  18. Model analysis of influences of aerosol mixing state upon its optical properties in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Zhu, Lingyun; Xu, Liren

    2013-07-01

    The air quality model system RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System)-CMAQ (Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality) coupled with an aerosol optical/radiative module was applied to investigate the impact of different aerosol mixing states (i.e., externally mixed, half externally and half internally mixed, and internally mixed) on radiative forcing in East Asia. The simulation results show that the aerosol optical depth (AOD) generally increased when the aerosol mixing state changed from externally mixed to internally mixed, while the single scattering albedo (SSA) decreased. Therefore, the scattering and absorption properties of aerosols can be significantly affected by the change of aerosol mixing states. Comparison of simulated and observed SSAs at five AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) sites suggests that SSA could be better estimated by considering aerosol particles to be internally mixed. Model analysis indicates that the impact of aerosol mixing state upon aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) is complex. Generally, the cooling effect of aerosols over East Asia are enhanced in the northern part of East Asia (Northern China, Korean peninsula, and the surrounding area of Japan) and are reduced in the southern part of East Asia (Sichuan Basin and Southeast China) by internal mixing process, and the variation range can reach ±5 W m-2. The analysis shows that the internal mixing between inorganic salt and dust is likely the main reason that the cooling effect strengthens. Conversely, the internal mixture of anthropogenic aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, and organic carbon, could obviously weaken the cooling effect.

  19. Ozone export from East Asia: The role of PAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhe; Worden, John R.; Payne, Vivienne H.; Zhu, Liye; Fischer, Emily; Walker, Thomas; Jones, Dylan B. A.

    2016-06-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) is an important ozone (O3) precursor. The lifetime of PAN is approximately 1 month in the free troposphere, and this allows O3 production to occur in pollution plumes at intercontinental distances from its source. In this study we use the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS)-Chem global chemical transport model, new satellite measurements of PAN from the Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), and data from the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) field campaign over North America, to study the role of natural and anthropogenic Asian emissions on free tropospheric (900-400 hPa) PAN distributions and subsequent O3 production. Using the ARCTAS data with GEOS-Chem, we show that while GEOS-Chem is unbiased with respect to the aircraft data, TES version 7 PAN data are biased high for regions with surface temperatures colder than 285 K. However, GEOS-Chem and TES measurements provide a consistent representation (within 15% difference) of PAN abundance over East Asia. Because of the good agreement between model and observations, we use the GEOS-Chem model to evaluate the sources of PAN precursors and the effect of free tropospheric PAN on the export of O3 from Asia to North America. The GEOS-Chem model results show that the largest contributors to free tropospheric PAN over Asia and the northern Pacific are anthropogenic and soil NOx emissions. Biomass burning emissions have important contributions to free tropospheric PAN over northern Pacific (25% in April), while the contribution from lightning over northern Pacific is significant in July (40%). Strong springtime transport in April results in more export of free tropospheric PAN and O3 from East Asian emissions. This free tropospheric PAN contributes about 35% to the abundance of free tropospheric O3 over western North America in spring and 25% in summer.

  20. Sensitivity analysis of photochemical ozone to its precursor emissions over East Asia by CMAQ-DDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itahashi, S.; Uno, I.; Kim, S.

    2011-12-01

    In the past three decades, anthropogenic emissions in East Asia have increased dramatically in parallel with the economic growth, and the trans-boundary air pollution arose as a concerning issue. For instance, high photochemical oxidant (over 120 ppbv) was observed at the remote clean island in Japan during 2007 springtime. In this event, many studies concluded that the high possibility of the impact of Asian-scale trans-boundary pollutants. To investigate the source-receptor relationships, modeling study is useful, however, if the chemical reaction involves the nonlinear response (e.g., ozone), to estimate its S-R relationships is quite difficult. The decoupled direct method (DDM) which was implemented in CMAQ ver. 4.7.1 is an efficient and accurate way of performing sensitivity analysis to model inputs. CMAQ-DDM has been extended to higher-order (HDDM) for gas-phase, and calculates first and second-order sensitivity coefficients representing the responsiveness of atmospheric chemical concentrations to perturbations in a model input or parameter (e.g., emission, reaction rate, initical condition, or boundary condition). This applications are well conducted in the U.S., whereas it is not fully examined in East Asia. In this study, we apply CMAQ-DDM technique for ozone and its precursor pollutants in East Asia. In the case of trans-boundary air pollution episode occurred on 7-9 May, 2007, the 1st order ozone sensitivity to the anthropogenic NOx emissions from China show the positive value in almost part over East Asia, namely represent the NOx-sensitive region, whereas in the large-point sources in China (e.g., Beijing and Shanghai), it shows the negative value due to the ozone titration by NO. We will also report more detailed region specified S-R analysis and cross-sensitivity analysis between NOx and VOC over China, Korea and Japan.

  1. Simulated seasonal variations in wet acid depositions over East Asia.

    PubMed

    Ge, Cui; Zhang, Meigen; Zhu, Lingyun; Han, Xiao; Wang, Jun

    2011-11-01

    The air quality modeling system Regional Atmospheric Modeling System-Community Multi-scale Air Quality (RAMS-CMAQ) was applied to analyze temporospatial variations in wet acid deposition over East Asia in 2005, and model results obtained on a monthly basis were evaluated against extensive observations, including precipitation amounts at 704 stations and SO4(2-), NO3-, and NH4+ concentrations in the atmosphere and rainwater at 18 EANET (the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia) stations. The comparison shows that the modeling system can reasonably reproduce seasonal precipitation patterns, especially the extensive area of dry conditions in northeast China and north China and the major precipitation zones. For ambient concentrations and wet depositions, the simulated results are in reasonable agreement (within a factor of 2) with observations in most cases, and the major observed features are mostly well reproduced. The analysis of modeled wet deposition distributions indicates that East Asia experiences noticeable variations in its wet deposition patterns throughout the year. In winter, southern China and the coastal areas of the Japan Sea report higher S04(2-) and NO3- wet depositions. In spring, elevated SO4(2-) and NO3-wet depositions are found in northeastern China, southern China, and around the Yangtze River. In summer, a remarkable rise in precipitation in northeastern China, the valleys of the Huaihe and Yangtze rivers, Korea, and Japan leads to a noticeable increase in SO4(2-) and NO3- wet depositions, whereas in autumn, higher SO4(2-) and NO3-wet depositions are found around Sichuan Province. Meanwhile, due to the high emission of SO2, high wet depositions of SO4(2-) are found throughout the entire year in the area surrounding Sichuan Province. There is a tendency toward decreasing NO3- concentrations in rainwater from China through Korea to Japan in both observed and simulated results, which is a consequence of the influence of the continental

  2. Aerosol remote sensing in East Asia : Motivation for NASA/AERONET/DRAGON-Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, S.; Nakata, M.; Sano, I.; Holben, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    It is known that the air pollution in East Asia becomes to be severe due to both the increasing emissions of the anthropogenic aerosols associated with economic growth and the complicated behavior of natural aerosols. Furthermore, air quality in the big cities is worse in comparison with that in remote area because of the industries and auto mobiles. Then high resolved measurements of atmospheric aerosols in spatial- and temporal- scale are desired in Asian urban cities. NASA/Dragon-Asia practiced in the spring of 2012 is really meaningful accordingly. In recent years, heavy air pollutants as well as Asian dusts, i.e. yellow dust storm, transport to neighbor countries from the continent of China throughout year. These aerosol episodes, which mean dense concentrations of aerosols in the atmosphere, severely influence for the environment and human health. This work focuses on the aerosol remote sensing in the case of serious aerosol episodes detected by both satellite and ground measurements in East Asia. It is reasonable to consider for aerosol remote sensing that precise simulations of multiple light scattering processes ( cslled radiative transfer hereafter) in coupled Earth-atmosphere-surface model are necessary and need a long computational time especially for an optically thick atmosphere model such as an aerosol episode. Thus efficient and practical algorithms for radiative transfer are indispensable to retrieve aerosol properties from space. It is shown here that dense aerosol episodes can be well simulated by a semi-infinite radiation model composed of the proposed aerosol models, which are compiled from the accumulated measurements during more than ten years provided with the world wide aerosol monitoring network (NASA/AERONET). In addition the efficient procedure to solve the radiative transfer problem for semi-infinite medium named MSOS (Method of Successive Order of Scattering) is examined in practice around Beijing by using Aqua/MODIS data.

  3. World Directory of Energy Information. Volume 2: Middle East, Africa and Asia/Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Volume 2 of the four-part Directory includes a detailed review of energy resource development of 64 countries, 15 of which are in the Middle East, 30 in Africa, and 19 in the Asia and Pacific area. The volume is divided into four parts: (1) International Framework; (2) Country Reviews; (3) Energy Organizations; and (4) Energy Publications. The organizations and publications information covers both international and by country. Three indices list publications alphabetically, by subject and country, and publishing bodies. 6 figures, 2 tables. (DCK)

  4. The Culex pipiens fatigans problem in South-East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Singh, D.

    1967-01-01

    In South-East Asia in recent years urbanization has proceeded rapidly. Because of limited financial resources it has seldom been possible to provide sufficient sanitation; this has led to conditions favourable to the breeding of Culex pipiens fatigans. The density of C. p. fatigans is higher in urban areas than in rural ones. Differences in infection and infectivity rates in C. p. fatigans seem to be due to differences in infection rates in the human population rather than to differences in the life-span of the mosquito. Precipitin tests have shown that the species feeds predominantly on man. It breeds in almost any type of stagnant water with organic contamination. Filariasis problems in India have been classified according to the duration of established transmission. PMID:5300060

  5. Application of an online-coupled regional climate model, WRF-CAM5, over East Asia for examination of ice nucleation schemes. Part II. Sensitivity to heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterizations and dust emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yang; Chen, Ying; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai -Yung

    2015-09-14

    Aerosol particles can affect cloud microphysical properties by serving as ice nuclei (IN). Large uncertainties exist in the ice nucleation parameterizations (INPs) used in current climate models. In this Part II paper, to examine the sensitivity of the model predictions to different heterogeneous INPs, WRF-CAM5 simulation using the INP of Niemand et al. (N12) [1] is conducted over East Asia for two full years, 2006 and 2011, and compared with simulation using the INP of Meyers et al. (M92) [2], which is the original INP used in CAM5. M92 calculates the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of ice supersaturation, while N12 represents the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of temperature and the number concentrations and surface areas of dust particles. Compared to M92, the WRF-CAM5 simulation with N12 produces significantly higher nucleated ice crystal number concentrations (ICNCs) in the northern domain where dust sources are located, leading to significantly higher cloud ice number and mass concentrations and ice water path, but the opposite is true in the southern domain where temperatures and moistures play a more important role in ice formation. Overall, the simulation with N12 gives lower downward shortwave radiation but higher downward longwave radiation, cloud liquid water path, cloud droplet number concentrations, and cloud optical depth. The increase in cloud optical depth and the decrease in downward solar flux result in a stronger shortwave and longwave cloud forcing, and decreases temperature at 2-m and precipitation. Changes in temperature and radiation lower surface concentrations of OH, O₃, SO₄²⁻, and PM2.5, but increase surface concentrations of CO, NO₂, and SO₂ over most of the domain. By acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and IN, dust particles have different impacts on cloud water and ice number concentrations, radiation, and temperature at 2-m and precipitation depending on

  6. Application of an online-coupled regional climate model, WRF-CAM5, over East Asia for examination of ice nucleation schemes. Part II. Sensitivity to heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterizations and dust emissions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Yang; Chen, Ying; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai -Yung

    2015-09-14

    Aerosol particles can affect cloud microphysical properties by serving as ice nuclei (IN). Large uncertainties exist in the ice nucleation parameterizations (INPs) used in current climate models. In this Part II paper, to examine the sensitivity of the model predictions to different heterogeneous INPs, WRF-CAM5 simulation using the INP of Niemand et al. (N12) [1] is conducted over East Asia for two full years, 2006 and 2011, and compared with simulation using the INP of Meyers et al. (M92) [2], which is the original INP used in CAM5. M92 calculates the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of icemore » supersaturation, while N12 represents the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of temperature and the number concentrations and surface areas of dust particles. Compared to M92, the WRF-CAM5 simulation with N12 produces significantly higher nucleated ice crystal number concentrations (ICNCs) in the northern domain where dust sources are located, leading to significantly higher cloud ice number and mass concentrations and ice water path, but the opposite is true in the southern domain where temperatures and moistures play a more important role in ice formation. Overall, the simulation with N12 gives lower downward shortwave radiation but higher downward longwave radiation, cloud liquid water path, cloud droplet number concentrations, and cloud optical depth. The increase in cloud optical depth and the decrease in downward solar flux result in a stronger shortwave and longwave cloud forcing, and decreases temperature at 2-m and precipitation. Changes in temperature and radiation lower surface concentrations of OH, O₃, SO₄²⁻, and PM2.5, but increase surface concentrations of CO, NO₂, and SO₂ over most of the domain. By acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and IN, dust particles have different impacts on cloud water and ice number concentrations, radiation, and temperature at 2-m and precipitation depending on whether the

  7. Aerosol types and radiative forcing estimates over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhawar, Rohini L.; Lee, Woo-Seop; Rahul, P. R. C.

    2016-09-01

    Using the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite data sets along with the CSIRO-MK 3.6.0 model simulations, we analyzed the aerosol optical depth (AOD) variability during March-May (MAM), June-August (JJA) along with their annual mean variability over East Asia for the period 2006-2012. The CALIPSO measurements correlated well with the MODIS measurements and the CSIRO-MK 3.6.0 model simulations over the spatial distribution patterns of the aerosols, but CALIPSO underestimated the magnitudes of the AOD. Maximum smoke aerosol loading is observed to occur during JJA, as a result of wind transport from Southern China while dust loading dominated during MAM via the transport from desert region. The vertical distribution profiles revealed that there is uniform distribution of smoke aerosols during both MAM and JJA, only differing at the altitude at which they peak; while the dust aerosols during MAM showed a significant distribution from the surface to 10 km altitude and JJA was marked with lower dust loading at the same altitudes. Both dust and smoke aerosols warm the atmosphere in MAM but due to the absorbing nature of smoke aerosols, they cause considerable cooling at the surface which is double when compared to the dust aerosols. The top of the atmosphere aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) due to smoke and dust aerosols is positive in MAM which indicates warming over East Asia. During MAM a consistent declining trend of the surface ARF due to smoke aerosols persisted over the last three decades as conspicuously evidenced from model analysis; the decline is ∼10 W/m2 from 1980 to 2012.

  8. Holocene paleomagnetic secular variation from East China Sea and a PSV stack of East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yan; Zheng, Hongbo; Deng, Chenglong; Liu, Qingsong

    2014-11-01

    Paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) provides information on the mechanisms of the geodynamo and can also be used for stratigraphic correlation on a regional scale. In this study, we constructed PSV curves of relative rapidly deposited Holocene marine sequence from East China Sea. Results show that the dominant magnetic carriers are pseudo-single domain (PSD) to multidomain (MD) magnetites. Paleomagnetic directions are preserved by coarse-grained magnetite, even affected by post-depositional diagenetic alteration. The PSV record of core MD06-3040 exhibits six major inclination peaks and five declination swings during the Holocene. The periodicities for inclination are about 2000 and 550 years, and for declination are about 1400 and 500 years. The PSV of MD06-3040 is comparable to archeomagnetic and historic results for the last 2500 years and to PSV results from lake sediments in southern China and Japan during the Holocene. A PSV stack of East Asia is constructed by sedimentary and archeological PSV results, which can be used as an important reference curve for a large region, and the PSV correlation between sites can be applied for relative dating of East Asia.

  9. Sensitivity of summer precipitation to tropical sea surface temperatures over East Asia in the GRIMs GMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Eun-Chul; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Hong, Song-You; Wu, Renguang

    2013-05-01

    In this study, uncoupled atmospheric general circulation model experiments are conducted to examine the sensitivity of tropical Ocean basins from the Indian Ocean to the tropical Pacific Ocean on the summer precipitation variability over East Asia. It is remarkable that the Indian Ocean basin sea surface temperature (SST) and the tropical Pacific basin SST act on summer precipitation variability over Northeast Asia and southern China quite differently. That is, SST warming in the Indian Ocean largely contributes to the increase in the amount of summer precipitation over East Asia, which is in contrast to the warming of the western tropical Pacific Ocean. Our further analysis indicates that an altered large-scale atmospheric circulation over the western tropical Pacific contributes to contrasting atmospheric motion over East Asia due to the tropics-East Asia teleconnections, which results in changes in the amount of summer precipitation due to the warming of the Indian and western tropical Pacific Oceans.

  10. Genetic structure of wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations from East Asia based on microsatellite loci analyses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Wild boar, Sus scrofa, is an extant wild ancestor of the domestic pig as an agro-economically important mammal. Wild boar has a worldwide distribution with its geographic origin in Southeast Asia, but genetic diversity and genetic structure of wild boar in East Asia are poorly understood. To characterize the pattern and amount of genetic variation and population structure of wild boar in East Asia, we genotyped and analyzed microsatellite loci for a total of 238 wild boar specimens from ten locations across six countries in East and Southeast Asia. Results Our data indicated that wild boar populations in East Asia are genetically diverse and structured, showing a significant correlation of genetic distance with geographic distance and implying a low level of gene flow at a regional scale. Bayesian-based clustering analysis was indicative of seven inferred genetic clusters in which wild boars in East Asia are geographically structured. The level of genetic diversity was relatively high in wild boars from Southeast Asia, compared with those from Northeast Asia. This gradient pattern of genetic diversity is consistent with an assumed ancestral population of wild boar in Southeast Asia. Genetic evidences from a relationship tree and structure analysis suggest that wild boar in Jeju Island, South Korea have a distinct genetic background from those in mainland Korea. Conclusions Our results reveal a diverse pattern of genetic diversity and the existence of genetic differentiation among wild boar populations inhabiting East Asia. This study highlights the potential contribution of genetic variation of wild boar to the high genetic diversity of local domestic pigs during domestication in East Asia. PMID:25034725

  11. Plate tectonic reconstruction of South and East Asia since 43 Ma using seismic tomographic constraints: role of the subducted ';East Asia Sea' (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J. E.; Suppe, J.; Renqi, L.; Kanda, R. V.

    2013-12-01

    Lithosphere that subducts at convergent plate boundaries provides a potentially decipherable plate tectonic record. In this study we use global seismic tomography to map subducted slabs in the upper and lower mantle under South and East Asia to constrain plate reconstructions. The mapped slabs include the Pacific, the Indian Ocean and Banda Sea, the Molucca Sea, Celebes Sea, the Philippine Sea and Eurasia, New Guinea and other lower mantle detached slabs. The mapped slabs were restored to the earth surface and used with Gplates software to constrain a globally-consistent, fully animated plate reconstruction of South and East Asia. Three principal slab elements dominate possible plate reconstructions: [1] The mapped Pacific slabs near the Izu-Bonin and the Marianas trenches form a subvertical slab curtain or wall extending down to 1500 km in the lower mantle. The ';slab curtain' geometry and restored slabs lengths indicate that the Pacific subduction zone has remained fixed within +/- 250 km of its present position since ~43 Ma. In contrast, the Tonga Pacific slab curtain records at least 1000 km trench rollback associated with expansion of back-arc basins. [2] West of the Pacific slab curtain, a set of flat slabs exist in the lower mantle and record a major 8000km by 2500-3000km ocean that existed at ~43 Ma. This now-subducted ocean, which we call the ';East Asian Sea', existed between the Ryukyu Asian margin and the Lord Howe hotspot, present-day eastern Australia, and fills a major gap in Cenozoic plate reconstructions between Indo-Australia, the Pacific Ocean and Asia. [3] An observed ';picture puzzle' fit between the restored edges of the Philippine Sea, Molucca Sea and Indian Ocean slabs suggests that the Philippine Sea was once part of a larger Indo-Australian Ocean. Previous models of Philippine Sea plate motions are in conflict with the location of the East Asian Sea lithosphere. Using the mapped slab constraints, we propose the following 43 Ma to 0 plate

  12. Simulations of the 100-hPa South Asian High and precipitation over East Asia with IPCC coupled GCMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ningfang; Yu, Yongqiang; Qian, Yongfu

    2006-05-01

    The South Asian High (SAH) and precipitation over East Asia simulated by 11 coupled GCMs associated with the forthcoming Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) 4th Assessment Report are evaluated. The seasonal behavior of the SAH is presented for each model. Analyses of the results show that all models are able to reproduce the seasonal cycle of the SAH. Locations of the SAH center are also basically reproduced by these models. All models underestimate the intensity and the extension of coverage in summer. The anomalous SAH can be divided into east and west modes according to its longitudinal position in summer on the interannual timescale, and the composite anomalies of the observed precipitation for these two modes tend to have opposite signs over East Asia. However, only several coupled GCMs can simulate the relationship between rainfall and SAH similar to the observed one, which may be associated with the bias in simulation of the subtropical anticyclone over the West Pacific (SAWP) at 500 hPa. In fact, it is found that any coupled GCM, that can reproduce the reasonable summer mean state of SAWP and the southward (northward) withdrawal (extension) for the east (west) mode of SAH as compared to the observed, will also simulate similar rainfall anomaly patterns for the east and west SAH modes over East Asia. Further analysis indicates that the observed variations in the SAH, SAWP and rainfall are closely related to the sea surface temperature (SST) over the equatorial tropical Pacific. Particularly, some models cannot simulate the SAWP extending northward in the west mode and withdrawing southward in the east mode, which may be related to weak major El Niño or La Niña events. The abilities of the coupled GCMs to simulate the SAWP and ENSO events are associated partly with their ability to reproduce the observed relationship between SAH and the rainfall anomaly over East Asia.

  13. Compulsory drug detention centers in East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; McBrayer, John L

    2015-02-01

    Over the last three decades in response to a rise in substance use in the region, many countries in East and Southeast Asia responded by establishing laws and policies that allowed for compulsory detention in the name of treatment for people who use drugs. These centers have recently come under international scrutiny with a call for their closure in a Joint Statement from United Nations entities in March 2012. The UN's response was a result of concern for human rights violations, including the lack of consent for treatment and due process protections for compulsory detention, the lack of general healthcare and evidence based drug dependency treatment and in some centers, of forced labor and physical and sexual abuse (United Nations, 2012). A few countries have responded to this call with evidence of an evolving response for community-based voluntary treatment; however progress is likely going to be hampered by existing laws and policies, the lack of skilled human resource and infrastructure to rapidly establish evidence based community treatment centers in place of these detention centers, pervasive stigmatization of people who use drugs and the ongoing tensions between the abstinence-based model of treatment as compared to harm reduction approaches in many of these affected countries. PMID:25727259

  14. Ocular palsies of obscure origin in South East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Tay, C. H.; Tan, Y. T.; Cheah, J. S.; Ransome, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The clinical and laboratory findings are presented of 14 patients who were recently found to have an obscure form of ocular palsy during a three year study in Singapore. The disease, which has no predilection for any age groups, races, occupations, or sex, often manifests with acute onset of unilateral or bilateral cranial nerve paralysis involving the 3rd, 4th, 6th, first two branches of the 5th, and sometimes, the 2nd cranial nerve in various combinations. Major symptoms were diplopia, ptosis, giddiness, headache, facial numbness, proptosis, retro-orbital pain, chemosis, conjunctival irritation, blurred vision, and/or progressive blindness. Systemic complications were rare. Except for a raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate during the acute phase, exhaustive investigations—but short of a surgical exploration—were essentially noncontributory. All cleared up within two to four weeks, nine patients had spontaneous remission, while five improved only after a course of systemic corticosteroids. Two cases were left with some residual neurological deficits and one in this series had a relapse two years later. The relationship of this condition to those described outside South East Asia is discussed.

  15. Women's cardiovascular health: perspectives from South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Rajadurai, Jeyamalar; Lopez, Eleanor A; Rahajoe, Anna Ulfah; Goh, Ping Ping; Uboldejpracharak, Yingnoi; Zambahari, Robaayah

    2012-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an under-recognized major health problem among women in South-East Asia. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, physical inactivity, and being overweight or obese has shown a significantly increasing trend among women in the region, with the exception of Singapore. The problem is compounded by low awareness that CVD is a health problem for women as well as for men, by misconceptions about the disease, and by the lack of suitable, locally available health literature. Efforts have been made by the national heart associations and other organizations to increase heart health awareness and promote healthy lifestyles. Singapore initiated these prevention programs in the early 1990s and has been successful in reducing the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. The governments of the region, in accordance with the Noncommunicable Disease Alliance, have begun implementing appropriate preventive strategies and improving health-delivery systems. However, psychological, social, and cultural barriers to cardiovascular health awareness in women need to be addressed before these programs can be fully and successfully implemented. PMID:22525668

  16. Extended Y chromosome investigation suggests postglacial migrations of modern humans into East Asia via the northern route.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hua; Shi, Hong; Qi, Xue-Bin; Duan, Zi-Yuan; Tan, Ping-Ping; Jin, Li; Su, Bing; Ma, Runlin Z

    2011-01-01

    modern human settlement in East Asia, there are ancient contributions, though limited, from WE, which partly explain the genetic divergence between current southern and northern East Asian populations. PMID:20837606

  17. Spatiotemporal characteristics of regional drought occurrence in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Su-Bin; Byun, Hi-Ryong; Kim, Do-Woo

    2014-07-01

    Droughts in the East Asian region (105-150°E, 20-50°N) are quantified using the effective drought index (EDI) over a period of 43 years, from 1962 to 2004, and the East Asian region was classified into six subregions on the basis of similarity in drought climate: (D1) South China; (D2) lower region of the Yangtze River, South Korea, and Central/South Japan; (D3) Central China and North Korea; (D4) Northwest China and middle region of the Yangtze River; (D5) North China; and (D6) Northeast China and North Japan. The EDI time series was then summarized for the different drought subregions and a drought map was created that shows the spatiotemporal characteristics of regional drought occurrence in East Asia. The map shows that in subregions, D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, and D6, there were 50 (11.63 per decade), 36 (8.37 per decade), 30 (6.98 per decade), 28 (6.51 per decade), 29 (6.74 per decade), and 33 (7.67 per decade) drought occurrences, respectively. The most common characteristic of droughts in the subregions is that short-term droughts (<200 days) which mainly occur in spring and summer, whereas long-term droughts (≥200 days) mainly occur in autumn and winter. D1 shows the highest frequency of short-term droughts. Short-term droughts occur more frequently than long-term droughts in D2 and D3, but D4 and D6 showed a higher frequency of long-term droughts than short-term droughts. D5 showed a similar frequency of short- and long-term droughts. Drought onset dates are evenly distributed throughout the year for D1, D2, and D3, but distributed mostly in spring and summer in D4, D5, and D6. All the differences are linked to variations in the precipitation cycle of each subregion. In terms of annual variations in drought occurrence, D2 showed weakening droughts (the annual lowest EDI shows a positive trend), whereas the other subregions showed intensifying droughts (the annual lowest EDI shows a negative trend). The greatest intensifying trend was observed in D5, followed

  18. Combined effect of the Arctic Oscillation and the Western Pacific pattern on East Asia winter temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hye-Jin; Ahn, Joong-Bae

    2016-05-01

    The combined effect of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Western Pacific (WP) teleconnection pattern on the temperature variation during the winter in the northern hemisphere and East Asia over the last 56 years (1958/1959-2013/2014) was investigated using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. The study results revealed that the effect of the AO on winter temperature in East Asia could be changed depending on the phase of the WP pattern in the North Pacific. The negative relationship between the temperature of East Asia (25-45°N, 110-145°E) and the AO increased when the AO and WP were in-phase with each other. Hence, when winter negative (positive) AO was accompanied by negative (positive) WP, negative (positive) temperature anomalies were dominant across the entire East Asia region. Conversely, when the AO and WP were out-of-phase, the winter temperature anomaly in East Asia did not show distinct changes. Furthermore, from the perspective of stationary planetary waves, the zonal wavenumber-2 patterns of sea level pressure and geopotential height at 500 hPa related to the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) circulation strengthened when the AO and WP were in-phase but were not significant for the out-of-phase condition. An index considering the effect of both AO and WP on East Asia winter temperature was proposed. The correlation between the index and the East Asia winter temperature was statistically significant at the 99 % confidence level. The index was correlated with synoptic characteristics of the EAWM, including the Siberian High, East Asian trough, East Asian jet stream and surface air temperature.

  19. Light-absorption properties of aerosols observed in East and South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Yoon, S.; Lee, H.

    2011-12-01

    We compared light-absorption properties of aerosols observed in East and South Asia from black carbon (BC) mass concentration, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients measurements at four sites: Korea Climate Observatory-Gosan (KCO-G), Korea Climate Observatory-Anmyeon (KCO-A), Maldives Climate Observatory-Hanimaadhoo (MCO-H) and Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P). No significant seasonal variations of BC mass concentration, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients, except for summer due to wet scavenging by rainfall, were observed in East Asia, whereas dramatic changes of light-absorbing aerosol properties were observed in South Asia between dry and wet monsoon periods. Although BC mass concentration in East Asia is generally higher than that observed in South Asia, BC mass concentration at MCO-H during winter dry monsoon is similar to that of East Asia. The observed solar absorption efficiency (absorption coefficient/extinction coefficient) at 550 nm at KCO-G and KCO-A is higher than that in MCO-H due to large portions of BC emission from fossil fuel combustion. Interestingly, solar absorption efficiency at NCO-P is 0.14, which is two times great than that in MCO-H and is about 40% higher than that in East Asia, though BC mass concentration at NCO-P is the lowest among four sites. Consistently, the highest elemental carbon to sulfate ratio is found at NCO-P.

  20. Celiac disease screening in southern and East Asia.

    PubMed

    Makharia, Govind K

    2015-01-01

    Until 1970s, celiac disease (CD) was considered to be an uncommon disease except in Western Europe. The global epidemiology of CD continues to evolve with improvement in the diagnostic tests, simplification of the diagnostic criteria and increase in awareness about the disease. The Asian region is currently at the crossroads of the frontier of knowledge and awareness of CD. In many Asian nations, CD is still considered to be either nonexistent or very rare. A notable exception is India, where CD has been well recognized, especially in the northern part, and 2 population-based studies have revealed a prevalence of 0.3-1.04%. Initial reports from Malaysia, China, Japan and Singapore suggest the existence of CD in these countries. Furthermore, a meta-analysis of the predisposing factors predicts a high probability of occurrence of CD in fair numbers in China. There are no formal reports on CD from Malaysia, Indonesia, Korea, Taiwan and many other nations in this region. With the impending CD epidemic in Asia, there are many challenges. Some of the efforts which are required include determination of prevalence of CD across the region, spreading of awareness among physicians and patients, training of dieticians for proper counseling and supervision of patients, creation of gluten-free food infrastructure in the food supply and creation of patient advocacy organizations. Although the absolute number of patients with CD at present is not very large, this number is expected to increase over the next few years/decades. It is thus appropriate that the medical community across Asia define the extent of the problem and get prepared to handle the impending CD epidemic. PMID:25925919

  1. FOREWORD: Focus on innovation in ceramics research in East Asia Focus on innovation in ceramics research in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Akio; Hishita, Shunichi; Osada, Minoru; Haneda, Hajime

    2010-10-01

    Ceramics, as broadly defined, include all materials other than organic substances and metals, either crystalline or amorphous. They have been used by humans since early history and have contributed considerably to improving the quality of our life. In most cases, however, high-temperature treatment is necessary to prepare ceramics. This burdens the environment and there is therefore a great need for new ceramics processing methods. Recent technologically advanced ceramics are often composed of nanocrystallites, which have great potential for innovation in terms of exploring practical applications of nanomaterials and, consequently, reducing the environmental load. The ceramics industry had long flourished in Asia, particularly in East Asia, and even today, this region is leading the development of related materials. In line with these traditions, Japanese and Korean ceramics societies have been co-sponsoring seminars on ceramics since the 1980s. Having become more international in scope and context, a series of these seminars is now known as the International Japan-Korea Seminar on Ceramics. This focus issue contains eight key articles presented at the 26th International Japan-Korea Seminar on Ceramics held on 24-26 November 2010 at the Tsukuba International Congress Center. In particular, Fabbri et al review electrode materials for protonic solid-oxide fuel cells, and Kamiya et al outline the present situation and future prospects for transparent transistors, particularly those based on amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O films. Eitel et al discuss the progress in engineering high-strain lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. Kim and Kumar review a simple processing method for producing porous ceramics using polysiloxane precursors, Kamiya and Iijima focus on surface modification and characterization of nanomaterials, and Wan et al briefly review the strategy of reducing lattice thermal conductivity of thermoelectric materials and propose new materials for thermoelectric devices

  2. Phylogeographic breaks within Asian butternuts indicate the existence of a phytogeographic divide in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Bai, Wei-Ning; Wang, Wen-Ting; Zhang, Da-Yong

    2016-03-01

    East Asia has been hypothesized to be subdivided into two distinct northern and southern areas, separated by a band of dry climate that was far more severe in the early Tertiary but still exists today. However, this biogeographic hypothesis has rarely been tested using a molecular phylogeographic approach. We genotyped 70 populations throughout the distributional range of Asian butternuts (Juglans section Cardiocaryon) using eight chloroplast DNA regions, one single-copy nuclear gene, and 17 nuclear microsatellite loci, supplemented with paleodistribution modeling of the major genetic clades. The genetic data consistently identified two clades, one northern, comprising Juglans mandshurica and Juglans ailantifolia, and one southern, comprising Juglans cathayensis. The two clades diverged through climate-induced vicariance of an ancestral northern range during the mid-Miocene and remained mostly separate thereafter, with geographical isolation of the Japanese Islands and refugial isolation or secondary contacts in the late Pleistocene producing further subdivision within the northern clade. But beyond all that, we also discovered a role of environmental adaptation in maintaining and/or reinforcing the north-south divergence. Asian butternuts offer a strong case for the existence of a biogeographic divide between the northern and southern parts of East Asia during the Neogene and into the Pleistocene. PMID:26499508

  3. Education in South-East Asia. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Colin, Ed.; Symaco, Lorraine Pe, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book on education in South-East Asia is the very first of its kind to comprehensively cover and discuss the education systems and issues in all the countries in the region--the ten member nations of the Association of South-East Asian nations (ASEAN) plus Timor Leste. The eleven chapters on country case studies are written by education…

  4. The Ideological Construction of English: A Critical Review on the Discourse of English in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Han-Yi

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the ideological character of the English language in East Asia. It focuses on the prevailing beliefs, values and propositions relating to English as a global language and the spread of English in the non-English East Asian countries, namely China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. By analyzing how English is presented in…

  5. An Islamic University in Cape Town Grows from Roots in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindow, Megan

    2007-01-01

    This article features the International Peace University South Africa in Cape Town. The university, which was established in 2004, resulted from the merger of two local "madrassas", or religious colleges, yet seeks to prepare its students for success in the secular world. Its Islamic roots are not in the Middle East, but in East Asia. Situated on…

  6. Embedding Research on International Development in the Discourse of Comparative Education in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, I-Hsuan

    2010-01-01

    In the wake of the recent ASEAN-China Free Trade Area (ACFTA) launch in 2010, this paper argues for the greater scholarly contribution of international development studies in the discourse of comparative education in East Asia. The argument is based on three premises. The first acknowledges the growing relations of East Asian countries to…

  7. The oldest Mahonia (Berberidaceae) fossil from East Asia and its biogeographic implications.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian; Su, Tao; Lebereton-Anberrée, Julie; Zhang, Shi-Tao; Zhou, Zhe-Kun

    2016-03-01

    Interpretation of the biogeography of the genus Mahonia (Berberidaceae) is limited by the lack of fossil records in East Asia. Compressed fossil foliage, described here as Mahonia mioasiatica sp. nov., were collected from the Upper Miocene Xiaolongtan Formation in Wenshan, Yunnan, southwest China. These specimens represent the oldest reliable fossil record of Mahonia in East Asia. This new fossil species shows a general similarity to Group Orientales and is most similar to the extant eastern Asian Mahonia conferta. Considering other fossil evidence of Mahonia, we propose a migration route of this genus to Asia over the North Atlantic Land Bridge rather than the Bering Land Bridge. Our results also suggest that North America, Europe and East Asia have been successive centers of diversity for the genus, as a consequence of diversification in Group Orientales potentially related to historical climate change. PMID:26691316

  8. Outflow patterns of pollutants from East Asia to the North Pacific in the winter monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneyasu, Naoki; Takeuchi, Koji; Hayashi, Masayasu; Fujita, Shin-Ichi; Uno, Itsushi; Sasaki, Hidetaka

    2000-07-01

    Outflow patterns of air pollutants, and mechanisms associated with a "monsoon" condition that is peculiar to the East Asian region in winter, have been studied. To capture the continental outflow, airborne and shipboard measurements of aerosols and trace gases were conducted over the northern part of the East China Sea and the western part of the Sea of Japan on January 17-26, 1991 (airborne), January 28-29, 1992 (airborne), January 22-31, 1993 (shipboard), and January 29-30, 1993 (airborne). At least two types of highly polluted air masses were found at different times of the monsoon. Type 1 polluted air mass, which contained more than 10 μg m-3 of non-sea-salt SO42- and more than 5 μgC m-3 of black carbon aerosols, typically appeared over the East China Sea at the beginning of the monsoon period. Chemical and microphysical characteristics suggest that the type 1 polluted air mass is chemically aged. Type 2 air mass appeared in the later half of the monsoon period and had characteristics of freshly emitted pollutants. It consisted of several high concentrations of SO2 (>10 ppbv) confined in narrow horizontal width (10 to 30 km wide). Analyses using an Eulerian chemical transport model and detailed backward trajectories indicate that the type 1 polluted air mass was subcontinental in extent and its formation and the transport were dominated by a synoptic-scale weather cycle; it was formed over the Asian continent under anticyclonic conditions that persisted for 3-4 days, and transported intermittently to the east over the Pacific Ocean by the passage and the development of traveling cyclones. This study suggests that aerosols that flow out from East Asia are enriched with carbonaceous materials and consequently have low single-scattering albedo, which may affect the direct radiative forcing by aerosols over the North Pacific.

  9. Sustainability Issues of the Association for Engineering Education in Southeast Asia, East Asia and the Pacific (AEESEAP) Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, Nasrudin Abdul; Said, Suhana Mohd

    The Association for Engineering Education in Southeast Asia, East Asia and the Pacific was established with the aim to improve the education of engineers and technologists in its member countries. This paper will give an overview of AEESEAP objectives and its current activities, coordinated by the current secretariat based in Malaysia. The main issue being dealt with throughout the existence of AEESEAP is the issue of sustainability of the association. This paper will highlight the objectives and current activities of AEESEAP, with regards to sustaining this association.

  10. Model study on acidifying wet deposition in East Asia during wintertime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhiwei; Ueda, Hiromasa; Sakurai, Tatsuya

    A regional air quality model (RAQM) has been developed and applied together with an aerosol model to investigate the states and characteristics of wet deposition in East Asia in December 2001. Model simulation is performed with monthly based emission inventory [Streets, D.G., Bond, T.C., Carmichael, G.R., Fernandes, S.D., Fu, Q., He, D., Klimont, Z., Nelson, S. M., Tsai, N.Y., Wang, M.Q., Woo, J.-H., Yarber, K.F., 2003. An inventory of gaseous and primary emissions in Asia in the year 2000. Journal of Geophysical Research 108(D21), 8809] and meteorological fields derived from MM5. Model results are compared with extensive monitoring data including relevant gaseous species and ions in precipitation. The validation demonstrates that this model system is able to represent most of the major physical and chemical processes involved in acid deposition and reproduces concentrations reasonably well, within a factor of 2 of observations in general. The study shows that the regions with pH less than 4.5 are mainly located in southwestern China, parts of the Yangtze Delta, the Yellow Sea and the Korean peninsula, indicating wide regions of acid precipitation in East Asia in wintertime. Japan islands mainly exhibit pH values of 4.5-5.0, whereas over wide areas of northern China, pH values are relatively high (⩾5.0) due to neutralization by alkaline materials such as calcium-laden particles and ammonia, which are more abundant in northern China than that in southern China. While acid rain over most of China is still characterized by sulfur-induced type, considerable areas of eastern China and the western Pacific Rim are found to be more affected by nitric acid than sulfuric acid in acidification of precipitation, which is supposed to result from a combined effect of variations in photochemistry and emission, suggesting the increasing importance of NO x emission in these regions.

  11. United States security strategy for the east Asia-Pacific region

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The United States National Security Strategy published in July 1994 is based on enlarging the community of market democracies while deterring and containing a range of threats to our nation, our allies and our interests. Focusing on new threats and new opportunities, its central goals are: to enhance security by maintaining a strong defense capability and promoting cooperative security measures; to open foreign markets and spur global economic growth; and to promote democracy abroad. In accordance with the National Security Strategy, this document explains United States defense policy toward furthering these goals in the Asia-Pacific region. It builds upon the Strategy`s emphasis on maintaining a strong defense capability to enhance U.S. security and to provide a foundation for regional stability through mutually beneficial security partnerships. As the Strategy states, East Asia is a region of growing importance to American goals: nowhere are the strands of our three-part strategy more intertwined; nowhere is the need for continued engagement more evident. In thinking about the Asia-Pacific region, security comes first, and a committed United States military presence will continue to serve as a bedrock for America`s security role in this dynamic area of the world. The regional security strategy for the Asia-Pacific region emphasizes strengthening the bilateral alliances that have been at the heart of United States strategy for more than forty years. The United States is also committed to contribute to regional security through active participation in new multi-lateral fora like the ASEAN Regional Forum. Through such multi-lateral mechanisms the countries of the region seek to develop new cooperative approaches to achieve greater stability and security. Additionally, the Pacific Command sponsors multi-national military activities.

  12. Social policy and population growth in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    You Poh Seng Rao, B; Shantakumar, G

    1974-01-01

    Social and population policies are considered for the 10 countries comprising Southeast Asia--Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, North Vietnam, and South Vietnam. All but Singapore have high fertility rates and Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos and the two Vietnams have high mortality rates also. Government expenditures for education and social security systems is expanding throughout the region and it is hoped that their continued growth will contribute substantially to the effective implementation of population policies. Population policies in the 5 countries which have them are discussed. These are Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It is noted, however, that declaration of policy is but the first step. Strategies and programs differ from one country to the next and depend very much on the stage of development, level of literacy, degree of urbanization, and other factors. Family planning activities generally are endogenous to urban social systems but exogenous to rural social systems. Thus, the rural elite has a large role to play in making population policies an integral part of rural life. The possibility is considered of developing workable incentive packages integrating health, education, and social security benefits with suitable emphasis on fertility reduction. PMID:12307191

  13. Potential impacts of human-induced land cover change on East Asia monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Congbin

    2003-06-01

    As one major performance of anthropogenic activities, human-induced land use and land cover changes in East Asia have been one of the largest regions in the world. In the past 3000 years, more than 60% of the region has been affected by conversion of various categories of natural vegetation into farmland, conversion of grassland into semidesert and widespread land degradation. Such human-induced land cover changes result in significant changes of surface dynamic parameters, such as albedo, surface roughness, leaf area index and fractional vegetation coverage, etc. The results of a pair of numerical experiments in this paper have shown that by altering the complex exchanges of water and energy from surface to atmosphere, the changes in land cover have brought about significant changes to the East Asian monsoon. These include weakening of the summer monsoon and enhancement of winter monsoon over the region and a commensurate increase in anomalous northerly flow. These changes result in the reduction of all components of surface water balance such as precipitation, runoff, and soil water content. The consequent diminution of northward and inland moisture transfer may be a significant factor in explaining the decreasing of atmospheric and soil humidity and thus the trend in aridification observed in many parts of the region, particularly over Northern China during last 3000 years. The variation of East Asia monsoon presented here is the result of land cover changes only. It is very likely that the anthropogenic modification of monsoon system would have been occurred in the long history of civilization.

  14. Teaching East Asia in Middle Schools: Lesson Plans Contributed at the 1998 East Asian Studies Center Summer Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. East Asian Studies Center.

    This document contains five middle school lesson plans that teach about East Asia, focusing on Japan, China, and Korea. Lessons deal with geography, history, cultural comparisons, and trade relations. Lesson plans include background information, materials needed, extension and enrichment ideas, a lesson script, a rubric, a list of resources, and…

  15. Mobility, Formation and Development of the Academic Profession in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics in East and South East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonezawa, Akiyoshi; Horta, Hugo; Osawa, Aki

    2016-01-01

    The academic profession contributes to shaping the capacity and identity of higher education systems. In East and Southeast Asia, there is a need for further discussion on the regional identity characteristics of the academic profession to account for its multiple origins and national and international dimensions. Data from two large-scale…

  16. Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in the Middle East and Central Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Tompson, A F B; Richardson, J H; Ragaini, R C; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Smith, D K; Ball, D Y

    2002-10-09

    This paper is concerned with the promotion and advancement of regional security in the Middle East and Central Asia through the development of bilateral and multilateral cooperation on targeted scientific and technical projects. It is widely recognized that increasing tensions and instability in many parts of the world emphasize--or reemphasize--a need to seek and promote regional security in these areas. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a national security research facility operated for the US Department of Energy, we are pursuing an effort to use science and technology as a ''low risk'' means of engagement in regions of strategic importance to the United States. In particular, we are developing collaborations and cooperative projects among (and between) national laboratory scientists in the US and our various counterparts in the countries of interest.

  17. Long-term trend and variability of soil moisture over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shanjun; Guan, Xiaodan; Huang, Jianping; Ji, Fei; Guo, Ruixia

    2015-09-01

    The variability of soil moisture over East Asia was analyzed using a long-term data set from the Global Land Data Assimilation System. Overall, a clear decreasing trend occurred over a period of 63 years, with pronounced drying over northeast China, north China, part of Mongolia, and Russia near lake Baikal. Statistical analyses show that decreasing precipitation and global warming have different effects on the decrease in soil moisture. The qualitative analysis and quantitative contributions illustrated that soil drying is driven primarily by decreasing precipitation and is enhanced almost twofold by increasing temperatures. As soil moisture decreases, the positive feedback between soil moisture and temperature may result in future water shortages. Following the Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 (RCP8.5) and 4.5 (RCP4.5) simulation scenarios of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5, the model-predicted soil moisture demonstrated a continuously decreasing trend during the 21st century.

  18. Impact of aerosol indirect effect on surface temperature over East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan; Dickinson, Robert E.; Chameides, William L.

    2006-01-01

    A regional coupled climate–chemistry–aerosol model is developed to examine the impacts of anthropogenic aerosols on surface temperature and precipitation over East Asia. Besides their direct and indirect reduction of short-wave solar radiation, the increased cloudiness and cloud liquid water generate a substantial downward positive long-wave surface forcing; consequently, nighttime temperature in winter increases by +0.7°C, and the diurnal temperature range decreases by −0.7°C averaged over the industrialized parts of China. Confidence in the simulated results is limited by uncertainties in model cloud physics. However, they are broadly consistent with the observed diurnal temperature range decrease as reported in China, suggesting that changes in downward long-wave radiation at the surface are important in understanding temperature changes from aerosols. PMID:16537432

  19. Prostate cancer in East Asia: evolving trend over the last decade

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yao; Wang, Hong-Kai; Qu, Yuan-Yuan; Ye, Ding-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is now becoming an emerging health priority in East Asia. Most of our current knowledge on Prostate cancer has been generated from studies conducted in Western population; however, there is considerable heterogeneity of Prostate cancer between East and West. In this article, we reviewed epidemiologic trends, risk factors, disease characteristics and management of Prostate cancer in East Asian population over the last decade. Growing evidence from East Asia suggests an important role of genetic and environmental risk factors interactions in the carcinogenesis of Prostate cancer. Exposure to westernized diet and life style and improvement in health care in combination contribute substantially to the increasing epidemic in this region. Diagnostic and treatment guidelines in East Asia are largely based on Western knowledge. Although there is a remarkable improvement in the outcome over the last decade, ample evidence suggests an inneglectable difference in diagnostic accuracy, treatment efficacy and adverse events between different populations. The knowledge from western countries should be calibrated in the Asian setting to provide a better race-based treatment approach. In this review, we intend to reveal the evolving trend of Prostate cancer in the last decade, in order to gain evidence to improve Prostate cancer prevention and control in East Asia. PMID:25080928

  20. Cancer Control Programs in East Asia: Evidence From the International Literature

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Malcolm A.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world, including the countries of North-East and South-East Asia. Assessment of burden through cancer registration, determination of risk and protective factors, early detection and screening, clinical practice, interventions for example in vaccination, tobacco cessation efforts and palliative care all should be included in comprehensive cancer control programs. The degree to which this is possible naturally depends on the resources available at local, national and international levels. The present review concerns elements of cancer control programs established in China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan in North-East Asia, Viet Nam, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia as representative larger countries of South-East Asia for comparison, using the published literature as a guide. While major advances have been made, there are still areas which need more attention, especially in South-East Asia, and international cooperation is essential if standard guidelines are to be generated to allow effective cancer control efforts throughout the Far East. PMID:25139165

  1. Cancer control programs in East Asia: evidence from the international literature.

    PubMed

    Moore, Malcolm A

    2014-07-01

    Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world, including the countries of North-East and South-East Asia. Assessment of burden through cancer registration, determination of risk and protective factors, early detection and screening, clinical practice, interventions for example in vaccination, tobacco cessation efforts and palliative care all should be included in comprehensive cancer control programs. The degree to which this is possible naturally depends on the resources available at local, national and international levels. The present review concerns elements of cancer control programs established in China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan in North-East Asia, Viet Nam, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia as representative larger countries of South-East Asia for comparison, using the published literature as a guide. While major advances have been made, there are still areas which need more attention, especially in South-East Asia, and international cooperation is essential if standard guidelines are to be generated to allow effective cancer control efforts throughout the Far East. PMID:25139165

  2. A modeling study of the effects of aerosols on clouds and precipitation over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Xie, Xiaoning; Yin, Zhi-Yong; Liu, Changhai; Gettelman, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model (version 3.5) coupled with the Morrison-Gettelman two-moment cloud microphysics scheme is employed to simulate the aerosol effects on clouds and precipitation in two numerical experiments, one representing present-day conditions (year 2000) and the other the pre-industrial conditions (year 1750) over East Asia by considering both direct and indirect aerosol effects. To isolate the aerosol effects, we used the same set of boundary conditions and only altered the aerosol emissions in both experiments. The simulated results show that the cloud microphysical properties are markedly affected by the increase in aerosols, especially for the column cloud droplet number concentration (DNC), liquid water path (LWP), and the cloud droplet effective radius (DER). With increased aerosols, DNC and LWP have been increased by 137% and 28%, respectively, while DER is reduced by 20%. Precipitation rates in East Asia and East China are reduced by 5.8% and 13%, respectively, by both the aerosol's second indirect effect and the radiative forcing that enhanced atmospheric stability associated with the aerosol direct and first indirect effects. The significant reduction in summer precipitation in East Asia is also consistent with the weakening of the East Asian summer monsoon, resulting from the decreasing thermodynamic contrast between the Asian landmass and the surrounding oceans induced by the aerosol's radiative effects. The increase in aerosols reduces the surface net shortwave radiative flux over the East Asia landmass, which leads to the reduction of the land surface temperature. With minimal changes in the sea surface temperature, hence, the weakening of the East Asian summer monsoon further enhances the reduction of summer precipitation over East Asia.

  3. Intraplate volcanism and mantle dynamics in East Asia: Big mantle wedge (BMW) model (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, D.

    2009-12-01

    In the East Asia continent there are many Cenozoic volcanoes, but only a few are still active now, such as the Changbai, Wudalianchi, and Tengchong volcanoes which have erupted several times in the past 1000 years. Although many studies have been made by using various approaches, the origin of the intraplate volcanoes in East Asia is still not very clear. Recently we used regional and global seismic tomography to determine high-resolution 3-D mantle structure under Western Pacific to East Asia (Zhao, 2004; Huang and Zhao, 2006; Zhao et al., 2009). Our results show prominent low-velocity anomalies from the surface down to 410 km depth beneath the intraplate volcanoes and a broad high-velocity anomaly in the mantle transition zone under East Asia. Focal-mechanism solutions of deep earthquakes indicate that the subducting Pacific slab under the Japan Sea and the East Asia margin is subject to compressive stress regime. These results suggest that the Pacific slab meets strong resistance at the 660-km discontinuity and so it becomes stagnant in the mantle transition zone under East Asia. The Philippine Sea slab has also subducted down to the mantle transition zone under western Japan and the Ryukyu back-arc region. The western edge of the stagnant slab is generally parallel with the Japan trench and the Ryukyu trench and roughly coincides with a prominent surface topography and gravity boundary in East China, which is located approximately 1800 km west of the trenches. The upper mantle under East Asia has formed a big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant slab. The BMW exhibits low seismic-velocity and high electrical-conductivity, which is hot and wet because of the deep dehydration reactions of the stagnant slab and the convective circulation process in the BMW. These processes lead to the upwelling of hot and wet asthenospheric materials and thinning and fracturing of the continental lithosphere, leading to the formation of the active intraplate volcanoes in East

  4. How prevalent are Plasmodium ovale and P. malariae in East Asia?

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, F; Liu, Q; Ferreira, M U; Tantular, I S

    1999-10-01

    Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae, two of the four human malaria parasites, are usually found at very low prevalence in East Asia, even in areas with intense malaria transmission. In this article, Fumihiko Kawamoto, Qing Liu, Marcelo Ferreira and Indah Tantular review data obtained in recent field surveys, using alternative diagnostic methods such as acridine orange staining and PCR-based methods, to evaluate the prevalence of these two malaria species in East Asia. They argue that these species might be much more prevalent in East Asia than reported previously. In addition, they discuss the implications of sequence variations found in the small subunit ribosomal RNA genes of the two species targeted by diagnostic PCR and compare morphological criteria for speciation of malaria parasites stained with Giemsa and acridine orange. PMID:10481157

  5. BVOC fluxes from oil palm canopies in South East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misztal, P. K.; Cape, J. N.; Langford, B.; Nemitz, E.; Helfter, C.; Owen, S.; Heal, M. R.; Hewitt, C. N.; Fowler, D.

    2009-04-01

    Fluxes by virtual disjunct eddy covariance were measured for the first time in South-East Asia in 2008 from an oil palm plantation. Malaysia and Indonesia account for more than 80% of world oil palm production. Our in situ findings suggest much higher isoprene emissions from oil palms than from rainforest, which is consistent with earlier lab-based predictions of emissions from oil palms (Wilkinson et al., 2006). 50% of global biogenic VOC emissions are estimated to derive from tropical rainforests (Guenther et al., 1995) although in fact a large portion of the emission may derive from oil palms in the tropics. Isoprene and monoterpenes are regarded as the most important biogenic VOCs for the atmospheric chemistry. Overall, maximum isoprene emissions from oil palms were recorded at 11:00 local time, with a mean value of 13 mg m-2 h-1. At the rainforest, the maximum fluxes of isoprene were observed later in the day, at about 13:00 with an average of 2.5 mg m-2 h-1. Initial flux results for total monoterpenes indicate that their mass emission ratio with respect to isoprene was about 1:9 at the rainforest and 1:18 at the oil palm plantation. The results are presented with reference to temperature, photosynthetic radiation and meteorological drivers as well as in comparison with CO2 and H2O fluxes. Empirical parameters in the Guenther algorithm for MEGAN (Guenther et al, 2006), which was originally designed for the Amazon region, have been optimised for this oil palm study. The emission factor obtained from eddy covariance measurements was 18.8 mg m-2 h-1, while the one obtained from leaf level studies at the site was 19.5 mg m-2 h-1. Isoprene fluxes from both Amazonia (Karl et al., 2007) and from rainforest in Borneo 2008 seem to be much lower than from oil palms. This can have consequences for atmospheric chemistry of land use change from rainforest to oil palm plantation, including formation of ozone, SOA and particles and indirect effects on the removal rate of

  6. Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; King, Michael D.; Sun, Wen-Yih

    2003-01-01

    Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth's radiation and water budget. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); land surface reflectivity and emissivity; as well as ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Analyses from satellite measurements reveal that smoke is frequently present solar (emitted thermal) radiation from clouds due to smoke aerosols can be reduced (enhanced) by as much as 100 (20) W/sq m over the month of March 2000. In addition, the reduction in cloud spectral reflectance at 670 run is large enough to lead to significant errors in retrieving cloud properties (e.g., optical thickness and effective radius) from satellite measurements. The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring. Estimating the burning fuel (e.g., bark, branches, and wood), an important part of studying regional carbon cycle, may rely on utilizing a wide range of distinctive spectral features in the shortwave and

  7. Social, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco and its control in South-East Asia region.

    PubMed

    Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Islam, Md Ashadul; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Rinchen, Sonam

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the social, cultural, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region in a holistic view through the review of findings from various studies on prevalence, tobacco economics, poverty alleviation, women and tobacco and tobacco control laws and regulations. Methods were Literature review of peer reviewed publications, country reports, WHO publications, and reports of national and international meetings on tobacco and findings from national level surveys and studies. Tobacco use has been a social and cultural part of the people of South-East Asia Region. Survey findings show that 30% to 60% of men and 1.8% to 15.6% of women in the Region use one or the other forms of tobacco products. The complex nature of tobacco use with both smoking and smokeless forms is a major challenge for implementing tobacco control measures. Prevalence of tobacco use is high among the poor and the illiterate. It is higher among males than females but studies show a rising trend among girls and women due to intensive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry. Tobacco users spend a huge percent of their income on tobacco which deprives them and their families of proper nutrition, good education and health care. Some studies of the Region show that cost of treatment of diseases attributable to tobacco use was more than double the revenue that governments received from tobacco taxation. Another challenge the Region faces is the application of uniform tax to all forms of tobacco, which will reduce not only the availability of tobacco products in the market but also control people switching over to cheaper tobacco products. Ten out of eleven countries are Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and nine countries have tobacco control legislation. Enforcement of control measures is weak, particularly in areas such as smoke-free environments, advertisement at the point of sale and sale of tobacco to minors. Socio

  8. Regional Modeling of Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing over East Asia using WRF-Chem

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Siyu; Zhao, Chun; Qian, Yun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, J.; Huang, Zhongwei; Bi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wu; Shi, Jinsen; Yang, Lei; Li, Deshuai; Li, Jinxin

    2014-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to investigate the seasonal and annual variations of mineral dust over East Asia during 2007-2011, with a focus on the dust mass balance and radiative forcing. A variety of measurements from in-stu and satellite observations have been used to evaluate simulation results. Generally, WRF-Chem reproduces not only the column variability but also the vertical profile and size distribution of mineral dust over and near the dust source regions of East Asia. We investigate the dust lifecycle and the factors that control the seasonal and spatial variations of dust mass balance and radiative forcing over the seven sub-regions of East Asia, i.e. source regions, the Tibetan Plateau, Northern China, Southern China, the ocean outflow region, and Korea-Japan regions. Results show that, over the source regions, transport and dry deposition are the two dominant sinks. Transport contributes to ~30% of the dust sink over the source regions. Dust results in a surface cooling of up to -14 and -10 W m-2, atmospheric warming of up to 20 and 15 W m-2, and TOA cooling of -5 and -8 W m-2 over the two major dust source regions of East Asia, respectively. Over the Tibetan Plateau, transport is the dominant source with a peak in summer. Over identified outflow regions, maximum dust mass loading in spring is contributed by the transport. Dry and wet depositions are the comparably dominant sinks, but wet deposition is larger than dry deposition over the Korea-Japan region, particularly in spring (70% versus 30%). The WRF-Chem simulations can generally capture the measured features of dust aerosols and its radaitve properties and dust mass balance over East Asia, which provides confidence for use in further investigation of dust impact on climate over East Asia.

  9. Contracting private hospitals: experiences from Southeast and East Asia.

    PubMed

    Herberholz, Chantal; Supakankunti, Siripen

    2015-03-01

    In resource-scarce settings governments have increasingly looked at ways of engaging the private sector in achieving national health system goals. This study is a comparative analysis of institutional contracting for hospital services in three southeast and east Asian countries, namely Thailand, the Philippines and South Korea. In addition, the case of Singapore, where public hospitals are corporatized, is reviewed. Primary data were collected through in-depth-interviews and analysed under a triangulation approach. Institutional contracting is only used in three out of four countries. In these three countries, institutional contracting inter alia aims at increasing access to hospital services, although the scale of private hospital participation depends on contextual factors. Neither strategic provider selection mechanisms nor a preferred provider system is part of the institutional contracting models reviewed. In Thailand and the Philippines, performance-based rewards or sanctions have played a limited role so far and there is relatively little dialogue between contract parties, indicating that the contracting tool has not been used to the fullest extent possible and suggesting that capacity development especially regarding contract and relationship management is needed. Although there is virtually no information available about the cost of contracting, the findings of this study suggest that the potential of institutional contracting arrangements should be explored further to improve health system outcomes and thereby support countries in their quest for universal health coverage. PMID:25576007

  10. Emission trends and mitigation options for air pollutants in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. X.; Zhao, B.; Cai, S. Y.; Klimont, Z.; Nielsen, C.; McElroy, M. B.; Morikawa, T.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, Y.; Fu, X.; Xu, J. Y.; Hao, J. M.; He, K. B.

    2014-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants in East Asia play an important role in the regional and global atmospheric environment. In this study we evaluated the recent emission trends of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matters (PM), and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) in East Asia, and projected their future emissions up to 2030 with six emission scenarios. The results will provide future emission projections for the modeling community of the model inter-comparison program for Asia (MICS-Asia). During 2005-2010, the emissions of SO2 and PM2.5 in East Asia decreased by 15 % and 11%, respectively, mainly attributable to the large scale deployment of FGD for China's power plants, and the promotion of high-efficient PM removal technologies in China's power plants and cement industry. During this period, the emissions of NOx and NMVOC increased by 25% and 15%, driven by the rapid increase in the emissions from China owing to inadequate control strategies. In contrast, the NOx and NMVOC emissions in East Asia except China decreased by 13-17% mainly due to the implementation of tight vehicle emission standards in Japan and South Korea. Under current legislation and current implementation status, NOx, SO2, and NMVOC emissions in East Asia are estimated to increase by about one quarter by 2030 from the 2010 levels, while PM2.5 emissions are expected to decrease by 7%. Assuming enforcement of new energy-saving policies, emissions of NOx, SO2, PM2.5 and NMVOC in East Asia are expected to decrease by 28%, 36%, 28%, and 15% respectively compared with the baseline case. The implementation of the "progressive" end-of-pipe control measures is expected to lead to another one third reduction of the baseline emissions of NOx, and about one quarter reduction for SO2, PM2.5, and NMVOC. With the full implementation of maximum feasible reduction measures, the emissions of NOx, SO2, and PM2.5 in East Asia are expected to account for only about one quarter and

  11. Emission trends and mitigation options for air pollutants in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. X.; Zhao, B.; Cai, S. Y.; Klimont, Z.; Nielsen, C. P.; Morikawa, T.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, Y.; Fu, X.; Xu, J. Y.; Hao, J. M.; He, K. B.

    2014-07-01

    Emissions of air pollutants in East Asia play an important role in the regional and global atmospheric environment. In this study we evaluated the recent emission trends of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) in East Asia, and projected their future emissions up until 2030 with six emission scenarios. The results will provide future emission projections for the modeling community of the model inter-comparison program for Asia (MICS-Asia). During 2005-2010, the emissions of SO2 and PM2.5 in East Asia decreased by 15 and 12%, respectively, mainly attributable to the large-scale deployment of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) at China's power plants, and the promotion of highly efficient PM removal technologies in China's power plants and cement industry. During this period, the emissions of NOx and NMVOC increased by 25 and 15%, driven by rapid increase in the emissions from China due to inadequate control strategies. In contrast, the NOx and NMVOC emissions in East Asia except China decreased by 13-17%, mainly due to the implementation of stringent vehicle emission standards in Japan and South Korea. Under current regulations and current levels of implementation, NOx, SO2, and NMVOC emissions in East Asia are projected to increase by about one-quarter over 2010 levels by 2030, while PM2.5 emissions are expected to decrease by 7%. Assuming enforcement of new energy-saving policies, emissions of NOx, SO2, PM2.5 and NMVOC in East Asia are expected to decrease by 28, 36, 28, and 15%, respectively, compared with the baseline case. The implementation of "progressive" end-of-pipe control measures would lead to another one-third reduction of the baseline emissions of NOx, and about one-quarter reduction of SO2, PM2.5, and NMVOC. Assuming the full application of technically feasible energy-saving policies and end-of-pipe control technologies, the emissions of NOx, SO2, and PM2.5 in East Asia

  12. East Asia Dust Source Location Using the Naval Research Laboratory's 1-km Dust Enhancement Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, A. L.; Curtis, C. A.; Miller, S. D.; Richardson, K.; Westphal, D. L.

    2011-12-01

    In the effort to predict dust storms and their effects on local, regional and global scales an often cited uncertainty is the precise location of dust sources. Many approaches have been used to identify major dust source regions in East Asia. These approaches include analysis of station data for frequency of dust storms, drifting dust, dusty day, wind speed, and PM10 total suspended particulates. Some approaches emphasize the location of land surface type (Gobi, sandy desert, and loess) and geomorphological setting/features (basins, plateaus, alluvial fans, dry rivers, or oases). Other approaches use remote sensing to locate areas of high dust activity using the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer Aerosol Index (TOMS AI) data, to correlate Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) vegetation cover with dust storm frequency, or to track dust storm event origination by analyzing Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images. It is also customary for researchers to combine two or more of these approaches to identify dust source regions. In this paper we use a novel approach to locate dust sources in East Asia. Utilizing the Naval Research Laboratory's satellite derived 1-km Dust Enhancement Product (DEP) imagery we can readily distinguish elevated dust over land from other components of the scene and individual dust plumes are readily seen. The high resolution of the DEP allows the many small, eroding point sources (measuring 1-10s km across) that form individual plumes to be located. Five years (2007 - 2011) of East Asia DEP imagery have been analyzed. Dust source frequency plots will be shown highlighting the most active dust source areas in East Asia. Our results show the most active point sources are located along the slopes and around the rim of large basins. Within basins, on plateaus and in valleys point sources are concentrated in smaller depressions relative to the surrounding topography. Point sources are also associated with the action of

  13. Cancer epidemiology in mainland South-East Asia - past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Moore, Malcolm A; Attasara, Pattarawin; Khuhaprema, Thiravud; Le, Tran Ngoan; Nguyen, Thi Hoai Nga; Raingsey, Prak Piseth; Sriamporn, Supannee; Sriplung, Hutcha; Srivanatanakul, Petcharin; Bui, Duc Tung; Wiangnon, Surapon; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2010-01-01

    The countries of mainland South-East Asia, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Viet Nam, share a long history of interactions and many cultural similarities, as well as geographical contiguity. They therefore can be usefully examined as a group when considering measures for control of cancer and other non-communicable diseases. Liver cancer is consistently found at higher incidence than most other parts of Asia, with lung cancer as the other most important neoplasm in males. In females cervical and breast cancer about equally predominate, throughout. However, there are also major differences, particularly with regard to stomach and nasopharyngeal cancer, only found at relatively high incidence in Viet Nam. The present review was conducted to gather together registry data on cancer prevalence and epidemiological findings cited in PubMed in order to obtain as comprehensive picture as possible of the present status. It is hoped that future cooperation across the region will facilitate development of coordinated cancer control programs to reduce the burden. PMID:20553069

  14. A sub-decadal trend of diacids in atmospheric aerosols in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, S.; Kawamura, K.; Kobayashi, M.; Tachibana, E.; Lee, M.; Fu, P. Q.; Jung, J.

    2015-08-01

    The change of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) has been predicted to be highly uncertain in the future atmosphere in Asia. To better quantify the SOA change, we study a sub-decadal (2001-2008) trend of major surrogate compounds (C2-C10 diacids) of SOA in atmospheric aerosols from Gosan site in Jeju Island, South Korea. Gosan site is influenced by the pollution-outflows from East Asia. The molecular distribution of diacids was characterized by the predominance of oxalic (C2) acid followed by malonic (C3) and succinic (C4) acids in each year. The seasonal variations of diacids in each year were characterized by the highest concentrations of saturated diacids in spring and unsaturated diacids in winter. The consistent molecular distribution and seasonal variations are indicative of similar pollution sources for diacids in East Asia over a sub-decadal scale. However, the intensity of the pollution sources has increased as evidenced by the increases of major diacids at the rate of 3.9-47.4 % year-1 particularly in April. The temporal variations of atmospheric tracer compounds (CO, levoglucosan, 2-methyltetrols, pinic acid, glyoxylic acid, glyoxal and methylglyoxal) suggest that the increases of diacids are due to an enhanced precursor emissions associated with more anthropogenic than biogenic activities followed by their chemical processing in the atmosphere. The trends of diacids are opposite to the reported decreases of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in the recent years in East Asia. This study demonstrates that recent pollution control strategies in East Asia could not decrease organic acidic species in the atmosphere. If the current rates of increases continue, the organic acid- and water-soluble fractions of SOA could increase significantly in the future atmosphere in East Asia.

  15. The Quest for an Entrepreneurial University in East Asia: Impact on Academics and Administrators in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, universities in East Asia have taken knowledge transfer more seriously, especially when the state funding for higher education was reduced while other private funding sources were diversified. Universities in East Asia collaborate with the industrial and business sectors on projects related to research, development, and…

  16. Uncertainty in biogenic isoprene emissions and its impacts on tropospheric chemistry in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Han, K M; Park, R S; Kim, H K; Woo, J H; Kim, J; Song, C H

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the accuracy of biogenic isoprene emission fluxes over East Asia during two summer months (July and August) was examined by comparing two tropospheric HCHO columns (ΩHCHO) obtained from the SCIAMACHY sensor and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ v4.7.1) model simulations, using three available biogenic isoprene emission inventories over East Asia: i) GEIA, ii) MEGAN and iii) MOHYCAN. From this comparative analysis, the tropospheric HCHO columns from the CMAQ model simulations, using the MEGAN and MOHYCAN emission inventories (Ω(CMAQ, MEGAN) and Ω(CMAQ, MOHYCAN)), were found to agree well with the tropospheric HCHO columns from the SCIAMACHY observations (Ω(SCIA)). Secondly, the propagation of such uncertainties in the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes to the levels of atmospheric oxidants (e.g., OH and HO2) and other atmospheric gaseous/particulate species over East Asia during the two summer months was also investigated. As the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes decreased from the GEIA to the MEGAN emission inventories, the levels of OH radicals increased by factors of 1.39 and 1.75 over Central East China (CEC) and South China, respectively. Such increases in the OH radical mixing ratios subsequently influence the partitioning of HO(y) species. For example, the HO2/OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with GEIA isoprene emissions were 2.7 times larger than those from the CMAQ model simulations based on MEGAN isoprene emissions. The large HO2/OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with the GEIA biogenic emission were possibly due to the overestimation of GEIA biogenic isoprene emissions over East Asia. It was also shown that such large changes in HO(x) radicals created large differences on other tropospheric compounds (e.g., NO(y) chemistry) over East Asia during the summer months. PMID:23867846

  17. Natural and Anthropogenically Perturbed Biogenic Aerosol over Tropical South East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, H.; Robinson, N.; Allan, J. D.; Hewitt, C. N.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical forested regions are of interest as sources of atmospheric aerosol since they cover very large areas of the tropics and are a source of a large amount of volatile organic compounds which act as precursors for particle formation. Natural forest regions offer the potential to study the background state of the tropics and so potentially gain some insight into the pre-perturbed atmosphere. However, over the last decade in South East Asia, a considerable fraction of the native tropical deciduous forest has been deforested and replanted with palm oil plantations. This changes the range of volatile organic compounds that are emitted and act as sources of secondary organic aerosol. A suite of intensive ground and airborne measurements were made over both tropical forest and oil palm plantations in Sabah, Malaysia as part of the "Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a South East Asian tropical rainforest (OP3) during 2008. These data will be used together with recent improvements in our understanding of aerosol formation from biogenic compounds to discuss aerosol formation in tropical regions and the influence of human influence through widespread palm oil agriculture.

  18. New Index for Winter Temperature of the Korean Peninsula and the East Asia based on the atmospheric teleconnection patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. T.; Sohn, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    This study proposes a new index for monitoring and predicting winter temperature of the Korean Peninsula based on dominant atmospheric winter teleconnection modes and the utilization of the index is extended further to representing the East Asia Winter Monsoon (EAWM). Among the teleconnection modes it is found that both East Atlantic (EA) and Western Pacific (WP) modes are most strongly correlated with the Korean winter temperature in a way that the modes are partly associated with change in sea level pressure (SLP) around the Korean Peninsula. Particularly, the EA and WP modes are related with SLP variation over both Siberian High region and the Kuroshio extension region to the east of Japan, respectively. Based on this relationship, the two boxed regions representing the northeast-southwest SLP gradients are determined for the new index, which is found to be related with the EAWM circulation. The SLP gradients control the intensity of surface winds blowing into the Korean Peninsula from the Siberian regions which can transport cold air. The index shows the best performance in representing winter climate not only for the Korean Peninsula but also for the East Asia among the SLP-based EAWM indices. Furthermore, the new index maintains a better correlation with the winter temperature of both the East Asia and Korea over a certain period of years (i.e., running 30 year periods) than other SLP based EAWM indices and also shows good performance in delineating extreme cold/warm winters. The predictability of the new index and its usable potential for winter temperature prediction in coupled climate models are assessed and discussed further.

  19. Impact of climate and land cover changes on tropospheric ozone air quality and public health in East Asia between 1980 and 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Y.; Tai, A. P. K.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding how historical climate and land cover changes have affected tropospheric ozone in East Asia would help constrain the large uncertainties associated with future East Asian air quality projections. We perform a series of simulations using a global chemical transport model driven by assimilated meteorological data and a suite of land cover and land use data to examine the public health effects associated with changes in climate, land cover, land use, and anthropogenic emissions between the 5-year periods 1981-1985 and 2007-2011 in East Asia. We find that between these two periods land cover change alone could lead to a decrease in summertime surface ozone by up to 4 ppbv in East Asia and ~ 2000 fewer ozone-related premature deaths per year, driven mostly by enhanced dry deposition resulting from climate- and CO2-induced increase in vegetation density, which more than offsets the effect of reduced isoprene emission arising from cropland expansion. Climate change alone could lead to an increase in summertime ozone by 2-10 ppbv in most regions of East Asia and ~ 6000 more premature deaths annually, mostly attributable to warming. The combined impacts (-2 to +12 ppbv) show that while the effect of climate change is more pronounced, land cover change could offset part of the climate effect and lead to a previously unknown public health benefit. While the changes in anthropogenic emissions remain the largest contributor to deteriorating ozone air quality in East Asia over the past 30 years, we show that climate change and land cover changes could lead to a substantial modification of ozone levels, and thus should come into consideration when formulating future air quality management strategies. We also show that the sensitivity of surface ozone to land cover change is more dependent on dry deposition than on isoprene emission in most of East Asia, leading to ozone responses that are quite distinct from that in North America, where most ozone

  20. Energetics and dynamics associated with two typical mobile trough pathways over East Asia in boreal winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Marco Yu-Ting; Cheung, Hoffman Ho-Nam; Zhou, Wen

    2015-03-01

    Two dominant types of East Asian mobile trough (EAMT) are identified by a novel mobile trough detection algorithm. The two major EAMTs likely pass through to the north and the south of Lake Baikal. In this study, both of synoptic and planetary time scales influences on East Asia are studied. For synoptic scale, southern path of mobile trough shows a higher rate of intensification that of northern path. Southern path has stronger impact on Southeast Asia temperature fluctuation because of more southern pathway and stronger magnitude of wave train. But duration of fluctuation is shorter in southern due to the downstream development. For planetary scale, the northern path shows a large warm anomaly over Southeast Asia and a cold anomaly over Northeast Asia, which is associated with the northward shift of the jet stream. The southern path shows a cold anomaly over East Asia due to a northwesterly anomaly. The forcing of high frequency eddy on low frequency eddy is estimated in terms of momentum and energy. The reinforcement of high frequency eddy flux on low frequency variation can be observed in northern path, but not in southern path. The energy difference for two paths is also caused by the variations of barotropic and baroclinic conversion. The energy tendency of interaction between two frequency eddies is only responsible for sustention of energy anomaly over southwestern Japan.

  1. The zonal movement of the Indian-East Asian summer monsoon interface in relation to the land-sea thermal contrast anomaly over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yun; Cao, Jie; Lan, Guangdong; Su, Qin

    2016-05-01

    Based on atmospheric circulation reanalysis, global gridded precipitation, and outgoing longwave radiation datasets, this study reveals the physical process through which the land-sea thermal contrast over East Asia interrelates with the variability of the interface between the Indian summer monsoon and East Asian summer monsoon (IIE). The results indicate that the release of latent heating exerted by the low-frequency variability of anomalous land-sea thermal contrast is one of the most important physical processes correlating with the zonal movement of the IIE, in which the release of latent heating over eastern East Asia makes the greatest contribution. When a lower apparent moisture sink occurs over the South China Sea but a higher one over southern China, an anomalously positive land-sea thermal contrast is formed. An anomalous convergent zone in relation to the positive land-sea thermal contrast, located in the eastern part of the IIE, will favor the IIE to move more eastward than normal, and vice versa. An anomalous divergent zone located in the eastern part of the IIE will benefit the IIE to shift more westward than normal. Experiments using a linear baroclinic model confirm the physical processes revealed by the observational analysis.

  2. A Synthesis of Reviews of Research on Principal Leadership in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Allan; Hallinger, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to synthesize findings from five systematic reviews of research on principal leadership in East Asia contained in this special issue. The goal is to identify commonalities as well as differences concerning both approaches to research and the enactment of school leadership within this rapidly developing and…

  3. Teaching East Asia: China, Japan, Korea. Lesson Plans for Middle School Teachers. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beville, Francie; Boone, Mark; Chapman, Kelly; Crump, Claudia; Curtis, Lonnie; Erickson, Stacy; Kaiser-Polge, Tami; Klus, John A.; Luebbehusen, Mary Lou; Rea, Patrick S.; Ward, Mary E.

    This volume contains 23 lesson plans that were written for middle school teachers to help students learn about East Asia. The lessons are organized across six themes: (1) "People, Places & Environment"; (2) "Technology, Production, Distribution & Consumption"; (3) "Cultures, Continuity, and Change"; (4) "Aesthetics, Celebrations and Values"; (5)…

  4. Training Rural Youth for Farming in the Asia and Far East Region. Report No. RAFE 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamford, G. N.

    In response to the Tenth Food and Agricultural Regional Conference for Asia and the Far East (August/September 1970), a comparative study of the different approaches already tried in the Region was conducted, and as the product of that study, this report briefly describes projects currently operating in India; Ceylon; Thailand; Malaysia;…

  5. A Study of XML in the Library Science Curriculum in Taiwan and South East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Naicheng; Huang, Yuhui; Hopkinson, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the current XML-related courses available in 96 LIS schools in South East Asia and Taiwan's 9 LIS schools. Also, this study investigates the linkage of library school graduates in Taiwan who took different levels of XML-related education (that is XML arranged as an individual course or XML arranged as a section unit…

  6. Globalisation and the Changing Nature of the State in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Economic globalisation is the defining characteristic of our age and a process which is transforming the parameters of the national state and global power relations. However, it is also a contradictory, uneven and unpredictable phenomenon. East Asia has been at the epicenter of globalisation for the past 30 years and will continue to be so with…

  7. Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks: Readiness for Openness in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia Region Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Belinda; James, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports in brief the pilot study, Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks, undertaken by the International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE) in 2010-2012 and the implications for openness for higher education in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia region nations. The project developed a methodological approach to…

  8. History Didactics in the Post Cold War World: Central Asia, the Middle East, and China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Louise; Gould, David; Lawrence, David

    2000-01-01

    Examines three key geographical regions, Central Asia, the Middle East, and China, discussing how the political changes resulting from the end of the Cold War have affected each area. Attempts to demonstrate how teachers can address these changes in their classrooms. (CMK)

  9. New ecology education: Preparing students for the complex human-environmental problems of dryland East Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Present-day environmental problems of Dryland East Asia are serious, and future prospects look especially disconcerting owing to current trends in population growth and economic development. Land degradation and desertification, invasive species, biodiversity losses, toxic waste and air pollution, a...

  10. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume II, Country Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard; And Others

    This document, the second of three volumes concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, presents country profiles for Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Viet-Nam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and the Philippines. The profile emphasizes background, higher education, educational…

  11. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume I, Director's Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard

    This document reports a study of the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia covering Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet-Nam. Emphasis is placed on the geographical, historical and social background; patterns of education within the region;…

  12. Studies in Family Planning, Volume 5 Number 5. East Asia Review, 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeny, S. M., Ed.

    An annual review, third in a series, covers developments in the field of population and family planning in East Asia. For each of the 10 countries involved (Hong Kong, Indonesia, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Phillipines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and South Vietnam) there is an article written by the agent responsible for the family planning…

  13. The Quest for Innovation and Entrepreneurship: The Changing Role of University in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2012-01-01

    This article critically reviews the national innovation systems of the four little tigers in East Asia, namely Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and South Korea, in fostering R&D and technological research. A national innovation system is characterised by the interactions between the state, industries and universities in promoting innovation. This…

  14. Promoting Learner Autonomy: Student Perceptions of Responsibilities in a Language Classroom in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakai, Shien; Takagi, Akiko; Chu, Man-Ping

    2010-01-01

    With the advent of communicative language teaching in East Asia, the idea of learner autonomy has become a topic of discussion and a goal among language teachers. The idea of autonomy raises important questions that need to be further explored, particularly in terms of students taking responsibility for learning. While examining the English…

  15. Japanese Comic Illustrations and Children's Picture/Illustrated Books of East Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Laina

    This paper examines the influence of Japanese comic illustrations on children's books in countries in East Asia. It has become increasingly obvious that recent children's books in countries like Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, as well as China and Malaysia/Indonesia contain illustrations with some features of the Japanese comic illustrations. This…

  16. Controls of Climate Anomalies on Terrestrial Carbon Assimilation in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, G.; Kang, S.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding of feedback between climate system and terrestrial ecosystems is of importance to an accurate estimation of global carbon partitioning and cycles in the warmer climate with more anthropogenic carbon in the atmosphere. In this study, a method to improve terrestrial carbon assimilation data, estimated from cloud-contaminated Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery, is suggested and potential associations between inter-annual or intra-annual climate anomalies and carbon assimilation by terrestrial ecosystems in East Asia are examined based on the improved MODIS data. The negative anomalies of Net Primary Productivity (NPP) in 2004 are attributable to reduced solar radiation in northern East Asia, while droughts are responsible for the similar reduction in the NPP in subtropical East Asia. The impacts of seasonal climate anomalies and extreme climatic events on intra-annual variations of terrestrial carbon assimilation in monsoonal East Asia will also be discussed. Acknowledgement: This work was funded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under Grant RACS 2010-4014.

  17. Early Learning and Development Standards in East Asia and the Pacific: Experiences from Eight Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyahara, Junko; Meyers, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses how countries in UNICEF's East Asia and Pacific Region (EAPR) have engaged in the Early Learning and Development Standards (ELDS) process. ELDS has been developed by the governments of Cambodia, China, Fiji, Lao PDR, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam over the last 3 years with technical and financial support from…

  18. Out of southern East Asia: the natural history of domestic dogs across the world.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Dong; Zhai, Weiwei; Yang, He-Chuan; Wang, Lu; Zhong, Li; Liu, Yan-Hu; Fan, Ruo-Xi; Yin, Ting-Ting; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Poyarkov, Andrei D; Irwin, David M; Hytönen, Marjo K; Lohi, Hannes; Wu, Chung-I; Savolainen, Peter; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the domestic dog remains a controversial question for the scientific community, with basic aspects such as the place and date of origin, and the number of times dogs were domesticated, open to dispute. Using whole genome sequences from a total of 58 canids (12 gray wolves, 27 primitive dogs from Asia and Africa, and a collection of 19 diverse breeds from across the world), we find that dogs from southern East Asia have significantly higher genetic diversity compared to other populations, and are the most basal group relating to gray wolves, indicating an ancient origin of domestic dogs in southern East Asia 33 000 years ago. Around 15 000 years ago, a subset of ancestral dogs started migrating to the Middle East, Africa and Europe, arriving in Europe at about 10 000 years ago. One of the out of Asia lineages also migrated back to the east, creating a series of admixed populations with the endemic Asian lineages in northern China before migrating to the New World. For the first time, our study unravels an extraordinary journey that the domestic dog has traveled on earth. PMID:26667385

  19. Attitudes of International Music Students from East Asia toward U.S. Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jin Ho

    2009-01-01

    Nine universities in the United States with the greatest number of international students and having an accredited music program through the National Association of Schools of Music (NASM) were selected. Survey research methodologies were used to identify the status of the international music students from East Asia in U.S. higher education…

  20. Developing a Knowledge Base for Educational Leadership and Management in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The role of school leadership in educational reform has reached the status of a truism, and led to major changes in school leader recruitment, selection, training and appraisal. While similar policy trends are evident in East Asia, the empirical knowledge base underlying these measures is distorted and lacking in validation. This paper begins by…

  1. Out of southern East Asia: the natural history of domestic dogs across the world

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guo-Dong; Zhai, Weiwei; Yang, He-Chuan; Wang, Lu; Zhong, Li; Liu, Yan-Hu; Fan, Ruo-Xi; Yin, Ting-Ting; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Poyarkov, Andrei D; Irwin, David M; Hytönen, Marjo K; Lohi, Hannes; Wu, Chung-I; Savolainen, Peter; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the domestic dog remains a controversial question for the scientific community, with basic aspects such as the place and date of origin, and the number of times dogs were domesticated, open to dispute. Using whole genome sequences from a total of 58 canids (12 gray wolves, 27 primitive dogs from Asia and Africa, and a collection of 19 diverse breeds from across the world), we find that dogs from southern East Asia have significantly higher genetic diversity compared to other populations, and are the most basal group relating to gray wolves, indicating an ancient origin of domestic dogs in southern East Asia 33 000 years ago. Around 15 000 years ago, a subset of ancestral dogs started migrating to the Middle East, Africa and Europe, arriving in Europe at about 10 000 years ago. One of the out of Asia lineages also migrated back to the east, creating a series of admixed populations with the endemic Asian lineages in northern China before migrating to the New World. For the first time, our study unravels an extraordinary journey that the domestic dog has traveled on earth. PMID:26667385

  2. Mapping the Terrain of Educational Leadership and Management in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Bryant, Darren

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to gain perspective on the extent to which the vision for knowledge production in East Asia set forth by Bajunid, Cheng, Hallinger, Walker, Dimmock and others almost 20 years ago has been fulfilled. The authors undertook an effort to map the terrain of knowledge production in educational leadership and…

  3. Trading on the West's Strength: The Dilemmas of Transnational Higher Education in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Li-chuan

    2012-01-01

    Responding to the impacts of globalization and the knowledge economy, the increasing demand for higher education in East Asia is not only met by domestic higher education, but also by importing transnational higher education (TNHE). Importing TNHE becomes an export strategy to attract international students to contribute to capacity building for…

  4. Teaching East Asia: China, Japan, Korea. Lesson Plans for Middle School Teachers. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Geoff; Benton, Susan; Duvall, James; Eltzroth, Diane; Hooyberg, Astrid; Keim, Marilee; Norris, Elizabeth; Smith, Peggy; Vogel, Kathy; Williams, Steven

    This volume contains 40 lesson plans that were written for middle school teachers to help students learn about East Asia. The lessons are organized across five themes: (1) "People, Places & Environment"; (2) "Technology, Production, Distribution & Consumption"; (3) "Cultures, Continuity, Change"; (4) Institutions, Power & Government"; and (5)…

  5. Learner Centered Higher Education in East Asia: Assessing the Effects on Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Lu, Jiafang

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The global expansion of higher education has brought about more ambitious educational goals that require new approaches to curriculum, teaching, and learning. While higher education in East Asia is no exception to this trend, it has been observed that both teachers and learners in the region have adhered to a strong tradition of…

  6. University Outreach Programs on East Asia: Linkages with School and Community. Wingspread Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxnam, Robert B.

    The Wingspread conference was convened by the National Committee on United States-China Relations, Inc. and the Asia Society to consider how universities and centers for East Asian studies might make knowledge of Asian affairs more available. The intended audiences were secondary schools, the business community, persons interested in world affairs…

  7. Old Borrowings and New Models of the University in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Terri

    2007-01-01

    This paper illustrates the transfer of university models from Europe and America to East Asia and will consider how international power relations in different times transform ideas about the university, in the process of global transfer. These relations will be identified with different forms of the state: imperial, colonial, welfare and market…

  8. Radial-Velocity Searches for Exoplanets in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Bun'ei

    2014-04-01

    Hundreds of extrasolar planets have been discovered around various types of stars by various techniques during the past decade. Among them precise radial velocity measurements for stars are fundamental technique to detect and confirm exoplanets. In this paper activities in East-Asian region in this research field are introduced: East-Asian Planet Search Network, which is a network searching for planets around evolved intermediate-mass stars, and Subaru/IRD project, which will search for habitable planets around M-type dwarfs using infrared radial-velocity method.

  9. South-East Asia study alliance guidelines on the management of acne vulgaris in South-East Asian patients.

    PubMed

    Goh, Chee Leok; Abad-Casintahan, Flordeliz; Aw, Derrick Chen Wee; Baba, Roshidah; Chan, Lee Chin; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Leong, Hoe Nam; Medina-Oblepias, Marie Socouer; Noppakun, Nopadon; Sitohang, Irma Bernadette; Sugito, Titi Lestari; Wong, Su-Ni

    2015-10-01

    The management of acne in South-East Asia is unique, as Asian skin and local variables require a clinical approach unlike that utilized in other parts of the world. There are different treatment guidelines per country in the region, and a group of leading dermatologists from these countries convened to review these guidelines, discuss current practices and recent advances, and formulate consensus guidelines to harmonize the management of acne vulgaris in the region. Emphasis has been placed on formulating recommendations to impede the development of antibiotic resistance in Propionibacterium acnes. The group adopted the Acne Consensus Conference system for grading acne severity. The group recommends that patients may be treated with topical medications including retinoids, benzoyl peroxide (BPO), salicylic acid, a combination of retinoid and BPO, or a combination of retinoids and BPO with or without antibiotics for mild acne; topical retinoid with topical BPO and a oral antibiotic for moderate acne; and oral isotretinoin if the patient fails first-line treatment (a 6- or 8-week trial of combined oral antibiotics and topical retinoids with BPO) for severe acne. Maintenance acne treatment using topical retinoids with or without BPO is recommended. To prevent the development of antibiotic resistance, topical antibiotics should not be used as monotherapy or used simultaneously with oral antibiotics. Skin care, comprised of cleansing, moisturizing and sun protection, is likewise recommended. Patient education and good communication is recommended to improve adherence, and advice should be given about the characteristics of the skin care products patients should use. PMID:26211507

  10. Inter-annual changes of Biomass Burning and Desert Dust and their impact over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DONG, X.; Fu, J. S.; Huang, K.

    2014-12-01

    Impact of mineral dust and biomass burning aerosols on air quality has been well documented in the last few decades, but the knowledge about their interactions with anthropogenic emission and their impacts on regional climate is very limited (IPCC, 2007). While East Asia is greatly affected by dust storms in spring from Taklamakan and Gobi deserts (Huang et al., 2010; Li et al., 2012), it also suffers from significant biomass burning emission from Southeast Asia during the same season. Observations from both surface monitoring and satellite data indicated that mineral dust and biomass burning aerosols may approach to coastal area of East Asia simultaneously, thus have a very unique impact on the local atmospheric environment and regional climate. In this study, we first investigated the inter-annual variations of biomass burning and dust aerosols emission for 5 consecutive years from 2006-2010 to estimate the upper and lower limits and correlation with meteorology conditions, and then evaluate their impacts with a chemical transport system. Our preliminary results indicated that biomass burning has a strong correlation with precipitation over Southeast Asia, which could drive the emission varying from 542 Tg in 2008 to 945 Tg in 2010, according to FLAMBE emission inventory (Reid et al., 2009). Mineral dust also demonstrated a strong dependence on wind filed. These inter-annual/annual variations will also lead to different findings and impacts on air quality in East Asia. Reference: Huang, K., et al. (2010), Mixing of Asian dust with pollution aerosol and the transformation of aerosol components during the dust storm over China in spring 2007, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 115. IPCC (2007), Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, New York. Li, J., et al. (2012), Mixing of Asian mineral dust with anthropogenic pollutants over East Asia: a model case study of a super-duststorm in

  11. English Language Education in East Asia: Some Recent Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Guangwei; McKay, Sandra Lee

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the perceived importance and accelerated spread of English language education, both formal and informal, in three East Asian countries (i.e. China, Japan and South Korea) against the backdrop of globalisation and emergent ideological, sociocultural and educational trends. It begins with a review of the recent…

  12. Publicly-funded biobanks and networks in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunhee; Jung, Paul Eunil; Lee, Yeonhee

    2016-01-01

    With the enactment of the Nagoya Protocol, international competitions to secure biological resources are intensifying. Biobanking is one of the many attempts to preserve biological resources and their information for the use in future research and development. Asian countries, especially China, Japan, and Korea are very active in biobanking activities under the strategic plans coordinated by their governments. They also proactively established networks for biobanks of Asia to facilitate resource and expertise sharing. Biobanks of these countries should furthermore standardize operating procedures and diversify funding sources for establishing stable operation systems. PMID:27462528

  13. Regional nitrogen oxides emission trends in East Asia observed from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijling, B.; van der A, R. J.; Zhang, Q.

    2013-07-01

    Due to changing economic activity, emissions of air pollutants in East Asia change rapidly in space and time. Monthly emission estimates of nitrogen oxides derived from satellite observations provide valuable insight in the evolution of anthropogenic activity on a regional scale. We present the first results of a new emission estimation algorithm, specifically designed to use daily satellite observations of column concentrations for fast updates of emissions of short-lived atmospheric constituents on a~mesoscopic scale (~ 0.25° × 0.25°). The algorithm is used to construct a monthly NOx emission time series for 2007-2011 from tropospheric NO2 observations of GOME-2 for East Chinese provinces and surrounding countries. The new emission estimates correspond well with the bottom-up inventory of EDGAR v4.2, but are smaller than the inventories of INTEX-B and MEIC. They reveal a strong positive trend during 2007-2011 for almost all Chinese provinces, related to the country's economic development. We find a 41% increment of NOx emissions in East China during this period, which shows the need to update emission inventories in this region on a regular basis. Negative emission trends are found in Japan and South Korea, which can be attributed to a combined effect of local environmental policy and global economic crises. Analysis of seasonal variation distinguishes between regions with dominant anthropogenic or biogenic emissions. For regions with a mixed anthropogenic and biogenic signature, the opposite seasonality can be used for an estimation of the separate emission contributions. Finally, the non-local concentration/emission relationships calculated by the algorithm are used to quantify the direct effect of regional NOx emissions on tropospheric NO2 concentrations outside the region. For regions such as North Korea and Beijing province, a substantial part of the tropospheric NO2 originates from emissions elsewhere.

  14. Regional nitrogen oxides emission trends in East Asia observed from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijling, B.; van der A, R. J.; Zhang, Q.

    2013-12-01

    Due to changing economic activity, emissions of air pollutants in East Asia are changing rapidly in space and time. Monthly emission estimates of nitrogen oxides derived from satellite observations provide valuable insight into the evolution of anthropogenic activity on a regional scale. We present the first results of a new emission estimation algorithm, specifically designed to use daily satellite observations of column concentrations for fast updates of emissions of short-lived atmospheric constituents on a mesoscopic scale (~ 0.25° × 0.25°). The algorithm is used to construct a monthly NOx emission time series for the period 2007-2011 from tropospheric NO2 observations of GOME-2 for East Chinese provinces and surrounding countries. The new emission estimates correspond well with the bottom-up inventory of EDGAR v4.2, but are smaller than the inventories of INTEX-B and MEIC. They reveal a strong positive trend during 2007-2011 for almost all Chinese provinces, related to the country's economic development. We find a 41% increment of NOx emissions in East China during this period, which shows the need to update emission inventories in this region on a regular basis. Negative emission trends are found in Japan and South Korea, which can be attributed to a combined effect of local environmental policy and global economic crises. Analysis of seasonal variation distinguishes between regions with dominant anthropogenic or biogenic emissions. For regions with a mixed anthropogenic and biogenic signature, the opposite seasonality can be used for an estimation of the separate emission contributions. Finally, the non-local concentration/emission relationships calculated by the algorithm are used to quantify the direct effect of regional NOx emissions on tropospheric NO2 concentrations outside the region. For regions such as North Korea and the Beijing municipality, a substantial part of the tropospheric NO2 originates from emissions elsewhere.

  15. Prevalence of dementia in East Asia: a synthetic review of time trends

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Brayne, Carol; Matthews, Fiona E

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to synthesise evidence on time trends of dementia prevalence in East Asian countries including Japan, China, South Korea and Taiwan and assess the impact of the societal changes on future prevalence. Method Relevant reviews and recent nationwide studies in East Asia were identified to investigate changes in prevalence of dementia over time taking into account the potential impact of methodological factors and study designs. Results The robust evidence that has been interpreted to suggest a substantial increasing trend over time is less compelling once fundamental differences in study methods and populations across individual surveys are considered. In Japan, longitudinal studies in small areas suggest the potential increase of prevalence after 2000. Increasing trends in China, South Korea and Taiwan over the last 20–30 years are based on the literature review without adjustment for methodological differences. Economic development and huge societal changes alongside the rise of non-communicable disease in East Asia could lead to increasing prevalence of dementia in the future once those cohorts with high risk of dementia reached their older age. Conclusion Current evidence is not sufficient to suggest increasing trends of dementia prevalence in East Asia. Longitudinal studies with representative samples and stable methodology are needed to provide fundamental information of the epidemiology of dementia and identify important risk factors in East Asian societies. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25963138

  16. Seismic imaging of the stagnant Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone under East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, D.

    2008-12-01

    We used regional and global seismic tomography to determine high-resolution 3-D P-wave velocity structure of the crust and mantle down to 1200 km depth under Western Pacific to East Asia (Zhao, 2004, 2007; Huang and Zhao, 2006). A large number of arrival times of P, pP, PP and PcP waves recorded by many seismic stations in East Asia are used in the tomographic inversions. The subducting Pacific slab is imaged clearly as a high-velocity zone from the oceanic trenches down to 670-km depth, and intermediate-depth and deep earthquakes are located within the slab. The Pacific slab becomes stagnant in the mantle transition zone under eastern China. The western edge of the stagnant slab is generally parallel with the Japan trench and the Ryukyu trench and roughly coincides with a prominent surface topographic boundary in East China. Although there are some discrepancies between the topographic boundary and the western edge of the stagnant slab, both of them are located approximately 1800 km west of the trenches. The entire Pacific slab is stagnant in the mantle transition zone under Northeast China (53-37 degree north latitude). Under 37-28 degree north latitude, however, some of the slab materials are visible below the 670-km discontinuity, though most of the slab materials are still in the transition zone, suggesting that part of the slab materials have started to drop down to the lower mantle. Under the Mariana arc, the Pacific slab penetrates directly down to the lower mantle. It is also visible that the Philippine Sea slab has subducted down to the mantle transition zone depth under western Japan and the Ryukyu back-arc region (Abdelwahed and Zhao, 2007). There are three active intraplate volcanoes in China. The Changbai and Wudalianchi volcanoes in Northeast China are underlain by significant slow anomalies in the upper mantle, above the stagnant Pacific slab, suggesting that the two active volcanoes are not hot spots but a kind of back-arc volcanoes associated with

  17. Health and Climate Impacts of Ocean-Going Vessels in East Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Huan; Fu, Mingliang; Jin, Xinxin; Shang, Yi; Shindell, Drew; Faluvegi, Greg; Shindell, Cary; He, Kebin

    2016-01-01

    East Asia has the most rapidly growing shipping emissions of both CO2 and traditional air pollutants, but the least in-depth analysis. Full evaluation of all pollutants is needed to assess the impacts of shipping emissions. Here, using an advanced method based on detailed dynamic ship activity data, we show that shipping emissions in East Asia accounted for 16% of global shipping CO2 in 2013, compared to only 4-7% in 2002-2005. Increased emissions lead to large adverse health impacts, with 14,500-37,500 premature deaths per year. Global mean radiative forcing from East Asian shipping is initially negative, but would become positive after approximately eight years for constant current emissions. As a large fraction of vessels are registered elsewhere, joint efforts are necessary to reduce emissions and mitigate the climate and health impacts of shipping in the region.

  18. Arctic-Asian Mobile Belt - Global Structure in the North, Central, and East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokalsky, Sergey; Petrov, Oleg; Pospelov, Igor; Kashubin, Sergey; Sobolev, Nikolay; Petrov, Evgeny

    2014-05-01

    Over the last decade under the international project of five countries, the geological surveys of Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and the Republic of Korea, with the participation of national academies of sciences in these countries compiled a set of digital maps at 1:2.5 M scale. It includes geological, tectonic, metallogenic maps and map of energy resources with databases for North, Central, and East Asia, area of more than 30 million km2. Map compilation was supervised by the Subcommission for Northern Eurasia and Subcommission for Tectonic Maps of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World under the auspices of UNESCO (CGMW). The set of maps was displayed at the 33rd IGC (Oslo, 2008) and 34th IGC (Brisbane, 2012). One of the largest accretion collages of orogenic belts of different ages on the planet (from the Neoproterozoic to Early Mesozoic) is clearly shown in the tectonic map compiled under the joint project. Extended polychronous mobile belt is bounded in the west by the East European Craton, in the east, by the Siberian Craton, in the south, by a chain of Gondwana cratonic blocks - North China, Tarim, Tajik. In the north it can be traced as a broad band within the Circumpolar Region, where it is limited by the North American Craton. The central part of the accretionary belt is hidden under the Meso-Cenozoic sediments of Western Siberia. Analysis of vast geological material shows that the Arctic-Asian mobile belt was formed on place of an extensive paleo-ocean, which closed with a successive rejuvenation of suture ophiolite zones from the marginal to axial zone and along strike to the north and east of the South Siberian segment towards Paleopacific. Arctic-Asian mobile belt is characterized by a complex combination of accretionary and riftogenic tectonic-magmatic processes. At its early stages, accretionary tectonics with a wide development of volcanic belts dominated; at the late ones (in the Late Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic

  19. Macrophysical and optical properties of clouds over East Asia measured by CALIPSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zengxin; Gong, Wei; Mao, Feiyue; Li, Jun; Wang, Wei; Li, Chen; Min, Qilong

    2015-11-01

    The macrophysical and optical properties of clouds over East Asia (18°N-54°N, 73°E-145°E) from 1 March 2007 to 28 February 2015 are investigated using Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization data. Data analysis determines the macrophysical properties, such as cloud fraction, cloud vertical structure, cloud top height (CTH), cloud base height, and cloud geometrical depth (CGD), as well as the optical properties of clouds. Statistical analysis shows that the annual cloud fractions of single-layer (SL), multilayer (ML), and total clouds over East Asia are 41.4 ± 0.7%, 25.1 ± 0.9%, and 66.5 ± 1.6%, respectively, with a slight interannual variation. The maximum annual cloud fraction that appeared over the Sichuan Basin is mainly attributed to unique occlusive topographic features. Moreover, the annual vertical distribution of cloud occurrence frequency over East Asia presents a multipeak structure. Furthermore, at a height below 2 km, cloud frequency distribution exhibits a large peak over the south, north, northeast, eastern sea, and East Asia, a small peak over the northwest, and the smallest peak over Tibet, which is mainly ascribed to terrain topographies. For the average uppermost CTH and cloud fraction, the same seasonal characteristic is demonstrated; that is, CTH and cloud fraction are highest in summer and lowest in winter, except in the northwest. This seasonal characteristic mainly results from the East Asian summer monsoon circulation. Overall, the annual cloud optical depths (CODs) of SL, ML, and total cloud over East Asia are 0.98 ± 0.02, 0.83 ± 0.09, and 1.81 ± 0.12, respectively. Moreover, the COD of each layer is mainly below 0.5 (52.3%), and the second peak of probability (10.4%) exists from 2.5 to 3.0. The two crests of probability are caused by clouds of different types. Overall, the annual cloud layer over East Asia mainly consists of cirrus (44.4%), which indicates that cirrus clouds play a leading role. Most geometrically thick

  20. Globalisation and inequality in urban South-east Asia.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J D

    1998-05-01

    Malaysia, Singapore, and Vietnam are the only countries in southeast Asia with binding and well-functioning social contracts. The legitimacy of the governments and state bureaucracies in Thailand and Indonesia, and to a certain extent also of those in the Philippines, has been based upon nationalism, high economic growth, and the promotion of social order through coercion or cooptation. However, in order for the management of a city to be successful, its policies need to be conducive to social sustainability, defined as development compatible with the emergence of a social contract which both fosters an environment which will help to harmonize relations between the city's culturally and socially diverse groups, yet encourages social integration and an improvement in the lives of all of its citizens. These concerns are discussed with regard to Jakarta, Bangkok, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur. PMID:12295213

  1. On mobility and fertility transitions in east and southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Skeldon, R

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between fertility and mobility is examined with reference to Zelinsky's [1971] mobility transition hypothesis. Five Asian countries (Japan, South Korea, Thailand, Malaysia, China) at different stages of development and mobility transition are compared with respect to shifting sectoral patterns of migration and changing levels of fertility. National trends suggest that the development sequence proposed by Zelinsky on the basis of the European experience does not generally apply to Asia. In four out of five cases examined, fertility declined before substantial urbanization took place. Zelinsky's sequence of mobility change should be modified to fit the experience of developing countries, but the importance of the interrelations hip between fertility decline and mobility change remains PMID:12343909

  2. Holocene cultural history of Red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) and its domestic descendant in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Joris; Lebrasseur, Ophélie; Deng, Hui; Larson, Greger

    2016-06-01

    Nearly three decades ago, zooarchaeologists postulated that chicken husbandry was practiced in Northern China by ∼8.0 ka calBP. Recently, ancient mitogenome analyses of galliform remains suggested that Red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) was already present in the Yellow River basin several millennia earlier, shortly after the onset of the Holocene. If these conclusions are correct, the origins of chicken domestication and husbandry in the region may have been spurred by agricultural innovations in the lower Yellow River basin including millet cultivation, pig husbandry, and dog breeding. In addition, the dispersal of poultry farming from East Asia to Asia Minor and Europe could therefore date to the Neolithic along ancient trade routes across Central Asia rather than via South Asia and Mesopotamia. For this scenario to be plausible, the post-Pleistocene climatic conditions must have been favourable to allow for a northward extension of the native distribution of tropical Red jungle fowl currently not found north of ∼25°N. This study combines Holocene palaeoclimate and archaeofaunal archives with new zooarchaeological insights alongside a discussion of methodological issues and cultural aspects in order to revisit the hypothesis of an early Holocene Gallus domestication and Neolithic poultry husbandry in Northern China. Our results regarding the natural and cultural history of Red jungle fowl and domestic chickens in East Asia, and the timing of chicken dispersal across the Old World suggest that an early Holocene domestication of chickens is problematic at best. We conclude by postulating an alternative model for the early exploitation of a key domestic species in present-day East Asia.

  3. Paternal Population History of East Asia: Sources, Patterns, and Microevolutionary Processes

    PubMed Central

    Karafet, Tatiana; Xu, Liping; Du, Ruofu; Wang, William; Feng, Shi; Wells, R. S.; Redd, Alan J.; Zegura, Stephen L.; Hammer, Michael F.

    2001-01-01

    Asia has served as a focal point for human migration during much of the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Clarification of East Asia’s role as a source and/or transit point for human dispersals requires that this region’s own settlement history be understood. To this end, we examined variation at 52 polymorphic sites on the nonrecombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY) in 1,383 unrelated males, representing 25 populations from southern East Asia (SEAS), northern East Asia (NEAS), and central Asia (CAS). The polymorphisms defined 45 global haplogroups, 28 of which were present in these three regions. Although heterozygosity levels were similar in all three regions, the average pairwise difference among haplogroups was noticeably smaller in SEAS. Multidimensional scaling analysis indicated a general separation of SEAS versus NEAS and CAS populations, and analysis of molecular variance produced very different values of ΦST in NEAS and SEAS populations. In spatial autocorrelation analyses, the overall correlogram exhibited a clinal pattern; however, the NEAS populations showed evidence of both isolation by distance and ancient clines, whereas there was no evidence of structure in SEAS populations. Nested cladistic analysis demonstrated that population history events and ongoing demographic processes both contributed to the contrasting patterns of NRY variation in NEAS and SEAS. We conclude that the peopling of East Asia was more complex than earlier models had proposed—that is, a multilayered, multidirectional, and multidisciplinary framework is necessary. For instance, in addition to the previously recognized genetic and dental dispersal signals from SEAS to NEAS populations, CAS has made a significant contribution to the contemporary gene pool of NEAS, and the Sino-Tibetan expansion has left traces of a genetic trail from northern to southern China. PMID:11481588

  4. Oroclines and paleomagnetism in Borneo and South-East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, Charles S.

    2010-12-01

    Oroclinal bending of Borneo is interpreted to result from indentation and collision by the continental promontory of the Miri Zone-Central Luconia Province of northern Sundaland into southern Sundaland. The collision caused strong compression and uplift of the intervening Sibu Zone Upper Cretaceous-Eocene Rajang-Embaluh Group turbidite basin that was floored by oceanic crust of the Proto South China Sea. Timing of the collision is indicated by uplift of turbidite formations to be overlain by Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene carbonates and intrusion of tin-mineralised granites into the turbidites at the south-east maximum inflexion of the orocline, a region complicated by juxtaposition of both shallow and deep water formations. The oroclinal model, requiring clockwise rotation of the north-west limb, is given no support from the paleomagnetic data that instead demonstrate about 50° of Cenozoic anti-clockwise rotation. Unfortunately not a single outcrop of the strongly oroclinally bent Sibu Zone rocks was measured for paleomagnetism in the north-west limb. Limited support was given for the required anti-clockwise rotation in the north-east limb. Previous syntheses emphasised anti-clockwise rotation, or stable non-rotation of the greater Borneo region as a coherent entity, without any internal deformation. Such models have ignored the oroclinal shape defined by the areal geology of the island, known since early Dutch publications. The northern Thailand-Myanmar north-south-trending geology fabric results from indentation by a promontory of continental India at the Assam-Yunnan oroclinal syntaxis, resulting in paleomagnetically-determined clockwise rotation. The bend of Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra, from north-south changing to west-east towards Borneo in the south, remains difficult to model because of widespread remagnetisation.

  5. Regimes of Diurnal Variation of Summer Rainfall over Subtropical East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan W.; Lin W.; Yu, R.; Zhang, M.; Chen, H.; Li, J.

    2012-05-01

    Using hourly rain gauge records and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 3B42 from 1998 to 2006, the authors present an analysis of the diurnal characteristics of summer rainfall over subtropical East Asia. The study shows that there are four different regimes of distinct diurnal variation of rainfall in both the rain gauge and the satellite data. They are located over the Tibetan Plateau with late-afternoon and midnight peaks, in the western China plain with midnight to early-morning peaks, in the eastern China plain with double peaks in late afternoon and early morning, and over the East China Sea with an early-morning peak. No propagation of diurnal phases is found from the land to the ocean across the coastlines. The different diurnal regimes are highly correlated with the inhomogeneous underlying surface, such as the plateau, plain, and ocean, with physical mechanisms consistent with the large-scale 'mountain-valley' and 'land-sea' breezes and convective instability. These diurnal characteristics over subtropical East Asia can be used as diagnostic metrics to evaluate the physical parameterization and hydrological cycle of climate models over East Asia.

  6. Biomass-Burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, S.-C.; Hsu, N. C.; King, M. D.; Sun, W.-Y.

    2004-01-01

    Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth- atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth s radiation and water budget. Analyses from satellite measurements reveal the reflected solar (emitted thermal) radiation from clouds due to smoke aerosols can be reduced (enhanced) by 100 (20) Watts per square meter over the month of March 2000. In addition, the reduction in cloud spectral reflectance is large enough to lead to significant errors in satellite retrievals of cloud properties (e.g., optical thickness and effective radius). The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring. Therefore, to accurately assess the impact of smoke aerosols in this region requires continuous observations from satellites, aircraft, ground-based networks and dedicated field experiments. BASE-ASIA initiative has been proposed and will be discussed.

  7. Colorectal cancer screening of the general population in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Sano, Yasushi; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Li, Xiao-Bo; Wong, Martin C S; Chiu, Han-Mo; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Utsumi, Takahiro; Hattori, Santa; Sano, Wataru; Iwatate, Mineo; Chiu, Philip; Sung, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been increasing, and CRC has been becoming the major cause of cancer deaths in Asian countries. Therefore, an organized screening program to reduce CRC incidence and mortality is currently implemented in each country. In the present review, we summarize the current status and future perspectives of CRC screening of the general population in East Asian and South-East Asian countries. The fecal occult blood test is widely used for CRC screening in these countries, and its effectiveness in reducing CRC incidence and mortality has been demonstrated; however, the low participation rate in CRC screening programs is a problem to be solved in every country. Improvement in the public awareness of CRC and promotion of CRC screening by physicians will help to raise the participation rate and reduce the number of deaths caused by CRC. Regarding screening colonoscopy, several studies have recently demonstrated its effectiveness in reducing CRC incidence and mortality. However, at present, CRC screening colonoscopy is not adopted as a primary population-based screening tool because of staffing constraints in relation to large population sizes, increased medical costs, and potential adverse events (e.g. perforation and drug-induced anaphylaxis). Further study is required to consider colonoscopy as CRC screening that is established in Western countries. PMID:26595883

  8. Source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosols over South and East Asia using dual carbon isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, O.; Kirillova, E. N.; Andersson, A.-; Kruså, M.; Sheesley, R. J.; Tiwari, S.-; Lee, M.; Chen, B.; Du, K.

    2012-12-01

    Emissions of black carbon (BC) and other components of carbonaceous aerosols affect both climate and health in South and East Asia, yet substantial uncertainties exist regarding their sources. The relative contribution to atmospheric BC from fossil fuel versus biomass combustion is important to constrain both to direct mitigation and as their different properties make their effects on climate forcing and respiratory health different. This study approached the sourcing challenge by applying microscale radiocarbon measurements to aerosol particles collected in both source regions and at regional receptor observatories of both S Asia (New Delhi and the Maldives Climate Observatory) and of E Asia (Beijing, Shanghai, South China Coastal Observatory and the Korea Climate Observatory - Gosan, KCO-G, Jeju Island). The radiocarbon approach is ideally suited to this task as fossil sources are void of 14C whereas biomass combustion products hold a contemporary 14C signal. For S Asia, the 14C-based observations suggest that biomass combustion contributes half to two-thirds of the BC loading. In contrast, for E Asia, fossil fuel combustion account for four-fifths of the BC emitted from China. This source-diagnostic radiocarbon signal in the ambient aerosol over East Asia establishes a much larger role for fossil fuel combustion than suggested by all fifteen BC emission inventory models. There are also poor constraints on the sources of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), a large hydrophilic component of carbonaceous aerosols that enhances the propensity of aerosols to form clouds. In a 15-mo continuous campaign in S Asia, radiocarbon-based source apportionment of WSOC shows the dominance of biogenic/biomass combustion sources but also a substantial anthropogenic fossil-fuel contribution (about 20%). WSOC in E Asia reaching KCO-G were 50% from fossil sources. Aerosols reaching the Maldives after long-range over-ocean transport were enriched by 3-4‰ in δ13C-WSOC. This is

  9. Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.

    2010-04-01

    With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO2 emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO2 emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO2 in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of Flue-Gas Desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO2 emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO2 concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO2 and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO2 concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO2 is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO2 from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO2 emission downwind. The Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the Surface Solar Radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO2 emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over East Asia are also consistent with the trend of SO2 emission in China

  10. Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.

    2010-07-01

    With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO2 emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO2 emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO2 in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO2 emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO2 concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO2 and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO2 concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO2 is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO2 from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO2 emission downwind. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the surface solar radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO2 emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over East Asia are also consistent with the trend of SO2 emission in China

  11. Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.; Decision and Information Sciences; Tsinghua Univ.; Univ. of Iowa; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    2010-01-01

    With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO{sub 2} emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO{sub 2} emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO{sub 2} in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO{sub 2} emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO{sub 2} concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO{sub 2} and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO{sub 2} concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO{sub 2} is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO{sub 2} from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO{sub 2} emission downwind. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the surface solar radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO{sub 2} emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over

  12. Impact Assessment of Biomass Burning on Air Quality in Southeast and East Asia During BASE-ASIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Hsu, N. Christina; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lam, Yun Fat

    2013-01-01

    A synergy of numerical simulation, ground-based measurement and satellite observation was applied to evaluate the impact of biomass burning originating from Southeast Asia (SE Asia) within the framework of NASA's 2006 Biomass burning Aerosols in Southeast Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA). Biomass burning emissions in the spring of 2006 peaked in MarcheApril when most intense biomass burning occurred in Myanmar, northern Thailand, Laos, and parts of Vietnam and Cambodia. Model performances were reasonably validated by comparing to both satellite and ground-based observations despite overestimation or underestimation occurring in specific regions due to high uncertainties of biomass burning emission. Chemical tracers of particulate K(+), OC concentrations, and OC/EC ratios showed distinct regional characteristics, suggesting biomass burning and local emission dominated the aerosol chemistry. CMAQ modeled aerosol chemical components were underestimated at most circumstances and the converted AOD values from CMAQ were biased low at about a factor of 2, probably due to the underestimation of biomass emissions. Scenario simulation indicated that the impact of biomass burning to the downwind regions spread over a large area via the Asian spring monsoon, which included Southern China, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait. Comparison of AERONET aerosol optical properties with simulation at multi-sites clearly demonstrated the biomass burning impact via longrange transport. In the source region, the contribution from biomass burning to AOD was estimated to be over 56%. While in the downwind regions, the contribution was still significant within the range of 26%-62%.

  13. Phylogenetic relationships among Neoechinorhynchus species (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from North-East Asia based on molecular data.

    PubMed

    Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Mikhailova, Ekaterina; Denisova, Galina

    2014-02-01

    Phylogenetic and statistical analyses of DNA sequences of two genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) of the mitochondrial DNA and 18S subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), was used to characterize Neoechinorhynchus species from fishes collected in different localities of North-East Asia. It has been found that four species can be clearly recognized using molecular markers-Neoechinorhynchus tumidus, Neoechinorhynchus beringianus, Neoechinorhynchus simansularis and Neoechinorhynchus salmonis. 18S sequences ascribed to Neoechinorhynchus crassus specimens from North-East Asia were identical to those of N. tumidus, but differed substantially from North American N. crassus. We renamed North-East Asian N. crassus specimens to N. sp., although the possibility that they represent a subspecies of N. tumidus cannot be excluded, taking into account a relatively small distance between cox 1 sequences of North-East Asian specimens of N. crassus and N. tumidus. Maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses were performed for phylogeny reconstruction. All the phylogenetic trees showed that North-East Asian species of Neoechinorhynchus analyzed in this study represent independent clades, with the only exception of N. tumidus and N. sp. for 18S data. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that the majority of species sampled (N. tumidus+N. sp., N. simansularis and N. beringianus) are probably very closely related, while N. salmonis occupies separate position in the trees, possibly indicating a North American origin of this species. PMID:24064255

  14. New Mycomya species from South-East Asia (Diptera, Mycetophilidae) .

    PubMed

    Väisänen, Rauno

    2014-01-01

    Mycomya Rondani specimens from the islands of South-East Asia, i.e. Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines, are revised. The paper includes a key to the Mycomya species of the South-East Asian islands. The following six new species are described: M. shimai sp. n. from Java, Indonesia, M. pongo sp. n. from Sabah, Malaysia, and M. apoensis sp. n., M. nakanishii sp. n., M. paraklossi sp. n. and M. yatai sp. n. from Mindanao, the Philippines. The holotypes of M. klossi Edwards from Borneo, Malaysia, and M. minutata Edwards from Sumatra, Indonesia, were examined and their genitalia are described. M. occultans (Winnertz) is recorded from Java, Indonesia. PMID:24943632

  15. Current Status of Substance Abuse in East Asia and Therapeutic Prospects.

    PubMed

    Ren, Q; Ma, M; Hashimoto, K

    2016-06-01

    The abuse of drugs, including opioids and stimulants, is a major public health problem worldwide, including in East Asia. Nonetheless, there are no pharmacological treatments for many psychiatric or neurological symptoms associated with that abuse. Abused drugs exert several detrimental effects on structural plasticity in brain regions associated with reward circuits. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie this structural plasticity in brain neurons will aid in the development of novel therapeutic drugs for substance abuse. In this review, we discuss recent topics in substance abuse in East Asia and the therapeutic drugs available. Finally, we discuss potential therapeutic signalling pathways involved in long-term changes to structural plasticity in the brain after repeated administration of opioids and stimulants. PMID:27377485

  16. Cancer in the global health era: opportunities for the Middle East and Asia.

    PubMed

    Dey, Subhojit; Soliman, Amr S

    2010-07-01

    The global burden of cancer is rising with almost 70% of cancer cases being in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).The Middle East and Asia have two thirds of the world's population and the largest regional concentration of LMICs. Because of massive demographic and epidemiologic transitions, cancer mortality is projected to increase substantially in these populations. Lung cancer among men and breast cancer among women are the most prominent cancer sites in both the Middle East and Asia. Enhanced tobacco control and managing obesity are the most important measures for effective control of most cancers. However, detailed research is required within each population to best identify risk factors and to develop evidence-based methods for cancer prevention. International collaborations are an essential step in facilitating this process, because it can improve cancer registries, create robust infrastructure, improve skills of personnel and lead to effective cancer control and prevention. PMID:20566537

  17. Prospects for emerging infections in East and southeast Asia 10 years after severe acute respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Horby, Peter W; Pfeiffer, Dirk; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2013-06-01

    It is 10 years since severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged, and East and Southeast Asia retain a reputation as a hot spot of emerging infectious diseases. The region is certainly a hot spot of socioeconomic and environmental change, and although some changes (e.g., urbanization and agricultural intensification) may reduce the probability of emerging infectious diseases, the effect of any individual emergence event may be increased by the greater concentration and connectivity of livestock, persons, and products. The region is now better able to detect and respond to emerging infectious diseases than it was a decade ago, but the tools and methods to produce sufficiently refined assessments of the risks of disease emergence are still lacking. Given the continued scale and pace of change in East and Southeast Asia, it is vital that capabilities for predicting, identifying, and controlling biologic threats do not stagnate as the memory of SARS fades. PMID:23738977

  18. Prospects for Emerging Infections in East and Southeast Asia 10 Years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Dirk; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    It is 10 years since severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged, and East and Southeast Asia retain a reputation as a hot spot of emerging infectious diseases. The region is certainly a hot spot of socioeconomic and environmental change, and although some changes (e.g., urbanization and agricultural intensification) may reduce the probability of emerging infectious diseases, the effect of any individual emergence event may be increased by the greater concentration and connectivity of livestock, persons, and products. The region is now better able to detect and respond to emerging infectious diseases than it was a decade ago, but the tools and methods to produce sufficiently refined assessments of the risks of disease emergence are still lacking. Given the continued scale and pace of change in East and Southeast Asia, it is vital that capabilities for predicting, identifying, and controlling biologic threats do not stagnate as the memory of SARS fades. PMID:23738977

  19. Energy inefficiency in the Asia/Near East region and its environmental implications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    The report assesses the current and projected energy situation and needs in the Asia/Near East region and describes the status of energy efficiency. It examines the environmental implications of energy supply and use, with specific focus on energy infrastructure and fossil fuel combustion. Energy efficiency activities and achievements are described for Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, and Tunisia, as well as for two other countries, Costa Rica and Singapore, which have recently implemented energy efficiency activities that could be replicated in Asia/Near East countries. In conclusion, the report recommends that, in addition to energy efficiency, complementary efforts need to be made to promote the use of cleaner fuels and encourage the incorporation of environmental considerations into all major energy decisions.

  20. Derivation of regression coefficients for sea surface temperature retrieval over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Myoung-Hwan; Sohn, Eun-Ha; Hwang, Byong-Jun; Chung, Chu-Yong; Wu, Xiangqian

    2006-05-01

    Among the regression-based algorithms for deriving SST from satellite measurements, regionally optimized algorithms normally perform better than the corresponding global algorithm. In this paper, three algorithms are considered for SST retrieval over the East Asia region (15° 55°N, 105° 170°E), including the multi-channel algorithm (MCSST), the quadratic algorithm (QSST), and the Pathfinder algorithm (PFSST). All algorithms are derived and validated using collocated buoy and Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (GMS-5) observations from 1997 to 2001. An important part of the derivation and validation of the algorithms is the quality control procedure for the buoy SST data and an improved cloud screening method for the satellite brightness temperature measurements. The regionally optimized MCSST algorithm shows an overall improvement over the global algorithm, removing the bias of about -0.13°C and reducing the root-mean-square difference (rmsd) from 1.36°C to 1.26°C. The QSST is only slightly better than the MCSST. For both algorithms, a seasonal dependence of the remaining error statistics is still evident. The Pathfinder approach for deriving a season-specific set of coefficients, one for August to October and one for the rest of the year, provides the smallest rmsd overall that is also stable over time.

  1. GOSAT CO2 retrieval results using TANSO-CAI aerosol information over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, M.; Kim, W.; Jung, Y.; Lee, S.; Kim, J.; Lee, H.; Boesch, H.; Goo, T. Y.

    2015-12-01

    In the satellite remote sensing of CO2, incorrect aerosol information could induce large errors as previous studies suggested. Many factors, such as, aerosol type, wavelength dependency of AOD, aerosol polarization effect and etc. have been main error sources. Due to these aerosol effects, large number of data retrieved are screened out in quality control, or retrieval errors tend to increase if not screened out, especially in East Asia where aerosol concentrations are fairly high. To reduce these aerosol induced errors, a CO2 retrieval algorithm using the simultaneous TANSO-CAI aerosol information is developed. This algorithm adopts AOD and aerosol type information as a priori information from the CAI aerosol retrieval algorithm. The CO2 retrieval algorithm based on optimal estimation method and VLIDORT, a vector discrete ordinate radiative transfer model. The CO2 algorithm, developed with various state vectors to find accurate CO2 concentration, shows reasonable results when compared with other dataset. This study concentrates on the validation of retrieved results with the ground-based TCCON measurements in East Asia and the comparison with the previous retrieval from ACOS, NIES, and UoL. Although, the retrieved CO2 concentration is lower than previous results by ppm's, it shows similar trend and high correlation with previous results. Retrieved data and TCCON measurements data are compared at three stations of Tsukuba, Saga, Anmyeondo in East Asia, with the collocation criteria of ±2°in latitude/longitude and ±1 hours of GOSAT passing time. Compared results also show similar trend with good correlation. Based on the TCCON comparison results, bias correction equation is calculated and applied to the East Asia data.

  2. Impacts of Aerosol-Cloud Interactions on Climate Change in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, S.; Jung, Y.; Baek, H.; Cho, C.

    2013-12-01

    Climate impact by anthropogenic drivers gives high concerns in climate change simulation. IPCC AR4 emphasized the role of aerosol on climate besides the GHGs due to its negative significant radiative forcing. We find that climate feedback of anthropogenic aerosols over East Asia through direct and indirect (aerosol-cloud interaction) radiative process using HadGEM2-AO developed by the UK Met office. Due to the industrial revolution and population growth, total anthropogenic aerosol emissions have grown dramatically over East Asia; sulfate aerosol is the dominant component accounting for about 50% of total aerosol optical depth at 550nm (Figure 1). An increased amount of aerosols might increase the CCN number concentration and lead to more, but smaller, cloud droplets for fixed liquid water content. This increases the albedo of the cloud, resulting in enhance reflection and a cooling effect. And smaller drops require longer growth times to reach size at which they easily fall as precipitation. This effect called the cloud lifetime effect may enhance the cloud cover (Figure 2), with a persistent positive correlation between cloud cover and aerosol optical depth. Particularly, aerosols have an influence on the amount of cloud cover (SC, ST, and NS) through the interaction with precipitation efficiency of low level clouds. As a result of perturbations of East Asia aerosols from preindustrial to present day, a net radiative flux at the top of atmosphere is estimated to be -4 W/m2, with a regional mean surface cooling of 1.2 K. More detailed analysis will be shown at the conference. Fig. 1. (a) Total AOD distributions (b) Changes in decadal mean AOD over East Asia. Fig 2. Cloud cover distributions classified by ISCCP cloud types.

  3. Land response to atmosphere at different resolutions in the common land model over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Daeun; Lim, Yoon-Jin; Kang, Minseok; Choi, Minha

    2016-03-01

    Towards a better understanding of hydrological interactions between the land surface and atmosphere, land surface models are routinely used to simulate hydro-meteorological fluxes. However, there is a lack of observations available for model forcing, to estimate the hydro-meteorological fluxes in East Asia. In this study, Common Land Model (CLM) was used in offline-mode during the summer monsoon period of 2006 in East Asia, with different forcings from Asiaflux, Korea Land Data Assimilation System (KLDAS), and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS), at point and regional scales, separately. The CLM results were compared with observations from Asiaflux sites. The estimated net radiation showed good agreement, with r =0.99 for the point scale and 0.85 for the regional scale. The estimated sensible and latent heat fluxes using Asiaflux and KLDAS data indicated reasonable agreement, with r = 0.70. The estimated soil moisture and soil temperature showed similar patterns to observations, although the estimated water fluxes using KLDAS showed larger discrepancies than those of Asiaflux because of scale mismatch. The spatial distribution of hydro-meteorological fluxes according to KLDAS for East Asia were compared to the CLM results with GLDAS, and the GLDAS provided online. The spatial distributions of CLM with KLDAS were analogous to CLM with GLDAS, and the standalone GLDAS data. The results indicate that KLDAS is a good potential source of high spatial resolution forcing data. Therefore, the KLDAS is a promising alternative product, capable of compensating for the lack of observations and low resolution grid data for East Asia.

  4. WRF-Chem Simulations of Aerosols and Anthropogenic Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Yi; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Meigen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to provide a first comprehensive evaluation of WRF-Chem for modeling aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing (RF) over East Asia. Several numerical experiments were conducted from November 2007 to December 2008. Comparison between model results and observations shows that the model can generally reproduce the observed spatial distributions of aerosol concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) from measurements at different sites, including the relatively higher aerosol concentration and AOD over East China and the relatively lower AOD over Southeast Asia, Korean, and Japan. The model also depicts the seasonal variation and transport of pollutions over East Asia. Particulate matter of 10 um or less in the aerodynamic diameter (PM10), black carbon (BC), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) concentrations are higher in spring than other seasons in Japan due to the pollutant transport from polluted area of East Asia. AOD is high over Southwest and Central China in winter, spring and autumn and over North China in summer while is low over South China in summer due to monsoon precipitation. SSA is lowest in winter and highest in summer. The model also captures the dust events at the Zhangye site in the semi-arid region of China. Anthropogenic aerosol RF is estimated to range from -5 to -20 W m-2 over land and -20 to -40 W m-2 over ocean at the top of atmosphere (TOA), 5 to 30 W m-2 in the atmosphere (ATM) and -15 to -40 W m-2 at the bottom (BOT). The warming effect of anthropogenic aerosol in ATM results from BC aerosol while the negative aerosol RF at TOA is caused by scattering aerosols such as SO4 2-, NO3 - and NH4+. Positive BC RF at TOA compensates 40~50% of the TOA cooling associated with anthropogenic aerosol.

  5. Occurrence of and risk factors for Strongyloides stercoralis infection in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Schär, Fabian; Giardina, Federica; Khieu, Virak; Muth, Sinuon; Vounatsou, Penelope; Marti, Hanspeter; Odermatt, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The soil-transmitted nematode, Strongyloides stercoralis is one of the most-neglected of all neglected tropical diseases. It is globally distributed, favouring the humid, wet climates of the tropics and subtropics. Inadequate sanitary conditions promote the spread of S. stercoralis infection. In South-East Asia, many countries provide the ideal ecological and economic setting for high S. stercoralis infection rates. Yet, in most of these countries, little is known about the actual prevalence and distribution of S. stercoralis. One reason for this lack of knowledge pertains to the time- and resource-intensive diagnostic methods used to detect S. stercoralis infection. The Koga Agar culture method and the Baermann method are considered to be the best coprological diagnostic methods for field settings today. Both detect the parasite with high sensitivity. This sensitivity can be increased further by examining stool samples for several consecutive days, thereby increasing the chances of detecting low-intensity chronic infections. Diagnostic challenges, however, lead to the omission of S. stercoralis in studies of soil-transmitted helminths and few studies focus on S. stercoralis, specifically. These factors lead to an underreporting of the nematode's prevalence, not only in South-East Asia but worldwide. We have reviewed the scientific literature of the last 25 years and estimated country-wide prevalence rates for South-East Asia. We aim to summarise what is known today about the prevalence of S. stercoralis in South-East Asia, as well as to ascertain the risk factors and diagnostic methods most commonly applied. PMID:25795619

  6. How predictable is the winter extremely cold days over temperate East Asia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiao; Wang, Bin

    2016-07-01

    Skillful seasonal prediction of the number of extremely cold day (NECD) has considerable benefits for climate risk management and economic planning. Yet, predictability of NECD associated with East Asia winter monsoon remains largely unexplored. The present work estimates the NECD predictability in temperate East Asia (TEA, 30°-50°N, 110°-140°E) where the current dynamical models exhibit limited prediction skill. We show that about 50 % of the total variance of the NECD in TEA region is likely predictable, which is estimated by using a physics-based empirical (P-E) model with three consequential autumn predictors, i.e., developing El Niño/La Niña, Eurasian Arctic Ocean temperature anomalies, and geopotential height anomalies over northern and eastern Asia. We find that the barotropic geopotential height anomaly over Asia can persist from autumn to winter, thereby serving as a predictor for winter NECD. Further analysis reveals that the sources of the NECD predictability and the physical basis for prediction of NECD are essentially the same as those for prediction of winter mean temperature over the same region. This finding implies that forecasting seasonal mean temperature can provide useful information for prediction of extreme cold events. Interpretation of the lead-lag linkages between the three predictors and the predictand is provided for stimulating further studies.

  7. Marine incursion into East Asia: a forgotten driving force of biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lu; Hou, Zhonge; Li, Shuqiang

    2013-01-01

    Episodic marine incursion has been a major driving force in the formation of present-day diversity. Marine incursion is considered to be one of the most productive ‘species pumps’ particularly because of its division and coalescence effects. Marine incursion events and their impacts on diversity are well documented from South America, North America and Africa; however, their history and impacts in continental East Asia largely remain unknown. Here, we propose a marine incursion scenario occurring in East Asia during the Miocene epoch, 10–17 Ma. Our molecular phylogenetic analysis of Platorchestia talitrids revealed that continental terrestrial populations (Platorchestia japonica) form a monophyletic group that is the sister group to the Northwest Pacific coastal species Platorchestia pacifica. The divergence time between the two species coincides with Middle Miocene high global sea levels. We suggest that the inland form arose as a consequence of a marine incursion event. This is the first solid case documenting the impact of marine incursion on extant biodiversity in continental East Asia. We believe that such incursion event has had major impacts on other organisms and has played an important role in the formation of biodiversity patterns in the region. PMID:23446524

  8. Ancient inland human dispersals from Myanmar into interior East Asia since the Late Pleistocene

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-Chun; Wang, Hua-Wei; Tian, Jiao-Yang; Liu, Li-Na; Yang, Li-Qin; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Wu, Shi-Fang; Kong, Qing-Peng; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Given the existence of plenty of river valleys connecting Southeast and East Asia, it is possible that some inland route(s) might have been adopted by the initial settlers to migrate into the interior of East Asia. Here we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) HVS variants of 845 newly collected individuals from 14 Myanmar populations and 5,907 published individuals from 115 populations from Myanmar and its surroundings. Enrichment of basal lineages with the highest genetic diversity in Myanmar suggests that Myanmar was likely one of the differentiation centers of the early modern humans. Intriguingly, some haplogroups were shared merely between Myanmar and southwestern China, hinting certain genetic connection between both regions. Further analyses revealed that such connection was in fact attributed to both recent gene flow and certain ancient dispersals from Myanmar to southwestern China during 25–10 kya, suggesting that, besides the coastal route, the early modern humans also adopted an inland dispersal route to populate the interior of East Asia. PMID:25826227

  9. Modeling study of surface ozone source-receptor relationships in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Yang, Wenyi; Wang, Zifa; Chen, Huansheng; Hu, Bo; Li, Jianjun.; Sun, Yele.; Fu, Pingqing; Zhang, Yuqia

    2016-01-01

    Ozone source-receptor relationships over East Asia have been quantitatively investigated using a chemical transport model including an on-line tracer-tagged procedure, with a particular focus on the source regions of different daily ozone mixing ratios. Comparison with observations showed that the model reproduced surface ozone and tropospheric nitrogen dioxide column densities. Long-range transport from outside East Asia contributed the greatest fraction to annual surface ozone over remote regions, the Korean peninsula, and Japan, reaching 50%-80% of total ozone. Self-contributions accounted for 5%-20% ozone in the Korean peninsula and Japan, whereas the contribution of trans-boundary transport from photochemical production in China was less than 5%-10%. At extra-high ozone levels, self-contributions reached 50%-60% in the Korean peninsula. Ozone source-receptor relationships showed high seasonal variability over East Asia. Significant transport was also found between sub-regions in China, which presents a great challenge to policy-makers because most current control strategies are confined to specific regions.

  10. Tomographic structure of East Asia: II. Stagnant slab above 660 km discontinuity and its geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongshun John; Pei, Shunping

    2010-12-01

    P-wave arrival times of both regional and teleseismic earthquakes were inverted to obtain mantle structures of East Asia. No fast (slab) velocity anomalies was not find beneath the 660-km discontinuity through tomography besides a stagnant slab within the transition zone. Slow P-wave velocity anomalies are present at depths of 100-250 km below the active volcanic arc and East Asia. The western end of the flat stagnant slab is about 1 500 km west to active trench and may also be correlated with prominent surface topographic break in eastern China. We suggested that active mantle convection might be operating within this horizontally expanded "mantle wedge" above both the active subducting slabs and the stagnant flat slabs beneath much of the North China plain. Both the widespread Cenozoic volcanism and associated extensional basins in East Asia could be the manifestation of this vigorous upper mantle convection. Cold or thermal anomalies associated with the stagnant slabs above the 660-km discontinuity have not only caused a broad depression of the boundary due to its negative Clapeyron slope but also effectively shielded the asthenosphere and continental lithosphere above from any possible influence of mantle plumes in the lower mantle.

  11. Multiannual top-down estimate of HFC-23 emissions in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Fang, X; Stohl, A; Yokouchi, Y; Kim, J; Li, S; Saito, T; Park, S; Hu, J

    2015-04-01

    Trifluoromethane (CHF3, HFC-23), with a 100-year global warming potential (GWP) of 12400, is regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. HFC-23 emissions in East Asia, especially in China, are currently thought to represent the majority of global HFC-23 emissions. This study provides both a bottom-up emission inventory and the multiannual top-down estimate of HFC-23 emissions in East Asia during 2007-2012. The new bottom-up inventory yields improved simulated HFC-23 mixing ratios compared to previous bottom-up inventories. The top-down estimate uses inverse modeling to further improve the model-measurement agreement. Results show that China contributed 94-98% of all HFC-23 emissions in East Asia. Annual a posteriori emissions from China were around 6.3 Gg/yr during the period 2007-2010 after which they increased to 7.1 ± 0.7 Gg/yr in 2011 and 8.8 ± 0.8 Gg/yr in 2012. For the first time, this study also provides a top-down estimate of HFC-23/HCFC-22 (chlorodifluoromethane, CHClF2) coproduction ratios in non-CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) HCFC-22 production plants as well as in all HCFC-22 production plants in China. PMID:25785483

  12. Emissions of halogenated compounds in East Asia determined from measurements at Jeju Island, Korea.

    PubMed

    Li, Shanlan; Kim, Jooil; Kim, Kyung-Ryul; Mühle, Jens; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Park, Mi-Kyung; Stohl, Andreas; Kang, Dong-Jin; Arnold, Tim; Harth, Christina M; Salameh, Peter K; Weiss, Ray F

    2011-07-01

    High-frequency in situ measurements at Gosan (Jeju Island, Korea) during November 2007 to December 2008 have been combined with interspecies correlation analysis to estimate national emissions of halogenated compounds (HCs) in East Asia, including the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)), and other chlorinated and brominated compounds. Our results suggest that overall China is the dominant emitter of HCs in East Asia, however significant emissions are also found in South Korea, Japan and Taiwan for HFC-134a, HFC-143a, C(2)F(6), SF(6), CH(3)CCl(3), and HFC-365mfc. The combined emissions of CFCs, halon-1211, HCFCs, HFCs, PFCs, and SF(6) from all four countries in 2008 are 25.3, 1.6, 135, 42.6, 3.6, and 2.0 kt/a, respectively. They account for approximately 15%, 26%, 29%, 16%, 32%, and 26.5% of global emissions, respectively. Our results show signs that Japan has successfully phased out CFCs and HCFCs in compliance with the Montreal Protocol (MP), Korea has started transitioning from HCFCs to HFCs, while China still significantly consumes HCFCs. Taiwan, while not directly regulated under the MP, is shown to have adapted the use of HFCs. Combined analysis of emission rates and the interspecies correlation matrix presented in this study proves to be a powerful tool for monitoring and diagnosing changes in consumption of HCs in East Asia. PMID:21649439

  13. Ancient inland human dispersals from Myanmar into interior East Asia since the Late Pleistocene.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Chun; Wang, Hua-Wei; Tian, Jiao-Yang; Liu, Li-Na; Yang, Li-Qin; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Wu, Shi-Fang; Kong, Qing-Peng; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Given the existence of plenty of river valleys connecting Southeast and East Asia, it is possible that some inland route(s) might have been adopted by the initial settlers to migrate into the interior of East Asia. Here we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) HVS variants of 845 newly collected individuals from 14 Myanmar populations and 5,907 published individuals from 115 populations from Myanmar and its surroundings. Enrichment of basal lineages with the highest genetic diversity in Myanmar suggests that Myanmar was likely one of the differentiation centers of the early modern humans. Intriguingly, some haplogroups were shared merely between Myanmar and southwestern China, hinting certain genetic connection between both regions. Further analyses revealed that such connection was in fact attributed to both recent gene flow and certain ancient dispersals from Myanmar to southwestern China during 25-10 kya, suggesting that, besides the coastal route, the early modern humans also adopted an inland dispersal route to populate the interior of East Asia. PMID:25826227

  14. Model intra-comparison of transboundary sulfate loadings over springtime east Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, D.; Ohara, T.; Nakajima, T.; Takemura, T.; Kajino, M.; Dai, T.; Matsui, H.; Takami, A.; Hatakeyama, S.; Aoki, K.; Sugimoto, N.; Shimizu, A.

    2013-12-01

    Over east Asia, a spatial gradient of sulfate aerosols from source to outflow regions has not fully evaluated by simulations. In the present study, we executed a global aerosol-transport model (SPRINTARS) during April 2006 to investigate the spatial gradient of sulfate aerosols using multiple measurements including surface mass concentration, aerosol optical thickness, and vertical profiles of extinction coefficients for spherical particles. We also performed sensitivity experiments to estimate possible uncertainties of sulfate mass loadings caused by macrophysical processes; emission inventory, dynamic core, and spatial resolution. Among the experiments, although a difference in the surface sulfate mass concentrations over east Asia was large, none of the simulations in the present study as well as regional models reproduced the spatial gradient of the surface sulfate from the source over China to the outflow regions in Japan. The sensitivity of different macrophysical factors to the surface sulfate differs from that to sulfate loadings in the column especially in the marine boundary layers (MBL). Therefore, to properly simulate the transboundary air pollution over east Asia is required to use multiple measurements in both the source and outflow regions especially in the MBL during the polluted days.

  15. 7. ORIGINAL SOUTH SIDE, EAST PART, ALSO SHOWING PATH FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ORIGINAL SOUTH SIDE, EAST PART, ALSO SHOWING PATH FROM EAST FRONT LEADING TO CENTRAL CAMPUS. - U.S. Geological Survey, Rock Magnetics Laboratory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, San Mateo County, CA

  16. 18. LOOKING EAST ALONG THIS PART OF THE NORTH WALL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. LOOKING EAST ALONG THIS PART OF THE NORTH WALL, FROM A POINT ABOUT 1,500 FEET EAST OF THE FEDERAL CHANNEL MOUTH. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  17. East side and part of the front (south side) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East side and part of the front (south side) - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Semi-Infirmary Tubercular Ward, East Charlie Kelly Boulevard & South Page Street, northwest corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  18. 15. General view inside east half (1888 part) of main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. General view inside east half (1888 part) of main section of roundhouse. View to east. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  19. Evaluation of Multiple Regional Climate Models for Summer Extremes of Temperature and Precipitation over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Changyong; Min, Seung-Ki

    2014-05-01

    The regional climate models (RCMs) have been widely used to generate more detailed information in space and time of climate patterns produced by the global climate models (GCMs). Recently the international collaborative effort has been set up as the CORDEX (Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment) project which covers several regional domains including East Asia. In this study, five RCMs (HadGEM3-RA, RegCM4, SNU-MM5, SNU-WRF, and YSU-RSM) participating in the CORDEX-East Asia project are evaluated in terms of their skills at simulating climatology of summer extremes. We examine bias and RMSE and conduct a Taylor diagram analysis using seasonal maxima of daily mean temperature and daily precipitation amount over the East Asia land area from 'historical' experiments of individual RCMs and their multi-model ensemble means (MME). The APHRODITE (Asian Precipitation-Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Toward Evaluation) datasets on 0.5° x 0.5° grids are used as observations. Results show similar systematic bias patterns between seasonal means and extremes. A cold bias is found along the coast while a warm bias occurs in the northern China. Overall wet bias appears in East Asia but there is a substantial dry bias in South Korea. This dry bias appears related to be a cold SST (sea surface temperature) around South Korea, positioning the monsoonal front (Changma) further south than observations. Taylor diagram analyses show that temperature has better skill in means than in extremes because of higher spatial correlation whereas precipitation exhibits better skill in extremes than in means due to better spatial variability. The latter implies that extreme rainfall events may be better captured although seasonal mean precipitation tends to be overestimated by RCMs. The model performances between mean and extreme are found to be closely related, but not clearly between temperature and precipitation. Temperatures are always better simulated than

  20. Observations of Light-Absorbing Carbonaceous Aerosols in East and South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, S.; Kim, S.; Choi, W.

    2013-05-01

    Light-absorbing aerosols, such as black carbon (BC), brown carbon and mineral dust, typically constitute a small fraction of ambient particle mass but can contribute to solar radiative forcing through absorption of solar radiation and heating of the absorbing aerosol layer. Besides the direct radiative effect, the heating can evaporate clouds and change the atmospheric dynamics. In this study, we investigate the optical and radiative properties of light-absorbing aerosols from ground-based and aircraft measurements in East and South Asia within the framework of UNEP Atmospheric Brown Cloud-Asia (ABC-Asia) project and Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley (SusKat) campaign (December 2012 ~ February 2013). BC mass concentration, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients measurements and radiative forcing calculations were performed at four sites: Gosan (Korea), Anmyeon (Korea), Hanimaadhoo (Maldives) and Pyramid (Nepal). No significant seasonal variations of aerosol properties, except for summer due to wet scavenging by rainfall, were observed in East Asia, whereas dramatic changes of light-absorbing aerosol properties were observed in South Asia between dry and wet monsoon periods. Although BC mass concentration in East Asia is generally higher than that observed in South Asia, BC mass concentration at Hanimaadhoo during winter dry monsoon is similar to that of East Asia. The observed solar absorption efficiency (absorption coefficient/extinction coefficient) at 550 nm at Gosan and Anmyeon is higher than that in Hanimaadhoo due to large portions of BC emission from fossil fuel combustion. Interestingly, solar absorption efficiency at Pyramid is 0.14, which is two times great than that in Hanimaadhoo and is about 40% higher than that in East Asia, though BC mass concentration at Pyramid is the lowest among four sites. Throughout the unmanned aerial vehicle experiment in Jeju, Korea during August-September 2008, long-range transport of aerosols from

  1. Regional precipitation variability in East Asia related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian

    2014-07-01

    This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of East Asia from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 - 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, East Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. - May) and the East China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. - Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons.

  2. Regional precipitation variability in East Asia related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of East Asia from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 - 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, East Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. - May) and the East China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. - Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons. PMID:25033387

  3. Off to a good start: A comparative study of changes in men's first job prospects in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei-hsin; Chiu, Chi-Tsun

    2015-01-01

    Research on young adults’ transition to the labor market rarely investigates how nation-level institutional arrangements shape changes over time. In particular, a systematic comparison of shifts in young adults’ job opportunities in East Asia is virtually absent. Using comparable data from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan, we examine cohort differences in the timing, quality, and stability of men's first jobs. The results indicate overall declines in first occupational attainment for men in all three countries, but the main driving force for the decrease in Japan differs from that in Korea and Taiwan. Whereas macroeconomic pressure fully explains the decline in Japanese men's first occupational attainment, educational expansion accounts for a considerable part of the declines for men in Korea and Taiwan. Moreover, educational expansion has eroded better-educated men's advantages in speedily transitioning from school to work in Taiwan, but it has not had a similar effect on Japanese men. We argue that Japan's employment system, coupled with a fair amount of institutional ties between schools and firms, has shielded young men from the pressure of educational expansion, making the trends about their early-career outcomes different from those of their counterparts in Korea and Taiwan. The different degrees to which firm internal labor markets have been adopted in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan also explain how increasing macroeconomic pressure has different impacts on men's first job stability in East Asia. PMID:25999637

  4. United States security strategy for the East Asia-Pacific region

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The three years since release of the last East Asia Strategy Report (EASR) have produced important development in the security environment of the Asia-Pacific region. The 1998 EASR outlines a multifaceted regional security strategy, including: maintenance of comprehensive US engagement, including not only the presence of approximately 100,000 US military personnel in Asia but also a variety of other public and private interaction with the region; continued enhancement of the alliance relationships with Japan, Korea, Australia, Thailand and the Philippines; comprehensive engagement with China to build the foundation for a long-term relationship based on cooperation and mutual interest; broadening of cooperation with the nations of Southeast Asia on security and confidence building; expansion of regional cooperation with Russia; support for the development of security pluralism, including expansion of multilateral, minilateral and bilateral dialogue in the region; promotion of democracy; stemming and countering proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD): and increased attention to terrorism, environmental degradation, emerging infectious diseases, drug trafficking and other transnational challenges as critical elements of `comprehensive security.`

  5. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) sequence and subduction dynamics in Western Pacific and East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dapeng

    2015-02-01

    We review recent findings on the causal mechanism of the great 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) sequence and related issues on seismic structure and subduction dynamics in Western Pacific and East Asia. High-resolution tomography revealed significant lateral heterogeneities in the interplate megathrust zone beneath the Tohoku, South Kuril and Southwest Japan forearc regions. Large megathrust earthquakes since 1900 generally occurred in or around high-velocity (high-V) patches in the megathrust zone, which may reflect asperities resulting from subducted seamounts, oceanic ridges and other topographic highs on the Pacific seafloor. In contrast, low-velocity (low-V) patches in the megathrust zone may contain more sediments and fluids, where the subducting oceanic plate and the overlying continental plate are less coupled or even decoupled. The nucleation of large crustal earthquakes in the Japan Islands, including the 11 April 2011 Iwaki earthquake (M 7.0) in SE Tohoku, is affected by arc magma and fluids resulting from slab dehydration. The Philippine Sea plate has subducted aseismically down to 430-460 km depth under East China Sea, Tsushima Strait and Japan Sea. A window in the aseismic Philippine Sea slab is detected, which may be caused by splitting of weak parts of the slab at the subducted ridges (e.g., Kyushu-Paula ridge) and hot upwelling in the mantle wedge above the Pacific slab. The intraplate volcanism in Northeast Asia is caused by hot and wet upwelling flows in the big mantle wedge above the stagnant Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone. Frequent generation of large deep earthquakes (>500 km depth) in the Pacific slab may supply additional fluids preserved in the slab to the mantle wedge under the Changbai volcano, making Changbai the largest and most active intraplate volcano in Northeast Asia. Fluids may be involved in nucleation and rupture processes of all types of earthquakes.

  6. Velocity structure of the uppermost mantle beneath East Asia from Pn tomography and its dynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Suyun; Niu, Fenglin; Zhang, Guomin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is one of the most tectonically active regions on Earth's surface due to the collision from the India plate and the suctions induced by the subduction of the Pacific and Philippine plates. To better understand the complicated deformation and active seismicity of the area, we conducted a Pn traveltime tomography to estimate the compressive wave speed of the uppermost mantle beneath <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. We collected a total of 296,334 Pn arrivals recorded by 1354 stations from 27,777 earthquakes in a rectangular area from 60°E to 145°E in longitude, 15°N to 60°N in latitude. The data set was carefully integrated from three different catalogs after examining potential systematic biases in the catalogs. The inversion results revealed a large-scale velocity perturbation in the study area. Pn velocity in the region west to ~108°E is approximately 10% higher than that in the <span class="hlt">east</span>. In each region, stable blocks tend to have high Pn velocity while the boundary regions, which show a high level of seismicity and surface deformation, appear to have low Pn velocity. We further computed the Benioff strain rate in the two regions and found it correlates negatively with the averaged Pn velocity. Our observations here suggest that Pn velocity, which is predominantly determined by Moho temperature, is a good indicator of lithosphere strength.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3494716','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3494716"><span id="translatedtitle">Tracing the Origin of the <span class="hlt">East</span>-West Population Admixture in the Altai Region (Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simón, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpció</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic <span class="hlt">east</span>-west population admixture in Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and <span class="hlt">East</span> Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of <span class="hlt">East</span> Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a ‘contact zone’ between European and <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic <span class="hlt">east</span>-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. PMID:23152818</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23152818','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23152818"><span id="translatedtitle">Tracing the origin of the <span class="hlt">east</span>-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simón, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpció</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic <span class="hlt">east</span>-west population admixture in Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and <span class="hlt">East</span> Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of <span class="hlt">East</span> Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic <span class="hlt">east</span>-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. PMID:23152818</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JGRD..121..382Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JGRD..121..382Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of OMI near-UV aerosol optical depth over Central and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Wenhao; Gu, Xingfa; Xu, Hui; Yu, Tao; Zheng, Fengjie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Several essential improvements have been made in recent Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) near-ultraviolet (UV) aerosol retrieval algorithm version (OMAERUV version 1.4.2), but few regional validations for its aerosol optical depth (AOD) product are conducted. This paper assessed the OMAERUV AOD product over Central and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The OMAERUV Level 2.0 AOD product was compared with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Level 2.0 direct Sun AOD measurement over 10 years (2005-2014) at 27 selected AERONET sites. A combined comparison of OMAERUV-AERONET AOD at 25 (2) sites was carried out and yielded correlation coefficient (ρ) of 0.63 (0.77), slope of 0.53 (0.57), y intercept of 0.18 (0.13), and 50.71% (57.24%) OMAERUV AOD fall within the expected uncertainty boundary (larger by 0.1 or ±30%) at 380 nm (440 nm). The more accurate (ρ > 0.70) OMAERUV retrievals are reported over eastern and northern China and South Korea. The two primary reasons for the underestimation of OMAERUV AOD over China are as follows: (1) the use of single-channel (388 nm) retrieval method retrieves scattering AOD and not total AOD, and (2) the spectral dependence of the imaginary <span class="hlt">part</span> of the refractive index in the near-UV region assumed in the algorithm may not be representative of aerosols found over China. The comparisons for three predominant aerosol types indicate that smoke aerosol exhibits the best performance, followed by dust and nonabsorbing aerosol. It is consistent with the characteristic of near-UV wavelength that it is more sensitive to absorbent particles. The comprehensive yearly (2005-2014) comparison at 25 sites and comparison between two periods (2005-2006 and 2009-2014) at selected four sites show no discernible decrease of temporal trend, which indicates that the OMAERUV algorithm successfully maintains its quality of aerosol product despite post-2008 row anomaly instrument problem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26934707','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26934707"><span id="translatedtitle">Variation of Soil Organic Carbon and Its Major Constraints in <span class="hlt">East</span> Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Xinqing; Huang, Yimin; Huang, Daikuan; Hu, Lu; Feng, Zhaodong; Cheng, Jianzhong; Wang, Bing; Ni, Jian; Shurkhuu, Tserenpil</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Variation of soil organic carbon (SOC) and its major constraints in large spatial scale are critical for estimating global SOC inventory and projecting its future at environmental changes. By analyzing SOC and its environment at 210 sites in uncultivated land along a 3020km latitudinal transect in <span class="hlt">East</span> Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, we examined the effect of environmental factors on the dynamics of SOC. We found that SOC changes dramatically with the difference as high as 5 times in north China and 17 times in Mongolia. Regardless, C:N remains consistent about 12. Path analysis indicated that temperature is the dominant factor in the variation of SOC with a direct effect much higher than the indirect one, the former breaks SOC down the year round while the latter results in its growth mainly via precipitation in the winter half year. Precipitation helps accumulate SOC, a large <span class="hlt">part</span> of the effect, however, is taken via temperature. NH4+-N and topography also affect SOC, their roles are played primarily via climatic factors. pH correlates significantly with SOC, the effect, however, is taken only in the winter months, contributing to the decay of SOC primarily via temperature. These factors explained as much as 79% of SOC variations, especially in the summer months, representing the major constraints on the SOC stock. Soil texture gets increasingly fine southward, it does not, however, constitute an apparent factor. Our results suggested that recent global warming should have been adversely affecting SOC stock in the mid-latitude as temperature dominates other factors as the constraint. PMID:26934707</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4775023','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4775023"><span id="translatedtitle">Variation of Soil Organic Carbon and Its Major Constraints in <span class="hlt">East</span> Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lee, Xinqing; Huang, Yimin; Huang, Daikuan; Hu, Lu; Feng, Zhaodong; Cheng, Jianzhong; Wang, Bing; Ni, Jian; Shurkhuu, Tserenpil</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Variation of soil organic carbon (SOC) and its major constraints in large spatial scale are critical for estimating global SOC inventory and projecting its future at environmental changes. By analyzing SOC and its environment at 210 sites in uncultivated land along a 3020km latitudinal transect in <span class="hlt">East</span> Central <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, we examined the effect of environmental factors on the dynamics of SOC. We found that SOC changes dramatically with the difference as high as 5 times in north China and 17 times in Mongolia. Regardless, C:N remains consistent about 12. Path analysis indicated that temperature is the dominant factor in the variation of SOC with a direct effect much higher than the indirect one, the former breaks SOC down the year round while the latter results in its growth mainly via precipitation in the winter half year. Precipitation helps accumulate SOC, a large <span class="hlt">part</span> of the effect, however, is taken via temperature. NH4+-N and topography also affect SOC, their roles are played primarily via climatic factors. pH correlates significantly with SOC, the effect, however, is taken only in the winter months, contributing to the decay of SOC primarily via temperature. These factors explained as much as 79% of SOC variations, especially in the summer months, representing the major constraints on the SOC stock. Soil texture gets increasingly fine southward, it does not, however, constitute an apparent factor. Our results suggested that recent global warming should have been adversely affecting SOC stock in the mid-latitude as temperature dominates other factors as the constraint. PMID:26934707</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6128K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6128K"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of terrestrial carbon fluxes over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> through <span class="hlt">Asia</span>Flux and improved MODIS gross primary production data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Miae; Im, Jungho; Lee, Junghee; Shin, Minso; Lee, Sanggyun</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p> data, upstream data of MODIS land cover use, FPAR, LAI, and model parameters. MODIS GPP data was improved using enhanced input variables by using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) meteorological data with high spatial resolution instead of DAO data, reflecting topographic characteristics over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. GPP estimated using the enhanced input variables was compared with original MODIS GPP and in situ GPP to analyze the degree of improvements. Finally, improved GPP data were incorporated into the machine learning empirical models to estimate NEE. The spatiotemporal patterns of terrestrial carbon fluxes (GPP and NEE) over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> were also examined considering vegetation type and topography.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12..754W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12..754W"><span id="translatedtitle">Aerosol fluxes and dynamics within and above a tropical rainforest in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Whitehead, James; Gallagher, Martin; Robinson, Niall; Gabey, Andrew; Dorsey, James; Coe, Hugh; McFiggans, Gordon; Ryder, James; Nemitz, Eiko; Davies, Fay</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Atmospheric aerosol measurements over tropical rainforests are important in order to understand their sources and sinks, and hence the rainforests' influence on local and regional climate. To date, there have been no published studies in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, which, compared to the African and South American continents, represents a unique mixture of tropical seas and islands. Aerosol measurements were conducted near Danum Valley, in the Malaysian state of Sabah, North-<span class="hlt">east</span> Borneo, as <span class="hlt">part</span> of the OP3 and ACES projects, in April and June/July 2008. Ultrafine particle fluxes were calculated by eddy covariance from measurements above the rainforest canopy on the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) tower. Upward fluxes were seen on most mornings between 09:00 and 11:00 local time and this could be attributed to entrainment of particles into the growing mixed layer. In-canopy measurements were conducted at a nearby site. Profiles in aerosol number concentrations were investigated using GRIMM Optical Particle Counters (OPCs) at various levels within the rainforest canopy as well as a single OPC on a vertically moving platform. These showed an overnight increase in larger particles (1 - 20 µm) at all levels, but much more prominently near the top of the canopy, which could be attributed to fog formation. Number concentrations in this size range in the canopy understory correlated with enhancements in biological aerosol concentrations, measured using a Wide Issue Bioaerosol Spectrometer (WIBS) located near the forest floor, suggesting that coarse particle number concentrations were dominated by biological aerosols. A comparison of particle number concentrations (in the size range 0.5 - 1.0 µm) between above and below canopy showed correlations, despite turbulence data suggesting persistent decoupling between the two measurement sites. These correlations often relied on a shift of the particle time-series against each other, implying a time delay in observations between the sites</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGC13A0701H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGC13A0701H"><span id="translatedtitle">Reconstruction of the thermal environment evolution from subsurface temperature distribution in large cities in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hamamoto, H.; Goto, S.; Vuthy, M.; Nishijima, J.; Yamano, M.; Taniguchi, M.; Miyakoshi, A.; Hachinohe, S.; Sasaka, K.; Shiraishi, H.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Temperature changes at the ground surface propagate into the underground and disturb the subsurface temperature structure. Analyzing disturbances in the subsurface temperature structure, we can reconstruct the past ground surface temperature (GST) change, which is closely related to the past surface air temperature change. This method can be applied to studies of thermal environment evolution in urban areas such as the development of “heat islands”. As <span class="hlt">part</span> of an international multidisciplinary research project “Human Impacts on Urban Subsurface Environments”, we have been investigating GST histories in and around several large cities in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, including Bangkok and Tokyo. We have also started a study on the subsurface thermal environment in Saitama prefecture, located on the north of Tokyo, as a research project of CESS (Center for Environmental Science in Saitama). The eastern <span class="hlt">part</span> of Saitama prefecture is densely populated and considered to be a <span class="hlt">part</span> of Tokyo Metropolitan area. In this presentation, we show the results of GST history reconstruction in the both areas. In Bangkok area, we conducted measurements of temperature profiles in groundwater monitoring wells at 45 sites in 2004, 2006, and 2008. In Saitama, we measured temperature profiles at 15 sites in 2009. We examined the shapes of the temperature profiles and selected ones that are not significantly disturbed by groundwater flow. Reconstruction of GST history for the last several hundred years was made at six sites in the Bangkok area and at two sites in the Saitama area. We used a multi-layer model that allows layers with different thermal properties, determining layer boundaries based on lithology of the formations around the wells. All of the reconstructed GST histories show surface warming in the last century. In the Bangkok area, the amount of the temperature increase ranges from 0.4 to 2.6 K and is larger in the city than in the area to the west of Bangkok and in the northern rural</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..1711567A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..1711567A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> summer blocking on the atmospheric circulation over the region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ahn, Joong-Bae; Park, Yong-Jun</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The influence of the boreal summer blocking on atmospheric circulation in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> was examined. The summer blocking occurred mostly in North Europe, Ural region, Sea of Okhotsk (OK), and northeastern Pacific. The summer blocking was the major mode in these four regions according to principal component analysis using 500 hPa geopotential heights. Among the four blocking regions, OK blocking frequencies (OK BFs) showed negative and positive correlations with summer temperature and precipitation of Northeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> centered around the <span class="hlt">East</span> Sea/Sea of Japan, respectively. In particular, the OK BF had a statistically significant correlation coefficient of -0.54 with summer temperatures in the Korean Peninsula. This indicates that the summer temperature and precipitation in this region were closely related to the OK blocking. According to the composite analysis for the years of higher-than-average BF (positive BF years), the OK High became stronger and expanded, while the North Pacific High was weakened over the Korean Peninsula and Japan and an anomalously deep trough was developed in the upper layer (200 hPa). As the cool OK High expanded, the temperature decreased over Northeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> centered around the <span class="hlt">East</span> Sea/Sea of Japan and the lower level (850 hPa) air converged cyclonically, resulting in the increased precipitation, which induced the divergence in the upper layer and thereby strengthened the jet stream. Thus, the boreal summer OK blocking systematically influencing the area as the most dominant mode. Acknowledgements This work was carried out with the support of Rural Development Administration Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development under grant project PJ009353 and Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under grant CATER 2012-3100, Republic of Korea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.4691K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.4691K"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of wet deposition on the abundance and size distribution of black carbon in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kondo, Y.; Moteki, N.; Oshima, N.; Ohata, S.; Koike, M.; Shibano, Y.; Takegawa, N.; Kita, K.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>An improved understanding of the variations in the mass concentration and size distribution of black carbon (BC) in the free troposphere (FT) over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, where BC emissions are very high, is needed to reliably estimate the radiative forcing of BC in climate models. We measured these parameters and the carbon monoxide (CO) concentration by conducting the Aerosol Radiative Forcing in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (A-FORCE) 2013W aircraft campaign in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in winter 2013 and compared these data with measurements made in the same region in spring 2009. The median BC concentrations in the FT originating from North China (NC) and South China (SC) showed different seasonal variations, which were primarily caused by variations in meteorological conditions. CO concentrations above the background were much higher in SC than in NC in both seasons, suggesting a more active upward transport of CO. In SC, precipitation greatly increased from winter to spring, leading to an increased wet deposition of BC. As a result, the median BC concentration in the FT was highest in SC air in winter. This season and region were optimal for the effective transport of BC from the planetary boundary layer to the FT. The count median diameters of the BC size distributions generally decreased with altitude via wet removal during upward transport. The altitude dependence of the BC size distributions was similar in winter and spring, in accord with the similarity in the BC mixing state. The observed BC concentrations and microphysical properties will be useful for evaluating the performance of climate models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.121..445L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.121..445L"><span id="translatedtitle">Past and future direct radiative forcing of nitrate aerosol in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Jiandong; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Liao, Hong; Chang, Wenyuan</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Nitrate as a rapidly increasing aerosol species in recent years affects the present climate and potentially has large implications on the future climate. In this study, the long-term direct radiative forcing (DRF) of nitrate aerosol is investigated using State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG) atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) and the aerosol dataset simulated by a chemical transport model with focus on <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The DRF due to other aerosols, especially sulfate, is also evaluated for comparisons. Although the chemical transport model underestimates the magnitudes of nitrate and sulfate aerosols when compared with Chinese site observations, some insights into the significances of nitrate climate effects still emerge. The present-day global annual mean all-sky DRF of nitrate is calculated to be -0.025 W m-2 relative to the preindustrial era, which is much weaker than -0.37 W m-2 for sulfate. However, nitrate DRF may become increasingly important in the future especially over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, given the expectation that decreasing trend in global sulfate continues while the projected nitrate maintains at the present level for a mid-range forcing scenario and even be a factor of two larger by the end of the 21st century for high emission scenarios. For example, the anthropogenic nitrate DRF of -2.0 W m-2 over eastern China could persist until the 2050s, and nitrate is projected to account for over 60 % of total anthropogenic aerosol DRF over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> by 2100. In addition, we illustrate that the regional nitrate DRF and its seasonal variation are sensitive to meteorological parameters, in particular the relative humidity and cloud amount. It thus remains a need for climate models to include more realistically nitrate aerosol in projecting future climate changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...46.2469P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...46.2469P"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of multiple regional climate models for summer climate extremes over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, Changyong; Min, Seung-Ki; Lee, Donghyun; Cha, Dong-Hyun; Suh, Myoung-Seok; Kang, Hyun-Suk; Hong, Song-You; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Baek, Hee-Jeong; Boo, Kyung-On; Kwon, Won-Tae</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In this study, five regional climate models (RCMs) participating in the CORDEX-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> project (HadGEM3-RA, RegCM4, SNU-MM5, SNU-WRF, and YSU-RSM) are evaluated in terms of their performances in simulating the climatology of summer extremes in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Seasonal maxima of daily mean temperature and precipitation are analyzed using the generalized extreme value method. RCMs show systematic bias patterns in both seasonal means and extremes. A cold bias is located along the coast, whereas a warm bias occurs in northern China. Overall, wet bias occurs in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, but with a substantial dry bias centered in South Korea. This dry bias appears to be related to the colder ocean surface around South Korea, positioning the monsoonal front further south compared to observations. Taylor diagram analyses reveal that the models simulate temperature means more accurately compared to extremes because of the higher spatial correlation, whereas precipitation extremes are simulated better than their means because of the higher spatial variability. The latter implies that extreme rainfall events can be captured more accurately by RCMs compared to the driving GCM despite poorer simulation of mean rainfall. Inter-RCM analysis indicates a close relationship between the means and extremes in terms of model skills, but it does not show a clear relationship between temperature and precipitation. Sub-regional analysis largely supports the mean-extreme skill relationship. Analyses of frequency and intensity distributions of daily data for three selected sub-regions suggest that overall shifts of temperature distribution and biases in moderate-heavy precipitations contribute importantly to the seasonal mean biases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.106..318K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.106..318K"><span id="translatedtitle">Improvement of PM10 prediction in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> using inverse modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koo, Youn-Seo; Choi, Dae-Ryun; Kwon, Hi-Yong; Jang, Young-Kee; Han, Jin-Seok</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Aerosols from anthropogenic emissions in industrialized region in China as well as dust emissions from southern Mongolia and northern China that transport along prevailing northwestern wind have a large influence on the air quality in Korea. The emission inventory in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> region is an important factor in chemical transport modeling (CTM) for PM10 (particulate matters less than 10 ㎛ in aerodynamic diameter) forecasts and air quality management in Korea. Most previous studies showed that predictions of PM10 mass concentration by the CTM were underestimated when comparing with observational data. In order to fill the gap in discrepancies between observations and CTM predictions, the inverse Bayesian approach with Comprehensive Air-quality Model with extension (CAMx) forward model was applied to obtain optimized a posteriori PM10 emissions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The predicted PM10 concentrations with a priori emission were first compared with observations at monitoring sites in China and Korea for January and August 2008. The comparison showed that PM10 concentrations with a priori PM10 emissions for anthropogenic and dust sources were generally under-predicted. The result from the inverse modeling indicated that anthropogenic PM10 emissions in the industrialized and urbanized areas in China were underestimated while dust emissions from desert and barren soil in southern Mongolia and northern China were overestimated. A priori PM10 emissions from northeastern China regions including Shenyang, Changchun, and Harbin were underestimated by about 300% (i.e., the ratio of a posteriori to a priori PM10 emission was a factor of about 3). The predictions of PM10 concentrations with a posteriori emission showed better agreement with the observations, implying that the inverse modeling minimized the discrepancies in the model predictions by improving PM10 emissions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRD..11524215S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRD..11524215S"><span id="translatedtitle">Aerosol variability over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> as seen by POLDER space-borne sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Su, X.; Goloub, P.; Chiapello, I.; Chen, H.; Ducos, F.; Li, Z.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>This paper is devoted to analysis of aerosol distribution and variability over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> based on PARASOL/POLDER-3 aerosol products over land. We first compared POLDER-3 Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) with fine mode AOD (particles radius ≤ 0.30 μm) computed from AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) inversions over 14 sites. The rather good correlation (R ≈ 0.92) observed over land demonstrates the remarkable sensitivity of POLDER-3 retrievals to the smaller fraction of fine particles, mostly originating from anthropogenic sources. We analyzed the characteristics and seasonal variation of aerosol distribution over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> by considering 4 years of POLDER-3 Level 2 data (March 2005 to February 2009). Our study shows that the spatial distribution of fine-mode aerosols over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, as retrieved from POLDER-3, is highly associated with human activities. Our work also evidenced a strong variability of seasonal fine-mode AOD patterns with geographical locations. Finally, the interannual variation during 2003-2009 periods of summer fine-mode AOD over North China, in particular the Beijing City region, was analyzed for the contribution to evaluating the regional impact of emission reduction enforced in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Summer Games. We found that the summer average of fine-mode AOD exhibited relatively higher values in 2003, 2007, and 2008. The interannual variation patterns of monthly averaged AOD (June to August) shows that June generally exhibits the strongest variation and varies similarly to July, but differs from August. As a reference point, measured total AOD and fine-mode AOD computed from AERONET inversions in summer are also discussed for the Beijing City region.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19394085','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19394085"><span id="translatedtitle">Mitigation of arsenic contamination in irrigated paddy soils in South and South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brammer, Hugh</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>It has recently become apparent that arsenic-contaminated groundwater used for irrigation in several countries of South and South-<span class="hlt">east</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is adding arsenic to soils and rice, thus posing a serious threat to sustainable agricultural production and to the health and livelihoods of affected people in those countries. This paper describes the many environmental, agricultural and social factors that determine practical mitigation strategies and research needs, and describes possible mitigation measures that need to be tested. These measures include providing alternative irrigation sources, various agronomic measures, use of soil amendments, growing hyperaccumulator plants, removing contaminated soil and using alternative cooking methods. PMID:19394085</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..92..250G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..92..250G"><span id="translatedtitle">WRF-Chem simulations of aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gao, Yi; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Meigen; Leung, L. Ruby</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>This study aims to provide a first comprehensive evaluation of WRF-Chem for modeling aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing (RF, including direct, semi-direct and indirect forcing) over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Several numerical experiments were conducted from November 2007 to December 2008. Comparison between model results and observations shows that the model can generally reproduce the observed spatial distributions of aerosol concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) from measurements at many sites, including the relatively higher aerosol concentration and AOD over <span class="hlt">East</span> China and the relatively lower AOD over Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, Korea, and Japan. The model also depicts the seasonal variation and transport of pollutions over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Particulate matter of 10 μm or less in the aerodynamic diameter (PM10), black carbon (BC), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) concentrations are higher in spring than other seasons in Japan, which indicates the possible influence of pollutant transport from polluted area of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The model underestimates SO42- and organic carbon (OC) concentrations over mainland China by about a factor of 2, while overestimates NO3- concentration in autumn along the Yangtze River. The model captures the dust events at the Zhangye site in the semi-arid region of China. AOD is high over Southwest and Central China in winter and spring and over North China in winter, spring and summer while is low over South China in summer due to monsoon precipitation. SSA is lowest in winter and highest in summer. Anthropogenic aerosol RF is estimated to range from -5 to -20 W m-2 over land and -20 to -40 W m-2 over adjacent oceans at the top of atmosphere (TOA), 5-30 W m-2 in the atmosphere (ATM) and -15 to -40 W m-2 at the bottom (BOT). The warming effect of anthropogenic aerosol in ATM results from BC aerosol while the negative aerosol RF at TOA is caused by scattering aerosols such as SO42-, NO3- and NH4</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2820001','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2820001"><span id="translatedtitle">Biogeography and evolution of the Carassius auratus-complex in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background Carassius auratus is a primary freshwater fish with bisexual diploid and unisexual gynogenetic triploid lineages. It is distributed widely in Eurasia and is especially common in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Although several genetic studies have been conducted on C. auratus, they have not provided clear phylogenetic and evolutionary descriptions of this fish, probably due to selection bias in sampling sites and the DNA regions analysed. As the first step in clarifying the evolutionary entity of the world's Carassius fishes, we attempted to clarify the phylogeny of C. auratus populations distributed in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Results We conducted a detailed analysis of a large dataset of mitochondrial gene sequences [CR, 323 bp, 672 sequences (528 sequenced + 144 downloaded); CR + ND4 + ND5 + cyt b, 4669 bp in total, 53 sequences] obtained from C. auratus in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Our phylogeographic analysis revealed two superlineages, one distributed mainly among the Japanese main islands and the other in various regions in and around the Eurasian continent, including the Ryukyus and Taiwan. The two superlineages include seven lineages with high regional specificity that are composed of endemic populations indigenous to each region. The divergence time of the seven lineages was estimated to be 0.2 million years ago (Mya) by a fossil-based method and 1.0-1.9 Mya by the molecular clock method. The antiquity and endemism of these lineages suggest that they are native to their respective regions, although some seem to have been affected by the artificial introduction of C. auratus belonging to other lineages. Triploids of C. auratus did not form a monophyletic lineage but were clustered mostly with sympatric diploids. Conclusions The results of the present study revealed the existence of two superlineages of C. auratus in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> that include seven lineages endemic to each of the seven regions examined. The lack of substantial genetic separation between triploids and diploids indicates that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGP31A1368J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGP31A1368J"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimization of Paleogeography of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> for the Past 150 Ma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jeong, D.; Yu, Y.; Pan, Y.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Construction of paleogeography relies on the credibility of paleomagnetic investigation. One big potential obstacle in using paleomagnetic results acquired from sedimentary rocks is a bias towards shallow magnetic inclination. Contrary to sedimentary rocks, volcanic rocks are known to preserve faithful ancient geomagnetic record. We have tested the lithologic dependence of magnetic inclination in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> for the 150 Ma. Influence of magnetic inclination shallowing results in significant modification of paleolatitude for South China Craton, but was insignificant for North China Craton. We also estimated relative rotation with time by converting shallowing-corrected magnetic poles to representative geographic locations. Then, the relative longitudinal swing was incorporated in constructing paleogeography in addition to absolute longitudinal motions. We propose that a newly defined apparent polar wander path (APWP) with magnetic inclination shallowing treatment would be of help in rigorous construction of <span class="hlt">East</span> Laurasia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36.2863Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36.2863Y"><span id="translatedtitle">The non-migrating Tides in the Middle Atmosphere over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Observed by HRDI/UARS Data Set</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yonggang, P.; Zeyu, C.; Hongbin, C.; Zhenhui, W.</p> <p></p> <p>In this paper the long term mean characteristics of the zonal winds in the middle atmosphere over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> were studied by using the HRDI UARS measurements The investigation revealed the presence of considerable regional scale disturbances in the whole of the middle to upper atmosphere over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> except the situations in mid-latitudes in summer In mid-latitudes very few zonal fluctuation can bee seen in the zonal winds from 55km to 115 km altitude range in the summer season however the winter mesospheric and lower thermospheric zonal winds are disturbed prominently in the zonal Furthermore in winter the tropical lower thermospheric zonal winds fluctuate significantly in zonal direction and this kind of the zonal disturbances extend downward to 55 km altitude the lower limit of the observation mode of the satellite instrument in summer According the correlative study results there is significant non-migrating tides in the thermosphere over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> LSo that non-migrating tides controlled the disturbances in midlle and upper atmosphere over tropical region observed by the HRDI UARS data set and HRDI UARS data set have observed that these is significant non-migrating tides in midlle atmosphere over tropical region in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Key words Middle atmosphere <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Zonal winds HRDI UARS</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdAtS..33..644A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdAtS..33..644A"><span id="translatedtitle">The impact of boreal autumn SST anomalies over the South Pacific on boreal winter precipitation over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ao, Juan; Sun, Jianqi</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The possible mechanism behind the variability in the dipole pattern of boreal winter precipitation over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is analyzed in this study. The results show that the SST anomalies (SSTAs) over the South Pacific Ocean (SPO) in boreal autumn are closely related to the variability in the dipole pattern of boreal winter precipitation over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. The physical link between the boreal autumn SPO SSTAs and the boreal winter <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian precipitation dipole pattern is shown to mainly be the seasonal persistence of the SPO SSTAs themselves. The seasonal persistence of the SPO SSTAs can memorize and transport the signal of the boreal autumn SSTAs to the following winter, and then stimulates a meridional teleconnection pattern from the SH to the NH, resulting in a meridional dipole pattern of atmospheric circulation over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in boreal winter. As a major influencing factor, this dipole pattern of the atmospheric circulation can finally lead to the anomalous precipitation dipole pattern over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in boreal winter. These observed physical processes are further confirmed in this study through numerical simulation. The evidence from this study, showing the impact of the SPO SSTAs in boreal autumn, not only deepens our understanding of the variability in <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian boreal winter precipitation, but also provides a potentially useful predictor for precipitation in the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20553072','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20553072"><span id="translatedtitle">Cancer epidemiology and control in north-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> - past, present and future.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Long, Ne; Moore, Malcolm A; Chen, Wanqing; Gao, Chao-Ming; Lai, Mei-Shu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Oyunchimeg, Dondov; Park, Sohee; Shin, Hai-Rim; Tajima, Kazuo; Yoo, Keun-Young; Sobue, Tomotaka</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>China, Mongolia, Korea and Japan constitute North-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. For reasons of largely shared ethnicity and culture, with various degress of mixed Chinese and Altaic elements, as well as geographical contiguity, they can be usefully grouped together for studies of chronic disease prevalence and particularly cancer. The fact of problems shared in common, with increasing disease rates, underlines the necessity for a coordinated approach to research and development of control measures. To provide a knowledge base, the present review of cancer registration and epidemiology data was conducted. The most frequent cancers in males of North-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> are in the lung, liver and stomach, with considerable geographical and temporal variation in their respective prevalences. However, colorectal cancer is also of increasing importance. In females the breast, together with the lung in China, the liver in Mongolia and the stomach in Korea and Japan, are most frequent. Variation in risk factors depends to a large extent on the local level of economic development but overall the countries of the region face similar challenges in achieving effective cancer control. PMID:20553072</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13D3210K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13D3210K"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of trend between aerosol optical depth and PM in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>KIM, S. H.; Kim, J.; Choi, M.; KIM, M.; Jeong, U.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is one of major source region of aerosol emission. For decades, vast amount of aerosol, which is emitted and transported from emission region such as desert and industrialized area, has significant effect in the air quality and public health. Moreover, by scattering solar radiation and moderating cloud microphysical system, aerosol plays an important role in climate system. As the Korean peninsula is located in the downwind side of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, the distribution of aerosol in this region is affected by continental outflow and local emission, This study shows the long-term trend and regional distribution of PM10 concentration over 28 Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) sites and aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) at 550nm channel during the period from March 2011 to March 2014. Though AOD is a good indicator of PM10 concentration, there are some uncertainties in AOD caused largely by aerosol type, surface reflectance, and those in PM by relative humidity (RH), boundary layer height (BLH) and so on. In this study, retrieved AODs were compared with the observed PM10, and trends and correlations between AOD and PM10 have been calculated for different region and season over the Korean peninsula.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25850395','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25850395"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicting the potential distribution of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moriguchi, Sachiko; Tominaga, Atsushi; Irwin, Kelly J; Freake, Michael J; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Goka, Koichi</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is the pathogen responsible for chytridiomycosis, a disease that is associated with a worldwide amphibian population decline. In this study, we predicted the potential distribution of Bd in <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span> based on limited occurrence data. Our goal was to design an effective survey area where efforts to detect the pathogen can be focused. We generated ecological niche models using the maximum-entropy approach, with alleviation of multicollinearity and spatial autocorrelation. We applied eigenvector-based spatial filters as independent variables, in addition to environmental variables, to resolve spatial autocorrelation, and compared the model's accuracy and the degree of spatial autocorrelation with those of a model estimated using only environmental variables. We were able to identify areas of high suitability for Bd with accuracy. Among the environmental variables, factors related to temperature and precipitation were more effective in predicting the potential distribution of Bd than factors related to land use and cover type. Our study successfully predicted the potential distribution of Bd in <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. This information should now be used to prioritize survey areas and generate a surveillance program to detect the pathogen. PMID:25850395</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatGe...7..792R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatGe...7..792R"><span id="translatedtitle">Decreasing emissions of NOx relative to CO2 in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> inferred from satellite observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reuter, M.; Buchwitz, M.; Hilboll, A.; Richter, A.; Schneising, O.; Hilker, M.; Heymann, J.; Bovensmann, H.; Burrows, J. P.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>At present, global CO2 emission inventories are mainly based on bottom-up estimates that rely, for example, on reported fossil fuel consumptions and fuel types. The associated uncertainties propagate into the CO2-to-NOx emission ratios that are used in pollution prediction and monitoring, as well as into biospheric carbon fluxes derived by inverse models. Here we analyse simultaneous and co-located satellite retrievals from SCIAMACHY (ref. ; SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) of the column-average dry-air mole fraction of CO2 (refs , ) and NO2 (refs , , ) for the years 2003-2011 to provide a top-down estimate of trends in emissions and in the ratio between CO2 and NOx emissions. Our analysis shows that the CO2-to-NOx emission ratio has increased by 4.2 +/- 1.7% yr-1 in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. In this region, we find a large positive trend of CO2 emissions (9.8 +/- 1.7% yr-1), which we largely attribute to the growing Chinese economy. This trend exceeds the positive trend of NOx emissions (5.8 +/- 0.9% yr-1). Our findings suggest that the recently installed and renewed technology in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, such as power plants, transportation and so on, is cleaner in terms of NOx emissions than the old infrastructure, and roughly matches relative emission levels in North America and Europe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.S33A2753W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.S33A2753W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Building a risk-targeted regional seismic hazard model for South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Woessner, J.; Nyst, M.; Seyhan, E.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The last decade has tragically shown the social and economic vulnerability of countries in South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> to earthquake hazard and risk. While many disaster mitigation programs and initiatives to improve societal earthquake resilience are under way with the focus on saving lives and livelihoods, the risk management sector is challenged to develop appropriate models to cope with the economic consequences and impact on the insurance business. We present the source model and ground motions model components suitable for a South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> earthquake risk model covering Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Indochine countries. The source model builds upon refined modelling approaches to characterize 1) seismic activity from geologic and geodetic data on crustal faults and 2) along the interface of subduction zones and within the slabs and 3) earthquakes not occurring on mapped fault structures. We elaborate on building a self-consistent rate model for the hazardous crustal fault systems (e.g. Sumatra fault zone, Philippine fault zone) as well as the subduction zones, showcase some characteristics and sensitivities due to existing uncertainties in the rate and hazard space using a well selected suite of ground motion prediction equations. Finally, we analyze the source model by quantifying the contribution by source type (e.g., subduction zone, crustal fault) to typical risk metrics (e.g.,return period losses, average annual loss) and reviewing their relative impact on various lines of businesses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ERL.....7a5202Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ERL.....7a5202Q"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding the coupled natural and human systems in Dryland <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qi, Jiaguo; Chen, Jiquan; Wan, Shiqian; Ai, Likun</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Stressors including regional climate change, economic development effects upon land use and an increasing demand for food production have resulted in significant impacts on the dryland ecosystems in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (DEA) region. Ecosystem services, such as its provisional services in providing forage for grazing as well as its functional services in regulating water and carbon fluxes, have been significantly altered over the past three decades. Conversely, changes in the landscape, particularly land cover types, have also been blamed for intensified climatic events such as dust storms and severe and frequent droughts within the region. The interactive nature of climate, ecosystems and society is complex and not fully understood, making it difficult, if not impossible, to develop effective adaptation strategies for the region. A special synthesis workshop on ‘Dryland Ecosystems in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: State, Changes, Knowledge Gaps, and Future’ was held from 18-20 July 2011 in Kaifeng, Henan Province, China, with the aim of identifying knowledge gaps, quantifying impacts and developing a future research agenda for the region. The specific objectives of this workshop were to answer some key socio-environmental questions, including the following. (1) What do we know about the drylands in DEA? (2) What are the knowledge gaps? (3) What are the solutions to these issues? This paper provides a synthesis of the workshop consensus and findings on the state of knowledge and challenges in addressing these science issues for the DEA region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23354135','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23354135"><span id="translatedtitle">Progress in health-related millennium development goals in the WHO South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Singh, Poonam Khetrapal</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Home to 25% of the world's population and bearing 30% of the Global disease burden, the South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region [1] of the World Health Organization has an important role in the progress of global health. Three of the eight million development goal (MDG) goals that relate to health are MDG 4, 5, and 6. There is progress in all three goals within the countries of the region, although the progress varies across countries and even within countries. With concerted and accelerated efforts in some countries and certain specific areas, the region will achieve the targets of the three health MDGs. The key challenges are in sustainable scaling up of evidence-based interventions to improve maternal and child health and controlling communicable diseases. This will require continued focus and investments in strengthening health systems that provide individual and family centered comprehensive package of interventions with equitable reach and that which is provided free at the point of service delivery. Important lessons that have been learnt in implementing the MDG agenda in the past two decades will inform setting up of the post MDG global health agenda. This article provides a snap shot of progress thus far, key challenges and opportunities in WHO South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region and lays down the way forward for the global health agenda post 2015. PMID:23354135</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.1572H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.1572H"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional Climate Simulations of Summer Diurnal Rainfall Variations over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Southeast China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, W.-R.; Chan, J. C. L.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>This study evaluates the simulations of summer (June-August) precipitation over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> by the Regional Climate Model Version 3 (RegCM3), with emphasis on the diurnal variations of precipitation over Southeast China (PSEC) during the 1998-2002 summer seasons. The evaluation focuses on the maintenance mechanisms of the diurnal variations in PSEC as proposed by previous observational studies. It is found that the diurnal variations of PSEC are sensitive to the choice of cumulus parameterization schemes (CPSs). In particular, the Grell scheme with the Frisch-Chappell convective closure assumption (GFC) produces reasonable diurnal variations of PSEC. Other CPSs such as the Emanuel scheme produces a weaker late-afternoon maximum of PSEC, and the Kuo scheme as well as the Grell scheme with the Arakawa-Schubert closure assumption (GAS) is unable to simulate the occurrence of the late-afternoon maximum of PSEC. The simulations show that the adoption of the GFC scheme reproduces the large-scale land-sea breeze circulation and the moisture flux convergence that have been documented by previous studies as the maintenance mechanisms of the diurnal variations of PSEC. This feature illustrates the importance of convective cloud feedback at the diurnal timescale in maintaining the large-scale circulation. Furthermore, when the simulation domain covers the entire Tibetan Plateau, the diurnal variations of precipitation over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> are found to exhibit a noticeable improvement without changes in the physics schemes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A33J0327L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A33J0327L"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of Land Surface Parameters on the Evaluation of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Monsoon Precipitation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Y.; Xue, Y.; Guo, W.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Land surface has crucial impact on air movement through momentum, energy and mass exchange. Leaf area index (LAI), one of important variable in the land surface processes, involves in canopy radiative transfer, momentum transfer, precipitation interception loss, and transpiration, which affect on land surface energy and water partition processes. Therefore, it crucially affects the ability of models to adequately simulate land-surface interaction. In this study, Long-term Global Mapping LAI (GLOBMAP LAI) and its corresponding land cover and greenness fraction are introduced into WRF_NMM/SSiB2. Compared with the control simulation based on the original specified LAI that is based on limited survey. The simulation with GLOBMAP LAI produced better precipitation distribution and rain belt movement. The improvements of the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> monsoon precipitation simulation are mainly attributed to the correction of the position of subtropical high. The north edge of subtropical high is related to the position of <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Westerly Jet. In the control simulation, weak westerlies lead subtropical high to move northward. Therefore compared with observations, more precipitation is in high latitudes. With imposed remote sensing LAI, the model produces larger meridional temperature gradient in surface and upper air, leading to stronger thermal westerlies. The Southward of Westerly Jet blocks the subtropical high, which amends the position of monsoon rain belt. This study directly takes advantage of recently available remote sensing products, and attributes the improved regional model simulation to proper LAI specification, which leads to adequate land/atmosphere interactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/979193','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/979193"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effects of Black Carbon and Sulfate Aerosols in ChinaRegions on <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Monsoons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yang, Bai; Liu, Yu; Sun, Jiaren</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>In this paper we examine the direct effects of sulfate and black carbon aerosols in China on <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> monsoons and its precipitation processes by using the CAM3.0 model. It is demonstrated that sulfate and black carbon aerosols in China both have the effects to weaken <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> monsoons in both summer and winter seasons. However, they certainly differ from each other in affecting vertical structures of temperature and atmospheric circulations. Their differences are expected because of their distinct optical properties, i.e., scattering vs. absorbing. Even for a single type of aerosol, its effects on temperature structures and atmospheric circulations are largely season-dependent. Applications of T-test on our results indicate that forcing from black carbon aerosols over China is relatively weak and limited. It is also evident from our results that the effects of synthetic aerosols (sulfate and black carbon together) on monsoons are not simply a linear summation between these two types of aerosols. Instead, they are determined by their integrated optical properties. Synthetic aerosols to a large degree resemble effects of sulfate aerosols. This implies a likely scattering property for the integration of black carbon and sulfate aerosols in China.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A31B0036L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A31B0036L"><span id="translatedtitle">Observationally-constrained estimates of aerosol optical depths (AODs) over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> via data assimilation techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, K.; Lee, S.; Song, C. H.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Not only aerosol's direct effect on climate by scattering and absorbing the incident solar radiation, but also they indirectly perturbs the radiation budget by influencing microphysics and dynamics of clouds. Aerosols also have a significant adverse impact on human health. With an importance of aerosols in climate, considerable research efforts have been made to quantify the amount of aerosols in the form of the aerosol optical depth (AOD). AOD is provided with ground-based aerosol networks such as the Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET), and is derived from satellite measurements. However, these observational datasets have a limited areal and temporal coverage. To compensate for the data gaps, there have been several studies to provide AOD without data gaps by assimilating observational data and model outputs. In this study, AODs over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> simulated with the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and derived from the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) observation are interpolated via different data assimilation (DA) techniques such as Cressman's method, Optimal Interpolation (OI), and Kriging for the period of the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) Campaign (March - May 2012). Here, the interpolated results using the three DA techniques are validated intensively by comparing with AERONET AODs to examine the optimal DA method providing the most reliable AODs over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ACPD...1522975G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ACPD...1522975G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of radiatively forced temperature changes in enhanced semi-arid warming over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guan, X.; Huang, J.; Guo, R.; Lin, P.; Zhang, Y.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>As the climate change occurred over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> since 1950s, intense interest and debate have arisen concerning the contribution of human activities to the warming observed in previous decades. In this study, we investigate surface temperature change using a recently developed methodology that can successfully identify and separate the dynamically induced temperature (DIT) and radiatively forced temperature (RFT) changes in raw surface air temperature (SAT) data. For regional averages, DIT and RFT make 43.7 and 56.3 % contributions to the SAT over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, respectively. The DIT changes dominate the SAT decadal variability and are mainly determined by internal climate variability, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO). The radiatively forced SAT changes made major contribution to the global-scale warming trend and the regional-scale enhanced semi-arid warming (ESAW). Such enhanced warming is also found in radiatively forced daily maximum and minimum SAT. The long-term global-mean SAT warming trend is mainly related to radiative forcing produced by global well-mixed greenhouse gases. The regional anthropogenic radiative forcing, however, caused the enhanced warming in the semi-arid region, which may be closely associated with local human activities. Finally, the relationship between global warming hiatus and regional enhanced warming is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22642816','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22642816"><span id="translatedtitle">Source contributions of sulfate aerosol over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> estimated by CMAQ-DDM.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Itahashi, Syuichi; Uno, Itsushi; Kim, Soontae</p> <p>2012-06-19</p> <p>We applied the decoupled direct method (DDM), a sensitivity analysis technique for computing sensitivities accurately and efficiently, to determine the source-receptor relationships of anthropogenic SO(2) emissions to sulfate aerosol over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. We assessed source contributions from <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> being transported to Oki Island downwind from China and Korea during two air pollution episodes that occurred in July 2005. The contribution from China, particularly that from central eastern China (CEC), was found to dominate the sulfate aerosols. To study these contributions in more detail, CEC was divided into three regions, and the contributions from each region were examined. Source contributions exhibited both temporal and vertical variability, largely due to transport patterns imposed by the Asian summer monsoon. Our results are consistent with backward trajectory analyses. We found that anthropogenic SO(2) emissions from China produce significant quantities of summertime sulfate aerosols downwind of source areas. We used a parametric scaling method for estimating anthropogenic SO(2) emissions in China. Using column amounts of SO(2) derived from satellite data, and relationships between the column amounts of SO(2) and anthropogenic emissions, 2009 emissions were diagnosed. The results showed that 2009 emissions of SO(2) from China were equivalent to 2004 levels. PMID:22642816</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26068565','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26068565"><span id="translatedtitle">Progress Toward Measles Elimination - South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region, 2003-2013.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thapa, Arun; Khanal, Sudhir; Sharapov, Umid; Swezy, Virginia; Sedai, Tika; Dabbagh, Alya; Rota, Paul; Goodson, James L; McFarland, Jeffrey</p> <p>2015-06-12</p> <p>In 2013, the 66th session of the Regional Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region adopted the goal of measles elimination and rubella and congenital rubella syndrome control by 2020 after rigorous prior consultations. The recommended strategies include 1) achieving and maintaining ≥95% coverage with 2 doses of measles- and rubella-containing vaccine in every district through routine or supplementary immunization activities (SIAs); 2) developing and sustaining a sensitive and timely case-based measles surveillance system that meets recommended performance indicators; 3) developing and maintaining an accredited measles laboratory network; and 4) achieving timely identification, investigation, and response to measles outbreaks. This report updates previous reports and summarizes progress toward measles elimination in the South-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Region during 2003-2013. Within the region, coverage with the first dose of a measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) increased from 67% to 78%; an estimated 286 million children (95% of the target population) were vaccinated in SIAs; measles incidence decreased 73%, from 59 to 16 cases per million population; and estimated measles deaths decreased 63%. To achieve measles elimination in the region, additional efforts are needed in countries with <95% 2-dose routine MCV coverage, particularly in India and Indonesia, to strengthen routine immunization services, conduct periodic high-quality SIAs, and strengthen measles case-based surveillance and laboratory diagnosis of measles. PMID:26068565</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A41I0085Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A41I0085Z"><span id="translatedtitle">The role of subsurface soil temperature feedbacks in summer surface air temperature variability over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, J.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Soil temperature, an important component of land surface, can influence the climate through its effects on surface energy and water budgets and resulted changes in regional atmospheric circulation. However, the effects of soil temperature on climate variations have been less discussed. This study investigates the role of subsurface soil temperature feedbacks in influencing summer surface air temperature variability over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> by means of regional climate model (RCM) simulations. For this aim, two long-term simulations with and without subsurface soil temperature feedbacks are performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. From our investigation, it is evident that subsurface soil temperature feedbacks make a dominant contribution to amplifying summer surface air temperature variability over the arid/semi-arid regions. Further analysis reveals that subsurface soil temperature exhibits an asymmetric effect on summer daytime and nighttime surface air temperature variability, with a stronger effect on daily minimum temperature variability than that of daily maximum temperature variability. This study provides the first RCM-based demonstration that subsurface soil temperature feedbacks play an important role in influencing climate variability over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, such as summer surface air temperature. In the meanwhile, the model bias should be recognized. The results achieved by this study thus need to be further confirmed in a multi-model framework to eliminate the model dependence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3599K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3599K"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of orbital forcing on the ENSO-<span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> winter monsoon relationship</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Hyo-Jeong; An, Soon-Il; Park, Wonsun</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Two latest interglacial periods, Holocene and Eemian went through similar evolvement of orbital forcing. Presently, the earth's obliquity decreases and precessional index (ω) increases. Such changes in orbital configurations lead to increase in the incoming insolation over the tropical and mid-latitude area during wintertime. Here, the relationship between El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> winter monsoon (EAWM) was examined using Kiel Climate Model (KCM) simulations with fixed orbital forcing at the Eemian (126kyr, 122kyr, 115kyr before present) and the Holocene (9.5kyr, 6kyr before present and preindustrial time). Model results showed that orbital forcing modulates the influence of ENSO on EAWM through changes in the mean state. With decreased obliquity and increased precessional index, the tropical mean state becomes warmer and ENSO variability grows so that its influence is enhanced. Atmospheric sensitivity to the SST forcing also increases because of nonlinear relationship represented by Clausius-Clapeyron equation. In addition, the intensity of winter monsoon over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is reduced since there is less seasonal contrast and it becomes relatively vulnerable state. Overall, such changes in the mean field can enhance the leverage of ENSO and make its relationship with EAWM tight.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2984215','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2984215"><span id="translatedtitle">Human remains from Zhirendong, South China, and modern human emergence in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Wu; Jin, Chang-Zhu; Zhang, Ying-Qi; Cai, Yan-Jun; Xing, Song; Wu, Xiu-Jie; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Pan, Wen-Shi; Qin, Da-Gong; An, Zhi-Sheng; Trinkaus, Erik; Wu, Xin-Zhi</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The 2007 discovery of fragmentary human remains (two molars and an anterior mandible) at Zhirendong (Zhiren Cave) in South China provides insight in the processes involved in the establishment of modern humans in eastern Eurasia. The human remains are securely dated by U-series on overlying flowstones and a rich associated faunal sample to the initial Late Pleistocene, >100 kya. As such, they are the oldest modern human fossils in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and predate by >60,000 y the oldest previously known modern human remains in the region. The Zhiren 3 mandible in particular presents derived modern human anterior symphyseal morphology, with a projecting tuber symphyseos, distinct mental fossae, modest lateral tubercles, and a vertical symphysis; it is separate from any known late archaic human mandible. However, it also exhibits a lingual symphyseal morphology and corpus robustness that place it close to later Pleistocene archaic humans. The age and morphology of the Zhiren Cave human remains support a modern human emergence scenario for <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> involving dispersal with assimilation or populational continuity with gene flow. It also places the Late Pleistocene Asian emergence of modern humans in a pre-Upper Paleolithic context and raises issues concerning the long-term Late Pleistocene coexistence of late archaic and early modern humans across Eurasia. PMID:20974952</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3118L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3118L"><span id="translatedtitle">Time scale of riverine sediment transfer in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: from source to sink</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Chao; Yang, Shouye; Zhao, Jianxin; Bi, Lei</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>River on the earth surface is like the blood vessel for human body, which transports huge nutrients from the vast continent to the deep ocean. The knowledge of the river transit process leads to better understanding of the continent weathering and earth surface evolution. However, this process, particularly its timescale, is rarely studied due to the poor geological tracer. In this regard, our work aims to reconstruct the sediment transport time in Changjiang (Yangtze River) and Taiwan rivers by mean of "Comminution Age" based on 234U/238U in the lithogenic fraction. As the largest river in <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, Changjiang is characterized by "Large river/delta + wide shelf + huge input + slower sediment transfer + strong anthropogenic impact", while the Taiwan rivers are featured for "Mountainous river + narrow shelf + huge and rapid sediment transfer + extreme climate event". The distinct geological and topographical features in both river systems result in different sediment "source to sink" processes in terms of time scale. Our calculation shows that the sediment transport time, which is largely depended on basin topography and its weathering condition, in Changjiang basin is much longer (400 ky) than that in Taiwan river basin (120 ky). This work provides the first quantitative constraint on time scale of sediment source to sink process in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, which probably sheds a new insight into weathering regime and sediment recycling in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and northwest Pacific. Acknowledgments This work was supported by the Foundation of Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment (YRWEF201305), Key Laboratory of Marine Hydrocarbon Resources and Environmental Geology (MRE201402) and the Natural Science Foundation of China (41306040; 41225020).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A21A0102K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A21A0102K"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of Future Scenario Emission Inventories for <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> in Support of Multiple Modeling Studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Y.; Woo, J. H.; Choi, K. C.; Lee, J. B.; Song, C. K.; Kim, S. K.; Hong, J.; Hong, S. C.; Zhang, Q.; Hong, C.; Tong, D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Future emission scenarios based on up-to-date regional socio-economic and control policy information were developed in support of climate-air quality integrated modeling research over <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Two IPCC-participated Integrated Assessment Models(IAMs) were used to developed those scenario pathways. The two emission processing systems, KU-EPS and SMOKE-<span class="hlt">Asia</span>, were used to convert these future scenario emissions to comprehensive chemical transport model-ready form. The NIER/KU-CREATE (Comprehensive Regional Emissions inventory for Atmospheric Transport Experiment) served as the regional base-year emission inventory. For anthropogenic emissions, it has 54 fuel classes, 201 sub-sectors and 13 pollutants, including CO2, CH4, N2O, SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, NH3, OC, BC, PM10, PM2.5, and mercury. Fast energy growth and aggressive penetration of the control measures make emissions projection very active for <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Despite of more stringent air pollution control policies by the governments, however, air quality over the region seems not been improved as much - even worse in many cases. The needs of more scientific understanding of inter-relationship among emissions, transport, chemistry over the region are very high to effectively protect public health and ecosystems against ozone, fine particles, and other toxic pollutants in the air. After developing these long-term future emissions, therefore, we also tried to apply our future scenarios to develop the present emissions inventory for chemical weather forecasting and aircraft field campaign. On site, we will present; 1) the future scenario development framework and process methodologies, 2) initial development results of the future emission pathways, 3) present emission inventories from short-term projection, and 4) air quality modeling performance improvements over the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1817999C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1817999C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Late Quaternary pollen data collection and application in land-cover reconstruction for <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> and Siberia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cao, Xianyong; Tian, Fang; Ni, Jian; Herzschuh, Ulrike</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The various climatic systems and vegetation zones in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> cause the numerous open questions concerning the evolution of the Asian Monsoon and vegetation change on various time-scales. Fossil pollen is one of the most spatially extensive terrestrial palaeoenvironmental proxies during the late Quaternary, and the multi-record fossil pollen synthesis is a potential solution for the open questions in palaeoecology and palaeoclimatology. We collected and selected 274 pollen records from eastern continental <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (70°135°E and 18°55°N). After pollen percentage recalculations, taxonomic homogenization, age-depth model revision, and pollen abundance linear interpolation, a taxonomically harmonized and temporally standardized fossil pollen dataset established at a 500-year resolution covering the last 22 ka. In addition, we also established a modern pollen dataset including 2626 modern pollen data from China and Mongolia. We used the calibration-set based on modern pollen and satellite-based Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) observations of woody cover, to reconstruct woody cover for the 274 fossil pollen records. The spatial range of forest has not noticeably changed in eastern continental <span class="hlt">Asia</span> during the last 22 ka, although woody cover has, especially at the margin of the eastern Tibetan Plateau and in the forest-steppe transition area of north-central China. Vegetation was sparse during the LGM in the present forested regions, but woody cover increased markedly at the beginning of the Bølling/Allerød period (B/A; ca. 14.5 ka BP) and again at the beginning of the Holocene (ca. 11.5 ka BP), and is related to the enhanced strength of the <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian Summer Monsoon. Forest flourished in the mid-Holocene (ca. 8 ka BP) possibly due to favourable climatic conditions. In contrast, cover was stable in southern China (high cover) and arid central <span class="hlt">Asia</span> (very low cover) throughout the investigated period. Forest cover increased in the north</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.107..244P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.107..244P"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial distributions of aerosol loadings and depositions in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> during the year 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, Soon-Ung</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Aerosol Modeling System (AMS) that is consisted of the Asian Dust Aerosol Model2 (ADAM2) and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system has been employed to document the geographical distributions of both the annual averaged Asian dust aerosol and the anthropogenic aerosols concentrations and their total depositions in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> region for the year 2010. It is found that AMS simulates quite well the monitored PM10 concentration with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 9.2 μg m-3 and a normalized mean square error (NMSE) of 5.5% in South Korea and the RMSE of less than 33 μg m-3 with a NMSE of less than 7.8% at the monitoring sites in China. The annual mean surface (column integrated) aerosol concentrations in the <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> region affect in a wide region as a complex mixture of the Asian dust (AD) aerosol and the anthropogenic aerosol (AA), more predominated by the AD aerosol in the Asian dust source region of northern China and Mongolia with the annual mean (column integrated) PM10 concentration of more than 200 μg m-3 (350 mg m-2). Whereas AA is dominated in the high pollutant emission regions of southern and eastern China and northern India with the annual mean surface (column integrated) concentration of more than 110 μg m-3 (140 mg m-2) in eastern China. On the other hand the mixed aerosols (AD + AA) are dominated in the downwind regions of the Yellow Sea, the <span class="hlt">East</span> China Sea, the Korean peninsula, Japan, and the Northwest Pacific Ocean. It is also found that the annual total deposition of aerosols in the model domain is 4.9 × 108 t (3.7 × 108 t by AD aerosol and 1.2 × 108 t by AA), of which 66% (3.2 × 108 t) is found to be contributed by the dry deposition (3.1 × 108 t by AD aerosol and 1.3 × 107 t by AA) and 34% (1.7 × 108 t) by the wet deposition (1.0 × 108 t by AA and 6.6 × 107 t by AD aerosol), suggesting significant impacts of aerosols on environment and the terrestrial and marine eco-systems in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13C3182K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13C3182K"><span id="translatedtitle">Decadal increase of organic compounds in winter and spring atmospheric aerosols in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kundu, S.; Kawamura, K.; Kobayashi, M.; Tachibana, E.; Lee, M.; Jung, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>A rapid economic growth in China and other <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian countries may have changed molecular level organic composition of atmospheric aerosols in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. Molecular level composition is required to better evaluate the roles of organic aersols on climate, air quality and public health. Diacids and oxoacids account for a significant fraction of atmospheric organic matter and their secondary sources are more important than their primary sources. Atmospheric aerosol samples (n = 698) were collected during 2001-2008 at Gosan site in Jeju Island, South Korea. They were analyzed for saturated (C2-C10), unsaturated aliphatic (C4-C5), multifunctional (C3-C7) and aromatic (C8) diacids and oxoacids (C2-C9). According to monthly average concentration, oxalic acid (C2) is the most abundant followed by malonic acid (C3) and succinic acid (C4) in the homologous series of saturated diacids (C2-C10) whereas glyoxylic acid (ωC2) is most abundant in the homologous series of oxoacids (C2-C9). The monthly median, 25th percentile and 75th percentile concentrations of saturated and multifunctional diacids and oxoacids showed the highest in spring (March-May). In contrast, those concentrations for unsaturated aliphatic and aromatic diacids were observed the highest in winter (December-February). The monthly median and percentile (25th and 75th) concentrations of all diacids and oxoacids showed the second peak in the autumn (September-November) while those concentrations were recorded lowest in summer (June-August). A steady increment or decrement was not found in the monthly median and percentile (25th and 75th) concentrations of diacids and oxoacids in any month. However, the curve fitting of those concentrations over the study period shows an incremental trend for major diacids and oxoacids in winter and spring. For example, the monthly median, 25th percentile and 75th percentile concentrations of all major diacids and oxoacids increased up to 3 times from 2001 to 2008 in winter and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27256745','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27256745"><span id="translatedtitle">Heart Failure Clinical Trials in <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: Understanding the Importance and Defining the Next Steps.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mentz, Robert J; Roessig, Lothar; Greenberg, Barry H; Sato, Naoki; Shinagawa, Kaori; Yeo, Daniel; Kwok, Bernard W K; Reyes, Eugenio B; Krum, Henry; Pieske, Burkert; Greene, Stephen J; Ambrosy, Andrew P; Kelly, Jacob P; Zannad, Faiez; Pitt, Bertram; Lam, Carolyn S P</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Heart failure (HF) is a major and increasing global public health problem. In <span class="hlt">Asia</span>, aging populations and recent increases in cardiovascular risk factors have contributed to a particularly high burden of HF, with outcomes that are poorer than those in the rest of the world. Representation of Asians in landmark HF trials has been variable. In addition, HF patients from <span class="hlt">Asia</span> demonstrate clinical differences from patients in other geographic regions. Thus, the generalizability of some clinical trial results to the Asian population remains uncertain. In this article, we review differences in HF phenotype, HF management, and outcomes in patients from <span class="hlt">East</span> and Southeast <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. We describe lessons learned in <span class="hlt">Asia</span> from recent HF registries and clinical trial databases and outline strategies to improve the potential for success in future trials. This review is based on discussions among scientists, clinical trialists, industry representatives, and regulatory representatives at the CardioVascular Clinical Trialist <span class="hlt">Asia</span> Forum in Singapore on July 4, 2014. PMID:27256745</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23596197','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23596197"><span id="translatedtitle">Tobacco control challenges in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>: proposals for change in the world's largest epidemic region.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Katanoda, Kota; Jiang, Yuan; Park, Sohee; Lim, Min Kyung; Qiao, You-Lin; Inoue, Manami</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span> is one of the world's largest tobacco epidemic regions. Although several international studies have evaluated the status of tobacco control in this region, the findings have not been integrated with knowledge on domestic activities at the national and municipal levels. We analysed the current tobacco control situation in three <span class="hlt">East</span> Asian countries, Japan, China and the Republic of Korea, using both international and domestic data sources. We collected data between 2008 and 2011 in each country according to the framework of WHO's MPOWER (Monitoring, Protect, Offer, Warn, Enforcement and Raise) approach for guiding implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Analysis revealed that 37-53% of adult men were current smokers and that smoking prevalence among middle-aged men reached 63%. Less than 20% of male smokers plan to quit and the use of nicotine replacement drugs was 14% at maximum. Forty-six percent or more of men and 20% or more of women were exposed to passive smoking at workplaces and at home, respectively. Many tobacco industry activities remain unrestricted and prevalent. Our findings indicate an urgent need for the following set of policies: raise cigarette prices to increase the quit attempt rate, particularly among adult men; develop a multi-component quitting assistance system to provide adequate assistance for smoking cessation; implement effective smoke-free policies in workplaces and public places to reduce exposure to passive smoking; and rebuild the administrative structure to denormalise tobacco industry activities. The importance of these standard approaches should be reaffirmed by all tobacco control policymakers in <span class="hlt">East</span> <span class="hlt">Asia</span>. 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